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432.Английский язык (для студентов факультета ИВТ)

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Английский язык
(для студентов факультета ИВТ)
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по специальностям Прикладная математика
и информатика; Прикладная информатика в экономике;
Математическое обеспечение и администрирование
информационных систем
Ярославль 2008
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УДК 811. 111(07)
ББК Ш 143.21я73
А 64
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2008 года
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского государственного
университета им. П.Г. Демидова
А 64
Составитель Л.Ю. Киселева
Английский язык (для студентов факультета ИВТ): практикум / сост. Л.Ю. Киселева; Яросл. гос. ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2008. – 44 с.
Практикум содержит аутентичные тексты и разнообразные упражнения, направленные на пополнение и активизацию словарного запаса студентов по темам «Работа» и «Профессии в области информационных технологий», на развитие навыков говорения, чтения и письма. Помимо работы над формированием этих
стандартных умений и навыков уделяется особое внимание таким
практическим задачам, как чтение объявлений о работе, написание резюме и сопроводительного письма. Актуальность и социальная значимость проблем, рассматриваемых в текстах и ряде
упражнений, должны способствовать повышению мотивации
Все тексты являются аутентичными и взяты из англоязычных
периодических изданий, Интернет-изданий либо современных
учебно-методических комплексов по английскому языку для
данной специальности.
Предназначен для студентов факультета ИВТ, обучающихся по
специальностям 010501 Прикладная математика и информатика,
080801 Прикладная информатика в экономике, 010503 Математическое обеспечение и администрирование информационных
систем (дисц. "Английский язык", блок ГСЭ), очной формы обучения.
УДК 811. 111(07)
ББК Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный
университет им. П.Г. Демидова, 2008
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Work: Duties, Conditions and Pay
(basic vocabulary)
What do you do?
People may ask you about your job. They can ask and you can answer
in different ways:
What do you do?
I'm (+ job) e.g. a banker / an engineer
/ a teacher / a builder
What's your job?
I work in (+ place or general area) e.g.
a bank / marketing
What do you do for a living? I work for (+ name of company)
e.g. Union Bank, ICI, Fiat
Note: ‘Work’ is usually an uncountable noun, so you cannot say 'a
work'. If you want to use the indefinite article, you must say ‘a job’,
We’ve got a lot of work on this project.
I usually go to work by car.
I leave work at 5 p.m.
Dad is at work at the moment.
I’ve been looking for a job for several months.
She hasn't got a job at the moment. = She’s unemployed.
Why don’t you get a job?
B What does that involve? (= What do you do in your job?)
When people ask you to explain your work/job, they may want to
know your main responsibilities (= your duties / what you have to
do), or something about your daily routine (= what you do every
day/week). They can ask like this: What does that (i.e. your job) involve?
Main responsibilities
I'm in charge of (= responsible for) all deliveries out of the factory.
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I have to deal with any complaints (= take all necessary action if there
are complaints).
I run the coffee bar and restaurant in the museum (= I am in control of
it / I manage it).
Daily duties / routines
I have to go to / attend a lot of meetings.
I visit/see/meet clients (= people I do business with or for).
I advise clients (= give them help and my opinion).
It involves doing quite a lot of paperwork (Note the -ing form after
C Pay
Most workers are paid (= receive money) every month and this pay
goes directly into their bank account. It is called a salary.We can express the same idea using the verb to earn:
My salary is $60,000 a year. (= I earn $60,000 a year.)
With many jobs you get (= receive) holiday pay and sick pay (when
you are ill). If you want
to ask about holidays, you can say:
How much holiday do you get? or How many weeks' holiday do
you get?
The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your income. This could be your salary from one job, or the salary from two
different jobs you have. And on this income you have to pay part to
the government - called income tax.
D Working hours
For many people in Britain, these are 8.30-9.00 a.m. to 5.00-5.30 p.m.
Consequently people often talk about a nine-to-five job (= regular
working hours). Some people have flexi-time (= they can start an hour
or so earlier or finish later); and some have to do shift work (= working at different times, e.g. days one week and nights the next week).
Some people also work overtime (= work extra hours). Some people
are paid to do/work overtime, others are not paid.
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Vocabulary Exercises
1. Starting with the words you are given, rewrite each of these sentences. The basic meaning must stay the same.
Example: I'm a banker. = I work in banking.
1. What do you do?
What's ……………?
2. I earn $50,000 dollars.
My …………………………. .
3. I get £20,000 from my teaching job and another £10,000 from writing.
My total ………………………….
4. I am a chemist.
I work for ………….. .
5. In my job I have to look after and maintain all the computers in the
My job involves …………………………….
6. I'm responsible for one of the smaller departments.
I'm in …………………………….
2. This is part of a conversation with a teacher about her job. Can you
supply the missing questions?
A: ………?
B: I usually start at nine and finish at four.
A: ………?
В: Yes, a bit. On certain courses I work until five o'clock, and then 1
get paid extra.
A: ………?
B: Twelve weeks. That's one of the good things about being a teacher.
A: ………?
В: No we don't, I'm afraid. That's one of the disadvantages of being a
teacher. But I suppose
money isn't everything.
3. Fill in the gaps with the following words.
application form
to work shifts
overtime profession
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1. If you are told how much money you will earn every hour, and you
are paid every week, what you receive are called
2. If you are told how much money you will earn every year and you
are paid every month, what you receive is called a
3. A person who tries to get a particular job is called an
4. If you want a job you usually have to fill in an
5. When you are taught how to do a job, it is called
6. If you stay with the same company but get a better job with more
responsibility and more money this is called a
7. If you have a job which requires a high level of education and train.
ing, such as a doctor, this is-called a
8. If you have a job which requires a lot of training and you work with
your hands, such as an electrician, this is called a
9. If you usually work 40 hours a week but you work 45 for extra
money, this is called
10. If you sometimes work during the day and sometimes at night,
then you work
4. Read. Which person is the lawyer, the policeman and the electrician? Mark the words that can be typical for speaking about these
I quite like my job. The money is OK, particularly if I do a lot of overtime. I left school at 16 and I needed a lot of training because you
need to learn a trade properly before you can start working on your
I left school at 18 and didn't know what to do. Eventually my mother
got me an application form and I went for an interview and was accepted. Not long after joining I got a promotion. I like my job because
I feel that I'm helping people but I don't like working shifts. Sadly,
criminals often work at night!
After university I had further training. Of course, as with most professions the salary is quite good, but I feel that I deserve it. I work hard
for my money. I work long hours and don't get paid extra for overtime. But I suppose if you earn a good salary you expect that.
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5. Match the verbs on the left with the nouns or phrases on the right.
Use each word once only.
a trade
a shop
fill in
a promotion
go to
deal with
an application form
income tax
6. Put one or more words into each gap to complete the sentences.
1. Belinda was really pleased to get the job. There were over one hunand they chose her!
2. A person who repairs water pipes is called a plumber. It's a
good _________________.
- getting up early, then late - hor3. I wouldn't like to
- £9 an hour, I think.
4. Steve gets quite good
5. Maria doesn't get paid much. If she didn't do
weekends, she wouldn't have enough to live.
6. If you are interested in this job fill in an
7. I was so pleased when my boss told me I had got a
more money and a new office. Great!
, it is
8. Although like law or medicine, teaching is a
not generally well paid.
9. Margaret is always making mistakes in her job. Perhaps she needs
10. I heard that his
is ₤30,000 a year.
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The Career Ladder
Read the text and do the tasks which follow.
A Getting a job
When Paul left school he applied for (= wrote an official request for)
a job in the accounts department of a local engineering company.
They gave him a job as a trainee (=a very junior person in a company). He didn't earn very much but they gave him a lot of training (=
organized help and advice with learning the job), and sent him on
training courses.
Note: Training is an uncountable noun, so you cannot say 'a training’,
you can only talk about training (in general), or a training course (if
you want to refer to just one). Here you can use the verbs do or go on:
I did / went on several training courses last year
В Moving up
Paul worked hard at the company and his prospects (= future possibilities in the job) looked good. After his first year he got a good pay
rise (= more money), and after two years he was promoted (= given a
higher position with more money and responsibility). After six years
he was in charge of (= responsible for / the boss of) the accounts department with five other employees (= workers in the company) under him (= under his responsibility / authority).
С Leaving the company
By the time Paul was 30, however, he decided he wanted a fresh
challenge (= a new exciting situation). He was keen to work abroad,
so he resigned from his company (= officially told the company he
was leaving his job; you can also say 'he quit the company') and
started looking for a new job with a bigger company. After a couple of
months he managed to find a job with an international company which
involved (= included) a lot of foreign travel. He was very excited
about the new job and at first he really enjoyed the travelling, but ...
D Hard times
After about six months, Paul starred to dislike the constant moving
around, and after a year he hated it; he hated living in hotels, and he
never really made any friends in the new company. Unfortunately his
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work was not satisfactory either and finally he was sacked (= told to
leave the company / dismissed / given the sack) a year later.
After that, Paul found things much more difficult. He was unemployed (= out of work / without a job) for a year. He had to sell his
car and move out of his new house. Things were looking bad and in
the end Paul had to accept a part-time job (= working only some of
the day or some of the week) on a fruit and vegetable stall in a marker.
E Happier times
To his surprise, Paul loved the market. He made lots of friends and enjoyed working out in the open air. After two years, he took over (=
took control of) the stall. Two years later he opened a second stall, and
after ten years he had fifteen stalls. Last year Paul retired (= stopped
working completely) at the age of 55, a very rich man.
Vocabulary Exercises
1. Write a single word synonym for each of these words/phrases.
1 given the sack =
2 out of work =
3 left the company =
4 was given a better position in the company =
5 future possibilities in a job =
6 stopped working for ever =
7 workers in a company =
2. Find the logical answer on the right for each of the questions on the
1. Why did they sack him?
а Because he was nearly 65
2. Why did they promote him?
б Because he was late for work
every day
3. Why did he apply for the job?
с Because he needed more training.
4. Why did he retire?
d Because he was out of work.
5. Why did he resign?
e Because he was the best person
in the department
6. Why did he go on the course?
f Because he didn't like his boss.
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3. Complete these sentences with a suitable word or phrase.
1 I don't want a full-time job. I'd prefer to work … .
2 She’d like to go on another training … .
3 I'm bored in my job. I need a fresh … .
4 He works on a stall in the … .
5 At the end of this year we should get a good pay … .
6 She's got more than a hundred workers under ... .
7 I didn't know he was the new manager. When did he take
8 It's a boring job and the pay is awful. Why did he …………………?
My Father’s Job
Using the following questions and the vocabulary studied so far,
write a description of your father’s (mother’s / friend’s / uncle’s
etc.) job. You can also describe your own job if you have one.
1. What do you do?
2. What does your job involve?
3. Is it full-time / part-time / flexi-time?
4. What are your working hours?
5. What are your daily duties?
6. Are you responsible for anything or anyone?
7. Have you had much training from the company?
8. Have the company sent you on any training courses?
9. Have you been promoted since you started in the company?
10. Is your job well-paid?
11. Do you normally get a good pay rise at the end of each year?
12. How much holiday do you get?
13. Do you get holiday pay and sick pay?
14. Do you have to do overtime? Do you get paid extra when you
do overtime?
15. Do you have to pay income tax?
16. How do you feel about your future prospects in the company?
17. What do you like most about your job?
18. Are you happy in the job or do you feel it is time for a fresh
challenge in another company?
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Work Crossword
11 9
Notes concerning the tasks
1. Sentences labeled with an asterisk (*) are examples, not just general definitions.
2. The numbers in brackets indicate that it is a compound noun rather
than a single word, e.g. free-lance (4, 5); there are no hyphens or
blank spaces in the grid, i.e. you should write ‘freelance’).
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2. * Mrs. Brown is a very ... teacher. She has worked at school for 25
4. A percentage of what you earn which you pay to the State. (6, 3 )
5. If you work regular daytime hours, you have a ... job. (4,2,4)
8. * He works very hard for the company and his future ... look good.
9. Someone who has replied to an advertisement for a job.
10. *"... As for my work experience, I've had several part-time ...s including one of a website designer for an advertising company..."
14. * George worked a lot last week. He did 12 hours ... .
15. If you decide to leave the job, you have to … .
18. Money paid to people who have reached the official age to stop
19. * I am now in ... of two departments.
20. * I didn't. . much money in my last job but I'm well-paid now.
21. People who are paid weekly or monthly receive ... .
23. * Sam's job is going very well. He had been working hard, so he
got a good .. last month. (3, 4 )
24. * My cousin was ...ed after an argument with his boss.
25. If you can start and finish work at different times each day, you
work ... . (5, 4)
26. * I've got an interesting job which ...s working with young people.
1. * I've been ... for two months and I'm looking for a job.
2. A person who is in employment.
3. * I have to ... with delivery problems in my company.
6. * I'm not quite satisfied with my present job. I'm going to leave and
look for a fresh … .
7. * James wants to ... for the job advertised in yesterday's "Evening
8. When you move up to a more senior position, you get a ... .
11. Extra money that workers get from the management.
12. * If you want to become a doctor, you must study for six years,
and you must have further... after university.
13. The person or company who employs you.
15. * I've decided to ... at the age of 55.
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16. * The boss ...ed him when he heard about the scandal.
17. * Lawyers usually receive a good . . .
22. A word for all the people who work in the hotel or restaurant
23. This type of job is only for a few hours a week. (4, 4)
Working Teens
1. Discuss the following preview questions.
1. Is it typical for teenagers in Russia to have a job?
2. What jobs are normally done by university students?
3. How many of your groupmates have a part-time job?
4. Are employers willing to hire students?
5. Is it a good idea to work and study at the same time? Give your reasons.
2. a) Read about British teenagers speaking about their jobs.
b) Explain the meaning of the words and expressions in italics.
Name: John Tutt
Age: 14
Job: Newspaper Delivery Boy
Hours: 10 per week
Pay: £3.50 per hour
‘I have to get up at 4.30 a.m. to collect the newspapers from the shop.
My round includes 9 streets. I have to fold the papers and push them
through the letter box of each house. When I have finished I go
straight to school. The pay is not very good, but it is an easy job. I do
have to work on Sundays though. This is the busiest day and the papers are very heavy. My parents give me some pocket money in addition to the money I earn from my job. I get £10 a week to spend on
whatever I want. My parents say it is very important to earn your own
money. If I didn't do this job, they wouldn’t give me any pocket money at all.’
Name: Sarah Williams
Age: 18
Job: Play Scheme Assistant
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Hours: 38 per week in the summer holidays
Pay: £6.50 per hour
‘I love working with children and I want to become a teacher after
university. Working on a play scheme is fun and good workexperience. I don't need the money as my parents give me a good allowance of £100 a month. I work for 6 weeks during the summer.
About 80 children come to the Youth Centre every day. In the Centre
there are 6 Assistants like me, and a Play Leader. We prepare activities like painting, drawing and crafts. We also organize games in the
afternoons. This year it is my responsibility to take the children on a
trip to the zoo.’
Name: Janet O'Reilly
Age: 19
Job: Cashier in an Amusement Arcade
Hours: 35 per week in the summer holidays
Pay: £5.50 per hour
‘My job is so boring. In our seaside town we have a pier with a huge
amusement arcade on it. There is a big hall on it with hundreds of
s l o t - m a c h i n e s . People come to the arcade and I change their
money for them. The best thing about the job is that I can sit down all
day behind a glass screen. The worst thing is that my hands get very
dirty from all the money I handle. I earn the minimum wage for my
age. I am a university student, so I need to save money to pay for my
tuition fees.’
Name: Keith Lewis
Age: 17
Job: Babysitter
Hours: 10 per week
Pay: £5.00 per hour
‘This is the best job in the world. My parents have many friends with
younger children. They call me when they want to go to a restaurant
or pub for the evening. When I arrive the children are usually already
in bed. I sit in the living room and watch TV. The children almost
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never wake up, and anyway they are not usually babies, so I can just
tell them to go back to sleep. Some of the parents even leave food and
drink for me in the fridge. If the parents stay out late they give me extra money. When they come back they sometimes give me a lift home
in their car. The best thing about this job is that I don't have to pay any
taxes on my money — it is all cash-in-hand!’
Name: Tom Maxwell
Age: 15
Job: Fast-food Restaurant Worker
Hours: 8 per week
Pay: £4.50 per hour
‘I love this job! It's never boring because you are busy all the time.
You can talk with your colleagues and have fun while you work. You
also get a discount on the food here. I have to say that I am not so
keen on burgers now I have been working here for six months. My job
is a Saturday job. My parents won't let me work any more hours because they say I need to study hard to pass my exams. I would like to
work in the evenings too. I am saving up to buy a car when I am seventeen.’
3. Answer the questions.
1. Which of these jobs do you find the most
a) exciting?
b) boring?
c) well-paid?
d) suitable for a student?
Explain your choice.
2. What do you think of John’s parents’ position?
3. In Russia, do we have a job similar to Sarah’s?
4. Is it typical for Russian students to work in order to pay their university fees like Janet does?
5. Is babysitting a good job for boys? What kind of babysitters do
Russian families usually prefer?
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6. Fast-food restaurants often employ young people. Why do you
think they do that?
4. Choose one of the jobs and describe it using the following structures.
If you work as a …,
you must…
you don’t have to…
you need to…
you can…
you should…
you might…
(e.g. work outside / make some new friends/ earn a lot of money /
work regular hours / be quite careful / get a lot of experience etc.)
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Work Hard: Lifestyles and Work
1. Discuss the preview questions.
1. Why do people work?
2. What do you think work means to an average American / an average
3. What does work mean to you?
2. Comment on the philosophy and attitudes towards work expressed
by famous authors.
a) Work - work - work
b) ... And no one shall work for
Till the brain begins to swim;
money, and no one shall work for
Work - work – work
Till the eyes are heavy and dim… But each for the joy of the workThomas Hood
Rudyard Kipling
3. Discuss the issues below.
1. The word "workaholism" is a combination of two words with
different connotations "Work" and "alcoholism." Are these connotations positive or negative to you?
2. Being hooked on work, a workaholic would say, "I have no
life." Then, why do you think they continue putting in long hours at
3. The dictionary defines a workaholic as "a person who works
most of the time and finds it difficult to stop working in order to do
other things." (Source: Collins COBUILD English Dictionary)
List things, activities, relationships, etc., workaholics have to sacrifice.
4. Are you familiar with the concept of Silicon Valley? What is Silicon Valley famous for?
4. Read the text.
World-Class Workaholics: Are Crazy Hours and Takeout Dinners the
Elixir of American Success?
Chris Strahorn's parents haven't seen much of him lately. They're
usually asleep by the time he gets home, anywhere between 11 p.m.
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and 3 a.m. And he's often asleep when they leave for work. If his car is
in the driveway, they know he made it back. (Sometimes his father says
hi to the car.) If not, it's a safe bet that Strahorn, a 24-year-old computer
programmer at an Internet start-up called the Tomorrow Factory, has
pulled another overnighter, grabbing a few hours of sleep on his futon.
Most of his colleagues prefer the sofa that the company has thoughtfully
provided. Strahorn likes the relative calm and quiet of his cubicle. He
sleeps under his desk, for the darkness, and close to his computer, for
the warmth.
Wherever he has slept, he tends to have breakfast at the Morning
Brew Coffee Co. in the same small South San Francisco building as the
Tomorrow Factory. The Morning Brew was there first. When the Tomorrow Factory moved in over the summer, the founders installed a door
between the two places. Thanks to that piece of foresight, the Tomorrow Factory's thermoses are kept steadily filled with freshly ground
Sumatra. Some of the employees, says Strahorn, think it may be time to add
a "direct line - an intravenous tube."
Young computer whizzes with stock options may not be broadly
representative of the contemporary work force. But in one respect - crazy
hours - the Silicon Valley* ethos speaks for America these days. Between 1977 and 1997, the average workweek (among salaried Americans working 20 hours or more) lengthened from 43 to 47 hours. Over
the same years, according to James T. Bond, vice president of the Families and Work Institute, the number of workers putting in 50 or more
hours a week jumped from 24 percent to 37 percent. Scarcely a decade ago, Americans viewed the work habits of the Japanese with halfhorrified awe. Now, according to a recent report of the International Labor Organization, the United States has slipped past Japan to become the
longest-working nation in the advanced industrial world.
Life Inside a Silicon Valley Start-Up
At hundreds of start-ups across Silicon Valley, computer whizzes
are setting the tone for the national work-a-thon. What makes them tick
so fast?
"Everybody knows I don't have a life," says Ken Exner, who
lives about five minutes from the Tomorrow Factory, the little company
he founded a year ago in the South San Francisco. David Kerley, the director of marketing, also sets a strong example of dedication to the en18
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terprise. And often there's nobody for him to go home to either, because his wife works equally crazy hours on merger-and-acquisitions
deals at her Palo Alto law firm.
Eight Days a Week
Co-worker Dylan Greiner's marriage almost broke up five years
ago, after a stint of 12-hour days at a software company in Texas. "A
lot of lifestyle changes were made," says Greiner. Yet he, too, has
embraced the start-up life, including an hour and a half commute from
his home near Modesto. Early next year, they will launch their product
- a form of personal shopping management software whose wonders
they cannot yet divulge. Before he joined the Tomorrow Factory,
Greiner had a nice thing going at a software company in San Mateo,
where he was required to do overtime just once in 18 months. From a
domestic point of view, he says "it was a dream job. But it was pretty
Chris Strahorn, a 24-year-old programmer, worked at Sun Microsystems for three years while pursuing an as-yet-unobtained degree
in computer science at the University of California-Davis. He put in
some 60-hour weeks at Sun. He says he'd sooner work 100 hours a
week in a small and collegial setting of the Tomorrow Factory, working on something he believes in. A few years from now, he hopes to
be in a position to say, "That's mine - I wrote that - and it's sitting on a
million desktops."
* Silicon Valley An area of Northern California, famous for
world-class academic institutions (Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley), brilliant scientists, military procurements of semiconductors and the pleasant climate of Northern
California, which makes it one of the greatest "science parks" in the
5. Explain the meaning of the following expressions from the text.
it's a safe bet that…
an Internet start-up
Strahorn… has pulled another overnighter
computer whizzes
crazy hours
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…Americans viewed the work habits of the Japanese with half-horrified
the national work-a-thon
merger-and-acquisitions deals
eight days a week
an hour and a half commute
launch their product
it's sitting on a million desktops
6. Answer the questions below making inferences from the text about
the following values:
time, hard work, success / achievement
1) What values can be revealed in the title and the closing phrase?
2) Why do you think takeout dinners are mentioned along with crazy
hours in the subtitle? Why is fast food popular with workaholics?
3) Why has the company thoughtfully provided the sofa for the employees? Does the company encourage its employees to have more
rest? If not, give a different guess.
4) Why do you think some of the employees would like to add a "direct line - an intravenous tube"?
7. Fill in the chart below to describe the lifestyle of Chris Strahorn,
David Kerley and Dylan Greiner.
Single / married
Working habits
David Kerley
8. The following pie graph portrays the results of the survey conducted in Russia. Working with your partner, examine the graph and
discuss the questions below:
1) How long is a typical working week in Russia?
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2) What are the differences in lifestyle of the people in Russia working less that 35 hours a week and the ones working over 60 hours a
3) What commonalities and differences can be listed in the lifestyle of
Americans and Russians working 35-44 hours a week?
4) What are the possible professions of people working 45-59 hours a
week in Russia? In the U.S.?
5) Can you think of somebody you know and describe their lifestyle to
illustrate any sector of the graph?
Сколько мы работаем
14% less than 33 hours a week
53% 35 – 44 hours a week
24% 45 – 59 hours a week
9% 60 and more hours a week
A Career in IT
1. Answer the preview questions.
1. Do you consider a career in IT a good choice for today’s young
people? Why or why not?
2. What difficulties are connected with finding a prestigious job in IT?
3. What combination of skills can guarantee a successful career?
4. What global trends in the IT sphere are you aware of?
5. How do these trends influence the job market?
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2. Read the article from the Computerworld webzine.
The IT Profession: 2010
Here's a glimpse of what experts think the IT field will look like in four
years -- and some tips for getting prepared.
In four short years, the current class of college freshmen will be scouting for jobs. In four short years, a significant percentage of the working population will reach retirement age. In four short years, the makeup of the U.S. Congress and the White House will have changed.
Four years can flit by in the blink of an eye, yet much is sure to happen in that time that will impact the IT field.
Will you be ready?
We chose to thumb-tack this IT careers report on calendar year 2010.
Experts predict major shifts in the IT profession by then: Boomer retirements will be in full swing, the next wave of college grads will be
hitting the job market, and the line between IT departments and business units will be even more blurred. And then there's the expanding
role of outsourcing, the ongoing H-1B visa debates in Congress, and
the unabating merger and acquisition activity consolidating industries
and IT staffs.
Our recent survey of 1,137 IT professionals shows a workforce worried about that future: Respondents cited outsourcing and the difficulty of keeping skills up to date as the two biggest threats to their jobs
and careers. Yet they are willing to adapt to master that future: 91%
said they would learn a new technical skill to help ensure prolonged
Here's a certainty: IT workers will have to adapt to stay employed in
2010. Among other things, this special report aims to help you place
your career bets, show you which skills will be hot and teach you how
to turn globalization to your advantage.
So, will you be ready?
Hot Skills, Cold Skills
The IT worker of 2010 won't be a technology guru but rather a
The most sought-after corporate IT workers in 2010 may be those
with no deep-seated technical skills at all. The nuts-and-bolts programming and easy-to-document support jobs will have all gone to
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third-party providers in the U.S. or abroad. Instead, IT departments
will be populated with "versatilists" -- those with a technology background who also know the business sector inside and out, can architect
and carry out IT plans that will add business value, and can cultivate
relationships both inside and outside the company.
That's the general consensus of three research groups that have studied
the IT workforce landscape for 2010 -- the year that marks the culmination of the decade of the versatile workforce. What's driving these
changes? Several culprits include changes in consumer behavior, an
increase in corporate mergers and acquisitions, outsourcing, the proliferation of mobile devices and growth in stored data.
What's more, the skills required to land these future technical roles
will be honed outside of IT. Some of these skills will come from artistic talents, math excellence or even a knack for public speaking -- producing a combination of skills not commonly seen in the IT realm.
On the edges of this new world, expertise in areas such as financial
engineering, technology and mathematics will come together to form
the next round of imaginative tools and technologies. Google Inc.,
eBay Inc. and Yahoo Inc. are already hiring math, financial analysis,
engineering and technology gurus who will devise imaginative algorithms to fulfill users' online needs. And the National Academy of
Sciences has identified a budding area of expertise that combines
technology capabilities with artistic and creative skills, such as those
found in computer gaming.
"For my money, the hot jobs in 2010 will be these enabler jobs: business enterprise architects, business technologists, systems analysts and
project managers," says David Foote, CEO and chief research officer
of Foote Partners LLC, an IT management consultancy and workforce
research firm in New Caanan, Conn. "If I were in IT, I would be in
one of these jobs in the next five years. A lot of people can't because
they're pure technologists. But there are some pretty safe bets for them
both inside and outside of the service industry."
IT professionals who will survive and perhaps thrive in 2010 will expand their knowledge base and stretch beyond their comfort zones.
Those who don't will find job opportunities in niche areas.
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Foote's mantra for the coming decade: If you think the marketplace is
competitive now, wait until 2010. A leveled global playing field, innovation and the availability of technology to make business execution easy will make hot skills must-haves for competitive companies.
Where Will the Jobs
Which area of IT do you
expect will experience
the most growth in jobs
in the next five years?
Ready to Adapt
If you answered no or not sure*,
Would you be willing what's holding you back from
to learn a new tech- acquiring new technical skills?
nical skill to help ensure prolonged emBusiness skills would be
more useful in ensuring
prolonged employment than
more technical skills.
Web services
I'm concerned that a new
skill wouldn't pay off finan- 54%
cially or professionally.
Company has limited funds
for skills development.
Disaster recovery/
continuity planning
Data management/
business analytics
My company doesn't support skills development out- 35%
side current job functions.
Not enough time in my
I have no money to put to27%
ward training classes.
I'm concerned that a new
skill would require a geo14%
graphic move to another
* Base was 99 respondents.
10 Antivirus protection
SOURCE: Exclusive Computerworld survey of 1,137 IT professionals,
May 2006. Respondents could choose all answers that applied
The World Gets Smaller Still
Savvy IT workers will turn globalization and an increased demand for
IT skills to their advantage.
Randy Carter, CIO at Cabot Corp. in Boston, has a daughter and two
sons, one of whom was a freshman in college during the dot-com
boom, when many parents didn't think twice about urging their
school-age kids to get into IT. Carter's son graduated as a computer
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engineer into the gloomy hiring climate of 2003, made even gloomier
by the increasing practice of offshoring, which was taking hold at the
Now that his son is 25 years old and an IT security professional, Carter is seeing the industry change once again. Even with lower-level
tech jobs continuing to move offshore, demand is up for IT professionals. But the domestic job openings are increasingly geared toward
people with sophisticated technology skills, business acumen or
project management capabilities. In fact, Carter is now advising his
son to hone his ability to apply technology to the business. "It's ironic
to see the industry change so quickly once again," Carter says.
In the upcoming four years, it's clear that the global marketplace will
continue to deepen and expand with the burgeoning economies and
skills development of countries like India, Brazil, China and Russia.
Meanwhile, it will increasingly become an accepted fact that it's not
economically sensible to hire high-wage U.S. workers to do jobs involving basic programming, tech support, quality assurance and testing.
But while globalization will continue to cause a sea change in the IT
industry, the waves can be viewed not as damaging tsunamis, but as
opportunities -- as long as you keep your eye on the horizon and maybe even learn how to surf.
"If you want to work within 15 blocks of where you were born, you'll
see globalization as a threat," says John Wade, CIO at Saint Luke's
Health System Inc. in Kansas City, Mo. "But IT isn't a U.S. industry
anymore; it's a global industry. Would it be the worst thing in the
world if you did your first three years of IT in Ireland, Germany, India
or China?"
Indeed, Carter's 23-year-old daughter's experience is representative of
the globalization of IT. Armed with an economics degree, she has
been working with the U.S. Department of State to implement ERP
systems in places such as Zambia, Mali, Bolivia and Bosnia. In all,
she has traveled to seven Third World countries to do training and
And even with the outflow of lower-level tech jobs, IT professionals
will still be in demand on the domestic front through 2010 and
beyond. Some observers, like Edward Gordon, author of The 2010
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Meltdown (Praeger Publishers, 2005) and president of Imperial
Consulting Corp. in Chicago, see a worldwide IT skills crisis on the
horizon. "I'm aware of older engineers who are out of work, either
because they didn't know the latest software or their companies were
looking to bring in cheap foreign labor," he says. "But those
companies will regret it, because the economy is going to continue to
grow. And as the baby boomers retire [in 2010], 79 million people
will leave the workforce and only 49 million will enter."
Meanwhile, technology will infiltrate every aspect of life on a global
scale, Gordon says, and "as we continue to expand our demand for sophisticated technology to drive every aspect of the economy, we need
more people to design and manage those efforts, and we don't have
enough to do that."
3. Find the English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:
искать работу
промелькнуть в мгновение ока
значительные изменения
достичь пенсионного возраста
человек, родившийся в период демографического взрыва (1946 –
1964 гг., США)
быть в разгаре, идти полным ходом
привлечение внешних ресурсов (для выполнения контрактной
работы), подряд
слияния и поглощения (компаний)
поддерживать на современном уровне (свои навыки), не отставать от жизни
сделать ставки
обратить что-либо в свою пользу
специалист с разносторонними знаниями, универсал
знать что-либо вдоль и поперёк
быстрое распространение
оттачивать своё мастерство
талант к чему-либо
компетентность (в определённой области)
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многообещающая, перспективная отрасль
исполнительный директор
беспроигрышный вариант
индустрия обслуживания
конкурентный рынок
необходимый атрибут
сетевой бизнес (с применением Интернет-технологий)
сократить расходы (на повышение квалификации сотрудников)
растущий спрос на что-либо
резкий подъём активности Интернет-компаний
деловая хватка
мировой рынок
развивающаяся экономика
внедрение систем планирования ресурсов предприятия
проникнуть во все сферы жизни
4. Complete the sentences with suitable words or word combinations
from the previous task.
1. An _________________ for ICT specialists gives excellent career
opportunities to the graduates of our department.
2. In a couple of years mobile communication has
______________________ of our life.
3. Employers are sometimes unwilling to hire ___________ because
they mostly don’t have any essential work experience.
4. In our country, _____________ for men is 60.
5. Our company invests significant money in advertising but we are
sure this will __________ in the near future.
6. I’m not going on any training courses this year because my company has ______________ for __________________.
7. In order to be a good specialist it is absolutely necessary to
___________________ with new developments in your field.
8. She’s an excellent sales manager; she knows the local market
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9. Nowadays, _________ and ____________ of companies represent
one of the most important trends in world economy.
10. The __________________ is quite often influenced by political
5. Decide whether the following statements concerning the IT sphere
are true or false. Use quotes and examples from the text to support
your opinion.
1. There will be no significant changes in the IT field in the next few
2. IT professionals will have to learn many new skills to stay employed.
3. Excellent technical skills play the key role in the IT industry.
4. The growing importance of outsourcing represents a major threat to
IT workers in the US.
5. In the future, the IT sphere is going to become even more customeroriented.
6. Imagination and creativity are must-haves for any computer professional.
7. Every company supports the employees who want to develop their
skills beyond their current job functions.
8. There will be many job openings in the Web industry in the near future.
9. Globalization has had a negative effect upon the IT industry.
10. Overseas specialists will be in great demand in the US in some
Careers in Computing 1
1. Read the description of some of the most common jobs in computing. Make notes about the main responsibilities for each of them.
Systems Analyst
Studies methods of working within an organization to decide how
tasks can be done efficiently by computers. Makes a detailed analysis
of the employer's requirements and work patterns to prepare a report
on different options for using information technology. This may in28
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volve consideration of hardware as well as software. Either uses standard computer packages or writes a specification for programmers to
adapt existing software or to prepare new software. May oversee the
implementation and testing of a system and acts as a link between the
user and the programmer.
Software Engineer/Designer
Produces the programs which control the internal operations of computers. Converts the system analyst's specification to a logical series
of steps. Translates these into the appropriate computer language. Often compiles programs from libraries or sub-programs, combining
these to make up a complete systems program. Designs, tests, and improves programs for computer-aided design and manufacture, business
applications, computer networks, and games.
Computer Salesperson
Advises potential customers about available hardware and sells
equipment to suit individual requirements. Discusses computing needs
with the client to ensure that a suitable system can be supplied. Organizes the sale and delivery and, if necessary, installation and testing.
May arrange support or training, maintenance, and consultation. Must
have sufficient technical knowledge.
Computer Systems Support Person
Systems support people are analyst programmers who are responsible
for maintaining, updating, and modifying the software used by a company. Some specialize in software which handles the basic operation
of the computers. This involves the use of machine codes and specialized low-level computer languages. Most handle applications software. May sort out problems encountered by users. Solving problems
may involve amending an area of code in the software, retrieving files
and data lost when a system crashes, and a basic knowledge of hardware.
Computer Systems Analyst Programmer
Creates the software programs used by computers. May specialize in
the internal operating systems using low level computer language, or
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in applications programs. May specialize in one aspect of the work,
e.g. programming, systems design, systems analysis, or cover them
all. May support the system through advice and training, providing user manuals, and by helping users with any problems that arise.
Hardware Engineer
Researches, designs, and develops computers or parts of computers
and the computerised element of appliances, machines, and vehicles.
Also involved in their-manufacture, installation, and testing. May specialize in different areas: research and development, design, manufacturing. Has to be aware of cost, efficiency, safety, and environmental
factors, as well as engineering aspects.
Network Support Person
Maintains the link between PCs and workstations connected in a network. Uses telecommunications, software, and electronic skills, and
knowledge of the networking software to locate and correct faults.
This may involve work with the controlling software, on the wiring,
printed circuit boards, software or microchips on a file server, or on
cables either within or outside the building.
2. Which of these jobs would you like to make your career? Explain your
3. Five people employed in computing are talking about their work.
Try to match each extract to the correct job from this list.
• Hardware Engineer
• Network Support Person
• Operator
• Software Designer
• Systems Analyst Programmer
• Systems Support Person
• Technical Sales Manager
Before I write a program, I have to carry out a feasibility study in the
company. The aim is to see whether a new program would be better
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than the methods they use at present. I have to observe what the users
do, speak to them, and make an analysis of their systems. It’s very important to speak to the actual users, not just the managers.
My job is to persuade customers that it’s worth investing in new computer systems or extending the systems they already have. But it’s not
enough simply to sell the system; we have to keep in touch after the
sale to make sure things are working well and to provide any backup
the client needs. That’s the only way to build up trust with the customer, and to get new orders. It’s a very competitive market!
I’m called out if there’s a fault on the network. We try to solve the
problem by phone at first, but if that doesn’t work, we have to go and
look for ourselves. Could be anything: the software, the server, even
the cabling. Sometimes the problem is the user… You have to be good
at working out where the problem is.
It’s my job to try out new components before they are used in our
computers. It’s not only how well the components work that matters,
they also have to meet health and safety requirements. I need to write
reports and make recommendations on my findings. If problems arise
after the components have been installed, I am the person who has to
find the solution.
I have to change the specifications for a system into a logical sequence
that can be programmed. The language I choose for coding will depend on various factors, such as what type of program it is and where
it’s going to be used. A lot of testing has to be done, and I use the
feedback to decide where improvements can be made.
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Careers in Computing 2
1. Read the texts and complete this table. (You may not find information for each section of the table).
Text A
Text B
Text C
1. Job title
2. Nature of work
3. Formal qualifications
4. Personal qualities
5. Technical skills
6. How to get started
7. How
A. How to become a programming expert
The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing
more than a good memory, an attention to detail, a logical mind and
the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller, more manageable pieces.
However, it's not enough just to turn up for a job interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. An employer will want to see
some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. But if you
can show someone an impressive piece of software with your name on
it, it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications.
So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C, C++, Delphi, Java
and Visual Basic developers. Avoid older languages such as
FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer.
For someone starting out, my best advice would be to subscribe to the
programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. Get one
or two of the low-cost 'student' editions of C++, Visual Basic and Delphi. Get a decent book on Windows programming. If you decide programming is really for you, spend more money on a training course.
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B. How to become a Computer Consultant
The first key point to realise is that you can't know everything. However, you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. The second
key point is that you must be interested in your subject. The third key
point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Good
contractors move from job to job every few months. A consultant is
different. A consultant often works on very small timescales - a few
days here, a week there, but often for a core collection of companies
that keep coming back again and again.
There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic,
C++, and so on. And there are lots of people who know it too, so you
have to be better than them. Qualifications are important. Microsoft
has a raft of exams you can take, as does Novell, and in my experience
these are very useful pieces of paper. University degrees are useless.
They merely prove you can think, and will hopefully get you into a
job where you can learn something useful. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. The same goes for
Novel Linux Certification.
However, this won't guarantee an understanding of the product, its positioning in the market, how it relates to other products and so on.
That's where the all-important experience comes in.
Here's the road map. After leaving university you get a technical role
in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the
tools of your trade - and getting your current employer to pay for your
exams. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. After
a couple of hops like that, you may be in a good position to move into
a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. By the age of 30, you've run big projects, rolled out major solutions and are well known. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and
run your own life.
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C. How to become an IT Manager
IT managers manage projects, technology and people. Any large organisation will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring
that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and that it works properly. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers
and the installation of new software, and for staffing a help-desk and a
support group.
Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT systems
manager. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business. They're responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems. Companies will have two or
three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then
tailored by an in-house development team.
Apart from basic hardware and software expertise, an IT manager will
typically have over five years' experience in the industry. Most are between 30 and 45. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for
budgets and for staff, employers look for both of these factors in any
potential recruit.
Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one
as well. Interestingly, many of them don't have degrees in computing
science. In any case, the best qualification for becoming a manager is
experience. If your personality is such that you're unlikely to be asked
to take responsibility for a small team or a project, then you can forget
being an IT manager. You need to be bright, communicative and be
able to earn the trust of your teams. Most of this can't be taught, so if
you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere.
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2. For which of the careers described are these statements true? More
than one career may match each statement.
1. You may work for only a few days or a week for a company.
2. It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++.
3. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software
a company needs to run its operations.
4. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of
smaller tasks.
5. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this
6. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for
your career.
7. Your objective is to become self-employed.
8. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team.
Job Requirements
1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs, need to,
have to, must or should, to make sensible statements. More than one
answer is possible in some examples.
to be renewed at intervals
1. Technical qualifications
to ensure they do not go out of date.
2. You
become an expert in too narrow a field.
to have good communication skills to be3. You
come an IT Manager.
4. You
be an expert in hardware to become a programmer.
have worked with IBM mainframes for at least
5. You
two years.
be able to show leadership.
6. You
7. You
have a degree but it
be in
computing science.
to have experience in JavaScript.
8. You
9. You
be able to use C++.
study BASIC.
10. These days you
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2. Study these requirements for different jobs in computing advertised
on the Internet. Then describe the requirements using the previous exercise as an example.
Systems Manager / Programmer
• technical specialist
• 3 yrs exp. SAP Basic Technical
• min. 2 yrs work in systems pro- • team player with strong analytigramming
cal and problem-solving skills
• plus
Net- • ability to communicate issues
view/automation design & sup- and solutions and manage time efport
• strong Unix experience
• able to use HTML, DHTML,
XML and JavaScript
• knowledge of Shell Scripts
Cisco Technician
• CCNA qualified
• excellent skills in the surrounding technologies
• min. 2 yrs work in support
Support Analyst: IBM Mainframe IS Manager
• IBM MVS support technician
• knowledge of current Network
Operating Systems
• 1 yr exp. of VTAM, NCP, SSP, • experience of ERP systems imNPM, IBM hardware
• authorised to work in the EU
• very strong managerial skills
3. Study these job requirements. Then try to match the requirements to
the following list of jobs.
Visual Basic Developer
IT Engineer (Network & Database)
Web Developer
Network Support
E-commerce Consultant
Team Leader
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• at least 5 years (2 at senior level) in: Unix, SYBASE or
ORACLE or Windows OS, Terminal Server, TCP/IP, Internet.
• strong project management (2
• willingness to travel abroad
• able to manage, lead and develop a team
• knowledge of C, C++, Delphi
• experience of object-oriented
design within a commercial environment
• ability to deliver software
projects against agreed schedules
and within agreed estimates
• proven track record in the delivery of e-solutions in banking environment
• knowledge of Unix, Windows
and Oracle
• willingness to travel internationally
• minimum 4 years lifecycle development experience
• demonstrable skills using VB,
• able to develop core s/w
• excellent communication skills
• minimum of 18 months commercial experience of Web development
• knowledge of HTML, Java,
• full portfolio of URLs as examples
• experience of Windows OS, Exchange, Monitoring Software,
SQL Server, Verta, ТСР/IP
• solid grasp of networking
• 2 to 5 years experience in a
network environment
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Choosing the Best Applicant
Study this job advertisement. Which of the three candidates do you
think is the best applicant? Explain your choice in writing. Use the
following linking words and phrases to help you.
To begin with, / First of all, / Second (-ly), / Third (-ly),
Furthermore, / In addition, / Besides,
In spite of …ing / In spite of the fact that … / Although
However, / On the other hand,
Consequently, / therefore
To sum up, / All things considered, / In conclusion,
IT Support Officer
• Educated to degree level, candi- Microsoft Office, Novell netdates should have at least two works, E-mail systems, TCP/IP,
hardware and virus-protection
years' relevant experience.
• We need a highly-motivated in- • You should be able to commudividual, able to support approx- nicate well with users and exterimately 30 networked
nal contractors and to make a conPCs. The role is very much tribution to the training of all PC
'hands-on', and so it is essential users
that you have a good understand- • The successful candidate must
ing and experience of
work well under pressure and as a
team member.
Applicant 1
BSc Computing Science. Graduated this year.
• Knowledge of a variety of operating systems including Unix, Novell and Windows NT
• Experience In programming in С, С++, Pascal, Java, Delphi and
Visual Basic
• Familiar with a wide variety of hardware and software packages
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• Has taught a lot of fellow students how to use computers
• Highly motivated
• No work experience
Applicant 2
Higher National Diploma in Information Technology
• Trained in using network systems including Novell and Windows
• Experienced user of Microsoft Office programs and Internet systems
• Knowledge of setting up and troubleshooting most types of computers and peripherals
• Gets on well with others and can work as part of a team
• Keen to gain experience and develop a career in computing
• Two years' part-time summer experience working in a computer repair workshop
Applicant 3
Higher National Certificate in Computing
• Employed for 3 years in a computing sales team advising customers
on purchase requirements and helping them troubleshoot problems
with installed systems
• Trained in using Unix and Novell network systems and a wide variety of hardware
• Experienced in many PC packages including most Microsoft products
• Good communicator, experienced in dealing with the public and
working as part of a team
• Highly motivated
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A Letter of Application
Sarah Brown is one of the applicants for the job of Senior Programmer. Read her letter of application and put the verbs in brackets into
the correct tense.
19 Sandford Street
London NW7 4HH
2 March 1999
Mr Scott
Personnel Manager
75 Parkhill Street
London SW2 ЗОЕ
Dear Mr Scott,
for the position of Senior
I am writing to (1) (apply)
Programmer which (2) (advertise)
on 28 February in
The Times.
as a computer programmer for the last
I (3) (work)
for a year
three years. After graduation I (4) (work)
with NCR and (5) (be)
now with Intelligent Software for
two years. I design systems in C++ for use in large retail chains. These
several new
have been very successful and we (6) (win)
contracts in the UK and Europe on the strength of my team's success.
Last year I (7) (spend)
three months in Spain
several short
testing our programs and also (8) (make)
visits to Italy so I have a basic knowledge of Spanish and Italian. I
now feel ready for more responsibility and more challenging work and
would welcome the opportunity to learn about a new industry.
I enclose my curriculum vitae and look forward to hearing from
Yours sincerely,
Sarah Brown
Sarah Brown
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Writing a CV
Study the CV of Paul W Cair. Then write your own CV in the same
way. For the purpose of this task, you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations!
Paul W Cair
Personal details
Date of birth 30/5/83
Address 7 Linden Crescent, Stonebridge
EH21 3TZ
Maths, English, Spanish, Computer Studies,
Geography, Science, James High School
HNC in Computing,
Maxwell College
HND in Computing Support, Maxwell College
Other qualifications
Jan 2004 CTEC
Work experience
2003 – present IT support consultant Novasystems
Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of
computing services for its corporate clients.
My experience includes:
• advising clients on IT issues and strategies
• 1st line customer telephone support
• database design
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients’
• network, administration and implementation
• PC assembly
I have knowledge of these areas:
• Windows server operating systems
• Microsoft Office packages
• Oracle databases
• Windows desktop operating systems
• TCP/IP networking
• Microsoft Exchange Server
• a variety of backup software
Hobbies and interests
1 Academic
2 Work
Dr L. Thin, IT Department, Maxwell College
Ms Y. Leith, Personnel Officer, Novasystems
сертифицированный технический учебный центр
присваиваемое УЦ корпорацией Microsoft)
Учебное издание
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Work: Duties, Conditions and Pay (basic vocabulary) ........................ 3
The Career Ladder ................................................................................ 8
My Father’s Job .................................................................................. 10
Work Crossword................................................................................. 11
Working Teens ................................................................................... 13
Work Hard: Lifestyles and Work ....................................................... 17
A Career in IT..................................................................................... 21
Careers in Computing 1 ...................................................................... 28
Careers in Computing 2 ...................................................................... 32
Job Requirements ............................................................................... 35
Choosing the Best Applicant .............................................................. 38
A Letter of Application ...................................................................... 40
Writing a CV ...................................................................................... 41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Английский язык
(для студентов факультета ИВТ)
Составитель Киселева Любовь Ювенальевна
Редактор, корректор И.В. Бунакова
Компьютерная верстка Е.Л. Шелеховой
Подписано в печать 10.04.2008 г. Формат 60×84/16.
Бумага тип. Усл. печ. л. 2,56. Уч.-изд. л. 1,6.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ
Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150 000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
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