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302.Неличные формы глагола (английский язык)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Неличные формы глагола
(английский язык)
Методические указания
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
для студентов всех специальностей, изучающих английский язык
Ярославль 2006
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УДК 811.133.1–11
ББК Ш 143.21–2я73
Н 49
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2006 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков ЯрГУ им. П.Г. Демидова
Составитель ассистент Е.В. Матвеева
Н 49
Неличные формы глагола (английский язык) : метод. указания / Сост. Е.В. Матвеева ; Яросл. гос. ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ,
2006. – 47 с.
Цель методических указаний – обучение студентов 1-го и 2-го
курсов использованию грамматических конструкций с неличными
формами глагола (инфинитив, герундий, причастие) в устной и
письменной речи на английском языке.
Методические указания составлены в соответствии с требованиями действующей программы по английскому языку для неязыковых специальностей высших учебных заведений.
Они состоят из трех разделов, каждый из которых посвящен
одной из неличных форм глагола (инфинитив, причастие, герундий).
Каждый раздел включает в себя грамматические правила употребления и тренировочные упражнения, а также подстановочные упражнения на тренировку моделей с использованием изучаемых
форм.
Предназначено для студентов всех специальностей, изучающих
английский язык (блок ГСЭ), очной формы обучения.
УДК 811.133.1–11
ББК Ш 143.21–2я73
© Ярославский государственный университет, 2006
© Е.В. Матвеева, 2006
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Неличные формы глагола инфинитив (the Infinitive), герундий
(the Gerund), причастие (the Participle) не имеют лица, числа или
залога и поэтому не могут быть использованы в качестве сказуемого в предложении. В русском языке, так же как и в английском,
существуют неличные формы глагола (причастие, деепричастие,
инфинитив), однако они лишь частично совпадают по своим признакам и употреблению в предложении с соответствующими формами в английском языке.
The Infinitive
Инфинитив (the Infinitive) – это неопределенная форма глагола,
которая только называет действие, не указывая ни лица, ни числа.
Инфинитив отвечает на вопросы: что делать? что сделать?
Обычно инфинитив употребляется с частицей to, однако из этого
правила есть исключения. Инфинитив употребляется без частицы
to в следующих случаях:
1) После модальных глаголов must, can (could), may (might),
need:
Examples: You must do it at once.
He can speak German.
2) После глаголов to make - заставлять, to let – разрешать.
Example: He made me read this book.
3) В обороте «объектный падеж с инфинитивом» (Complex Object) после глаголов to see – видеть, to watch – наблюдать, to hear
– слышать, to feel – чувствовать и некоторых других.
Examples: I’ve never seen you look so well.
She saw him leave the room.
She heard him enter the room.
NB: После таких глаголов в конструкции с глаголом в страдательном залоге инфинитив используется с частицей to.
Examples: He was heard to mention your name.
The child was made to obey.
4) После выражений had better – лучше бы, would rather , would
sooner – предпочел бы, cannot but (не могу не…), а также после
таких слов, как than, rather than, but, except.
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Examples: You’d better not tell him about it.
He said he would rather stay at home.
I’ll do anything, but work with children.
5) В предложениях, начинающихся с why (not) (почему бы
вам….).
Example: Why not come and talk to her yourself?
Инфинитив имеет формы залога и времени.
Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
Active
To ask
To be asking
To have asked
To have been asking
Passive
To be asked
--------To have been asked
-----------
Инфинитив формы Indefinite and Continuous выражает действие, одновременное с действием, выраженным смысловым глаголом. Continuous Infinitive подчеркивает, что действие находится в
процессе. Perfect Infinitive указывает на то, что действие предшествует действию, выраженному смысловым глаголом. Обычно эта
форма инфинитива используется после фраз (to be + adjective): to be
glad, to be happy, to be sorry, to be surprised, it is clever/kind/silly of
you, etc.
Examples: He pretended to be sleeping.
I’m glad to have met him.
В предложении Инфинитив может выполнять следующие
функции:
1) Подлежащеe:
To skate is pleasant.
2) Именная часть сказуемогo:
Your duty was to inform me about it immediately.
3) Часть составного глагольного сказуемого):
She began to translate the article.
4)Дополнение:
I asked him to help me.
5) Определение:
He expressed the desire to come to a meeting.
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6) Обстоятельство:
I went to the station to meet my friend.
Инфинитив может использоваться в составе оборотов:
1) Оборот с for-to (for-to construction).
Examples: This is for you to decide.
It is necessary for the goods to be packed in boxes.
2) Оборот «объектный падеж с инфинитивом» (Complex
Object). Этот оборот употребляется сo следующими глаголами:
1. Mental activity: to know, to
think, to consider, to believe,
to find
(считать,
полагать),
to expect, to suppose, to imagine,
to feel, to trust, to mea, etc.
– I knew them to be right.
– We expect them to arrive soon.
– I find him (to be) a very clever
man.
2. Declaring: to pronounce, – The doctor
pronounced the
to declare, to report, to teach.
wound to be a slight one.
3. Wish and attention: to want, to – He intended me to go with him
wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to India.
to choose (=to want).
4. Feeling and emotion: to like, to – Tell me what you would like me
dislike, to hate.
to do.
5. Order and permission: to or- – He asked for the letter to be
der, to allow, to suffer (неохотно sent off at once.
разрешать, позволять скрепя
сердце), to ask (for), to command,
to encourage, to forbid, etc.
6. Sense perception: to hear, to – I felt the blood rush into my
see, to watch, to feel, to observe, cheeks.
etc.
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3) Оборот «именительный падеж с инфинитивом» (Complex
Subject) .
Example: Laser is known to be used in medicine. – Известно, что
лазер широко используется в медицине.
Complex Subject используется со следующими глаголами:
1. Sense perception: to see, to hear, • The car was seen to disappear in the
to notice, etc.
distance. – Видели, как машина
скрылась вдали.
• She was heard to laugh heartily. –
Слышно было, как она весело смеялась.
2. Mental
activity:
to
to consider, to believe, to
to suppose, to know, etc.
think, • He is considered to have been one of
expect, the most popular writers of his time. –
Считается, что он был одним из самых популярных писателей своего
времени.
3. To say, to report (сообщать), • She is said to be working at the facto order, to ask, to allow, to state (заяв- tory. – Говорят, что ….
лять), to announce (объявлять).
4. Word groups: to be likely • He is sure to be asked about it. – Его
(вероятно), to be unlikely (маловеро- наверняка об этом спросят.
ятно, вряд ли), to be certain/to be sure
(несомненно,
обязательно,
бесспорно, непременно).
5. Pairs of synonyms: to see/to appear • The first experiment proved to be a
(казаться, по-видимому), to prove success. – Первый опыт оказался
/to turn
out
(оказываться), удачным.
to happen/to chance (случаться).
6. Negative forms.
• He doesn’t seem to know the subject.
– Он, кажется, не знает этого предмета.
• He is not likely to come today. – Он,
вероятно, не придет сегодня.
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Exercises with Infinitive
and Infinitive Constructions
Speech Patterns.
Pattern 1 (read and translate thesentences).
He seemed to know all about influenza.
1. The children seem to like each other very much.
2. You don’t seem to understand me.
3. She seemed to know grammar much better than we thought.
4. They didn’t seem to have met before.
Exercises with Pattern 1.
Make up sentences using the following words and phrases:
Pattern 1: to be busy, to know a lot, to understand each other, to
hate (smb. or smth.), to love music.
Example: Ann seems to love children, I often see her playing with
little boys and girls in our yard.
Pattern 2 (read and translate the sentences).
It is always interesting for tourists to take a trip along the Thames
in a boat.
1. It was difficult for the students to make notes of his lecture.
2. It will be convenient for you to live in our hotel.
3. It would be useful for him to give up smoking.
4. It would have been natural for the sick man to fall asleep after
the injection.
Exercises with Pattern 2.
I. Replace the following groups of sentences by a sentence with a
“for-to” infinitive construction.
Model: He won’t catch the six fifteen. It’s impossible.
It is impossible for him to catch the six fifteen.
1. She explained everything. It was not difficult.
2. She managed to do it in time. But it was quite an effort.
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3. Don’t make mistakes. It’s important.
4. Her mother made the decision. It’s the usual thing in this family.
5. We ought to take a vacation now. It won’t be difficult.
6. You’ll speak English with her. It’ll do you good.
7. She is very late. It’s rather unusual.
8. You really ought to see a doctor. It will be best.
9. We’ll spend a couple of weeks in Petersburg next June. It will be
rather pleasant.
II. Completer the following sentences by adding “for’-phrases to
them.
Model: It would be better (you; to stay in bed)
It would be better for you to stay in bed.
1. It’s very important (children; to play outdoors).
2. It’ll be best (she; to talk to the manager).
3. It might be just possible (you; to make him see the doctor).
4. It would be easy (I; to pretend).
5. It’s very bad (boys; to smoke).
6. It’s not (you; to carry that heavy bag).
III. Add infinitives to complete “for”-phrases in the sentences below.
1. It’s getting cold. It’s bad for the children….
2. Have you brought something for me …in the train?
3. There simply nobody there for a young girl…
4. I can’t find a place for us…
5. Those are not the right people for you….
6. I have a few things for Tony…
7. She is out playing. The doctor doesn’t think it necessary for
her….
8. Under the circumstances I really think it best for you……
9. He stood there with a bunch of flowers waiting for her……
10. The manager was very cross and said he didn’t mean for the
secretary….
11. There is no reason for us……
12. There was no time for them…..
13. It’s too late for you…..
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Pattern 3 (read and translate the sentences).
Mother is hardly ever able to have a treat like that.
1. They are hardly ever able to go sightseeing.
2. One is hardly ever able to get tickets for this show.
3. We are hardly ever able to talk to each other alone.
4. He was hardly ever able to catch the 6.30 train home.
5. You’ll hardly be able to get to the British museum today before
the closing hours.
6. She will hardly be able to get over her fear of heavy traffic.
Exercise with Pattern 3.
Paraphrase the following, using the pattern.
1. It’s not often that our mother goes to the theater.
2. It is not often that our students can listen to native English
speech.
3. She very seldom can afford to get herself a new dress.
4. They cannot afford to spend their holidays at the seaside.
5. He can never refuse helping his friends.
Pattern 4 (read and translate the sentences).
That would make you think you were in Holland.
1. The teacher made Jack rub out all the ink marks in his textbook.
2. They couldn’t make William Tell bow before the tyrant’s cap.
3. The slightest noise would make him start.
4. He was made to repeat the rule. (Passive Construction)
Exercises with Pattern 4.
I. Change the following sentences so as to use the pattern:
1. The coach forced the athletes to postpone their training.
2. The strangers wanted Roger to drive up to the back yard, and he
obeyed.
3. They will never force Andrew to break his promises.
4. During the conversation she felt uneasy.
5. He will not break with his bad habits, no matter what you are
saying.
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II. Complete the following, using Pattern 4.
1. What events made you…?
2. Who could make your friend….?
3. Which of the experiments made the scientists…?
4. What kind of lesson makes you…?
5. What made Leo Tolstoy…? 6. The new coach made us…
III. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the
Pattern.
1. Что заставило вашего брата бросить бокс?
2. Двое воришек заставили Оливера лезть через окно.
3. Дориан думал, что ничто не заставит его нарушить обещание, данное Сибилле Вейн.
4. Игра актера заставляла зрителя не только чувствовать, но и
думать.
5. Что заставило Байрона сражаться на стороне греческого народа.
6. Что заставило Лэнни вернуться в Стилвелд?
7. Этот эпизод рассмешил мою сестру, а меня опечалил.
Pattern 5 (read and translate the sentences).
His clothes made him hard to recognize.
1. Lots of mistakes made his speech difficult to follow.
2. There was something in Bosinney’s appearance that made him
easy to recognize.
3. Her shallow-mindedness makes her dull to speak to.
4. They found it impossible to supply the factory with raw cotton.
5. We found it hard to make up our minds about choosing a place
for rest.
Exercises with Pattern 5.
I. Change the sentences, using the pattern.
1. Owing to the smallness of our boat it was easy to navigate in
such shallow waters.
2. It was impossible to move on because of the rainy season in the
tropics.
3. We could hardly recognize the place after the hurricane.
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4. It was easy to change our plans owing to his quick arrival.
5. I couldn’t recognize your sister because of her new hairdo.
II. Complete the sentences, using the pattern. Make use of the
words and phrases in brackets.
1. Her manners … (unpleasant to deal with).
2. Lack of rainfalls … (difficult to plough).
3. Likeness of their names …. (easy to remember).
4. I don’t find it …. (to bother him).
5. We find it … (to make use of tape-recording).
III. Translate the sentences into English. Make use of the patterns.
1. Множество специальных терминов делают его доклад трудным для понимания.
2. Заботы и тревоги сделали ее лицо трудноузнаваемым.
3. Яркие примеры делали его доклад легким для понимания.
4. Все находят, что с ним легко иметь дело.
5. Я нахожу, что с вашим старшим братом приятно поговорить.
Exercise 1.
State the form and function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Oh, I am sorry to have taken so much of your time.
2. It all sounds too good to be true.
3. We assembled to discuss and arrange our plans.
4. Now, the first thing to settle is what to take with us.
5. He was the first to raise the question.
6. A celebration like this was a chance not to be missed.
7. She seemed to be paying no attention to what was going round
her.
8. Good-bye, Mr.Jackson. Glad to have been of service to you.
9. There are a great many of things to be take into consideration.
10. She told them to take off their shoes so that their footsteps could
not be heard in the flat below.
11. She was the last to realize how dangerous it was.
12. I didn’t come here to be shouted at.
13. To meet the demands for goods, new shops have been opened in
the town.
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14. There was nothing to be done but to wait for the next express,
which was due at four.
Exercise 2.
A. Combine each of the following parts of the sentences into one
sentence using the infinitive.
Model : The sent me to University, they wanted me to study law.
They sent me to university to study law.
1. I am buying bread. I want to feed the bird.
2. He opened the door. He intended to go out.
3. He rushed to the burning house. Hew wanted to save the child.
4. He rang the bell. He wanted to tell us that the dinner was ready.
5. He sent his children to his sister’s house. He wanted them to
watch the television programme.
6. I am saving up. I want to buy a car.
B. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using “enough” with the infinitive.
Model: He is clever. He can answer the question.
He is clever enough to answer the question.
1. He wasn’t strong. He couldn’t support the man.
2. The sun isn’t very hot. We can’t lie in the sun.
3. The coffee isn’t strong. It won’t keep us awake.
4. I am quite old. I could be your father.
5. You aren’t very old. You can’t understand these things.
6. He was very curious. He opened the letter.
7. You are quite thin. You can wear this dress.
C. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one using “too”
with the infinitive.
Model: He is very ill. He can’t work today.
He is too ill to work today.
1. It is very hot. We can’t take part in a marathon.
2. I am rather old. I can’t wear this dress.
3. He was very nervous when delivering the report. He couldn’t
speak.
4. I was terrified by the sight of a fallen tree. I couldn’t move.
5. It is very cold. We can’t have a swim today.
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6. He was very snobbish. He wouldn’t talk to any of us.
7. It was very dark. We couldn’t see him.
8. It was rather cloudy. We couldn’t see the eclipse properly.
D. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using “so as/in order” with the infinitive.
Model: He took his boots. He didn’t want to make any noise.
He took off his boots so as / in order not to make any noise.
1. He was playing very softly. He didn’t want to disturb anyone.
2. I sent him out of the room. I wanted to discuss his progress with
the headmaster.
3. I am learning Greek. I wish to read Homer.
4. He sent his children to their aunt’s house. He wanted to have
some peace.
5. He read only for short periods each day. He didn’t want to strain
his eyes.
6. They got up very early. They wanted to get to the top of the hill
before sunrise.
7. We must keep our gloves on. We don’t want to be frostbitten.
Exercise 3.
Use the appropriate form of the infinitive.
1. He made me (to do) it all over again.
2. Would you like me (to go) now?
3. They won’t let us (to leave) the Customs till our luggage has
been examined.
4. He wouldn’t let my baby (to play) with his gold watch.
5. I’m dreadfully sorry (to bother) you in this stupid way.
6. He kept late hours last night, he may still (to sleep).
7. “She must (to be) very beautiful years ago”, Maren thought.
8. It’s a secret and nobody else must (to tell).
9. I hate (to bother) you, but the man is still waiting (to give) a definite answer.
10. He’s a talented engineer. He’s supposed (to work) at a new invention.
11. She seems (to work) at her course paper since spring and says
she has still a lot (to do).
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12. I’ve just seen him passing the entrance door, so he can’t (to
work) at the laboratory as you say.
13. No words can describe it: it must (to see).
14. The idea was too complicated (to express) in just one paragraph.
15. How fortunate he is (to travel) all over the world and (to see) so
much of it.
16. The girl pretended (to read) a book and not (to notice) me.
Exercise 4.
Put “to” where necessary before the infinitive.
1. The teacher made me …repeat it all over again.
2. You needn’t …ask for permission, I let you …take my books
whenever you like.
3. Will you help me …move the table?
4. He is expected …arrive in a few days.
5. You seem…know these places very well.
6. I heard the door…open and saw a shadow…move across the
floor.
7. He told me …try…do it once again.
8. I’d rather….walk a little before I go to bed.
9. There is nothing …do but …wait till somebody comes…let us
out.
10. You ought not…show your feelings.
11. I’ll have ….go there.
12. He was not able….explain anything.
13. He would sooner …die than ….betray his friends.
14. He was made…obey the rules.
15. There is hardly anything…do but…work out an alternative
plan.
Exercise 5.
Complete the sentences using the infinitives.
1. It gives me pleasure …..
2. My hobby is…..
3. The best way to master a foreign language is…..
4. In the kindergarten the children are taught ….
5. The doctor advised…..
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6. He was always the first……
7. The article is too difficult …..
8. We are too busy …..
9. This is the information…..
10. Benny has no friends…..
11. We are awfully sorry….
12. …. would be more useful.
13. The night was too dark….
14. She made an attempt….
Exercise 6.
Respond to the following questions or statements, using the
phrases from the list in brackets.
1. They say you read a lot.
2. Why didn’t you invite them?
3. Will you write a letter to her?
4. Why can’t you go with us?
5. I’m afraid you can’t come.
6. I see you haven’t bought any oranges.
7. You must take more care of it.
8. She says you are going to help her.
9. Why didn’t you dance with him?
10. You didn’t sign your test paper.
(Not so much as I used to; I simply didn’t want to; Yes, if you wish
me to; But I’ll try to; I’m not allowed to; I meant to but I forgot; Yes, I
ought to; I suppose I’ll have to; He didn’t ask me to; No, I forgot to)
Exerise 7.
Make up sentences, using the following phrases.
A lot to do, no time to lose, a passage to translate, a man to trust, a
rule to remember, the work to do, the distance to cover, a chance not to
be missed, a nice town to live in, an easy person to deal with, nobody to
speak to, nothing to trouble about, mistakes to be corrected, nobody to
rely on, nothing to be afraid of, a poem to learn, the first to break the silence, the last to hand in the test.
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Exercise 8.
A. Replace the phrases in italics by a Complex Object construction.
Model: Members of the Government itself acknowledge that many
of their predictions were over-optimistic.
Members of the Government itself acknowledge many of
their predictions to have been over-optimistic.
1. The Court declared that the book was obscene (непристойный).
2. Teachers have found that the overhead projector is invaluable as
a teaching aid.
3. The majority of critics thought that the film was highly original.
4. Many of the audience considered that the speaker had overstated
his case.
5. Evidence showed that the man’s alibi was a complete fabrication.
6. Everyone knew that he was the man of integrity.
7. Detectives investigating the robbery discovered that $ 20,000
worth of precious stones were missing.
B. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, using a noun + infinitive construction with the verbs suggested in brackets.
Model: “Make your way to the Waterloo Station, and wait under
the main clock”, the letter
said. (direct)
The letter directed me to make my way to Waterloo Station
and wait under the main
clock.
1. “You are to appear before the magistrate at 10 a.m, on Thursday,” the letter said. (summon)
2. “Do not bathe when the red flag is flying”, the notice said. (warn)
3. His wife left him a note saying “Don’t forget to lock the door”.
(remind)
4. “Passengers should check in at the airport thirty minutes before
take-off”, stated a notice at the air terminal. (instruct)
5. “I do hope you’ll have another drink before you go”, said my old
friend. (press)
6. “Pay attention to what you are doing” said the teacher. (tell)
7. “Would you like to join me for dinner?” I said to the new member. (invite)
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8. “I would take a more optimistic view of the matter, if I were
you”, my friend told me. (encourage).
Exercise 9.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the infinitive and infinitive constructions.
1. Мне не у кого попросить совета.
2. Это было неподходящее время для перерыва.
3. Мне дали текст, который я должен был перевести без словаря.
4. Не о чем спорить. Мы практически говорим об одном и том же.
5. Он достаточно умен, чтобы понять это. Мы уезжаем завтра
утром, а у нас еще куча дел.
6. Тут и понимать нечего. Все очень просто.
7. С ней приятно разговаривать.
8. Я рад, что узнал правду.
9. Этот вопрос слишком сложен, чтобы она могла решить его
одна.
10. Вам следовало бы предупредить меня заранее.
11. Вы помните, кто первым вошел в комнату?
12. Его заставили обратиться к врачу.
13. Оказывается, он ничего об этом не слышал.
14. Я никогда не видела, как танцует Джейн.
15. Родители всегда хотят, чтобы их дети выросли честными
людьми.
16. Они наверняка поженятся.
17. Он достаточно знает грамматику, чтобы не делать таких
ошибок.
18. Я оставила письма на столе, чтобы мистер Питерс подписал их.
19. В пещере было так темно, что мы не смогли найти выход.
20. Главное – это закончить эксперимент вовремя.
21. Кто последним выходил из дома?
22. Номер его телефона легко запомнить.
23. Ему не так просто угодить.
24. Задача слишком сложно, чтобы ее уже решили.
25. Дети любят, когда им рассказывают сказки.
26. Кто вторым пришел к финишу?
27. Мама не позволяет мне играть в футбол.
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28. Дай мне знать, когда все выясниться.
29. Они, вероятно, не приедут в мае.
30. Говорят, он был замечательным актером.
The Gerund
Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, имеющая признаки,
как глагола, так и существительного. Герундий обладает такими
признаками глагола как залог, относительное время, может иметь
дополнения и определяться наречиями. Как и существительному
герундию могут предшествовать предлоги, он может определяться
притяжательными местоимениями или существительными в притяжательном падеже, выполнять функции, присущие существительному.
Герундий имеет несколько форм:
Формы
Simple
Perfect
Active
Translating
Having translated
Passive
Being translated
Having been translated
В предложении герундий может выполнять следующие функции:
1) Подлежащее:
Reading is her favorite occupation.
2) Именная часть составного именного сказуемого:
Her greatest pleasure is reading.
3) Часть составного глагольного сказуемого:
He finished reading the book.
4) Прямое дополнение:
I remember reading it in a newspaper.
5) Предложное косвенное дополнение:
I am fond of reading.
6) Определение:
I had the pleasure of reading in the newspaper of your success.
7) Обстоятельство:
After reading the letter I put it into the drawer.
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Герундий часто используется в английском языке после предлогов со следующими глаголами и выражениями:
1) Глаголы с предлогами:
accuse of
object to
apologize for
persist in
approve of
blame smb for
forgive for
prevent from
result in
stop from
congratulate on
succeed in
count on
suspend smb of
depend on
thank for
hear of
think of
inform of
insist on
2) Существительные с предлогами:
art of
chance of
difficulty of
experience in
opportunity of
plan for
point in
preparation for
habit of
process of
harm of
purpose of
idea of
reason for
importance of
interest in
means of
mistake of
right of
sense of
skill in
way of
– They succeeded in finding a good flat.
– Can you stop the child from getting into
mischief?
– Thank you for coming.
– He was accused of having broken the
law.
– I insisted on his coming with us.
– Who is to blame for starting the fire.
– Are you thinking of buying a house
– I apologize for being so awkward.
– He has no intention of staying.
– The importance of being earnest
– There is no chance of winning.
– We had no opportunity of meeting interesting people there.
– I have no experience in building houses.
– There are different ways of solving this
problem.
– Do you have any reason for saying such
a thing?
3) Фразовые глаголы (phrasal verbs):
burst out
give up
leave off
keep on
Go on
put off, etc
– He gave up smoking two years ago.
– She kept on interrupting me while I
was speaking
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4) Такие глаголы, как:
Avoid
involve
Consider
justify
Delay
mind
Deny
miss
Escape
postpone
Excuse
Fancy
practise
recall
Finish
Forgive
Include
recollect
resent
risk
– Would you mind closing the door?
– He denied having seen this man before.
– You can hardly avoid meeting – They postponed sending an answer to
the request.
– My work involves filing and typing letters.
5) Словосочетания:
– There is no use crying over split milk.
– He didn't feel like going out.
– He couldn't help laughing.
– She was afraid of falling.
– He is slow at doing sums.
– He is interested in developing the
project.
– She'// be sorry for being rude.
be clever at
be sorry for
– He is proud of having won in the
be disappointed at be sure of
chess tournament.
be engaged in
be surprised at
be fond of
be worried about – He was surprised at having been asked
about it
be good/clever at be worth
be grateful for
be responsible for – It's no use worrying about it. There is
nothing you can do.
can't stand/bear
be no good
– Did you have any difficulty in getting a
feel like
be no use
visa?
have difficulty in
be afraid of
be angry for
be aware of
be bored with
be busy
be capable of
be guilty of
be interested in
be keen on
be pleased at
be proud of
be slow at
6) Предлоги:
After
Before
in spite of
on
– They ran five miles without stopping.
– Before going to bed she locked the
door.
Besides
instead of
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Герундий и Инфинитив
Есть группа глаголов, после которых может использоваться
как герундий, так и инфинитив с незначительным или без какоголибо изменения значения. К таким глаголам относятся: attempt,
begin, continue, dread, not bear, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, start.
Ex.: attempted to leave / leaving but the police stopped me.
После глаголов would like, would love and would prefer используется инфинитив.
Ex.: I’d like to come to your party, but I’ll be away then.
Некоторые глаголы могут использоваться как с герундием, так
и с инфинитивом, однако при этом они выражают разные значения:
1) forget and remember. С данными глаголами используется
герундий (forget/begin doing smth) для обозначения воспоминаний о
прошлом (действие произошло раньше, чем о нем вспомнили/забыли). Мы используем эти глаголы с инфинитивом (forget/remember to do smth) когда мы говорим о намерении что-то сделать (вспомнили раньше, чем действие произошло).
Ex.: I won’t forget meeting you (meet – forget).
Please remember to lock the door (remember – lock).
I remember locking the door (lock – remember);
2) go on. Мы используем этот глагол с герундием (to go on
doing smth.), когда мы продолжаем что-то делать. Мы используем
глагол с инфинитивом (to go on to do smth.), чтобы сказать, что переходим к другому действию.
Ex.: Diana went on working all night (did the same thing).
The director went on to say that the strike was over (did something
else);
3) mean. Мы используем глагол mean с герундием (mean doing
smth.), когда что-либо приводит к чему-либо. Мы используем глагол mean с инфинитивом (mean to do smth.), чтобы передать намерение.
Ex.: This means leaving at 6.00.
I meant to phone you but forgot;
4) regret. Мы используем regret doing smth. Когда мы говорим
о тoм, что произошло в прошлом. Мы используем regret to do smth.
Когда мы сообщаем плохие новости (формально).
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Ex.: Kate regretted not buying the house.
I regret to tell you that you have failed;
5) stop. Мы используем stop doing smth. Когда мы заканчиваем
какое-то действие, в то время как stop to do smth. обозначает что
указывается причина остановки.
Ex.: I stopped reading for the exam and went to bed. (gave up
reading)
I stopped to buy some coffee. (in order to buy).
Глаголы, после которых употребляется только инфинитив: afford, appear, choose, fail, happen, long, manage, offer, prepare, refuse,
tend, wait, want
Ex.: I can’t afford to go on a holiday abroad this year.
David asked me to give this to you.
I chose not to go to the University.
Garry failed to arrive on time.
После некоторых глаголов можно употреблять инфинитив или
придаточное с that: agree, arrange, decide, demand, desire, expect,
hope, intend, learn, plan, pretend, promise, seem, threaten, wish.
Ex.: Tom agreed to meet us at the station.
We arranged that we would leave at 5.30 pm.
John decided to take / that he would take the bus.
Gerundial Constructions
(Конструкции с Герундием)
В конструкциях с герундием именная часть может быть выражена разными способами:
1. Если обозначается живое существо, то именная часть может
быть выражена либо местоимением в притяжательном падеже, либо существительным в притяжательном падеже:
– Do you mind my smoking here?
– Our talk was interrupted by Richard’s coming back.
Однако, если именная часть состоит из более чем двух существительных, использование притяжательного падежа не обязательно.
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– I object to Mary and Jane going out on such a windy day.
2. Если именная часть обозначает неодушевленную вещь, она
выражается существительным в именительном падеже:
– I said something about my clock being slow.
– Her thoughts were interrupted by the door opening gently.
The Gerund and the Verbal Noun
Герундий легко спутать с отглагольным существительным. В
некоторых случаях невозможно определить, используется ли в
предложении герундий или отглагольное существительное. Однако
существует ряд признаков, по которым можно отличить две эти
формы:
Герундий:
1) Имеет формы времени и залога, то есть такие формы, как being done, having done, having been done, не могут быть отглагольными существительными;
2) может иметь прямое дополнение, таким образом, если после
формы -ing используется прямое дополнение, то это не может быть
ничем иным как герундием;
3) может определяться наречием;
4) может быть частью составного глагольного сказуемого, таким образом, если форма -ing используется после глаголов to begin,
to stop, to go on, to keep, to continue, то обычно это герундий.
Отглагольное существительное:
1) может иметь форму множественного числа:
– Memorize the proverbs and sayings;
2) может употребляться с артиклем:
– the banging of the door;
3) после отглагольного существительного может использоваться фраза с предлогом в функции определения:
– the clicking of the clock;
4) может определяться прилагательным, местоимениями.
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Exercises with Gerund
and Gerundial Constructions
Speech Patterns.
Pattern 1 (read and translate the sentences).
I rather like the idea of having a cup of tea.
1. I disliked the idea of staying at home on such a day.
2. The children liked the idea of going for a walk.
3. All of us liked the idea of spending the day off out of town.
4. We disliked the idea of staying in town the whole summer.
5. Why don’t you like the idea of having dinner at my place?
Exercises with Pattern 1.
Change the following sentences using the pattern:
1. The students thought it would be useful to work in the lab twice a
week.
2. We liked the suggestion that we should visit our sick friend.
3. The children found that it would be interesting to go on an excursion.
4. We thought that it wouldn’t be good to stay indoors all day long.
5. Wouldn’t you like to go to the theater tonight?
6. All of us thought it would be nice to arrange a party at our University.
7. The girl thought that it would be good to study a foreign language.
Pattern 2 (read and translate the sentences).
I can’t keep from thinking about you.
1. Can’t you keep from talking all the time?
2. Try and keep from gossiping (сплетничать) about other.
3. She couldn’t keep from scolding (бранить) the child though she
knew she shouldn’t do it.
4. We can’t keep from laughing when we look at him.
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Exercises with Pattern 2.
Make up the sentences using the pattern and the following words
and phrases.
To scold each other, to argue (about smth.), to meet (with), to write
a letter, to dream (of smth.)
Model: She can’t keep from crying when she reads sentimental poetry.
Pattern 3 (read and translate the sentences).
I’m not used to receiving presents.
1. She was not used to being treated unkindly.
2. It is too bad when a college student is not used to reading books.
3. The mother was used to doing all the work about the house
alone.
4. Our students are used to working with a tape-recorder.
Exercises with Pattern 3.
Change the sentences using the Pattern.
1. It’s something new for me to be treated in this way.
2. Being made fun of was something quite unusual for her.
3. I always work by such light, it is normal for me.
4. It was not the first time that the doctor was to treat this horrible
disease.
Pattern 4 (read and translate the sentences).
We must prevent him from leaving the party.
1. The cold weather prevented the Lowood girls from going for long
walks.
2. His rheumatism often prevented Salvatore from doing anything
at all.
3. You’d better keep yourself from taking extreme measures.
4. Various reasons kept Bill from joining the expedition.
5. Eliza tried to keep her little child from crying.
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Exercises with Pattern 4.
I. Change the following sentences using the Pattern.
1. The explorers couldn’t reach the southern boundaries of the
desert because of the aweful heat and lack of fresh water.
2. The day was foggy; the fishermen couldn’t see the coat-line.
3. It’s wet outdoors. Put on my raincoat, it’ll save you for a while.
4. He couldn’t take part in the conference because he was ill.
5. She could not make a good speech because of her poor knowledge of English.
II. Complete the following sentences, using the pattern. Make use of
the words and phrases in brackets.
1. Various reasons… (to do optional subjects).
2. Her illness … (to qualify for this post).
3. My neighbor’s silly remarks … (to enjoy the performance).
4. His advice … (to get into trouble).
5. The windy weather… (to take us for a drive).
III. Translate the following sentences into English. Use the
patterns.
1. Примите лекарство, оно предохранит вас от простуды.
2. Что-то помешало Тому сказать Бекки, что там, в пещере он
видел индейца Джо.
3. Что помешало вам воспользоваться этой возможностью.
4. Она рассказывала смешные истории, чтобы мальчик не плакал.
5. Фрэнк понимал, что только быстрые действия спасут его от
разорения.
Pattern 5 (read and translate the sentences).
You can’t act without feeling.
1. Jolyon started for the Club without having made up his mind.
2. Frank now felt, without knowing why, that the offer was probably
good.
3. Rose sat there for a long time without unfastening her coat.
4. You can’t teach one how to use speech patterns without giving a
good supply of various examples.
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5. They can’t have good crops without cultivating soil.
Exercises with Pattern 5.
I. Change the following sentences using the Pattern.
1. Amy didn’t say a word and left the room.
2. You can hardly realize what an ocean-going ship is if you haven’t been inside.
3. They will not come to see us if they are not invited.
4. He could listen to long verses in Latin, though he did not understand a word.
5. He would mark the rhythm with his right foot, though he never
realized what he was doing.
II. Complete the following sentences, using the pattern. Make use of
the words and phrases in brackets.
1. You can’t leave Great Britain … (to see the Lake District).
2. She will not take any medicine … (to consult a doctor).
3. You shouldn’t leave … (to have a snack).
4. She can’t speak about the news… (to get excited).
5. You won’t be able to pass your exam… (to work hard).
III. Translate the following sentences into English. Use the patterns.
1. Молли уехала из города, никому не сказав о своих подозрениях.
2. Герт спросил, какое право имеет Лэнни строить планы, не
советуясь с ним.
3. Не глядя на него, Герт сказал: «Можешь идти».
4. Не говоря ни слова, Лэнни вышел.
Exercise 1.
Point out the Gerund and comment on its functions in the sentences.
1. Looking after children requires patience.
2. It is no use discussing it now, we must act.
3. It was no good taking the little darling up to town, she got only
tired.
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4. Seeing is believing.
5. What he loves best in the world is playing football.
6. The main thing to do in this situation is getting away as soon as
possible.
7. The car began moving away down the road.
8. Every second he kept glancing at the clock.
9. The kind woman started crying before the boy had finished his
sad story.
10. However hard he tried he could not stop thinking about it.
11. He enjoyed teaching and knew that he did it well.
12. Do you mind seeing these photos again?
13. I dislike reminding you continually of the things you ought to
have done.
14. I can't afford buying this expensive hat.
15. Oh, how I dislike being interrupted!
16. He was busy getting ready for his journey.
17. Nobody thought of anything but spending money, and having
what they called "a good time."
18. But instead of soothing Shelton these words had just the opposite effect.
19. The idea of settling down in that little town filled her with nothing but regret.
20. He was in the habit of sleeping after dinner in his favourite
armchair.
21. She knew that there was a danger of falling ill.
22. I walked to my place as fast as I could without breaking into a
run.
23. Before speaking he carefully thought out what he was going to
say.
24. By studying early in the morning he saved a good deal of time.
25. On reading her letter he had once more a feeling of disappointment.
Exercise 2.
Use the appropriate form of the Gerund of the verbs in brackets.
1. (to speak) without (to think) is (to shoot) without aim.
2. Do you know what is peculiar about the English rule of (to
drive)?
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3. I'm glad to say that the lady didn't keep us (to wait).
4. I remember (to take) to Paris when I was a very small child.
5. I strongly suspect Gerald of (to know) all about it beforehand,
though he swears he didn't.
6. Excuse me for not (to write) more at the moment.
7. She never lost the power of (to form) quick decisions.
8. He had an air of (to be) master of his fate, which was his chief attraction.
9. She denied (to see) me at the concert though I'm sure I saw her in
the stalls.
10. I want to thank her for (to look) after the children while I was
out.
11. He passed to the front door and out without (to see) us.
12. I enjoy (to read) poetry.
13. I don't mind (to stay) here for a little while.
14. Are you going to keep me (to wait) all day?
15. They reproached us for (not to come) to the party; they were
waiting for us the whole evening.
16. He suspected her of (to give) the police information about him
while the workers were on strike.
17. I sat on the doorstep thinking over my chances of (to escape)
from home.
18. There is very little hope of the work (to do) in time.
19. The coat showed evident signs of (to wear) on the preceding
night.
20. (to avoid) the use of the perfect gerund is quite common if there
is no fear of (to misunderstand).
Exercise 3.
Use the appropriate form of the Gerund and insert prepositions
where necessary:
1. Newton, the famous scientist, was sometimes engaged (to work
out) difficult problems.
2. "There's no question (to forgive) you," he said quickly.
3. Of course, I should insist (to pay) for my work.
4. I wonder if there's any use (to try) to improve him.
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5. We began to speak only when we were out (to hear) of the old
man.
6. I insist (to go) there at once.
7. We all suspected him (to learn) it before and (to try) to conceal it
from us.
8. They were all busy (to unpack) the books and (to put) them on
the shelves.
9. (to hear) the news she ran over to the telephone to inform Gerald
at once.
10. I spent the rest of the time in the hall of the Station Hotel (to
write) letters.
11. You can help me (to give) a piece of good advice, you're old
enough to know it better.
12. (to discuss) the plan ourselves we decided to consult Mike's
eldest brother who in our eyes was an expert.
13. He hesitated a little (to open) the door. He had a feeling that
there was somebody waiting for him inside.
14. (to hear) the sound of the door opened downstairs he tiptoed into the corridor and bent over the banister.
15. Excuse me (to come) late.
16. Now I can boast (to see) Rome and London, Paris and Athens.
17. How did you like the English rule (to drive) on the left side of
the road instead of the right?
18. I hate (to be) ill and (to stay) in bed.
19. We all kissed Mother (to go) to bed.
20. I'm not used (to receive) Christmas presents.
21. My wife and 1 look forward (to see) you and Rosa.
22. The children had to help (to sweep) and (to clean) the rooms
and (to wash up) after meals.
23. You can improve your pronunciation (to read) aloud.
24. I went out for a while (to give) the boy the prescribed capsules.
25. You can't act (to feel).
26. I dislike the idea (to spend) a holiday with hundreds of other
people.
27. (to ask) about it he said he knew nothing.
28. The silence was broken by the sound of a door (to lock).
29. She walked a little (to leave) her office.
30. I remember (to go) to the British Museum one day.
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Exercise 4.
Complete the following, using the Gerund:
1. We couldn't even dream of ... .
2. Everybody wished he stopped ... .
3. He is sure to boast of ….
4. You can't act without ... .
5. Are English people fond of...?
6. I hardly remember ... .
7. We don't often have the chance of ... .
8. My children are not used to ... .
9. Is there any use in ... ?
10. He didn't care for ... .
11. We all look forward to ... .
12. Everybody disliked the idea of....
13. He has given up ... .
14. What kept you from ... ?
15. Is it worth while ... ?
16. The boy kept on ...
17. What prevented her from ...?
18. The audience enjoyed ... .
19. What do you mean by ... ?
Exercise 5.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English, using the Gerund.
1. Нелли предложила пойти в Исторический музей.
2. Эту проблему стоит обсудить.
3. Я припоминаю, что видела эту же фотографию Британского
музея в другом журнале.
4. Хотя мы были в Лондоне всего три дня, я получила большое
удовольствие от осмотра достопримечательностей этого огромного
города.
5. Она боится одна оставаться с детьми. Она не знает, что с
ними делать, как их забавлять.
6. Чтение книг по истории Англии, и в частности Лондона, –
приятное и полезное занятие для будущего учителя английского
языка.
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7. Он избегает встречаться со мной после нашей ссоры.
8. Они не могли не опоздать. Их поезд задержался из-за тумана.
9. Доктор настаивает на том, чтобы всем детям были сделаны
прививки.
10. Твое пальто нужно почистить щеткой.
11. Я помню, что видела письмо на столе.
12. Извините, что я вмешиваюсь, но у меня очень важная новость для вас.
13. Я не люблю занимать деньги. Это довольно неприятно.
14. Она предпочитает все делать сама, без чьей-либо помощи.
15. Он сказал это громко, не глядя ни на кого, и было неясно, к
кому он обращается.
16. Нет никакого другого способа попасть туда до захода солнца.
17. Вы можете улучшить произношение, слушая магнитофонные записи, а также чтением вслух.
18. При виде жареной индейки на подносе он сказал, что это
наилучшее угощение, какое только можно себе представить.
19. После того как он просмотрел все фотографии, Джон долго
улыбался.
20. Я не люблю провожать. Я предпочитаю, чтобы провожали
меня.
21. То, что он пришел, меняет дело.
22. Я помню, что положила деньги в сумку.
23. Я не могу позволить себе покупать такие дорогие вещи.
24. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы он зашел к вам сегодня?
25. Она продолжала говорить, не обращая внимания на наши
слова.
26. Он был сердит на нас за то, что мы его побеспокоили.
27. Мысль о том, чтобы сказать ей все открыто, пугала его.
28. Мы хотели проводить ее, но она настояла на том, что пойдет одна.
29. Вместо того чтобы обдумать вопрос как следует, она сразу
отказалась.
30. Что помешало вам поехать вместе с нами?
31. Услышав отдаленный крик, он остановился и прислушался.
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32. Она никогда не уставала говорить о своих детях. Она так
гордилась ими!
Exercise 6.
Complete the sentences with the gerund or the infinitive of the
verbs in brackets. , using the correct form of any pronouns that are
included.
1. If the Government’s wages policy is to succeed, they must try
(keep) prices in check.
2. The shareholders all think they know what should be done, but
the board still needs (convince).
3. Let’s invite him. I’m sure he would love (come).
4. Someone in the office had made a mistake, and the firm regretted
(cause) the customer inconvenience.
5. We plan (take) our holidays abroad this year.
6. The teacher doesn’t permit (smoke) during the lessons.
7. I vaguely remember (he, say) something like that.
8. Come over here! I’d like (you, see) this.
9. I always try (be) punctual, but I don’t always succeed.
10. It’s a tricky problem. I recommend (you, consult) an expert.
11. He’d prefer (you, go) to his place, if that’s convenient.
12. For the second time this year, Miss Black will attempt (swim)
across the Channel in less than five hours.
13. A child should start (learn) a language at a primary school.
14. The film was so terrifying that she could hardly bear (watch) it.
15. The new member of the committee did not venture (speak) at
his first meeting.
16. They began (drive) at six in the morning, and were still on the
road ten hours later.
17. He remembered (pass) on most of the information, but omitted
(mention) one or two of the most important facts.
18. The reporters asked many questions which the Prime Minister
declined (answer).
Exercise 7.
Point out the sentences with gerunds and with the verbal nouns.
1. You should think before speaking.
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2. After finding the new word in the dictionary, I wrote it down and
went on reading.
3. He spent much time on the copying of his literature lectures.
4. What do you mean by saying that?
5. The students found the reading of English newspapers rather difficult at first.
6. Instead of going home after school, the girls went for a walk.
7. Chalk is used for writing on the blackboard.
8. We sat by the river-side listening to the running of the water.
9. The cleaning of the room was done by the girls.
10. Working in the garden is very good for the health of people.
11. I stopped knocking on the door and started waiting for my father to come.
12. She praised herself for having come.
13. The child stopped crying and quieted down to hard thinking.
14. She kept repeating the bright sayings of her children to bored
friends and relations.
15. I could just see a faint glimmering of light at the distance.
16. On being asked what her plans were she gave an evasive answer.
The Participle
Существуют два причастия: Participle I и Participle II. Отличаются они как формами, так и употреблением и функциями в предложениях.
Indefinite Participle
(Participle I)
Perfect Participle
Participle II
Active
Asking
Passive
Being asked
Having asked
--------------
Having been asked
Asked
Participle I показывает действие, которое происходило одновременно со смысловым глаголом в настоящем, прошлом или будущем. Perfect Participle выражает действие, которое произошло
раньше того, которое выражено смысловым глаголом.
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Note: Однако часто с глаголами чувственного восприятия и
движения, такими как to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to seize, to
look, to turn, etc., вместо Perfect Participle используется Indefinite
Participle (Participle I).
Examples: Do you see the child waving the flag? (одновременное
действие)
That day we stayed at home watching TV. (одновременное действие)
Having explained everything, I want to tell you how sorry I am.
(действие, выраженное причастием произошло раньше)
Having finished the letter, he went to the post-office. (предшествование)
Note: Hearing footsteps he rose and went to open the door.
Active and Passive: When writing letters, he doesn’t like to be disturbed. (Active)
Being written in pencil, the letter was difficult to read. (Passive)
Having written the letter, he went to the post-office. (Active)
Having been written long ago, the manuscript was difficult to
read. (Passive).
В предложении Participle I и Participle II могут выполнять следующие функции:
Participle I
1. Определение • The newcomer joined the
(кроме перфект- playing children.
ных форм Parti- • The question being consiciple I)
dered is of great interest.
Participle II
• The letter written
yesterday is very important.
• Surrounded
by
strangers, the boy felt
ill at ease.
2. Часть слож- • I heard somebody talking
ного дополне- in the next room.
ния.
• I saw the fence being
painted.
• I heard the plan discussed.
• He wants the job
done today.
3. Часть
зуемого.
• The
done.
ска-
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4. Обстоятель- а) времени (иногда с союства.
зами while, when):
• (When, while) translating
the text, I came across many
new words.
• Having discussed all the
issues the delegates went
home.
a) времени (иногда
уступки, условия). В
предложениях перед
причастием
может
присутствовать или
отсутствовать предлог:
• When offered the
job, he refused it.
• Asked whether he
b) причины:
• Being very busy, he had to would attend the conference, he said nothrefuse your invitation.
• Not understanding Ger- ing.
man, I couldn’t answer the
question.
с) образа действия:
• She looked at me smiling
all the time.
Причастия могут использоваться в конструкциях:
1) Have+ object + past participle.
Эта конструкция употребляется, когда мы хотим сказать, что
мы договорились, что кто-то сделает что-то за нас. В переводе эта
конструкция будет иметь значение нанять, пригласить кого-либо
сделать что-либо.
Ex.: I have my coat cleaned every morning.
We had the roof repaired yesterday.
She has just had her car cleaned.
Эта конструкция может использоваться для того, чтобы сказать, что с кем-то что-то произошло (обычно что-то неприятное).
Ex.: He had his money stolen. (У него украли деньги).
George had his nose broken in a fight. (Джорджу разбили
нос в драке.)
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2) Абсолютный причастный оборот.
В данной конструкции причастие имеет свое подлежащее, отличное от подлежащего всего предложения.
Ex.: The letter having been written, he went out to post it. (Письмо было написано, и он пошел на почту отправить его.)
The room being dark, I couldn’t see him. (Так как в комнате
было темно, я не видел его.)
3) Оборот «объектный падеж с причастием» (Complex
Object)
Конструкция употребляется после глаголов, выражающих чувственное восприятие: to see, to watch, to observe, to notice, to hear, to
feel. Между данной конструкцией и похожим оборотом с инфинитивом существует смысловая разница. Причастие выражает длительный характер действия, то есть действие в процессе его совершения. А инфинитив в большинстве случаев выражает законченное
действие. Таким образом, оборот с причастием переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением с глаголом несовершенного
вида, а оборот с инфинитивом – придаточным предложением с глаголом совершенного вида.
Ex.: We watched him slowly approaching the gate. (Participle) –
мы наблюдали, как он медленно подходил к калитке.
We saw him approach the gate and enter the garden. (Infinitive) –
Мы видели, как он подошел к калитке и вышел в сад.
Exercises with Participle
and Participial Constructions
Speech Patterns.
Pattern 1. (read and translate the sentences).
She saw his face peering through the mask.
1. Dave frowned as he saw Dan leaving.
2. Lanny saw Gret Williams sitting at the table quiet and motionless.
3. Jim and his mother heard the blind man entering the room.
4. It was easy to imagine Ida performing as a dancer.
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Exercises with Pattern 1.
I. Change the sentences, using the pattern.
1. Sabina came into the hall; she saw that he was sitting at the telephone.
2. We watched how the students were taking the exam.
3. Outside he found that Joe was standing on the platform.
4. She watched how he was waving farewell to his friends.
5. I saw that Bob was playing centre forward.
II. Think of a situation. Suggest a beginning matching the end. Use
the pattern.
1. ..... serving another meal.
2. ..... making a pause in his story.
3. ..... rubbing his hands with delight.
4. ..... shrugging his shoulders.
5. ..... passing the bread-plate to the man next to him.
III. Respond to the following statements and questions, using the
pattern.
1. Have you ever watched the sunrise?
2. Did you have a chance to hear how your friend was performing
at the concerts?
3. Can you imagine that you are teaching a class with small children?
4. Do you hear any noise? It’s coming from above, isn’t it?
5. What kind of people can you see on the platform and what are
they doing?
IV. Translate the sentences into English. Use the pattern.
1. Эндрю стоял и наблюдал, как оперирует Чарльз.
2. Том и Беки увидели, как через маленькое отверстие в пещере
мерцает свет. (glitter)
3. Все, кто стоял на палубе, наблюдали, как садится солнце.
4. Я не могу себе представить, что он занимается спортом.
5. Мы видели, как вы здоровались с ним за руку.
6. Бен был страшно удивлен, когда он услышал, что Бертон
предлагает ему работу.
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Pattern 2. (read and translate the sentences).
She has just had her car cleaned.
1. How often do you have your car serviced?
2. I shall have the letter posted immediately.
3. I must have my luggage sent to the station.
4. I am going to have my hair cut.
5. I want the walls of my flat painted.
Exercises with Pattern 2.
I. Complete the situation. Use the pattern.
1. Sue is at the hairdresser’s at the moment. She …..
2. Ann’s watch has been broken; she took it to a jeweller’s. Now it
is working, Ann …..
3. What are the workmen doing in your garden? Oh, I…..
4. Can I see the holiday photographs you took? I'm afraid not, I...
II. Translate the sentences into English using the pattern.
1. Я делаю прическу в парикмахерской каждую пятницу.
2. Здесь вам почистят пальто за одни сутки.
3. Вам надо отгладить и почистить костюм.
4. Мне надо сфотографироваться.
5. Здесь можно отдать в чистку плащ?
6. Вам не починят кран до понедельника.
7. Где вам шили это платье?
8. У него украли документы в прошлом году.
9. Ей выкрасили кухню в светло-зеленый цвет.
10. Она сшила себе новое пальто.
11. Мне нужно сделать прическу.
Exercise 1.
Translate the sentences from English into Russian, find the participle I or II and state its function in the sentence.
1. The boy playing in the garden is my sister's son.
2. You can get the recommended book in the library.
3. He asked her to go on with her story, promising not to interrupt
her again.
4. Receiving no letters from her father, she called him.
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5. He left the office at three o'clock, saying he would be back at
five.
6. She stood leaning against the wall.
7. He lay on the sofa reading a newspaper.
8. Seeing her he raised his hat.
9. Having signed the letter the manager asked the secretary to send
it off at once.
10. Informed of the arrival of the ship, they sent a car to the port.
11. Having lived in that town all his life, he knew it very well.
12. Having arranged everything, he went home on the 10.30 train.
13. Having been well prepared for the interview, he could answer
all the questions.
14. Being checked with great care, the report didn’t contain any errors.
15. These machines will be sent to the plant being constructed in
region.
16. Having been advised by the doctor to go to the south, she decided to spend her leave in Sochi.
17. Being told of his arrival, I went to see him.
18. Having been three times seriously wounded, he was no longer
fit for active service.
19. A person bringing good news is always welcome.
20. While skating yesterday, he fell and hurt himself.
21. She showed the travellers into the room reserved for them.
22. When writing an essay we must use new words and phrases.
23. The leaves lying on the ground reminded us of autumn.
24. The answer received from her surprised us greatly.
25. There are many wonderful books describing the life of people in
the North.
26. Being a great book-lover, he spent a lot of money on books.
27. The figures mentioned in his article were published in "Izvestia”.
Exercise 2.
Open the brackets using the correct form of the Participle. Do not
mix these:
interesting films – interested spectators
exciting games – excited children
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boring lessons – bored students
burning fires – burnt woods
sinking ships – sunk ships
1. A crowd of (excite) people were watching the firemen trying to
save the (burn) building.
2. "During my vacation I came across several extremely (interest)
books," he said. "Which ones?” she asked in an (interest) voice.
3. Why do you look so (worry)? - I've had a number of (worry) telephone calls lately.
4. I don't know what was in the (burn) letter, I didn't read it.
5. Nothing can save the (sink) ship now, all we can do is to try and
save the passengers.
6. It was an (excite) incident. No wonder she spoke about it in an
(excite) voice.
7. After hearing the (frighten) tale, the (frighten) children wouldn't
go to sleep.
8. The doctor did his best to convince her that there was nothing seriously wrong with the boy, but the (worry) mother wouldn't calm
down.
9. Anyway, it was a (fascinate) presentation. And we were all
(amuse) by your joke at the end.
Exercise 3.
Paraphrase the sentences using participles instead of italicized
clauses.
Model: 1. When the shop assistant discovered that he had a talent
for music, he gave up his job to become a professional singer.
Discovering that he had a talent for music, the shop assistant gave
up his job to become a professional singer.
2. As he had witnessed the crime, he was expected to give
evidence in court. Having witnessed the crime, he was expected to give
evidence in court.
1. When the editor learned that his newspaper had been taken over
by another publisher, he resigned from his position.
2. / declined his offer of a loan and said that I didn't like owing
people money.
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3. The demonstrator, who protested violently, was led away by the
police.
4. When I visit a strange city, I like to have a guide-book with me.
5. Motorists who intend to take their cars with them to the Continent are advised to make early reservations.
6. Now that I have heard your side of the question, I am more inclined to agree with you.
7. As he had been warned that bad weather lay ahead, the ship's
captain changed course.
Exercise 4.
Complete the sentences, using suitable constructions with participles.
1. Did anyone see you...?
2. I hope your friend didn't hear you...
3. A huge crowd watched the firemen...
4. We could feel the sun...
5. "Don't worry!" said the doctor. "I'll soon have you..."
6. You must have been very late last night. I didn't even hear you...
7. High on the mountain, he could perceive three small figures...
8. I searched the desk, and discovered the letter...
9. The woman caught her husband...
10. Leave the car with me. I'll have it...
11. I was asked if I had noticed anyone...
12. When his leg was examined, it was found...
13. Although the station was crowded, I soon spotted my friend...
14. The assistant kept the customer...
15. The iron's far too hot! Can't you smell the material...?
16. I hope they won't keep us...
17. They found the survivors...
18. We all suddenly sensed danger...
Exercise 5.
Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the participle.
1. She went to work, (to leave) the child with the nurse.
2. (to lay) down on the soft couch, the child fell asleep at once.
3. (to wait) in the hall, he thought over the problem he was going to
discuss with the old lady.
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4. He left (to say) he would be back in two hours.
5. (to write) in very bad handwriting, the letter was difficult to read.
6. (to write) his first book, he worked endless hours till dawn.
7. (to spend) twenty years abroad, he was happy to be coming
home.
8. (to be) away from home, he still felt himself part of the family.
9. (not to wish) to discuss the problem, he changed the conversation.
10. (to reject) by the publisher, the story was returned to the author.
11. (to wait) in the reception room, he thought over what he would
say.
12. They reached the peak at dusk, (to leave) their camp with the
first light.
13. The friends went out into the city (to leave) their cases at the
left-luggage department.
14. (to leave) a note with the porter, he said he would be back in a
half-hour.
15. (to write) in an archaic language, the book was difficult to read.
16. (to write) first book, he used his own experiences.
17. (to be) away so long he was happy to be coming back.
Exercise 6.
Translate the words in brackets.
1. We came up to the man (стоявшему на углу) and asked him the
way.
2. The man (стоящий у окна) was our teacher last year.
3. Did you see in what direction the man (стоявший здесь) went?
4. He fits to write a book (которая бы подытожила) his impressions of the trip.
5. The people (ожидающие вас) have been sitting here since 3
o'clock.
6. The people (ожидавшие вас) just gone.
7. (Рассказав все, что он знал) the man left the room.
8. (Постучав дважды и не получив ответа) he came in.
9. (Толкнув дверь) he felt that it was not locked.
10. (Тихо закрыв дверь) he tiptoed into the room.
11. Each time (рассказывая об этом случае) she could not help
crying.
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12. (Приехав в гостиницу) she found a telegram awaiting her.
13. (Приехав сюда) many years before he knew this region perfectly.
14. We took a trip in a boat down the river(приехав обратно) when
it was dark.
15. I felt very tired (проработав целый день) in the sun.
16. (Уронив монету на пол) he did not care to look for it in the
darkness and took another one.
17. The conference (проходящая сейчас) in our city is devoted to
problems of environmental protection.
18. Unable to attend the conference (проходившую тогда) at the
University, we asked to inform us about its decisions.
19. They are now at a conference (которая проходит) at the University.
20. Suddenly I heard a sound of a key (поворачиваемого) in the
lock.
21. (Когда их поставили в воду) the flowers opened their petals.
22. The flowers faded (так кaк их долгое время держали без воды).
Exercise 7.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English. Use the Participle and Participial Constructions.
1. Гордясь своим отцом, он часто говорит о нем.
2. Выступая на собрании, я забыла упомянуть об этом факте.
3. Как зовут человека, говорящего сейчас по телефону.
4. Наконец она увидела человека, спасшего ее сына.
5. Некоторые вопросы, которые затрагиваются в докладе, заслуживают серьезного внимания.
6. Они усыновили (adopted) мальчика, потерявшего родителей
в авиационной катастрофе.
7. Не найдя нужной книги дома, я отправился в библиотеку.
8. Не выполнив работу вовремя, я вынужден извиниться перед
ними.
9. Пробыв в Лондоне около недели, я мог рассказать им много
интересного.
10. Путешествуя по стране, мы познакомились со многими
достопримечательностями.
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11. Поняв, что не сможет выполнить всю работу одна, она попросила меня о помощи.
12. Зная, что у меня достаточно времени, чтобы дойти до кинотеатра, я не cпeшил.
13. Увидев, что такси подъехало к дому, он взял вещи и быстро
спустил вниз.
14. Как часто вы подстригаетесь?
15. Мне необходимо срочно отремонтировать часы.
16. Мы отремонтировали квартиру до того, как уехали на юг.
17. Это была одна из историй, которые часто рассказывала нам
мать.
18. Обещанная помощь не приходила.
19. Где человек, обещавший вам помочь?
20. Говорившая по телефону девушка, наконец, повесила трубку.
21. Это один из студентов, принимающих участие в конференции.
22. Мы шли по дороге, ведущей в город.
23. Секретарь отправил подписанные директором письма.
24. Мы внимательно прочли присланную Иваном статью.
25. В этой комнате есть несколько сломанных стульев.
26. Он показал нам фотографию восстановленного здания Русского Музея в Петербурге.
27. Разбитый стакан лежал на столе.
28. Все полученные товары были немедленно отправлены на
склад.
29. Он принес мне несколько иллюстрированных журналов.
30. Прочитав много книг по этому вопросу, он смог сделать
очень интересный доклад.
31. Войдя в комнату, он увидел нескольких приятелей, ожидавших его.
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Contents
The Infinitive ......................................................................................... 3
Exercises with Infinitive and Infinitive Constructions......................... 7
The Gerund ......................................................................................... 18
Герундий и Инфинитив ................................................................... 21
Gerundial Constructions (Конструкции с Герундием) ................... 22
The Gerund and the Verbal Noun ..................................................... 23
Exercises with Gerund and Gerundial Constructions ....................... 24
The Participle ...................................................................................... 34
Exercises with Participle and Participial Constructions .................. 37
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Учебное издание
Неличные формы глагола
(английский язык)
Методические указания
Составитель Матвеева Елена Владимировна
Редактор, корректор А.А. Антонова
Компьютерная верстка Е.Л. Шелеховой
Подписано в печать 28.06.2006 г. Формат 60х84/16.
Бумага тип. Усл. печ. л. 2,79. Уч.-изд. л. 1,65.
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Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Неличные формы глагола
(английский язык)
49
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