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293.Учебный англо-русский словарь по древнерусскому прикладному и изобразительному искусству (с приложением текстов для перевода)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Учебный англо-русский словарь
по древнерусскому, прикладному
и изобразительному искусству
(с приложением текстов для перевода)
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета
для студентов специальностей Музеология и
Социально-культурный сервис и туризм
Ярославль 2005
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 81:372.881
ББК Ш 143.21Я73
У 91
Составители: Т.В. Шульдешова, Л.В. Купцова
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2005 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского
государственного университета им. П.Г. Демидова
У 91
Учебный англо-русский словарь по древнерусскому, прикладному и изобразительному искусству (с приложением текстов для
перевода) / Сост. Т.В. Шульдешова, Л.В. Купцова; Яросл. гос. ун-т. –
Ярославль: ЯрГУ, 2005. – 60 с.
Данное пособие содержит глоссарий по темам, связанным с культурой, историей, искусством и выдающимися памятниками мирового
значения. Глоссарий составлен на выборках из оригинальных текстов
по соответствующим разделам знаний.
Глоссарий дополняется аутентичными текстами, предназначенными
для перевода с английского языка на русский и закрепления лексического материала глоссария.
Предназначено для студентов 1 – 3-го курсов, обучающихся по специальностям 021000 Музеология и 230500 Социально-культурный
сервис и туризм (дисциплина «Английский язык», ГСЭ, ФТД), очной
формы обучения.
УДК 81:372.881
ББК Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный университет, 2005
© Т.В. Шульдешова, Л.В. Купцова, 2005
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Part I
English-Russian Glossary
Aa
absorption – поглощенность, увлеченность (with)
acceptance – принятие; приемка (заказанной работы)
accuracy – точность, правильность, тщательность
achievement – достижение
Adam – Адам
add – добавлять. присоединять, пристраивать
administrative – административный
admirable, -ly – восхитительный, -но
Admiralty – Адмиралтейство
after (Volkov, Yaroslav) – имени, в честь
airiness – воздушность
aerial – воздушный
alabaster – алебастр
altar – алтарь
alterations – переделки
amateur – любитель, непрофессионал, дилетант
amateurish – любительский, дилетантский
anonymous – анонимный, безымянный
anticipate – предвосхищать
antique – античный, древний
Apocalypse – Апокалипсис
appeal – взвывать, обращаться (к)
appearance – внешность; внешний, наружный вид
appreciate – ценить, быть признательным; понимать ценность
to appreciate art keenly – тонко чувствовать искусство
apprentice – ученик, подмастерье
to be apprenticed to smb. – быть отданным в ученье кому-либо
apse – апсида
arc – арка, свод, изгиб
arcade – аркада, сводчатая галерея; пассаж с магазинами
arch – арка, свод, аркада; дуга
archaic – архаичный, устарелый
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architect – архитектор
architectural – архитектурный
architecture – архитектура
archway – сводчатый проход, проход под аркой
area – площадь, пространство, территория
Ark – ковчег
arm-chair – кресло
armour – доспехи
arms – оружие
art – искусство
arts – ремесла
arts critic/historian – искусствовед
arts needlework – художественная вышивка
arts book – книга по искусству
arts gallery – художественная галерея (художественный музей)
arts exhibition – художественная выставка
arts student – учащийся художественного училища
artist – художник
artistic – артистический, художественный
artistic skill – художественное мастерство
artless – простой, безыскусственный
ascribe – приписывать
aspen shingle – осиновый «лемех»; деревянная черепица для кровли круглых поверхностей
assist – помогать
assistant – подручный, помощник
astonishing – удивительный, изумительный
at any rate – по крайней мере
atmosphere – атмосфера; воздух, воздушная среда (в живописи)
attribute – атрибут, символ
austere – строгий, чистый ( о стиле)
authentic – подлинный, достоверный
Bb
background – фон, задний план
bar – перекладина
base – основание, фундамент
basement – подклет
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basilica – базилика
battlement – зубчатая стена с бойницами
belfry – колокольня
believe – верить
believer – верующий
belief – вера; верование
beholder – зритель, смотрящий
bell-tower – звонница
blend – сливать(ся), смешивать, гармонировать
block – глыба, кусок
build – строить
builder – строитель
building – здание. строение
brilliance – яркость
to bring together – соединять
bronze – бронза
the Bronze Age – бронзовый век
brush – кисть
build up form – создавать форму
Byzantine – византийский
Byzantium – Византия
Сс
canvas – холст, полотно
caricature – карикатура, шарж
carry out – выполнять процесс
carve – вырезать, резать
carving – резьба
carver – резчик
catch – схватить, передать
cathedral – собор
ceremonial portraiture – парадная портретная живопись
chapel – часовня
to be charged with sunlight – быть залитым солнцем
chisel – резец
church – церковь, церковный
classicism – классицизм
column – колонна
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colour – цвет, тон, краска
to come down to us – доходить до нас
command smb’s attention – завладеть ч-л. вниманием
commission – заказывать работу
composition – композиция
concave – вогнутый
conception – замысел, идея
concrete – бетон
contorted – искаженный (о чертах лица), изломанный (о фигуре)
contrasting tones – контрастные тона
convey – передавать, выражать
copy – копия
cornice – карниз
court-painter – придворный художник
craft – ремесло, искусство
cross – крест, распятие
cross-cupola – крестово-купольный
crowded – насыщенный фигурами или деталями
crucifix – распятие
crystal-clear – чистый, прозрачный
curve – изгибать, гнуть; кривая, изгиб
Dd
daub – мазня, плохая картина
decorative – декоративный
decorative band – декоративный пояс
deesis tier – деисусный чин
depict – изображать
depiction – изображение
design – рисунок, узор
discordant – негармонирующий
to be on display – выставляться
diversity – разнообразие
dome – купол
domed – c куполом или с куполами; куполообразный
domestic – местный, отечественный
domestic goods – отечественные товары, товары местного производства
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domina – настоятельница монастыря
drawbridge – разводной мост
drawing – рисование, рисунок
draw – чертить, рисовать
drum – барабан
Ee
Easter – Пасха
effigy – бездушное изображение
elaborate – сложный, со множеством разработанных деталей
elongated – удлиненный
embroidery – вышивка
enclose – окружать, заключать в рамки
endow – одарять, наделять
erect – воздвигать
establish – учреждать
evolve – развивать(ся), разрабатывать(ся)
evoke – вызывать, пробуждать
except – за исключением
execution – исполнение
exhibit – выставлять, экспонировать
exhibition – выставка
exquisite – изысканный, изящный
Ff
façade – фасад
facial expression – выражение лица
faithful – точный
feature – черта, свойство
festival tier – праздничный ряд
figure – фигура
floral – цветочный (орнамент, узор)
fluid drapery – плавно спадающие одежды
forceful – сильный (по воздействию)
foreground – передний план
found – основывать
foundation – грунт
fresco – фреска
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frieze – фриз, бордюр
from his hand, from his brush – написанное его рукой
full-length – во весь рост
fuse – соединять, объединять
fusion – слияние, синтез
Gg
gate tower – проездная башня
genius – одаренность, гениальность. гений
genre scenes – бытовые сценки
gild – золотить
guilded, gilt – золоченый
guilding – золочение
God – Бог
gospel – евангелие
graphic – изобразительный
graphic arts – изобразительное искусство
Hh
half-length – поясной
handle – трактовать, передавать (movements, space)
heighten – усиливать
hell – ад
highlight – световой блик
holy – святой
the Holy Scripture – Cвященное Писание
hospitality – гостеприимство
Ii
icon-painter – иконописец
icon-painting – иконопись
iconographic scenes – изображение по иконам
iconostasis – иконостас
image – образ; икона
imbue – насыщать
immediacy – естественность
inartistic – малохудожественный
incorporate – включать (in), объединять (with)
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innate genius (for) – природная одаренность, врожденный талант
integral (part) – неотъемлемая (часть)
interior – внутренний
interlacing – переплетение
intertwine – сплетать(ся)
ivory – слоновая кость
Ll
landscape – пейзаж
lantern – (выступ с окнами)
lavish – пышный, богатый
lay-on – накладывать
life-like – жизненный
likeness – сходство
limestone – известняк
line – линия; accuracy of line – точность линии
the Lord – Господь
luminous – светлый, ясный (tones)
Mm
marine – маринистская живопись
marble – мрамор
masterpiece – шедевр
masonry – каменная кладка
master – мастер; mastery – мастерство
medieval – средневековый
message – идея, мысль, идейное содержание
model – модель, натура; моделировать, лепить
monumental – монументальный, величественный
monument – памятник
motif – сюжет, основная тема
mural painting – настенная живопись
Nn
niche – ниша
nude – обнаженный; semi-nude figure – полуобнаженная фигура
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Oo
octagon – восьмерик
off-centre figures – смещенные от центра фигуры
oil – масло, масляная краска
oil painting – картина, написанная маслом
onion-shaped – луковичный (по форме)
original – первоначальный
ornament – украшать, украшение
ornamental – декоративный
outline – контур, очертание
overgate church – надвратная церковь
Pp
pagan – языческий
paint – писать маслом; красить; расписывать
painted – нарисованный
painter – художник, живописец
painting – живопись; wall painting – настенная живопись, фрески
painting of battle scenes – батальная живопись
animal painting – анималистическая живопись
palette – палитра
panel – доска (икона)
patches of light – световые пятна
paradise – рай
patron saint – заступник, святой, в честь которого названа церковь
pattern – модель, узор, образец
peculiar – своеобразный
pediment – фронтон
pictorial – живописный, изобразительный
pigment – краска, краситель
pilaster – пилястр
plan – план
plane – плоскость
pastel – пастель
pen and ink drawing – рисунок тушью
pencil – карандаш
perspective – перспектива
plasticity – рельефность
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plastic – рельефный, похожий на скульптуру
plein-air technique – пленэрная живопись
portal – портал, главный вход
portrait – портрет, портретная живопись
pose – ставить в определенную позу
poster painting – плакатная живопись
posture – поза
print – гравюра, эстамп
produce – создавать, выполнять (результат)
purify – очищать
pyramid – пирамида
Rr
radiate – излучать
range – диапазон, размах
rebuild – перестраивать
receding – удаляющийся
recession – удаление, перспектива
reconstruct – перестраивать, восстанавливать
reduce – доводить до ч-либо
reminiscent of – напоминающий о, схожий с
render – передавать, изображать
Renaissance – Возрождение
repetition of accounts – повторение цветовых акцентов
represent – изображать, рисовать
restore – реставрировать
rhythm – ритм
ribbed – ребристый, рифленый
rich – сочный (colour)
rigidity – строгость, суровость
rival – соперничать
roofing – покрытие, кровля
rosette – розетка, розочка
rose-window – круглое окно-розетка
rounded forms – объемные формы
royal – царский, великокняжеский
rustic – сельский, деревенский
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Ss
saint (St.) – святой; St. John – Св. Иоанн
sanctuary – святилище, алтарная часть кровли
scene – сцен(к)а, картин(к)а
secular – светский
self-portrait – автопортрет
sense – чувство; sense of moderation – чувство меры
sensual – чувственный
serenity – спокойствие, безмятежность
set down – запечатлевать
simplified – упрощенный; simplify – упрощать
sitter – позирующий (художнику)
sketch – эскиз, набросок, зарисовка
slaughter (a calf) – заколоть тельца
solid – весомый
sombre – темный, мрачный
space – пространство, простор
spacing – пространственное решение
spire – игла, остроконечная верхушка
spiritual – духовный; spirituality – одухотворенность
splashes of colour – яркие пятна
spot technique – точечная техника
square – площадь, квадрат, квадратный
stained glass – витражное стекло
stand out – выделяться, выступать объемно
statuary – скульптурная группа
steeple – шпиль (от основания)
still-life – натюрморт
stone – камень, каменный
stoneware – керамические изделия, глиняная посуда
streak – полоска, прожилка
streaky – полосатый
stroke – мазок
stucco – штукатурка; оштукатуренный
studio – студия
study – этюд
stylized – стилизованный
subdue – ослаблять, смягчать
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subject matter – тема, содержание
subculture (basement) – подклет
suffuse – наполнять, заливать
suggest – подсказывать, наводить на мысль
surmounted with – увенчанный
survive – доходить до нас
Tt
take on (сolour, form) – принимать
temple – храм
tent church – шатровая церковь
tent-shaped – шатровый
Testament – Завет; (the) Old Testament – Ветхий Завет; (the) New
Testament – Новый Завет
tier – ряд, ярус
tinge – оттенок
tomb – гробница, склеп
tone – тон, краска
touch – штрих, мазок; broken touches – отдельные мазки
trace (back) – проследить, установить
tracery – ажурная каменная работа
transient – мимолетный
treatment – трактовка; treat – трактовать
trend – направление
trimming – отделка (одежды)
the Trinity – Троица
triptych – триптих
turret – башенка
Vv
varnish – лак, фиксаж; покрывать лаком
vaulted – сводчатый
versatile – разнообразный
view – вид; front view – вид спереди; back view – вид сзади; side
view – вид сбоку
vigorous – сильный, энергичный
volute – спираль. завиток
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Ww
water-colour – акварель
work shop – мастерская, студия
The Subjects of Russian Icons
Annunciation – Благовещение
Archangel Gabriel – Архангел Гавриил
Archangel Michael – Архангел Михаил
Ascension – Вознесение
(the) Ascension of Christ – Вознесение Господне
Ascension of the Prophet Elijah – Вознесение Ильи Пророка
Assumption – Успение
Baptism of Christ – Крещение Христа
(the) Beheading of St. John the Precursor – Усекновение главы Иоанна Предтечи
Crucifixion – Распятие
Deesis – Деисусный чин
Descent from the Cross – Снятие с креста
Discovery of the Head of John the Baptist – Обретение главы Иоанна Предтечи
Elijah in the Wilderness – Илия в пустыне
Entombment – Положение во гроб
Entry into Jerusalem – Вход Господень в Иерусалим
Exaltation of the Cross – Воздвижение Креста
Harrowing of Hell – Сошествие в Ад
Holy Spirit Coming upon the Apostles – Святой дух, нисходящий на
апостолов
Intercession – Покров Пресвятой Богородицы
John the Baptist in the Wilderness – Иоанн Креститель в пустыне
Lamentation of the Virgin – Оплакивание девы Марии
Last Judgment – Судный день, Страшный Суд
Last Supper – Тайная вечеря
Laudation and Acathistus of the Virgin – Похвала Богородицы
“Life” icons, vita icons – житийные иконы
Menology – Четьи – Минеи
Nativity of Christ – Рождение Христа
Old Testament Trinity – Ветхозаветная Троица
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Presentation of Mary in the Temple – Введение во храм Пресвятой
Богородицы
Presentation of Christ in the Temple – Сретение
Raising of Lazarus – Воскрешение Лазаря
Saviour in His Might or the Pantocrator – Спас в Силах
St. George and the Dragon – Святой Георгий побеждает дракона
St. John Chrysostom – Иоанн Богослов
St. Luke – Святой евангелист Лука
St. Marx – Святой евангелист Марк
St. Matthew – Святой евангелист Матвей
St. Nicholas – Святой Николай
St. Paul – Святой (апостол) Павел
St. Peter – Святой (апостол) Петр
St. Theodore the Stratilate – Федор Стратилат
Transfiguration – Преображение
Vernicle or the Saviour Uncreated-by-human-hands – Спас нерукотворный
Virgin Eleusa or Our Lady of Tenderness – Умиление
Virgin Hodegetria – Одигитрия
Virgin of the Sign – Знамение
Virgin of Smolenski Vladimir – Богоматерь Смоленская, Владимирская
Virgin of Tikhvin – Тихвинская Богоматерь
Most Prominent Russian Personalities
in the Millenium
Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Andrei Rublev
Georgi Zhukov
Leo Tolstoy
Nikilai Gogol
P.I. Tchaikovsky
Vladimir Lenin
Anna Pavlova
Anton Chekhov
Boris Godunov
Iosif (Joseph) Stalin
Mikhailo Lomonosov
Nicholas II
St. Sergius of Radonezh
Yuri Gagarin
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Catherine the Great
Dimitri Donskoi
Fiodor Dostoyevski
Ivan the Terrible
Mikhail Gorbachev
Peter the Great
Valentina Tereshkova
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Abbreviations, Proper Names:
Personal and Place names,
Schools and Trends
Abraham – Авраам
A.D. – Anno Domini – нашей эры
(«лета Господня»)
Alexander of Macedonia – Александр
Македонский
Alexandria – Александрия
Aphrodite – Афродита
Apollo – Аполлон
Asia Minor – Малая Азия
Athena – Афина
Athens – Афины
Attic – аттический
the Balkan Peninsula – Балканский
полуостров
Baroque – барокко
B.C. – до нашей эры («до Рождества
Христова»)
Byzantine Empire – Византийская
империя
Byzantium – Византия
Egypt – Египет
Gothic – готический
Hera – Гера = Juno – Юнона
Hermes – Гермес = Mercury – Меркурий
the Hermitage – Эрмитаж
Impressionism, -ists – импрессионизм, -исты
«The lay of Igor’s Host» – «Слово о
полку Игореве»
Leonardo da Vinci – Леонардо да
Винчи
the Louvre – Лувр
Michelangelo – Микельанджело
Mona Lisa – Мона Лиза (Джоконда)
Nefertiti – Нефертити
Olympia – Олимпия
Olympic – олимпийский
the Palace of Facets – Грановитая
Палата
Parthenon – Парфенон
Pompeii – г. Помпеи
St. Paul’s Cathedral – Собор Св. Павла
Raphael Santi – Рафаэль
Tutankhamon – Тутанхаммон
Theophanes the Greek – Феофан Грек
Venus of Milo – Венера Милосская
the Wanderors – передвижники
Zeus – Зевс = Jupiter – Юпитер
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Part II. TEXTS
Ancient Russian Art
1. Introduction
Our Motherland renaissance would be impossible without scrupulous
studying of our Past, without emancipation our History from all the lies,
falsifications and deformation. It’s quite natural that many people in our
country return to our ancestors’ faith. It’s impossible to understand our
history ignoring the role of the Orthodox Church. Our patriotism is formed
not only by literary tradition but also with the help of the historical monuments, churches above all, these mute witnesses of glory and sorrows of
our Motherland in the Past. Though deformated, violated they still preserve the most valuable features of the Russian soul, a bit of our predecessors’, their attitude to beauty, their love to God and Homeland. And all
these we mystically perceive looking at our temples.
2. Icons
Original icons were initially brought down to Russ from Bizantium.
Orthodoxy also came up onto this land from Bizantium and was proclaimed as an official religion in 998 AD. Christianity and culture were borrowed from Bizantium in the period of her cultural and economic development.
What did attract Russians in the Bizantine culture? First of all, illumination of a human soul, permanent appealing towards the inner world of a
human being to have him purified and harmonized. All these defined spiritual character of the Russian national culture for many centuries to come
and was mirrowed in iconography. But the Russian people introduced national peculiar features into icon painting, tracing back to the ideals and
history of Russia. These features were reflected by exceptional reverance
toward subjects, by creating new icons of Russian Saints as well as highly
spiritual content of images.
Old Testament Trinity
When Abraham was already an old man, God appeared to him “by the
oaks of Mamre” in the form of three men or angels. Abraham and his wife
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Sarah, showed them hospitality, slaughtering a calf to cook for them and
baking bread. Theologians interpret these angels as being the three persons
of the Trinity: God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. In
Byzantine and Russian compositions the three angels were depicted seated
at the table with Abraham and Sarah in the shade of an oak-tree with Abraham’s house alongside and hills in the background. A simplified variant
showed only the three angels at table.
There was no definite interpretation of the angels. In some compositions the artist depicted God and two angels, making the central figure
larger to embody God the Father. Others made the same central figure the
Son by giving Him one or more attributes associated with Christ – outspread wings, a scroll, a halo with crosses on it, or elaborately embroidered ornamentation on the shoulders of His robe. Yet others made the
figures look equal in size and gave them the same halo so as to stress that
the angels were equally significant and one in essence.
Before Andrei Rublev’s great Trinity Russian compositions depicted
Christ and two angels, after it they followed his example and depicted the
three persons of the Trinity. In the 17th century interest in the Biblical account grew and compositions began to include details which reflected
Russian everyday life.
Our Lady of Tenderness
This icon shows the virgin caressing the Christ Child. This iconographical type became established in Bizantium by the 11th century and
can be found in the mediaeval art of many European countries. There were
many variants of it in Russia (the Virgin of Yaroslavl and Yakhoroma,
etc.), but the one which enjoyed particular popularity was that known as
the Virgin of Vladimir.
Virgin Hodegetria
(Showing the way-Greek)
The virgin depicted half-length holding the Christ-Child on her left
arm. The earliest surviving Russian icons of this type date from the 12th
century. Different Russian variants of this image are called after the place
where they first created, were kept for many years or were said to have miraculously appeared – Smolensk, Tikhvin, Georgia, Iberia, Jerusalem, etc.
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Virgin of the Sign
A half-length depiction of the virgin with raised hands and ChristEmmanuel on her chest. Emmanuel means God in Hebrew and is the name
used by the prophet Isaiah when writing of the coming Messiah. This type
of Virgin was well-known especially in Novgorod where a 12th century
icon of this type was kept, considered to be the city’s holiest treasure and
its protection. A legend tells that the Novgorod icon miraculously saved
the city when it was being besieged by the men of Suzdal in 1169. In Russian iconostases a composition of the Virgin of the Sign occupied the central position in the prophecies about the birth of Christ.
St. Nicolas
St. Nicolas with scenes from his life in one of the commonest subjects
in icon painting. It derives from the stories of the life of St. N., the 4th century bishop of Myra in Lycia (Asia Minor). The cult of St. N. as a helper
and defender in times of trouble became extraordinary popular in Russia,
especially in Novgorod and the north where he was the most highly venerated saint. In Russia he is known from the 14th century and they survived
in large numbers. The saint is depicted in the center, either full or halflength, in his bishop’s robes holding a Bible. The scenes from his life
which surround the central depiction present the main events of his legend,
his birth, schooling, ordination and miraculous help to those in trouble.
The number of scenes can increase depending on how detailed the retelling
of his life is and how many new miracles are added.
Elijah in the Wilderness
This subject is taken from chapter 17 of the First Book of Kings. Elijah foretold to Ahab, King of Israel, the coming of a drought sent upon the
earth by God at the prophet’s request as a punishment for idolatry. At
God’s command E. hid himself during the drought “by the brook Cherit
that is the east of the Jordan”. Ravens brought him bread and meat in the
morning and evening and he drank from the brook. Compositions on this
subject are laconic: E. is presented sitting on a stone by a cave with hills in
the back ground. The prophet has turned his head to a bird flying down
with food in its beak. In his hand he holds a staff, or less often a scroll.
Occasionally a second raven is added to the composition.
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Archangel Michael
The Archangel whose name means “he who is like the Lord” is the
commander of the army of the Lord and one of the chief princes, “the great
prince”.
The A.M. is the victor over Satan and the patron saint of warriors. In
early Russia he was considered the most reliable helper in military matters.
Many churches were dedicated to him and princes setting out on campaigns would always look to him for intercession. Before setting out on his
campaign, Dmitry Donskoi, winner of the decisive battle against the TatarMongols, “goes into the Church of St. Michael the leader of the Heavenly
Host and beats his brow against the holy image.
We know of depiction of this archangel in Russian art from earliest
times on the walls of churches, princes’ helmets and military banners.
Icons have survived from the twelfth century, from the turn of the 14th ,
from later centuries. Most often can be found as a part of the deesis row of
a iconostasis depicted in calm solemn prayer to Christ, always placed
symmetrically opposite the Archangel Gabriel, or as part of a composition
in which the archangels intercede with Virgin Mary. In place of armour
Michael wears a himation or clock with a clasp at the chest over a chiton
or a dalmatic. His robes are often adorned with an embroidered collar.
Intercession
Andreas, a holy-fool attended an all-night service in the church of
Blachernae in Constantinople, where the veil of Virgin was kept. During
the service they saw the virgin accompanied by saints go up to the ambo
and pray then her veil was spread over the worshippers.
The feast of the Intercession was established in Russia in the city of
Vladimir during the reign of Prince Andrei Bogolubsky. The oldest composition dates from the 13-th century.
Transfiguration
The Gospels tell of this miraculous event which took place on Mount
Hermon: Christ became transfigured before the eyes of His disciples, Peter, James and John, and the prophets Elijah and Moses appeared and conversed with Him.
The composition is simple: Christ is depicted on the mountain in radiant “glory”, the prophets are depicted to His sides.
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3. Pokrova na Nerli
One of the best known Russian church buildings in the northern style
is the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl. According to archeologists, it
was much bigger in the 12th century when it was built. Surrounded by an
open gallery and mounted on a high knoll, it had a broad staircase leading
up from the water. Today it stands alone in the midst of low, green meadows, the small lake below reflecting its chaste white walls and single
dome. In the 800 years of its existence, it undergone other changes. The
old belfry is gone, the helmet shaped has been replaced by a bulbous cupola, and in the process of repairs, the rest of the roof was altered so that the
square pedestal that help up the slender drum was covered over with sheet
metal. And yet this church, in its serene natural setting, is one of the most
poetic creations ever to come down to us out of past.
It is a large church and fairly simple in plan, with the cubical basic
structure usual for the North. But the familiar shapes have a new look, not
so austere as the earlier Novgorod churches, nor yet so proud and imposing as those in Vladimir. It is light and graceful and this is due in large part
to the change in proportions. Each faced is made up of 3 sections divided
vertically by slender columns and horizontally connected by a decorative
band of blind arcading of the same white stone as the wall itself.
The builders of most of the Vladimir and Suzdal churches adopted the
general features of the square plan with 3 altar apses and the 4 columns
supporting a flat cupola with its circular drum. Instead of the brick used so
widely in Byzantine and Kievan churches they used out stone and carved
stone embroideries uncommon in Byzantium.
4. The Monastery of the Holy Trinity
Sergiev Posad emerged as a settlement around the Monastery of the
Holy Trinity. For a long time, between the late 14th and 18th centuries, the
Monastery of the Holy Trinity was a major religious and political center in
the country. In the 15th century, the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery
was the largest landowner among Russian Monasteries. Besides this, it also became a major fortress with an important place in the system of Russian defensive fortifications as an outpost of Moscow.
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In 1774 the monastery was given the honorary title of Laura. That
meant that it became a major monastery under the direct authority of head
of the Russian Church.
The monastery was not only a fortress but also the center of Russian
culture.
In the 14th century, folk handicrafts such as making of toys, painted
wooden tableware and miniature wood and bone carvings were made at
the monastery and surrounding area. The monastery bought and received
as donations a large numbers of fine samples of folk art. So its storerooms
were filled with paintings, icons, works of graphic art, pieces of artistic
embroidery, carved wood and furniture. Now, the best of them are on display at the museum.
Some of the best educated men of their age lived and worked in the
monastery: including in the 15th century, Epiphany the Wise, a writer who
traveled to the East; and in the 16th century, Maxim the Greek, a learned
monk who was invited from Balkan Peninsula by Grand Duke Vassili III
to translate liturgical books from Greek into Russian.
The oldest building in the Laura is the Holy Trinity Cathedral (14221423). It was built over the grave of Sergey of Radonezh. It is one of the
few early Moscow churches to have survived to the present day. The cathedral was adorned with frescoes by Andrey Rublev and Daniil Chorny.
Unfortunately, the frescoes have not survived: they were scraped off in
17th century when the walls were repainted. Only some icons painted by
the great Rublev and his pupils remained.
Today, the Laura, one of the major centers of the Russian Orthodox
Church, is the seat of the Moscow Theological Academy and Seminary.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is Sergiev Posad?
2. What was the role of the Monastery of the Holy Trinity between the
th
14 and 18th centuries?
3. What did the title of Laura mean for the monastery? When was it
given to the monastery?
4. What folk handicrafts began to develop at the monastery?
5. What is the oldest building on the territory of the Laura? When was
it built?
6. What is it famous for?
7. What is the Laura today?
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Translate:
1. Сергиев Посад возник как поселение вокруг Троице-Сергиева
монастыря.
2. С 14-го по 18-й – век Троице-Сергиев монастырь был крупным
религиозным и политическим центром страны.
3. Кроме того, он стал основной крепостью и играл важную роль
в системе фортификационных укреплений России в качестве аванпоста Москвы.
4. В 14-м веке в монастыре и его окрестностях начали развиваться народные ремесла, такие как изготовление игрушек, расписной деревянной утвари, а также резьба по дереву и кости.
5. В 16-м веке в монастыре жил ученый монах Максим Грек, которого князь Василий III пригласил специально для перевода литургических книг с греческого на русский.
6. Свято-Троицкий собор был построен на месте захоронения
Сергия Радонежского. Это один из немногих древних московских соборов, сохранившихся до наших дней.
5. Icon paintings
Text 1
From the twelfth to the fourteenth centuries, the least important of all
the provincial schools were those of Moscow and of Tver which were to
some extent linked. At the time both cities were extremely small and insignificant but even at this early date Moscow had already established artistic links with the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, with the result that her
artists were primarily affected by trends making themselves felt within the
principality. These continued to stir the Muscovites in the fifteenth century, even after their ruler had insisted on many leading Novgorodian artists moving to Moscow to help to expand the latter school of painting and
over and again the metropolitan painters were encouraged to look to Vladimir-Suzdal for guidance.
Moscow’s rise, both in the political and in the artistic spheres, dates
from her victory over the Mongols at the battle in 1380, when the Tartar
hold over the country was so effectively weakened that the dream of Russian independence acquired considerable reality. For the first time for well
over a century, the country’s future seemed rich in promise, the outlook so
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encouraging, that Moscow’s growth developed apace and the Russians
once again set out to strengthen their contacts with Constantinople. As a
result, as early as 1385, a Greek artist was commissioned to paint an icon
of the Virgin of Tikhvin for Prince Dimitri Donskoi, the victor at Kulikovo
and some time between 1387 and 1395, the important series of icons
known today as the Vysotski Deesis tier was brought to Moscow from
Constantinople. It was also now towards the end of that century, according
to Professor Lazarev, not later than the year 1395, that Theophanes the
Greek took up residence in Moscow, abandoning Novgorod. By 1404,
Theophanes was deeply involved in work in the Kremlin where he was
adorning the walls of the Cathedral of the annunciation. Employed there as
his assistants were two Russians whose names the chroniclers of the period
made a point of including in their records. They were monks from the Monastery of the Trinity at Zagorsk: the elder was the painter Prokhor of Gorodetz; the other his pupil, Andrei Rublev – the man who was destined to
become Russia’s greatest medieval painter. Theophanes did much to stimulate Rublev’s development, broadening his outlook without spoiling his
very individual approach to his art. Indeed, the impact made by the Greek
is to be seen in many other notable paintings produced in Moscow at that
time, but it was not the only one at work there.
Professor Lazarev sees other influences in the paintings dating from
the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and these the Soviet scholar has
ascribed to artists fleeing to Moscow from the Balkans in the face of the
ever-growing peril engendered by the Turks. However, in the fifteenth
century, the formative influence over Muscovite artists was that which
their fellow-countryman, the monk Andrei Rublev, was to exercise over
them. His gentle spirituality, his incisive yet softly flowing lines and his
elimination of all inessentials became the criterion of beauty in the capital,
setting the standard which most artists of the period strove to emulate.
Text 2
Though Rublev is an artist who can hold his own beside any Western
religious painter of the same period, Fra Angelico not excepted, exceedingly little is known about his life and only a very small number of his
works has survived. Since even the exact date of his birth is unknown, the
Soviet authorities have associated it with the year 1360, but those scholars
who incline to place it some ten years later may well be correct in their assumption. Rublev became a monk at the Monastery of the Trinity at Za24
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gorsk in his youth and studied painting there under the monk Prokhor. His
earliest known commissions took him to Zvenogorod in 1404. Three of the
icons which he produced at this time – a Christ, an archangel and an apostle Paul – still survive in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, though they
are in a very damaged condition. Even so, the marvelous harmony of their
delicate yet sustained colours, their gentle yet unsentimental humanism
and their sinuous yet firm lines endow these panels with a moving spirituality and an aesthetic quality that are outstanding. At some stage in his
career Rublev worked in the Andronikov monastery, indeed, most of his
life was spent in and around Moscow, where his name is recorded first in
connection with the work which Theophanes, aided by Prokhor, was carrying out in the Cathedral of the Annunciation in 1405. Nevertheless, in
1408, Rublev was engaged on adorning the walls of the Cathedral of the
Assumption at Vladimir.
After that he appears to have returned to Moscow, probably to his own
monastery at Zagorsk and never again to have left it. There was much
work for him to do there at the time, for many of its buildings had been
heavily damaged in the course of a Tartar attack on the capital. It aws
there, probably in about 1411, that Rublev painted his masterpiece, the
icon of the Old Testament Trinity, executing the panel in memory of the
monastery’s founder and first abbot, St. Sergius of radonezh who had recently died. Rublev’s closing years were devoted to painting the murals in
the cathedral which had been built above St. Sergius’s tomb. He aws assisted in this task by Danila Cherny, a apinter of great distinction, with
whom Rublev had for some years been running a joint workshop. The
work occupied him until his death in about 1427.
Text 3
Even though it was Rublev’s influence which proved paramount
throughout the fifteenth century, it was, nevertheless, under the impact of
an artist called Dionysius that Moscovite painting attained to its fullest development. Dionysius must have been born within a decade or so of Rublev’s death, that is to say in about 1440, for he his first mentioned in
records as an assistant of the painter Mitrophanes, when the latter was engaged on decoraring the Parfuntiev monastery, between 1467 and 1477.
By 1484, however, Dionysius was himself being assisted by teams of icon
painters, two of which included his sons. His death is placed sometime between the years 1502 and 1508.
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Dionysius painted in an ‘impressionist’ manner; his figures are immensely elongated, and their heights appear even greater than they are because of the smallness of their heads, hands and feet. Furthermore, they are
often presented poised on tiptoe or even slightly elevated from the ground
and this striving towards heaven, no less than the passionate character of
the artist’s brushwork, invests them with profound rapture. Dionysius’s
finest works are the murals of about 1500 which he executed for the Therapont monastery: very few icons by his own hand survive but many biographical icons are traced to his workshop. These reflect the influence of
Rublev no less than that of Theophanes, for the figures in them appear
muted, stilled, as in Rublev’s works but they have Dionysius’s elongated
bodies and dreamily inclined heads. Though these icons are grand and
forceful, some of them contain a faint element of effeminacy, which seems
to foreshadow a period of decline. However, the colours remain as good as
ever, Dionysius’s very individual palette including various shades of pink,
mauve, pale green and lemon yellow.
The typical fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Muscovite icons tended to
be comparatively small in size, intimate and personal in style and subject
and decorative in appearance. Moscow had by then entered on a period of
economic prosperity and the easing of conditions brought into being a
class of courtiers, soldiers and merchant princes who were in a position to
build private chapels and to commission icons for use both in these chapels and their own homes. Personal icons – those representing the saints
after whom their owners had been named – became popular. The foremost
patrons of the day included the tsar and his relations who looked for their
needs to the artists employed in the royal workshops situated in the Palace
of Arms, within the Kremlin’s walls. Courtiers also placed their commissions with the metropolitan workshops, while enlightened merchant
princes founded private workshops, which worked exclusively for them.
The most famous and important of these private workshops was that
which some members of the wealthy Stroganov family established in
about 1580 on their country estate, situated in the district of Perm. It
trained a surprisingly large number of artists of distinction and evolved a
style of its own. Though it remained active until the 1620’s, at its founder’s death in 1601, many of its principal artists went to Moscow, where
they quickly found employment in the royal workshops. There, they continued to work in their accustomed manner, influencing others to follow
their example, until the style they practiced came to be called Stroganov,
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in memory of the patrons who had inspired it. The artists themselves set
out to perpetuate the association by frequently signing the reverse of their
panels, adding after their names the appellation, ‘Stroganov artist’.
Text 4
The leading artists of the Stroganov school were Procopius Chirin, Simon Ushakov and four painters belonging to two generations of the Savin
family, Istom, Theodore, Nazarius and Nicephorus. All six had been formed
in the Stroganov workshop, where the best Novgorodian icons available
were used to set the standard. Some of the artists and these included Chirin,
themselves hailed from Novgorod. On reaching Moscow these men, in their
turn, set the standard and formed the taste of their patrons but at the same
time, if almost imperceptibly to begin with, they themselves came under the
influence of the foreign artists who were by then living and working in
Moscow. Through contact with these foreigners, the icon painters began
taking an interest in realism but the dogmatism of the clergy forbade them
from indulging it, as it did their inclination towards self-expression and naturalism in art. Then the impact of the thriving commercial capital, in the
life of which worldly considerations had begun to play an ever increasing
part, started to affect the outlook of the Russian artists, disturbing their old
ideas and undermining the ascetic spirit that was essential to the icon painters, so that the complex iconographic tradition ceased to satisfy them.
On being forced to adhere to it, they discovered an outlet in the substitution of elaborate allegoric compositions containing numerous new, basically illustrative, elements and a profusion of decorative details in place of
the simple themes which had sufficed their forbears. Subjects such as the
‘Church Militant’ and the ‘Lord God Saboth’ thus became extremely popular. Some of the Palace of Arms artists also tried their hands at portraiture of
an iconic type, and genre scenes appeared in some religious mural works,
notably at Yaroslavl. Nevertheless, the majority of the painters remained
primarily icon painters. The most admired of their panels are those which
are distinguished by a miniature technique of a kind intended to appeal primarily to the new class of art connoisseurs rather than to the wholeheartedly devout in outlook. Technically, notwithstanding a certain fin-desiecle flaviour, these paintings are excellent, comparable in conception to
the small-sized Persian or Western miniatures of medieval date and, in their
mass of minute detail also to the subsidiary subject matter enlivening the
large canvases of the Pre-Raphaelites. This preoccupation with incidentals
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was, however, an unhealthy sign; it led to a dead end – one from which the
Western style of painting, introduced into Russia by Peter the Great, was
unable to deflect it.
Text 5
In the eighteenth century, under the impact of Peter’s westernizing
policy, most artists of ability worked in the Western style. As a result, icon
painting declined into a craft which was largely relegated to monks and
hereditary artisans. Subsequent painters, working singly or in teams, continued to turn out large numbers of icons until the anti-religious measures
by the Soviet authorities early in the revolution put an end to their occupation. Most of the icons which were produced in the course of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are little more than uninspired exercises in
a style which had become moribund, for although a touch of real talent and
true feeling occasionally ennobled some of these late panels, the majority
remained fixed in an ancient form, to which a new, jejune sentimentality
and a distressing touch of naturalism had been added, often destroying the
grandeur of even the original conception. Thus, the art which had sprung
into being in early Christian times in Byzantium died in Russia in the
course of the early eighteenth century rather than in the twentieth.
Throughout its existence it had inspired the production of some superb
masterpieces and of numerous works of outstanding merit. The appeal of
these paintings is likely to endure for all time, but it should arouse an especially warm response today because, as in the case of contemporary
painting, so too in that of the iconic type, the underlying thoughts and
emotions are as important as the care and skill devoted to the choice of
forms and colours, by means of which the latent sentiments and ideas are
expressed.
6. Feasts of the Church
The twelve Major Feasts
Christmas – January 7/December 25
The Baptism of Christ (the Epiphany) – January 19/6
The Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Candlemas) – February 15/2
The Annunciation of the Most Holy Mother of God – April 7/March 25
The Lord’s Arrival in Jerusalem (Palm Sunday) – seven days before Easter
The Ascension of the Lord – on the 40th day after Easter
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Saint Trinity Day (Pentecost) – on the 50th day after Easter
The Transfiguration of the Lord – August 19/6
The Dormition of the Most Holy Mother of God – August 28/15
The Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God – September 21/8
The Exaltation of the Cross – September 27/14
The Presentation of the Blessed Virgin in the Temple – December 4/21
The five Additional Feasts
The Circumcision of the Lord. - January 14/1
The Nativity of John the Baptist – July 7/June 24
The Day of the Holy Highest Apostles Peter and Paul – July 12/June 29
The Decapitation of John the Baptist – September 11/August 29
The Intercession of the Mother of God – October 14/1
The Holy Resurrection of Christ (Easter)
Thursday, on the eve of His great sufferings, Jesus Christ came to Jerusalem with His twelve disciples. There, on the Mount of Olives in the
Hethsemane garden, He prayed so zealously that drops of bloody sweat
fell on the ground.
The Lord knew about His future sufferings and terrible death. Being
the true God and perfect sinless human being, He was not supposed to suffer and die. Indeed, suffering and death are the consequence of human’s
remoteness from God, the consequence of their sinfulness.
But Christ voluntarily took upon Himself the whole burden of human
suffering in order to become at one with all those who believed in Him.
Here in Gethesemane, He was betrayed by one of His disciple, Judas
Iscariot. The council sentenced the innocent Lord to death because He
called Himself the Son of God.
On a Friday morning, Jesus Christ was brought before Pontius Pilate
the governor. There they tied Him to a post and beat Him. Then they put a
scarlet robe on Him and crown of thorns on His head. They kneeled before
Him and mocked Him, saying: “Hail, King of the Jews!” After that, Pilate
ordered the Lord Jesus Christ be brought out before the people. He thought
the people would take pity on Him. But incited by the Pharisees and superiors, the people shouted: “Crucify Him!” Then, learning the indignation
of the people, Pilate ordered the Lord to be put to death.
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Warriors took Jesus Christ to Golgotha or the Place of the Scull. They
gave Him a heavy wooden cross to bear to the place where he was to be
crucified.
In those times, execution on a cross was believed to be especially humiliating. Only the most inveterate villains were crucified on a cross. Besides, that was one of the most agonizing deaths ever thought up by man.
The one crucified died in terrible agony within a few hours or days. And
the sinless Jesus Christ suffered all those inhuman tortures for the sake of
our salvation.
On the cross, the Lord prayed for His torturers, saying: “Father! Forgive them for they do not realize what they are doing.”
After the agonising torture, Christ died on Great Friday. But the human nature of the Saviour, which was inseparable from His Divinity, could
not be subject to death. Christ rose from dead on the day henceforth called
THE HOLY RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. The Lord joined humanity
in order to die our death and bring us back to life with His Resurrection.
Now salvation from death and sin is possible for all believing in the Lord
Jesus Christ and having become part of Him through the Holy Baptism in
the Church He founded on earth.
Our Church celebrates the RESURRECTION OF CHRIST as the
greatest event, the feast of feast. This jubilation recurs every week and
every Sunday is called “little Easter”. But Christians celebrate especially
joyfully and solemnly the annual holiday of Easter proceeded by Lent.
This holiday is called EASTER in honour of the Jewish people’s exodus from Egypt where the Jews had lived for a long time in slavery and
oppression. In order to make the Ruler of Egypt release the Jews, at night
the Lord’s angel put to death the first-borns in all families of Egypt. At the
same time, the Jews marked the jambs of their doors with the blood of a
sacrificial lamb, so the angel passed their houses by. At that time the Jews
had sacrificed an innocent lamb in order to avoid death. And now Jesus
Christ sacrificed Himself to rid of death all those believing in Him.
The Jewish people left Egypt for the country which had been promised to them by God. The Christians went from the realm of death and sin
over to that of life discovered by Christ. The Old Testament Easter holiday
(meaning a passover in Hebrew) corresponds to the Easter of the New Testament.
Easter is the oldest holiday of the Christian Church. It was already
celebrated during the lifetime of the Apostles. In 325 A.D., it was decided
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at the first Oecumenical Council in Nicaea that Easter must be celebrated
on the first Sunday after the vernal equinox and full moon which coincided
with the period of March 22 to April 25, according to the Old Style, or
from April 4 to May 8, according to the New Style.
On the first day of Easter, the souls of the Christians are full of joy,
for the Resurrection of the Lord was a victory over sin and its consequence
– death. Thus, humanity gained eternal life.
This feast is full of especial solemnity. The ringing of church bells is
heard everywhere, lamps are lit in the temples and all hold lit candles during the sermons as a sign of spiritual joy.
Easter lasts a whole week. And each day the Easter greeting which
fills one’s heart with joy can be heard: “Christ is arisen!” And the answer
is: “He truly is arisen!”.
The Holiday of the Holy Trinity (Whitsun)
Pentecost
On the 50th day after Easter
Fifty days had passed since the Resurrection of Christ. All the disciples, the Mother of God, and other believers were gathered in one of Jerusalem houses remembering the life, death and Ascension of the Saviour.
Suddenly, they heard a din, as though a strong wind had begun to
blow way up in the sky. The din spread all through the house and filled the
hearts of those assembled with joy and wonderment. Then tongues of
flame appeared in the sky and hovered over each person in the house.
Those touched by the fire began to speak in a language hitherto unbeknownst to them.
“What is this? What has happened?” the people who had gathered
around the house marveled.
On that day many pilgrims from different countries had come to Jerusalem to celebrate the holiday of the Jews. Hearing words in the tongues of
the lands they came from, the guests asked:
“How come the natives of Galilee glorify God in tongues they have
never known? It’s a miracle!”
“No miracle at all!” said the others listening to the polyglot hubbub.
“It’s because they have drunk a lot of sweet wine on the holiday and are
shouting something absolutely incomprehensible”.
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Suddenly, the Apostle Peter rose and raised his hand calling for silence.
“Do not say lies and do not slander the disciples of Christ,” said Peter.
“We are not drunk. The Saviour has sent the Holy Ghost from heaven in
the form of flaming streams and commanded the Gospel be spread among
all nations.
Great was the miraculous gift of speaking many tongues which was
given to the apostles so that they could preach the Gospel throughout the
world! But it was not the most important event that had come to pass. That
was the coming of the Holy Ghost, the Third Form (Image) of the Holy
Trinity. It filled all those believing in Christ with Himself, uniting them into a single whole and making them a single body – the Church. From that
day on the disciples of Christ became not just an assembly of like-minded
persons but an integral organism, the Body of Christ, as Paul would later
call the Church.
Ever since then the Church of Christ has existed on earth, bringing
people to Christ and helping them find His salvation.
The Christians celebrate WHITSUN (Trinity), or the fiftieth day after
Easter (PENTECOST), as a great holiday. On this day temples and houses
are adorned with birch branches and flowers and the floors are covered
with fresh grass. Green grass and branches remind us of the eternal life
given to us by Christ’s Resurrection.
Pentecost, as well as Easter, is celebrated a whole week.
The Transfiguration of the Lord
August 19
So, day by day Christ lived among people. He preached, taught them
to live according to the Law of God and worked miracles. But this was not
the main way he served God. The prophets to whom the Most High had
revealed His will also preached and taught. The Son of God came to the
world to suffer, die on the Cross and rise from the dead in order to save
those believing in Him from sin and death.
Then the time came for His last pilgrimage to Jerusalem. One day
Christ said to His closest disciples, Peter, James and John: “Let us go and
pray together.” They ascended a high mountain and Christ immediately
began to pray. The long ascent tired the disciples so they lay down and fell
asleep.
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Suddenly, they awoke and saw that Christ was standing in a white
shining raiment, whiter than snow and His face was shining like the sun.
Next to Him were two prophets, Moses and Ilijah who were talking with
Him about His forthcoming sufferings and death in Jerusalem. When they
finished talking, they departed from Him and soon became invisible.
Suddenly, a white cloud overshadowed the disciples and a voice came
out of the cloud, saying, “This is My beloved Son: hear Him!” The frightened disciples “fell on their face”. The Saviour came and touched them
and said: “Arise and be not afraid.” They got up and saw Christ in His
usual form. And as they came down from the mountain, the Lord “charged
them that they should tell no man what they had seen, till the Son of Man
were risen from the dead.”
The Lord let His disciples see His Transfiguration to strengthen their
spirit before His sufferings on the Cross. Like all Jews, they saw in Christ
a mortal lord. They were not yet able to see that the Lord’s victory on the
Cross would be far greater and more glorious than any earthly power.
The holiday of the TRANSFIGURATION is popularly known as the
SECOND or APPLE SALVATION.
There is the belief that in the Kingdom of God the children whose
parents do not eat apples until the Second Salvation, are given apples,
whereas those whose parents tasted of apples are not given them. This is
why many of parents whose children have died consider it a great sin to
eat an apple before the Second Salvation.
Besides the Second Salvation, two more holidays of the Salvation of
our Lord Jesus Christ are celebrated on the eve of autumn: the First or Honey Salvation (August 14) and the Third, or Nut-tree Salvation (August
29). All three Salvations are kind of connected with each other by days of
Assumption Fast which lasts from August 14 till August 28.
The FIRST or HONEY SALVATION commemorates the signs given
by the icons of the Saviour and the Mother of God during St. Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky’s battle against the Volga Bulgars in 1164.
The holiday has the name of the Honey salvation because on this day
strict adheres of popular customs and fasting are allowed to eat honey after
its sanctification in the church.
The THIRD or NUT-TREE SALVATION is the feast of the Saviour
Not Made By Hand. Legend has it that when the Saviour was spreading
His teaching in the world, in the Syrian city of Edessa there lived and ruled
a certain man who “was full of leprosy”. When he heard of the great mi33
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racles the Lord worked, he immediately believed in Him as in the Son of
God and wrote Him a letter in which he asked Jesus to come and heal him.
He gave the letter to a painter and sent him to Palestine so that he would
paint a portrait of Christ.
The painter came to Jerusalem and saw the Lord surrounded by
people. There were so many of them that he could not approach Christ. So
he climbed on top of a big stone and tried to paint a picture of the Lord
from a distance but failed. The Saviour saw him and after He had finished
preaching, He asked the painter to come near Him, called the man by his
name and gave him a letter for the ruler in which He promised to send His
disciple to heal the ruler’s leprosy and gave him instructions for salvation.
Then the Lord asked for some water and a piece of cloth. Jesus washed His
face and wiped it clean with the cloth. All were surprised to see His face
imprinted on it.
Then the painter brought the Saviour’s letter and cloth to Edessa.
When leprosy “departed from the ruler”, he adorned the Image Not Made
By Hand and installed it on top of the city’s gates.
In the year 944, the Saviour’s Image was taken to Constantinople.
This day, the transfer of Salvation, is celebrated on August 29.
The Third Salvation is often called the Saviour of the Canvas or Canvasses, first of all because of the piece of clothe on which the image of
Christ was imprinted, and also because on this day peasants traded in canvasses.
The Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God
It happened in the middle of the tenth century in Constantinople, in
the church where the Mother of God’s garment, headgear and part of Her
belt were kept.
An all-night service was being held in the overcrowded church. God’s
fool Andrei, a Slav and ex-warrior who had been taken prisoner as a youth
and then sold to a local resident, praised the Lord and the Most Holy
Mother with the others. Recalling his hard life in captivity Andrei could
not help crying. “Help me, Mistress!” he whispered.
At four in the morning, Andrei lifted up his eyes and was amazed to
see the Mother of God walking in the air in a bright halo of heavenly light
and surrounded by angels and saints. She was accompanied by John the
Baptist the Divine.
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In tears, the Queen of Heaven genuflected and began to pray for the
Christians. Approaching the Holy Throne She continued to pray and then
took off Her veil and spread it over the people in the church, thereby
showing that She was protecting them from all visible and invisible enemies. The veil shone “brighter than the rays of the sun”.
The Mother of God asked Christ to accept the prayers of those resorting to Her intercession. Then the Mistress was gone. The veil also became
invisible. However, today, too, the Most Holy Mother of God brings prayers for all human kind to Her Divine Son.
The day of THE INTERCESSION OF THE MOST HOLY MOTHER
OF GOD was made a holiday in the Russian church by Andrei Bogolubsky about 1164. In 1165, he finished building the universally famous
Temple of Intercession on the river Nerl.
On Intercession Day people began to apply for work. After harvesting
crops young men had little work, so they volunteered for odd jobs outside
their native parts.
Intercession Day Is the beginning of young people’s gatherings.
On Intercession Day the so-called Intercession fairs started.
Intercession Day is the patron of weddings.
The girls believed in Intercession Day’s power to bring about marital
unions so at sunrise they hurried to the church to light a candle there. It
was believed that whoever was the first to light a candle, would marry the
soonest.
The Nativity of Christ
There was unusual activity on the roads of Judea in those days. The
Emperor of Rome, Augustus, who also reigned over the Jews, ordered a
census to be taken in the country. Each kin was attached to a certain city
and all residents, wherever they were, had to come to their cities for the
census.
Bethlehem was considered to be the city of the kin of David which
was also the kin of Virgin Mary and Joseph. So the people relating to this
kin set off for this city from all over Judea. They rode on carts, twowheeled covered wagons, on horseback and astride donkeys as well as
walked. They traveled alone, in pairs and in whole families to appear before the strict census-makers and then go back home again.
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A married couple from the city of Nazareth, the virtuous Joseph and
the Most Holy Virgin Mary, was also walking towards their city. The road
was not easy for them because Mary was heavy with a child. It was not an
ordinary child. A very old man, Joseph was not his father. By the will of
God and from the Holy Spirit Mary conceived the Incarnate God Who had
come to earth to save humankind from the power of sin and death. When
Mary and Joseph arrived in Bethlehem, so many people had gathered there
that they could not find a place to stay. So they went outside the city and
settled in a cave where herdsman sheltered their livestock in bad weather.
At night Mary gave birth to the Infant. Having swathed the Son, She
put Him in a manger where they kept fodder for the livestock.
That same night Bethlehem herdsmen were grazing their cattle nearby
the cave. Suddenly there was a flash of light from above and an angel appeared harbingering the birth of the Saviour. Other angels glorified Him.
Amazed and overjoyed, the herdsmen hurried to Bethlehem to see the Infant and worship Him.
The moment the Infant was born, a bright star flared up in the sky to
tell oriental sages and star-gazer magi that the long-awaited Saviour of the
world had been born. Guided by that star, they came to Bethlehem. The
star stood still right over the place where the Infant was. making a low
bow the magi gave Him gifts whereupon they returned to where they had
come from.
CHRISTMAS is the beginning of Lord’s earthly life. On that day He
came down to earth to share our whole life with us, till our dying day and
save us from death. This was why the Infant was given the name of Jesus,
which in Hebrew means Saviour, eight days after His birth.
In Rus Christmas was a most joyful and cheerful feast! Already a
week before New Year’s holidays, or Christmas-tide, began to be celebrated. Mummers walked about clowning, telling fortunes, singing and dancing and sliding down snowy hills in festively decorated sleighs, on small
planks and bast mats.
On Christmas Eve they made bonfires believing that the deceased
would come to warm up and that these fires would help them grow good
wheat.
During Christmas people put on new coats. One could not wear just a
clean but not new coat for fear of bad crops.
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Part III.
Applied Art
1. Glossary
Aa
Alconost (миф.) – Алконост
analoi or “folding reading desk” – аналой
articles – предметы
attached – прикреплявшийся
at the edges – по краям
Bb
back – спинка (мебели)
bedcurtain – подзор
belt – пояс
bobbins – коклюшки
border – кайма
brake – трепало (для льна, пеньки)
bowl – миска
Сс
cake /gingerbread mould – пряничная доска
candlestick – подсвечник
carver – резчик
casket –ларец
champleve – эмаль выемчатая
chased – чеканный
chasuble – риза
church pew – церковная скамья
church porch – паперть
cloisonné – перегородчатая эмаль, клуазол
cloth-of-gold – парча золотая
collar – воротник
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comb – гребень
costume – костюм
cross-shaped – крестово-купольный
cruciform – крестовобразный
cupboard – шкаф, буфет
cut brick – тесаный кирпич
Dd
damask – дамаст, камка; камчатная или дамастная ткань;
камчатное полотно (для скатерти); дамасская сталь,
булат; цвета дамасской розы, алый цвет
distaff (“pralka”) – прялка
drawn-work – мережка
Ee
earthenware – фаянс, -овый
embellish (with) – украшать
engraver – гравер, резчик
enameled – глазурованный
embellish (with) – украшать
Ff
fittings – фитинги, фасонные части мебели
frame – рамка; оковка
goblet – бокал
gold leaf – сусальное золото
gold thread – золотая нить
Hh
hanging – подвесной
head dress – головной убор
Ii
iron – железо, железный; (smoothing) iron – утюг
Jj
jug – кувшин
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Ll
lace – кружево
lace-weaver – кружевной, кружевница
lace-weaving – плетение кружев
lid – крышка
log cabin – изба
linen – полотно
lintel of a door or window; nalitchnik or window frame – наличник
loubok or popular engravings – лубок (народные) гравюры, эстампы
Mm
matryshka, or “a Russian wooden doll containing progressively smaller dolls” – матрешка, или русская деревянная кукла, содержащая в себе все меньшие куклы.
metal – металл, -ический
mill – мельница водяная
mother of pearl – перламутр
mug – кружка
Nn
nielloed – черненный
Oo
ornate – нарядный, изукрашенный
Pp
pendant – подвеска
pillowcase – наволочка
pincushion – подушечка для булавок
plank – доска; тесовый
plaque – тарелка декоративная
printed – набивной (ситец)
ridge – конек (у избы)
row of beams – венец (у избы)
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Ss
salt box – солонка
satin – атлас
scoop – ковш
silver-plated – посеребреный
spindle – веретено
spoon – ложка
semi-precious stone – самоцвет
Tt
towel – полотенце
twiggy décor – «елочка» (архит.)
Uu
utensils – утварь
velvet – бархат
weaving-loom – ткацкий станок
woman’s – женский
walrus ivory – моржовая кость
windmill – мельница ветряная
2. Microhard Windows: the Village Nalichnik
For many centuries, most Russian lived in log cabins which local carpenters or they themselves built. This was a tremendous improvement
upon the dugout which served as home for the East Slavs for thousands of
years before that. The log cabins were relatively simple, but sturdy structures, put together out of logs made to fit each other with the help of an
axe. Over the centuries Russian carpenters developed a culture of wooden
fretwork to decorate the facades of the otherwise plain log cabins. The key
element in the decoration of the peasant house was the nalichnik , an intricately carved outer frame around the window. This word can also refer to a
similar frame round the door but it the window nalichnik which is usually
implied when the word is used.
It is interesting that this element which had a utilitarian purpose in
wooden architecture, i.e. to cover the crack between the inner window
frame and the log wall, was transferred to brick and stone architecture,
where it played a purely decorative role. Before the introduction of Euro40
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pean architecture into Russia in the 18th century, the nalichnik was the
principal decorative part of the façade of boyar chambers and churches.
While the Russian government always sought to standardize town architecture and even peasant huts, the nalichnik was one of the elements
which dedefied any sort of standardization. Nalichniks come in all shapes
and sizes. Usually, a local carpenter team would develop its own style of
nalichnik, which it would apply in all the houses it built. Due to the fact
that Ford and mass production only appeared a relatively short time ago,
and when they did, were slow in reaching Russia, the nalichniks on each
house were different from those on the next, although they usually conformed to the village or area style.
The most beautiful nalichniks were made in Russian North and in Siberia (Tomsk is particularly famous for its elaborate fretwork). The northern log cabins were enormous, bringing together living quarters and barn
with animals under one roof. The windows were small and high up to prevent the snowdrifts from reaching them, which lent the nalichniks a special
quality.
The original nalichniks, like all wooden objects in Russia, were made
using one tool, the axe. These tools were so well sharpened, however, that
peasants used them to shave. With time carpenters began to use other elementary tools to make nalichniks such as the drill and the fretsaw. Typically, the Russian word for fretsaw, lobzik, is a distorted version of the German word for fretsaw. Laubshape, implying that this tool appeared at a
relatively late date in Russia.
The nalichnik type in the photograph, mostly widespread in certain
areas of the Kostroma Province, is known as the “pouring” nalichnik, because of the visual effect it achieves. It is particularly impressive in wintertime, when combined with icicles hanging from the roof. Yet if we take a
close look, all we find are alternating holes and cuts.
Other nalichniks might have been the product of cabinet-maker, resembling a piece of old-fashioned furniture with prevailing rectangular
surfaces. Even the smallest alterations in the nalichnik change the entire
appearance of the window and the house, because nalichniks make the
house. Admiring nalichniks on different houses is like listening to variations on a theme. Many of the nalichniks today are painted but it takes
very good taste not to spoil the old masterpieces with bright modern synthetic paint. Personally, most log cabins in the more well-appointed villages today are covered with painted boards on the outside. This, of course,
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preserves the house but the nalichniks acquire a different, flatter appearance.
Log cabins have also suffered from being moved to other places, such
as museums of wooden architecture. It is convenient to view the masterpiece in one place but as the “village” writers noted back in the 1960s,
tearing a house out of its environment ruins the countryside and changes
the houses themselves.
Nalichniks are also attractive that we find attempts to revive the tradition in present-day village house construction. The result is Hollywoodtype cheap prop, instead of aesthetic values. Why is it that the largely illiterate carpenters of the past were able to produce masterpieces, while the
carpenters of today , perhaps even with a college degree from Soviet
times, are capable of nothing else but cheap imitation? Is it because the
former had a limited range of tools, while the latter possesses power tools
and endless contraptions for their convenience, which change the very nature of the work? Or is it because of the different environment in which
modern people live?
Whatever the answer to these eternal questions, even if we are incapable of creating beautiful things, there is nothing to stop us from admiring
the marvelous beauty of the past.
Part IV.
Painting
1. The Itinerants
The highest achievements of Russian painting in the 1870s are connected with the activity of artists who belonged to the Society for Circulating Art Exhibitions. The founding of this society was an event of great historical significance for Russian art as it ushered in a new era in Russia’s
artistic development. It was an era of vigorous democratization in art, its
emancipation from the control exercised by the autocratic and bureaucratic
state through the Imperial Academy of Arts.
The society’s main goal, as recorded in its Charter, was to “cultivate
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terest in Russian art by reaching out to people in the provinces, and in this
way earned nation-wide respect.
One of the founders of the society, its ideological leader and moving
spirit, was the prominent Russian portrait painter Ivan Kramskoy. He, like
most of the Itinerants, considered that the portrait must characterize a person first of all from the point of view of moral convictions.
The realistic principles of the Itinerants penetrated all the other genres
of Russian art but first and foremost they led to the unprecedented rise of
the everyday picture which most directly solved the problem of bringing
life close to art.
The powerful development of democratic and realistic tendencies in
Russian painting of the 1860s and 70s paved the way for the blossoming of
the Itinerants’ art in the 1860s. In the work of the greatest masters of the
time, Ilya Repin and Vasily Surikov, the Itinerants’ realism achieved the
long-desired harmony of “truth” and “beauty”.
Ilya Repin, a painter possessing an enormous gift, was perhaps, the
most talented of the Itinerants. Keenly sensitive to the life around him, he
created his best work on the themes of contemporary Russian reality,
among these such truly social epics as The Volga Boatmen and Religious
Procession in the Kursk Guberniya. But quite possibly, Repin’s favourite
genre was the portrait. It was in portraiture that the distinctive features of
Repin’s gift made themselves most clearly evident: an irrepressible love
and avid curiosity for life, interest and attention to man, ability to sense the
uniqueness of the inner world of each individual and ability to find ever
new artistic devices for revealing this world.
Unlike Repin, an artist Vasily Surikov was the first and foremost a
“historian”, the greatest of all Russian historical painters who possessed
the gift of presenting events of ages long past as if himself were a witness
and participant. Surikov relied not on “archeology” but on his own powerful artistic imagination, his acute and spontaneous sense of the past. He
was especially interested in the turning points of Russian history. His best
canvases are devoted to events of the 17th century – a time of numerous
revolts and broad popular movements. Surikov loved brilliant and strong
characters but viewed history not through the eyes of individual, no matter
how significant but through the eyes of people, always the main and true
hero of his paintings.
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2. Ivan Nikolayevich Kramskoy
I.N. Kramskoy was born in Ostrogonsk, Voronezh Gubernia. Ashe
was the son of a scribe, he had to start working early and found employment as a retoucher in a photographer’s studio. In 1857 he was accepted in
the Academy of Arts in St.Petersburg.
Through his life Kramskoy struggled for a vigorous, national art expressiong ideas and his influence on his own generation of painters was
great. He was an untiring fighter against everything false in art, against art
that existed apart from reality and from the interests of the people and
which he termed “a frivolous pastime of empty people and parasites”. The
best of his paintings are permeated with deep sympathy towards man and
his inner life.
He was, in the main, a portrait painter, attaining in this genre not only
unmistakable likeness but also striking revelations of the spiritual and intellectual world of his models, as for example in the portraits of the writers
Leo Tolstoy, N.Nekrasov, M.Saltykov-Shchedrin, the sculptor
M.Antokolsky and others.
“Portrait of L.N.Tolstoy” (1837) is one of the best examples of realistic and psychological portraits. The portrait does not dazzle one by its colours which are reserved by a
striking pose, as Tolstoy, wearing a plain shirt, is seated with his legs
crossed and his hand folded on his knee in a very natural and simple attitude. At the same time the portrait is striking by the depth of its inner characterization. The writer sits facing straight ahead and his expression is
one nearing sternness in its concentration. The artist has caught Tolstoy’s
intent and piercing gaze with great mastery.
“The Stranger” (1883) is another of the artist’s outstanding works. It is
not a portrait of an individual woman whose name has been forgotten or
concealed by the painter but rather a generalization.
Her face is beautiful, as are her eyes, shaded by heavy, dark lashes,
her velvet coat, trimmed with fluffy fur and her whole figure, sharply accentuated against the haze of the winter day in St.Petersburg, are done
with great mastery.
I.N.Kramskoy is also known as a publicist, art critic and theorist, the
ideologist of the progressive artists of the latter half of the 19th century in
Russia. He was one of the organizers of the Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions (Itinerants) to which the best of the realistic artists belonged.
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3. Collectors
“To Let” by J.Galsworthy (extract)
Soames Forsyte emerged from the Knightsbridge Hotel, where he was
staying, in the afternoon of the 12th of May, 1920, with the intention of visiting a collection of pictures in a Gallery off Cork Street, and looking into
the Future.
…Arriving at the Gallery off Cork Street however he paid his shilling,
picked up a catalogue and entered. Some ten persons were prowling
around. Soames took steps and came on what looked to him like a lamppost bent by collision with a motor-omnibus. It was advanced some three
paces from the wall and was described in his catalogue as “Jupiter”. He
examined it with curiosity having recently turned some of his attention to
sculpture. “If that’s Jupiter,” he thought, “I wonder what Juno’s like.” And
suddenly he saw her, opposite. She appeared to him like nothing so much
as a pump with two handles, lightly clad in snow. He was still gazing at
her, when two of the prowlers halted on his left.
“Epatant!’ (фр. – сногсшибательно) he heard one say.
The other’s boyish voice replied:
“He’s pulling your leg. (Он издевается над тобой). When he created
Juve and Juno he was saying: “I’ll see how much these fools will swallow.”
“You young duffer (тупица)! Vospovitch is an innovator. Don’t you
see that he’s brought satire into sculpture? The future of plastic art, of music, painting and even architecture, has set in satiric. It was bound to.
People are tired – the bottom’s tumbled out of sentiment.”
“Well, I’m quite equal to taking a little interest in beauty. I was
through the War. You’ve dropped your handkerchief, sir.”
Soames saw a handkerchief held out in front of him. He took it with
some natural suspicion and approached it to his nose. It had the right scent
and his initials in a corner.
“Thank you,” he said and added: “Glad to hear you like beauty; that’s
rare nowadays.”
“I dote on it,” said the young man; but you and I are the last of the old
guard, sir.”
Soames smiled.
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“If you really care for pictures,” he said, “here’s my card. I can show
you some good ones any Sunday, if you’re down the river and care to look
in.”
“Awfully nice of you, sir. I’ll drop in like a bird. My name is Michael.” And he took off his hat.
Soames, already regretting his impulse, raised his own slightly in response, with a downward look at the young man’s companion, who had a
purple tie, dreadful little whiskers and a scornful look – as if he were a
poet!
It was the first indiscretion he had committed for so long that he went
and sat down in an alcove. What had possessed him to give his card to a
rackety young fellow, who went about with a thing like that?
… On a screen opposite the alcove was a large canvas with a great
many square tomato-coloured blob on it and nothing else, so far as Soames
could see from where he sat. He looked at his catalogue: “No. 32. – “The
Future Town” – Paul Post. “I suppose that’s satiric too, he thought. “What
a thing!” But his second impulse was more cautious. It did not do to condemn hurriedly. There had been those stripey, streaky creations of Monet’s
which had turned out such trumps and then the stippled school and Gauguin. Why, even since the Post-Impressionists there had been one or two
painters to be sneezed at. During the thirty-eight years of his connoisseur’s
life, indeed, he had marked so many “movements”, seen the tides of taste
and technique so ebb and flow, that there was really no telling anything
except that there was money to be made out of every change of fashion.
This too might quite well be a case where one must subdue primordial instinct or lose the market. He got up and stood before the picture, trying
hard to see it with the eyes of other people. Above the tomato blobs was
what he took to be a sunset, till some one passing said: “He’s got the airplanes wonderfully, don’t you think1” Below the tomato blobs was a band
of white with vertical black stripes, to which he could assign no meaning
whatever, till some one else came by, murmuring: “What expression he
gets with his foreground!” Expression? Of what? Soames went back to his
seat. The thing was “rich”, as his father would have said, and he wouldn’t
give a damn for it. Expression! Ah! they were all Expressionists now, he
had heard, on the Continent. So it was coming here too, was it? He remembered the first wave of influenza in 1887 – or 8 – hatched in China, so
they said. He wondered where this – this Expressionism – had been
hatched. The thing was a regular disease!
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He had become conscious of a woman and a youth standing between
him and the “Future Town”. Their backs were turned but very suddenly
Soames put his catalogue before his face and drawing his hat forward,
gazed through the slit between. No mistaking that back, elegant as ever
though the hair above had hone grey. Irene! His divorced wife – Irene!
And this, no doubt, was her son – by that fellow Jolyon Forsyte – their
boy, six months older than his own girl! And mumbling over in his mind
the bitter days of his divorce, re rose out of sight but quickly sat down
again. She had turned her head to speak to her boy; her profile was still so
youthful that it made her grey hair seem powdery as if fancy-dressed and
her lips were smiling as Soames, first possessor of them, had never see
them smile. He admitted her still beautiful and in figure almost as young
as ever. And how that boy smiled at her! Emotion squeezed Soames’ heart.
The sight infringed his sense of justice. He grudged her that boy’s smile –
it went beyond what Fleur gave him, and it was undeserved. Their son
might have been his son; Fleur might have been her daughter, if she had
kept straight! He lowered his catalogue. If she saw him, all the better!
Words
aesthetic – эстетический
album – альбом
amateur , dilettante – любитель, любительский, дилетантский
art – искусство; abstract art – абстрактное искусство; antique art –
античное искусство; applied art – прикладное искусство; fine
arts – изящные искусства; folk arts (people’s art) – народное искусство; imitative arts – изобразительное искусство; graphic art –
графическое искусство
black-and-white – рисунок пером
brush – кисть
cartoonist – художник- карикатурист; cartoon – карикатура
to carve – резать по дереву (кости); carving – резьба по дереву
(кости)
to chisel – ваять, высекать (по мрамору и т.п.); chisel – резец
classicism – классицизм
сraftsmanship, skill – мастерство; craft – ремесло; craftsman – мастер, ремесленник, художник
crayon – цветной карандаш, уголь
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decadence – декадентство; decadent - упаднический, декадентский
to decorate – украшать; decoration – украшение
design – рисунок, эскиз, узор; to design – рисовать, изображать
device – прием
to display – выставлять, показывать; on display – выставляемый,
показываемый
to draw – рисовать, чертить; drawing – рисование, рисунок
easel – мольберт; easel painting – станковая живопись
embodiment – воплощение
engraving – гравирование; гравюра; engrave – гравировать, резать
(по металлу, камню, дереву)
etching – офорт
to exhibit – экспонировать; exhibit – экспонат; to exhibit a picture in
a gallery – экспонировать картину в галерее; exhibition, display,
show – выставка; to hold (to stage) an exhibition – проводить,
устраивать выставку
fresco, mural – фреска, фресковая живопись
genre – жанр
illustrator – художник-иллюстратор
image – образ
impressionism – импрессионизм; neo-impressionism – неоимпрессионизм
ivory – слоновая кость
maecenas – меценат
marble – мрамор, мраморный
marvelous – чудесный
master – мастер; mastery – мастерство; masterpiece – шедевр
miniaturist – художник-миниатюрист; miniature – миниатюра
model – натурщик, натурщица, образец; to paint from a model
(from nature) – писать с натуры
monument – памятник
to paint – писать красками, заниматься живописью; paints – краски
painter, picture – картина; to paint in pastel (in oils, in water-colour,
etc.) – рисовать пастелью (масляными красками, акварелью и
т.д.); painter of battle pieces – художник-баталист; battle-painting
– батальная живопись; portrait painting – художник-портретист;
landscape painter – художник-пейзажист; animal painter – ху48
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дожник-анималист; seascape painter, marinist – художникмаринист; genre painting – жанровая живопись
palette – палитра
pastel – пастель
to picture – изображать на картине; pictorial – живописный, изобразительный
pointillism – пуантилизм
to portray – снимать портрет, рисовать, изображать; portraiture –
портретная живопись; портрет; self-portrait – автопортрет
to pose, to sit – позировать
print, coloured print – гравюра, эстамп, цветная гравюра
realism – реализм; social realism – социалистический реализм
Renaissance – Ренессанс, эпоха Возрождения
to represent – представлять, изображать
reproduction – репродукция
to restore – реставрировать (картину)
romanticism – романтизм
sculptor – скульптор; sculpture – скульптура
sketch, study – эскиз, набросок, этюд; to sketch – делать набросок,
рисовать эскизы
spectator – зритель
statue – статуя
still life – натюрморт
stroke – мазок, штрих
studio – студия
subtle – тонкий
superb – великолепный, роскошный
touch – штрих
treatment – трактовка
trend, current, movement – направление в искусстве
unique – уникальный
unsurpassed – непревзойденный
water-colourist – художник-акварелист; water-colour – акварель
Answer the following questions:
1.What kind of art do you know? 2. What kind of painting do you
know? 3. How can you classify painters? 4. By whom is Russian realism
in painting represented? 5. Who were the unsurpassed masters of Russian
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landscape? 6. What is the principal method in the creative work of Soviet
artist?
Translate into Russian:
1.This piece of abstract painting departs from sanity as well as reality.
It’s chaotic mixture of lines and smears. The artist claims he paints an inner world, but nobody understands what he wants to express. 2. A few
wags tied a brush to a donkey’s tail, dipped the brush in paint and stimulated the donkey to create with the least inspired half of his body. The resulting canvas was entered in a contest for moderns and won a third prize.
3. In cubist pictures the naturalistic image vanishes. 4. These scenes are
painted with tremendous efficiency and technical resources. 5. For the
third summer in succession the Gallery has put on an exhibition of “some
water-colours and drawings of Today.” This year selection is on view until
September 21. 6. This landscape is full of light and colour. 7. Though he
did some drawings for the press, he followed his profession as a landscape
painter. 8. As objects appeared clearly on the canvas his demands upon
himself became more exact. 9. He took the water-colours and looked at
them. He supposed they were crude, but like every other artist he was unable to see perfection in his works. 10. I’ve got to express things according
to my own temperament, I must give them the way I see them. 11. An artist is one who is always seeking without absolutely finding. 12. Not only
does the drawing of figures and scenes from life demand a knowledge of
handicraft of drawing but it demands also profound studies of literature.
13. Art demands persistent work in spite of everything and a continuous
observation.
Translate into English:
1.Сегодня я видел уникальную коллекцию древностей.
2. Превосходные полотна художника Бакшеева пользуются успехом.
3. Третьяковская галерея провела две интересные выставки в этом году. 4. В Эрмитаже можно увидеть настоящие сокровища искусства.
5. В музее Восточных культур мы видели редкие экземпляры художественного мастерства китайцев. 6. На Дрезденской выставке москвичи увидели шедевры итальянских мастеров эпохи Возрождения.
7. Мы вчера были на выставке советских графиков. 8. В Севастопольской картинной галерее много превосходных акварелей. 9. Поленов и
Левитан – непревзойденные мастера русской пейзажной живописи.
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10. Русская портретная живопись была представлена работами Серова и Репина. 11. Древняя фресковая живопись собора сейчас реставрируется. 12. Вы не знаете, какой художник-график иллюстрировал
эту книгу? 13. Эрмитаж недавно провел выставку гравюры голландских мастеров. 14. Эти карикатуры великолепны. 15. Взяв мольберт,
палитру, кисть и ящик с красками, он отправился в лес. Он любит писать с натуры. 16. Выставка китайского прикладного искусства была
организована в Пушкинском музее. 17. На этой выставке много прекрасных изделий из дерева, камня, слоновой кости. 18. Подлинное
искусство отражает жизнь.
4. The Life of an Artist
“Lust for Life” (Extracts) by I. Stone
Potato Eaters
…November and winter had come. It was time to be moving. There
was no use in his remaining in Nuenen any longer. He had painted everything there was to paint, learned everything there was to learn about peasant life.
…A great heaviness fell upon him. His work was all so fragmentary.
There were bits of every phase of peasant life in the Brabant but no one
piece of work that summed up the peasant, that caught the spirit of his hut
and this steaming potatoes. Where was his Angelus of the Brabantine peasant? And how could he leave before he had painted it? …
…He gathered up his easel, paints, canvas and brushes and trudged off
to the De Groot hut. No one was at home. He set to work on a pencil
sketch of the inside of the room. When the family returned from the fields
he tore up the paper…
…The De Groots sat down to the table in the same positions as they
had all their lives. Vincent wanted to make it clear how these people, eating their potatoes under the lamplight, had dug the earth with those hands
they put in the dish; he wanted it to speak of manual labour, and how they
had honestly earned their food.
His old habit of throwing himself violently at a canvas came in handy
now; he worked with tremendous speed and vitality…
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…The following morning he destroyed his canvas again. A feeling,
half of rage and half of impotence, seized him. He had only ten days left…
…Every night he went back to the De Groots’. He worked until they
were too sleepy to sit up any longer. Each night he tried new combinations
of colours, different values and proportions; and each day he saw that he
had missed, that his work was incomplete.
The last day of the month came. Vincent had worked himself into a
frenzy. He had gone without sleep and largely without food. He was living
on nervous energy. The more he failed, the higher his excitement rose. He
was waiting at the De Groots when they came in from the fields. His easel
was set up, his pigment mixed, his canvas stretched on the frame. This was
his very last chance. In the morning he was leaving the Brabant, for ever…
…By ten o’clock the De Groots were falling asleep and Vincent was
exhausted. He had done all he could with the canvas. He gathered his
things and bade them all good-bye. He trudged home through the night,
unaware that he was walking.
In the studio he set the canvas on a chair, lit his pipe and stood regarding his work. The whole thing was wrong. It missed. The spirit wasn’t
there. He had failed again. His two years of labour in the Brabant had been
wasted.
He smoked his pipe down to the hot dregs. He packed his bag. He gathered all his studies off the wall and from the bureau and placed them in a
large box. He threw himself on the divan.
He did not know how much time passes. He got up, ripped the canvas
off the frame, threw it into a corner and put on a new one. He mixed some
paints, sat down and began to work.
One starts with a hopeless struggle to follow nature and everything
goes wrong; one ends by calmly creating from one’s palette and nature
agrees with it and follows.
It was just as Pietersen had told him in Brussels; he had been too close
to his models. He had not been able to get a perspective…
…He painted the whole thing in the colour of a good, dusty, unpeeled
potato. There was the dirty linen table cloth, the smoky walls, the lamp
hanging down from the rough rafters, Stien serving her father with
steamed potatoes, the mother pouring the black coffee, the brother lifting a
cup to his lips and on all their faces the calm, patient acceptance of eternal
order of things.
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The sun rose and a bit of light peered into the storeroom window.
Vincent got up from his stool. He felt perfectly calm and peaceful. The
twelve days’ excitement was gone. It reeked of bacon, smoke and potato
steam. He had painted his Angelus. He has captured that which does not
pass in that which passes. The Brabant peasant would never die.
He washed the picture with the white of an egg. He carried his box of
drawings and paintings to the vicarage, left them with his mother and bade
her good-bye. He returned to his studio, wrote The Potato Eaters on his
canvas, put a few of his best studies with it and set out for Paris.
Part V. Museum Guide-Books
1. The Toledo Museum of Art
The Toledo Museum of Art has one of the finest collections in America but where do you start if you don’t have all day for a visit? Here’s a list
of some of the most important works of art in the Museum. When you
have a little more time, come back and pick out your own list of favourites. Or your spouse’s list. Or your kids’ list – as many times as you want.
After all, admission is free.
1. Apollo by Henri Matisse
Matisse’s Apollo welcomes you to the Museum and invites you to
discover Toledo’s art treasures in the graphic arts galleries on the lower
level and painting, sculpture, glass and decorative arts galleries on the upper level at the top of the stairs.
Throughout a career that spanned the first half of this century, Matise
mastered the use of bright colour and bold pattern. He used these elements
in a variety of media, including paintings, prints and stained glass. During
the last decade of his life he worked extensively with coloured paper cutouts – one such cut-out inspired this mural. Dancing across a large white
field, playful shapes in vivid colours enliven this ceramic mural.
2. 20th century Art
Woman in a Black Hat by Pablo Picasso
How can an artist show multiple views of an object at the same time?
Picasso addresses this riddle in Woman in a Black Hat, which resembles a
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woman’s head apparently shattered into fragments and reassembled on the
canvas. Hovering between representation and complete abstraction, Picasso’s paintings used neutral colours and broken forms to analyze threedimensional objects in a style called Cubism, which freed artists to reinvent reality rather than copy it.
3. Ancient Art
Domitian
Less than handsome, with a well-deserved reputation for cruelty and
decadence, the Roman emperor Domitian would have been a challenging
subject for any portrait sculptor. Certainly an emperor would expect a
likeness, but one that also highlighted this positive features.
But does a portrait have to be a likeness? Find the funerary relief of
the scribe Amenhotep in the Egyptian collection. Although he is identified
by the inscription, his features are very similar to those of many other
Egyptian officials of the same period. What might the portraits of Domitian and Amenhotep tell us about individualism in Roman and Egyptian
societies?
4. Glass
Punch Bowl with Cups – Libbey Glass Company
Designed as a display piece by the Libbey Glass Company, this
enormous punch bowl dazzled viewers at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair.
Deeply cut facets, resulting from countless hours of cutting and polishing,
work like prisms to refract surrounding light. Creating such a intricate pattern required a team of highly skilled craftsmen. Not surprisingly, brilliant
cut glass objects fit comfortably among the ornate furnishings of wealthy
and middle-class homes in the late 19th century.
In this gallery you can see many techniques for decorating the surface
of glass, including engraving and enameling.
5. African Art
Headdress by Areogun
Most African cultures use mask and headdresses for more than decoration. Foe example, the enormous seated female on this headdress symbolizes fertility. Numerous children surround her, reminding everyone who
sees them how important offspring are to the continuation of the Yoruba
people.
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Imagine a dancer moving in costume with this imposing object on his
head. What kind of impression would it make? Notice the variety of
moods projected by other masks here. Notice the traces of red, blue and
white paint which survive. Imagine the appearance of the headdress when
it was freshly painted.
6. Medieval Art
The Cloister
A cloister was a courtyard surrounded by covered walkways. It
formed the center of a medieval monastery and provided monks with a
quiet place for study and personal prayer. The columns forming this cloister actually come from three different monasteries in sounthwestern France.
They show how styles in architecture and sculpture changed from the Romanesque of the late 1100s, in which columns support rounded arches, to
the Gothic of the late 1300s when pointed arches and more realistic sculpture were produced.
Look for wonderful sculptural details, like the gaping jaws of Hell on
a capital from St.Pons (on the side opposite the entrances to the gallery).
Such details provided monks and visitors alike with images to inspire
learning and reflection.
7. The Renaissance
The Agony in the Garden by El Greco
What about this painting that makes it both familiar and strange? Here
we see Christ praying in the garden of Gethsemane, just before his betrayal
and arrest. Many artists of the Renaisance painted this subject but more
treated it quite like El Greco. An unknown light bleaches otherwise bright
colours, while elongated figures seem to hover in an ambiguous space.
Look at sculpture, decorative arts and paintings in this gallery and
others nearby. Notice how artistic styles changed during the Renaissance
period. Symmetry, balance and naturalism in the early 1400s gave way to
the long graceful figures, unusual colour combinations and ambiguous
space of later artists like El Greco.
8. European Decorative Arts
A Room from the Chäteau de Chenailles
Tucked within a suite of rooms, this richly decorated private chamber,
called a cabinet, served as an office, library and dressing room in a French
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chäteau. Such a room brought together a host of artists and craftsmen – including painters and woodcarvers as well as the architect – to combine
function and decoration.
9. 18-th Century European Art
Commode by J.Baumhauer
Delicate flowers and trailing vines cut from kingwood interlock with
contrasting tulipwood on this chest of drawers. Lavish curving and gilded
bronze attachments frame it. Elaborate pieces of furniture like this would
have involved a number of different craftsmen.
One way to study 18-th century furniture and decorative arts is to look
at how artists combined a variety of materials. Wood, metal, paint, textiles,
marble and ceramics were frequently combined in a single work of art.
Such collaborations by several craftsmen required the supervision of a single designer.
10. The Crowning of Saint Catherine by Peter Paul Rubens
Rubens’s combination of rich colours, vigorous brush strokes and exuberant movement produce a dynamic and inspiring composition. During
the 17th century, the Catholic Church commissioned powerful works like
The Crowning of Saint Catherine in an attempt to counter the Protestant
Reformation. Because martyred saints like Catherine, Apollonia and Margaret of Antinoch symbolized passionate Christian belief and loyalty, their
images appeared frequently in paintings of the time.
11. American Art
The Architect’s Dream by Tomas Cole
Tomas Cole created this architectural fantasy for this patron I.Town, a
prominent New Haven architect and owner of a vast art and architecture
library. Although Town liked Cole’s “mixture of different ages and styles
in the same imaginary picture”, he rejected the painting. It disappointed
him that America’s foremost landscape painter had not let the landscape
dominate here. Perhaps he expected a work more like the landscapes in
this gallery, many of which were influenced by Cole’s paintings.
Look at other landscape paintings in this gallery to see how artists can
create an illusion of great distance in painting. Notice where the horizon
line is – the scale of people and animals – the colors used in different areas
of the landscape.
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12. India and Southeast Asia
Narasimha
The art of India is filled with wonderfully expressive images of Hindu
gods and goddesses. Narasimha was an incarnation of the god Vishnu and
came into being to defeat the evil demon Hiranyakasipu. To Western
viewers this figure of the god with a lion’s head, sharp teeth and four arms
might seem intimidating. Narasimha is a saviour god, however, and at the
temple where it was placed this statue would have evoked awe and reverence.
In the same gallery as this statue are sculptures of Parvati and a Bodhisattva. How do the three works communicate qualities like power,
strength and grace?
13. 19-th Century European Art
Napoleon on the Battlefield of Eylau, by A.Jean Gros
In a bleak wintry landscape, Napoleon visits wounded soldiers after a
devastating battle against his Russian and Prussian enemies. When this
event became the subject of a government painting competition, Gros produced this preliminary painting of the scene. He was awarded first prize
and received a commission to paint a final and much larger version.
Crowding the foreground, Russian and French dying and wounded soldiers
press against heaped-up corpses. Wearing expressions of pain, fear and
awe, they beg for help and mercy as French military doctors tend them.
Gros’s extraordinary realism was particularly effective in his final canvas,
nearly 25 feet wide, now hanging in the Louvre.
What did Napoleon hope his subjects would think about him after
viewing this painting? Can you find other examples of works that convey a
social or political message?
14. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism
Wheat Fields with Reaper by Vincent Van Gogh
Themes of peasants working in the fields always interested Van Gogh,
as did the Impressionist technique applying paint in short strokes of pure
colour. But in this work, painted in the village of Auvers, Van Gogh moves
away from Impressionism. He applies larger and broader brush strokes in
rich variety of patterns, lays on much heavier paint and creates more freely
distorted forms. Although he only sold one painting in his lifetime, his bold
personal vision influenced artists throughout the 20th century.
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2. The Cleveland Museum of Art
Great art has the power to transport you to distant times and faraway
places. At the Cleveland Museum of Art, you and your family can travel
the world in a day. From Egyptian statues to Impressionist masterpieces,
Cleveland is home to one of the greatest art collections anywhere. You
will discover a surprise around every corner and enjoy free admission
every day.
Imagine it.
Seventy galleries filled with breathtaking art. With the world at your
feet, the course you set is your own. Start with something familiar, like a
favourite painting or sculpture. Then, begin your exploration of the museum’s comprehensive collection of art to discover something completely
different.
Witness the stories of Western civilization unfold before your eyes.
Magnificent objects tell of the glories of Medieval and Baroque Europe.
The splendors of the Renaissance come to life in paintings and sculptures
by revered masters. The light of Impressionism shimmers in masterpieces
by Renoir, Degas, van Gogh and Monet.
Next, venture to faraway lands, where the rich diversity of cultures
will astound you. See the best collection of Maya art in America, including
rare artifacts from this legendary early Central American civilization. Encounter some of the finest Asian art in the Western Hemisphere, from serene landscapes to sacred statues. Journey from ancient Egypt to modern
Africa and countless destinations in between.
There are still more discoveries ahead. Stand at the foot of Marie Antoinette’s bed. Watch your child’s face fill with wonder as you enter the
spectacular Medieval Armor Court. Come face-to-face with African masks
used to bring health and happiness. Take a personal tour of the treasures of
royal families, or examine cloth spun from gold thread. It’s all here in
Cleveland for an experience you and your family will never forget.
Established in 1913 “for the benefit of all people forever”, the Cleveland Museum of Art opened the doors to its elegant classical building in
1916. To this day it serves its mission as one of the world’s most distinguished comprehensive art museum and as one of Ohio’s principal civic
and cultural attractions.
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Over the past 80 years, the museum’s facilities have expanded to include an extensive art library, a large auditorium, lecture and recital halls,
classrooms, a museum store and a café.
The museum’s setting is the Fine Arts Garden, a 15-acre public park
dedicated in 1928 by the world-renowned Olmsted Brothers. The museum
and Fine Arts Garden are the visual centerpiece of Cleveland’s University
Circle, a highly concentrated campus of museums, performing arts facilities and educational institutions.
Several major exhibitions and numerous smaller shows are scheduled
at the Cleveland Museum of Art every year. Immense yourself in the work
of a single artist or a celebrated period in history. Recent exhibitions have
explored topics ranging from art of the pharaohs to Fabergé to masterpieces by Matisse and Picasso.
A wide selection of programs is available to help you better appreciate
the museum’s superb permanent collections. Families learn together about
art and art-making in art classes and workshops, gallery tours, lectures and
more .Classical and jazz concerts film series and popular annual events
like the Chalk Festival and Summer Evenings keep the Cleveland Museum
of Art alive with activity all year round.
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Table of Contents
Part I. English-Russian Glossary ............................................................................... 3
The Subjects of Russian Icons ................................................................................ 14
Most Prominent Russian Personalities in the Millenium ........................................ 15
Abbreviations, Proper Names: Personal and Place names,
Schools and Trends ......................................................................................... 16
Part II. TEXTS Ancient Russian Art ...................................................................... 17
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 17
2. Icons .................................................................................................................... 17
3. Pokrova na Nerli.................................................................................................. 21
4. The Monastery of the Holy Trinity ..................................................................... 21
5. Icon paintings ...................................................................................................... 23
6. Feasts of the Church ............................................................................................ 28
Part III. Applied Art ................................................................................................. 37
1. Glossary ............................................................................................................... 37
2. Microhard Windows: the Village Nalichnik ....................................................... 40
Part IV. Painting........................................................................................................ 42
1.The Itinerants ........................................................................................................ 42
2. Ivan Nikolayevich Kramskoy.............................................................................. 44
3. Collectors............................................................................................................. 45
4. The Life of an Artist ............................................................................................ 51
Part V. Museum Guide-Books ................................................................................. 53
1. The Toledo Museum of Art ................................................................................. 53
2. The Cleveland Museum of Art ............................................................................ 58
Учебное издание
Учебный англо-русский словарь по древнерусскому, прикладному
и изобразительному искусству (с приложением текстов для перевода)
Составители: Шульдешова Татьяна Васильевна
Купцова Лариса Владимировна
Редактор, корректор А.А. Антонова
Компьютерная верстка И.Н. Ивановой
Подписано в печать 17.10.2005 г. Формат 80×64/16. Бумага тип.
Усл. печ. л. 3,49. Уч.-изд. л. 2,6. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ
.
Оригинал-макет подготовлен редакционно-издательским отделом ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150 000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
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Учебный англо-русский словарь
по древнерусскому, прикладному
и изобразительному искусству
(с приложением текстов для перевода)
62
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