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662.Английский язык для студентов физического факультета Колобанова Ю Н

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Ярославский государственный университет им. П. Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков естественно-научных факультетов
Ю. Н Колобанова
Английский язык
для студентов
физического факультета
Методические указания
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по направлению Электроника и наноэлектроника
Ярославль 2011
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УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
К 60
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2011 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков естественно-научных факультетов
Ярославского государственного университета им. П. Г. Демидова
Колобанова, Ю. Н. Английский язык для студентов
физического факультета : методические указания
К 60
/ Ю. Н. Колобанова; Яросл. гос. ун-т им. П. Г. Демидова. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2011. – 56 с.
Методические указания содержат материал, способствующий развитию и совершенствованию у студентов
навыков и умений чтения и перевода оригинальной
литературы по специальности, а также развитие навыков
устной речи. Тексты заимствованы из оригинальных
источников (www.understandingnano.com). Они раскрывают современный уровень достижений в области нанотехнологий и перспективы их развития. Многообразие
текстов, а также предлагаемые формы работы моделируют условия реальной информационно-поисковой
деятельности специалиста.
Предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по направлению Электроника и наноэлектроника (дисциплина
«Английский язык», цикл ГСЭ, блок Б.1), очной формы
обучения.
УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
 Ярославский государственный
университет им. П. Г. Демидова,
2011
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UNIT I. Introduction to Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is defined as the study and use of structures
between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. To give you an idea
of how small that is, it would take eight hundred 100 nanometer
particles side by side to match the width of a human hair. Scientists
have been studying and working with nanoparticles for centuries, but
the effectiveness of their work has been hampered by their inability to
see the structure of nanoparticles. In recent decades the development
of microscopes capable of displaying particles as small as atoms has
allowed scientists to see what they are working with.
Think about how difficult it is for many of us to insert thread
through the eye of a needle. Such an image helps you imagine the
problem scientists have working with nanoparticles that can be as
much as one millionth the size of the thread. Only through the use of
powerful microscopes can they hope to ‘see’ and manipulate these
nano-sized particles. The ability to see nano-sized materials has
opened up a world of possibilities in a variety of industries and
scientific endeavors. Because nanotechnology is essentially a set of
techniques that allow manipulation of properties at a very small scale,
it can have many applications, such as the ones listed below.
Today, most harmful side effects of treatments such as
chemotherapy are a result of drug delivery methods that don't pinpoint
their intended target cells accurately. Researchers at Harvard and
MIT have been able to attach special RNA strands, measuring about 10
nm in diameter, to nanoparticles and fill the nanoparticles with a
chemotherapy drug. These RNA strands are attracted to cancer cells.
When the nanoparticle encounters a cancer cell it adheres to it and
releases the drug into the cancer cell. This directed method of drug
delivery has great potential for treating cancer patients while
producing less side harmful effects than those produced by
conventional chemotherapy.
The properties of familiar materials are being changed by
manufacturers who are adding nano-sized components to conventional
materials to improve performance. For example, some clothing
manufacturers are making water and stain repellent clothing
using nano-sized whiskers in the fabric that cause water to bead up on
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the surface. The properties of many conventional materials change
when formed as nano-sized particles (nanoparticles). This is generally
because nanoparticles have a greater surface area per weight than
larger particles; they are therefore more reactive to some other
molecules. For example studies have shown that nanoparticles of iron
can be effective in the cleanup of chemicals in groundwater because
they react more efficiently to those chemicals than larger iron
particles. Nano-sized particles of carbon, (for example nanotubes and
bucky balls) are extremely strong. Nanotubes and bucky balls are
composed of only carbon and their strength comes from special
characteristics of the bonds between carbon atoms. One proposed
application that illustrates the strength of nanosized particles of carbon
is the manufacture of t-shirt weight bullet proof vests made out of
carbon nanotubes.
The ability to create gears, mirrors, sensor elements, as well as
electronic circuitry in silicon surfaces allows the manufacture of
miniature sensors such as those used to activate the airbags in your
car. This technique is called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical
Systems). The MEMS technique results in close integration of the
mechanical mechanism with the necessary electronic circuit on a
single silicon chip, similar to the method used to produce computer
chips. Using MEMS to produce a device reduces both the cost and
size of the product, compared to similar devices made with
conventional methods. MEMS is a stepping stone to NEMS or NanoElectro-Mechanical Systems. NEMS products are being made by a
few companies, and will take over as the standard once manufacturers
make the investment in the equipment needed to produce nano-sized
features.
If you're a Star Trek fan, you remember the replicator, a device
that could produce anything from a space age guitar to a cup of Earl
Grey tea. Your favorite character just programmed the replicator, and
whatever he or she wanted appeared. Researchers are working on
developing a method called molecular manufacturing that may
someday make the Star Trek replicator a reality. The gadget these
folks envision is called a molecular fabricator; this device would use
tiny manipulators to position atoms and molecules to build an object
as complex as a desktop computer. Researchers believe that raw
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materials can be used to reproduce almost any inanimate object using
this method.
There are many different points of view about the
nanotechnology. These differences start with the definition of
nanotechnology. Some define it as any activity that involves
manipulating materials between one nanometer and 100 nanometers.
However the original definition of nanotechnology involved building
machines at the molecular scale and involves the manipulation of
materials on an atomic (about two-tenths of a nanometer) scale. The
debate continues with varying opinions about exactly what
nanotechnology
can
achieve.
Some
researchers
believe
nanotechnology can be used to significantly extend the human
lifespan or produce replicator-like devices that can create almost
anything from simple raw materials. Others see nanotechnology only
as a tool to help us do what we do now, but faster or better. The third
major area of debate concerns the timeframe of nanotechnologyrelated advances. Will nanotechnology have a significant impact on
our day-to-day lives in a decade or two, or will many of these
promised advances take considerably longer to become realities?
Finally, all the opinions about what nanotechnology can help us
achieve echo with ethical challenges. If nanotechnology helps us to
increase our life-spans or produce manufactured goods from
inexpensive raw materials, what is the moral imperative about making
such technology available to all? Is there sufficient understanding or
regulation of nanotech based materials to minimize possible harm to
us or our environment?
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
to define
to match
to hamper
to allow
variety
endeavor
property
treatment
to pinpoint
target
accurately
to attach
to encounter
to adhere
to release
to improve
surface
to compose
to compare
feature
tiny
5
to involve
to extend
lifespan
advance
impact
available
to anticipate
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Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: to define – definition – definable – definability –
definite – definitely
effect
able
to develop
possible
to vary
to manufacture
to improve
to compose
to equip
to manipulate
to produce
to achieve
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
в последние десятилетия; открыть множество возможностей;
свойства привычных материалов; одежда (материал), отталкивающая воду и грязь; площадь поверхности; предложенное
применение; пуленепробиваемый жилет, который весит как футболка; традиционные методы; сырые материалы (сырье); неодушевленный предмет; значительно увеличить продолжительность
жизни; уменьшить возможные вредные последствия.
Exercise 4: Name the tense and voice in each sentence and
explain their use:
1) Scientists have been studying and working with nanoparticles
for centuries.
2) The effectiveness of their work has been hampered by their
inability to see the structure of nanoparticles.
3) The properties of familiar materials are being changed by
manufacturers.
4) Nanotubes and bucky balls are composed of only carbon.
5) NEMS products are being made by a few companies.
6) Your favorite character just programmed the replicator, and
whatever he or she wanted appeared.
7) Researchers are working on developing a method called
molecular manufacturing.
8) Will nanotechnology have a significant impact on our day-today lives in a decade or two?
Exercise 5: Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the
underlined constructions. Give 5 examples to each construction.
It would take eight hundred 100 nanometer particles side by side
to match the width of a human hair.
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It takes me 25 minutes to get to the University.
It took him half an hour to translate the text.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) What is the definition of «nanotechnology»?
2) What problem did the scientists working with nanoparticles
have? Why couldn’t they see the nanostructure of the atoms?
3) What has happened in recent decades that improved the
studying of nanoparticles?
4) What image(s) can help you imagine the size of nanoparticles?
5) What are the applications of nanotechnology?
6) What are the benefits of the directed method of drug delivery,
developed by researchers at Harvard and MIT?
7) How do nano-sized whiskers used in the fabric function?
8) Why can nanoparticles of iron be more effective in the cleanup
of chemicals in groundwater than larger iron particles?
9) What application illustrates the strength of nanosized particles
of carbon?
10) What is MEMS?
11) What are the advantages of devices produced by MEMS
technique?
12) Are NEMS products produced by many companies?
13) What is molecular fabricator?
14) What debates do scientists have about the definition of
nanotechnology?
15) What can nanotechnology achieve? What are the different
views about this question?
16) What other debates concerning nanotechnology appear at
present?
17) How would you answer the questions given in the last
paragraphs?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Discussion. The Future of Nanotechnology.
Pick one of these topics:
• The molecular replicator, once developed, could allow people to
simply produce many items they need themselves with no need for a
company to manufacture those products. What would this do to our
economy as we know it today? Discuss the potential impact on
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manufacturing, distribution channels (trucking, rail, and so on), and
employment.
• In the world of medicine nanotechnology could change the
human lifespan. Repairs at the cellular level could stop and even
reverse aging. If everybody could live hundreds of years, what would
happen to our world? Would only an elite few get such treatment and
what consequences would that have? If nobody ever died, would
people have to stop having children to avoid overpopulation? What
would that mean to our society?
Optional Activity: Prepare a PowerPoint slide show for your
arguments and present it to the class.
UNIT II. The History of Nanotechnology
The history of nanotechnology is dotted with a certain amount of
skepticism. Some people hold firmly that this is a brand new form of
scientific evolution that did not develop until the late 1980s or early
1990s. Others have found evidence that the history of nanotechnology
can be traced back to the year 1959. Either way, as scientific
development goes, nanotechnology is still a relatively fresh and new
arena of scientific research. Still other scientists hold the belief that
humans have employed practical nanotechnological methods for
thousands of years, perhaps even longer. Nanotechnology is the
development of progress, as many like to put it, and progress has
included the vulcanization of rubber and the introduction of steel into
society. These advancements count in the history of nanotechnology
according to many well known scientific experts.
Perhaps it might be safer to acknowledge that the basics of the
history of nanotechnology have been implemented for thousands of
years or longer, but we as a scientific society did not put a name to it
until somewhere in the mid 60s. In order to accurately document the
history of nanotechnology, one could argue that it began when we
developed the ability to determine particle size, which is indicated to
be around the turn of the 20th century. It was during this time that
particle size became a constant factor in scientific exploration. These
measurements were recorded at smaller than 10nm, which in lay terms
translates roughly into less than microscopic. The nanometer came on
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the scene before the onset of the 1960s. The nanometer, for many, is
the beginning of the history of nanotechnology. After all, once it could
be measured, it would be considered to be an acceptable frame of
reference, right? Almost…
The mid 19 teens produced the ability to recognize particles via
the use of an ultramicroscope that could detect particles as small as
1/1 millionth of a millimeter. This is a particle smaller than most lay
people cannot truly visualize accurately. Thus, there are yet even more
critics that state the history of nanotechnology actually began in the
mid 19 teens when the documented case took place.
Of course, the term itself comes with history. The word assigned
to this type of scientific advancement is known to have come from a
paper that was released in 1974 written from the Tokyo Science
University. There, a student coined the term «nanotechnology» in his
paper and the name stuck firmly from then on. This is one area of this
science’s history that is not readily disputed, or disputable. During this
time, nanotechnology truly flourished, and as early as 1974 there were
numerous breakthroughs that led scientists to continue to develop this
science with fervor. Discoveries such as the famous Finns’ process of
atomic layering helped to put nanotechnology on the map when it
came to being recognized by the rest of the scientific community.
The idea that one could actually in some sense «touch» atoms and
molecules came about in the 1980s, when famous nanotechnological
scientists backed up the theory proposed by Dr. K. Eric Drexler, who
was responsible for the eventual ability to manipulate atoms and
molecules. This was rather controversial at the time as the
mishandling of molecules and atoms were feared should the any
scientists with deadly intentions get their hands on the process. The
fear was well founded, as molecular manipulation would have
certainly been a way to sabotage just about anything, including
humane structuring of the natural world.
The 1980s and early 1990s saw a significant increase in the
popularity of nanotechnology. This is the science that can figure out
how to power our lives with nothing more than molecules and atoms.
This is the science where advancements are always happening and
being tested. It won’t be long before we look to nano—scientists to
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attempt to fix some of the world’s larger social problems with the
implementation of technology and progress.
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
evidence
to trace
relatively
to employ
acceptable
to recognize
to detect
to include
advancement
to count
to acknowledge
accurately
to assign
to coin
to implement
to argue
to determine
to indicate
to stick
to flourish
breakthrough
measurement
roughly
onset
to consider
fervor
to propose
controversial
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
to employ
to implement
to introduce
to argue
to acknowledge to determine
to indicate
to measure
to consider
to recognize
to detect
to assign
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
находить доказательства; относительно новая область научного исследования; чтобы точно засвидетельствовать; способность определить размер частиц; на языке непрофессионала; в
конце концов; система отчета (координат); многочисленные успехи (достижения); хорошо обоснованный; значительное увеличение популярности.
Exercise 4: Find in the text Regular and Irregular verbs. Give the
three forms of Irregular verbs.
Exercise 5: Find in the text adverbs and name adjectives from
which they are formed.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) Why is the history of nanotechnology dotted with a certain
amount of skepticism?
2) Which advancements count in the history of nanotechnology
according to many well known scientific experts?
3) What happened at the turn of the 20th century?
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4) Why is the nanometer considered to be the beginning of the
history of nanotechnology?
5) What happened in the mid 19-teens?
6) How did the term “nanotechnology” appear?
7) What scientific idea appeared in 1980s? Why was it
controversial?
8) When did a significant increase in the science happen?
9) What will happen in the future?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Prepare a report about Finns’ process of atomic
layering or the theory proposed by Dr. K. Eric Drexler.
UNIT III. What’s so special about nanotech and
why is it an issue now?
• Read the text and translate it using a dictionary.
Chemists have dealt with naturally occurring nanoparticles all
along. Think molecules or viruses. Toxicologists have dealt with
nanoparticles that are the result of modern human life such as carbon
particles in combustion engine exhaust. Without being aware of it, tire
manufacturers used nanoparticles – carbon black – to improve the
performance of tires as early as the 1920s. Medieval artists used gold
nanoparticles to achieve the bright red color in church windows (gold
particles in nanometer size are red, not golden). You might even say
that we are surrounded by, and made of, nanostructures – atoms and
molecules are nanoscale objects after all. So what is all the fuss about,
all of a sudden?
The ongoing quest for miniaturization has resulted in tools such
as the atomic force microscope (AFM) or the scanning tunneling
microscope (STM). Combined with refined processes such as electron
beam lithography, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation
and manufacture of nanostructures («High-speed AFM enables realtime nanofabrication»). Something that wasn’t possible before.
With new tools came new concepts and it turned out that the
mechanical rules that govern the nanoworld are quite different from
our everyday, macroworld experience. Characterizing the extreme
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small forces that are at play at the nanoscale also led to further
development of instruments. Only a little more than a decade ago, the
possibility that one could directly measure the forces acting between
molecules appeared remote. The advent of nanotechnology has
dramatically changed this perception. Today there are a number of
tools that can be used to characterize the nanomechanics of
biomolecular and cellular interactions. Examples are optical tweezers,
magnetic pullers, and cantilever-based instruments like the AFM.
Engineered nanomaterials – either by way of a topdown approach (a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern
or structure) or a bottom-up approach (larger structures are built or
grown atom by atom or molecule by molecule) – go beyond just a
further step in miniaturization.
The bulk properties of materials often change dramatically when
reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Starting roughly at 100 nanometers
and below, materials break a size barrier below which quantization of
energy for the electrons in solids becomes relevant.
Quantum Effects
The so-called quantum size effect describes the physics of
electron properties in solids with great reductions in particle size. This
effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro
dimensions. However, it becomes dominant when the nanometer size
range is reached. Quantum effects can begin to dominate the behavior
of matter at the nanoscale – particularly at the lower end (single digit
and low tens of nanometers) – affecting the optical, electrical and
magnetic behavior of materials. Materials can be produced that are
nanoscale in one dimension (for example, very thin surface coatings),
in two dimensions (for example, nanowires and nanotubes) or in all
three dimensions (for example, nanoparticles and quantum dots).
The causes of these drastic changes stem from the weird world of
quantum physics. The bulk properties of any material are merely the
average of all the quantum forces affecting all the atoms that make up
the material. As you make things smaller and smaller, you eventually
reach a point where the averaging no longer works and you have to
deal with the specific behavior of individual atoms or molecules –
behavior that can be very different to when these atoms are aggregated
into a bulk material.
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Materials reduced to the nanoscale can suddenly show very
different properties compared to what they show on a macroscale. For
instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper); inert
materials become catalysts (platinum); stable materials turn
combustible (aluminum); solids turn into liquids at room temperature
(gold); insulators become conductors (silicon).
Surface area
Another important aspect of nanomaterials is surface area. When
compared to the same mass of material in bulk form, nanoscale
materials have a relatively larger surface area. This can make
materials more chemically reactive (in some cases materials that are
inert in bulk form are reactive when produced in their nanoscale
form), and affect their strength or electrical properties.
To understand the effect of particle size on surface area, consider
a U.S. silver dollar coin. The silver dollar contains 26.96 grams of
coin silver, has a diameter of about 4 centimeters, and has a total
surface area of approximately 27.70 square centimeters. If the same
amount of coin silver were divided into tiny particles – say
1 nanometer in diameter – the total surface area of those particles
would be 11,400 square meters. In other words: when the amount of
coin silver contained in a silver dollar is rendered into 1 nm particles,
the surface area of those particles is over 4 million times greater than
the surface area of the silver dollar! The fascination with
nanotechnology stems from these unique quantum and surface
phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale, making possible
novel applications and interesting materials.
Evolutionary vs. Revolutionary Nanotechnologies
However, there clearly is a need to differentiate between two
types of nanotechnologies. One is happening right now and the other
is the stuff of science fiction and way-out technology scenarios.
What we are dealing with today is evolutionary nanotechnology.
The goal of evolutionary nanotechnology is to improve existing
processes, materials and applications by scaling down into the nano
realm and ultimately fully exploit the unique quantum and surface
phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale. This trend is driven
by companies' ongoing quest to improve existing products by creating
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smaller components and better performance materials, all at a lower
cost.
Take the example of the computer/electronics industry – because
chip design structures have broken the 100 nanometer range, the
semiconductor industry is on its way to become a nanotechnology
industry.
Think about it: The first transistors were over 1 centimeter in size,
the smallest transistors today are less than 30 nanometers long – over
three hundred thousand times smaller. This feat would be equivalent
to shrinking the 509-meter tall Taipei 101 Tower, currently the tallest
building in the world, to the size of a 1.6 millimeter tall grain of rice.
So today’s advanced semiconductor manufacturing is already well
into the nano realm; and when we reach single-molecule transistors it
will have been the end of a gradual miniaturization of electronic
components.
Due to this ever continuing trend of «smaller, better, cheaper»,
the number of companies that are, by the same definition,
«nanotechnology companies» (because they use nanoformulated food
ingredients; nanoparticle coatings; nanostructured surface technology;
carbon nanotube based electronics; etc.) will grow very fast and soon
make up the majority of all companies across many industries – and
they will have familiar names such as Kraft, L'Oreal, Toshiba, GE,
BMW, Nokia or Bayer, just to name a few.
By contrast, truly revolutionary nanotechnology envisages a
bottom-up approach where functional devices and entire fabrication
systems are built atom by atom (just to be clear, here we are not just
talking self-assembly and chemical synthesis of nanomaterials but
functional machinery). Unless you resort to science fiction scenarios it
will be impossible to make even educated guesses as to what that
future might bring.
• Ask 10 questions on the basis of the text.
• Prepare 5 true and 5 false statements to the text.
• Summarize the text in 15–20 sentences. Agree or disagree with
the author’s opinion.
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UNIT IV. Nanotechnology in Medicine –
Nanomedicine
The use of nanotechnology in medicine offers some exciting
possibilities. Some techniques are only imagined, while others are at
various stages of testing, or actually being used today.
Nanotechnology in medicine involves applications of nanoparticles
currently under development, as well as longer range research that
involves the use of manufactured nano-robots to make repairs at the
cellular level (sometimes referred to as nanomedicine). Whatever you
call it, the use of nanotechnology in the field of medicine could
revolutionize the way we detect and treat damage to the human body
and disease in the future, and many techniques only imagined a few
years ago are making remarkable progress towards becoming realities.
One application of nanotechnology in medicine currently being
developed involves employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat,
light or other substances to specific types of cells (such as cancer
cells). Particles are engineered so that they are attracted to diseased
cells, which allows direct treatment of those cells. This technique
reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier
detection of disease. For example, nanoparticles that deliver
chemotherapy drugs directly to cancer cells are under development.
Tests are in progress for targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs and
their final approval for their use with cancer patients is pending.
If you hate getting shots, you'll be glad to hear that oral
administration of drugs that currently are delivered by injection may be
possible in many cases. The drug is encapsulated in a nanoparticle
which helps it pass through the stomach to deliver the drug into the
bloodstream. There are efforts underway to develop oral
administration of several different drugs using a variety of
nanoparticles. A company which has progressed to the clinical testing
stage with a drug for treating systemic fungal diseases is BioDelivery
Sciences, which is using a nanoparticle called a cochleate.
Buckyballs may be used to trap free radicals generated during an
allergic reaction and block the inflammation that results from an
allergic reaction. Nanoshells may be used to concentrate the heat from
infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage
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to surrounding healthy cells. Nanospectra Biosciences has developed
such a treatment using nanoshells illuminated by an infrared laser that
has been approved for a pilot trial with human patients. Nanoparticles,
when activated by x-rays, that generate electrons that cause the
destruction of cancer cells to which they have attached
themselves. This is intended to be used in place radiation therapy with
much less damage to healthy tissue.
Nanobiotix has
released preclinical results for this technique. Aluminosilicate
nanoparticles can more quickly reduce bleeding in trauma patients by
absorbing water, causing blood in a wound to clot quickly. Z- Medica is producing a medical gauze that uses aluminosilicate
nanoparticles. Nanofibers can stimulate the production of cartilage in
damaged joints. Nanoparticles may be used, when inhaled, to stimulate an immune response to fight respiratory virsuses.
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
to imagine
to involve
disease
remarkable
to employ
to deliver
to attract
application
currently
to reduce
approval
pending
administration
to encapsulate
to refer to
to detect
to trap
to destroy
to intend
to release
bleeding
to treat
damage
to absorb
wound
to clot
to inhale
response
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
vary – variety –various – variable – variation
to excite
to imagine
to manufacture
to treat
to apply
to employ
to deliver
to attract
to reduce
to approve
to generate
to destroy
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
захватывающие возможности; различные стадии исследования; на клеточном уровне; обнаружить (выявить) и лечить заболевание; особые виды клеток; уменьшать вредное воздействие;
позволить обнаружить болезнь на ранней стадии; находиться в
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стадии разработки (исследования); оказывать противовоспалительное действие; уничтожать раковые клетки; вызывать уничтожение раковых клеток; здоровая ткань; уменьшить кровотечение;
поврежденные суставы.
Exercise 4: Translate the following expressions into Russian. Pay
attention to the use of Participles, their forms and syntactical
functions:
manufactured nanorobots; referred to as nanotechnology:
techniques imagined in the future; one application of nanotechnology
currently being developed; diseased cells; targeted delivery; oral
administration of different drugs using a variety of nanoparticlesto
trap free radical generated during an allergic reaction; with minimum
damage to surrounding healthy cells; nanoshells illuminated by an
infrared laser; to reduce bleeding by absorbing water; causing blood in
a wound to clot quickly; damaged joints.
Exercise 5: Find in the text sentences containing Gerunds.
Translate them. State the syntactical functions.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions:
1) What kind of possibilities does the use of nanotechnology in
medicine offer?
2) Can there be any changes in the way we detect and treat
damage to the human body?
3) How are nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light and other
substances to specific types of cells engineered?
4) What is the advantage of the new technique?
5) What opportunity will you have in the future if you’re afraid of
getting shots?
6) What may buckyballs be used for?
7) What may be the use of nanoshells?
8) What happens when nanoparticles are activated by X-rays?
9) How can aluminosilicate nanoparticles help?
10) What can nanofibers stimulate in damaged joints?
11) What happens when nanoparticles are inhaled?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Discussion.
The use of nanotechnology in medicine might make it possible to
extend our lives by repairing damage to DNA in our cells. Would you
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want to live 400 years? How would you live life differently if you
lived that long? Would you have many more careers? Would you keep
friends for life or have many different sets of relationships? What kind
of changes to technology might occur over such a long period of time?
Presentation: Nanotechnology holds the promise of completely
getting rid of several major diseases such as cancer and heart disease.
What could this mean to our world? In small groups as assigned by
your teacher, discuss and then prepare a brief presentation on one of
these topics and deliver it to the class:
• If people did not die of disease, our world population would
soar. What would this mean to the world's economy? How could we
support so many more people? Would we have to move some people
out into space?
• What would the typical day in a doctor's life be like if major
diseases were eradicated or almost instantly diagnosed and cured.
How would you spend your work day? Imagine what conditions
would be left for you to treat?
Optional Activity: Work in groups to research one company
working to cure a disease using nanotechnology. Create a presentation
describing the company and their efforts and present it to the class.
UNIT V. Life Extension through
Nanotechnology
There are two ways in which nanotechnology may be able to
extend our lives. One is by helping to eradicate life-threatening
diseases such as cancer, and the other is by repairing damage to our
bodies at the cellular level – a nano-version of the fountain of youth.
Our average lifespan has been increased over the last 100 years by
reducing the impact of life-threatening diseases. For example,
vaccines have virtually eliminated smallpox. The application of
nanotechnology in healthcare is likely to reduce the number of deaths
from conditions such as cancer and heart disease over the next decade
or so.
So, what type of nano work is being done in the way of
eradicating cancer, one of the most serious of diseases on our planet?
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An intriguing targeted chemotherapy method uses one nanoparticle to
deliver a chemotherapy drug and a separate nanoparticle to guide the
drug carrier to the cancer tumor. First gold nanorods circulating
through the bloodstream exit where the blood vessels are leaking at
the site of cancer tumors. Once the nanorods accumulate at the tumor
they are used to concentrate the heat from infrared light, heating up
the tumor. This heat increases the level of a stress related protein on
the surface of the tumor. The drug carrying nanoparticle (a liposome)
is attached to amino acids that bind to this protein, so the increased
level of protein at the tumor speeds up the accumulation of the
chemotherapy drug-carrying liposome at the tumor. Magnetic
nanoparticles that attach to cancer cells in the blood stream may allow
the cancer cells to be removed before they establish new tumors. In
addition to individual research programs like these by various
universities and companies, the U.S. National Cancer Institute has
formed a group called the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.
The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer is catalyzing targeted
discovery and development efforts that offer the greatest advances in
the near term and beyond. They are also working to facilitate the
process of handing off those advances to the private sector for
commercial development. This alliance includes a Nanotechnology
Characterization Lab as well as eight Centers of Cancer
Nanotechnology Excellence.
Another major killer in our time is heart disease. In this area,
there are several efforts going on. Researchers at the University of
Santa Barbara have developed a nanoparticle that can deliver drugs to
plaque on the wall of arteries. They attach a protein called a peptide to
a nanoparticle which then binds with the surface of plaque. Studies
have verified that the peptide attaches the nanoparticle to plaque. The
researchers plan to use these nanoparticles to deliver imaging particles
and drugs to both diagnosis and treat the condition. Researchers at
MIT and Harvard Medical School have attached a different peptide to
a drug-carrying nanoparticle. This peptide binds to a membrane that
is exposed in damaged artery walls, allowing the nanoparticle to
release a drug at the site of the damage. The drug helps prevent the
growth of scar tissue that can clog arteries. To help coordinate this
type of research, the U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute has
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established four Program of Excellence in Nanotechnology Centers to
focus on diseases of the lung and cardiovascular system. For
example the Program of Excellence in Nanotechnology (PEN) for the
treatment of Vulnerable Plaque is a partnership of 25 scientists from
The Burnham Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, and
The Scripps Research Institute. The scientists are developing methods
to detect, monitor, treat, and eliminate «vulnerable» plaque, the type
of plaque most likely to cause heart attacks.
Perhaps the most exciting possibility exists in the potential for
repairing our bodies at the cellular level. Techniques for building
nanorobots are being developed that should make the repair of our
cells possible. For example, as we age, DNA in our cells is damaged
by radiation or chemicals in our bodies. Nanorobots would be able to
repair the damaged DNA and allow our cells to function correctly.
This ability to repair DNA and other defective components in our cells
goes beyond keeping us healthy: it has the potential to restore our
bodies to a more youthful condition. This concept is discussed in Eric
Drexler's Engines of Creation. Drexler states: «Aging is
fundamentally no different from any other physical disorder; it is no
magical effect of calendar dates on a mysterious life-force. Brittle
bones, wrinkled skin, low enzyme activities, slow wound healing,
poor memory, and the rest all result from damaged molecular
machinery, chemical imbalances, and mis-arranged structures. By
restoring all the cells and tissues of the body to a youthful structure,
repair machines will restore youthful health».
In this area, there are several approaches being explored.
The Nanofactory Collorabation is an international group of scientists
developing the techniques for atomically precise manufacturing,
which is essentially the process of building structures atom by atom.
Once developed this technique can be used to build nanorobots that
can perform cellular level surgery, such as replacing DNA that is
damaged as we age. The Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein
Machines is using a different method to develop the ability to replace
damaged DNA. They are studying protein-based biological machines
(nanorobots) which can handle tasks such as DNA replication and
repairing damage in our bodies. As they state on their website, «We
hope to identify common principles that can be applied to the design
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of artificial nucleoprotein machines with novel specificities,
facilitating the precise manipulation of DNA and RNA at the atomic
level». The Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines is
actually part of a national network of eight Nanomedicine
Development Centers established by the U.S. National Institute of
Health. The Centers state that they will «expand knowledge of the
basic science of nanostructures in living cells, will gain the capability
to engineer biological nanostructures, and then will apply the
knowledge, tools, and devices to focus on specific target diseases. The
bold, exciting challenges of this program represent a unique approach
to combine nanoscale science – understanding and manipulating
cellular nanostructures – with specific medical therapies».
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
to extend
to eradicate
lifespan
to increase
to reduce
impact
to eliminate
application
healthcare
intriguing
separate
tumor
to leak
to accumulate
surface
to bind
to attach
to remove
to establish
to facilitate
to plaque
to verify
to expose
to clog
vulnerable
to restore
approach
to handle
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: to extend – extension – extensive – extent
threat
to eliminate
to deliver
to circulate
to accumulate
to concentrate
to attach
to establish
to add
to discover
to verify
to expose
to prevent
to radiate
to heal
to combine
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
опасные для жизни болезни; источник молодости; средняя
продолжительность жизни; кровеносные сосуды; раковая клетка;
в добавление к; предотвратить (предупредить) рост рубцовой ткани; послужить причиной сердечного приступа; захватывающие
возможности; справляться с задачами; общие принципы; добить21
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ся возможности (получить способность); применить (использовать) знания.
Exercise 4: Name the tense and voice in each sentence and
explain their use:
1) Our average lifespan has been increased over the last
100 years.
2) So, what type of nano work is being done in the way of
eradicating cancer?
3) The drug carrying nanoparticle (a liposome) is attached to
amino acids.
4) The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer is catalyzing
targeted discovery and development efforts.
5) By restoring all the cells and tissues of the body to a youthful
structure, repair machines will restore youthful health.
Exercise 5: Translate the sentence. Pay attention to the
construction to be (un)likely to do smth. Give 5 examples of your
own using the construction.
The application of nanotechnology in healthcare is likely to
reduce the number of deaths from conditions such as cancer and heart
disease over the next decade or so.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) What are the two ways in which nanotechnology may be able
to extend our lives?
2) Has our average lifespan been increased over the last 100
years?
3) Why are two separate nanoparticles used in targeted
chemotherapy?
4) What speeds up the accumulation of the chemotherapy drugcarrying liposome at the tumor?
5) What may magnetic nanoparticles that attach to cancer cells in
the bloodstream do?
6) What is NCI and what is this organization doing?
7) What kind of nanoparticles have researchers at the University
of Santa Barbara developed?
8) What would nanorobots be able to do in the future?
9) Is there a possibility to restore our bodies to a more youthful
condition?
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Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Find information about the Nanofactory
Collaboration or Nanomedicine Development Centres and prepare a
report (presentation) about their activity.
UNIT VI. Environmental Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is being used in several applications to improve
the environment. This includes cleaning up existing pollution,
improving manufacturing methods to reduce the generation of new
pollution, and making alternative energy sources more cost effective.
In trying to help our ailing environment, nanotechnology researchers
and developers are pursuing the following avenues:
Generating less pollution during the manufacture of
materials. One example of this is how researchers have demonstrated
that the use of silver nanoclusters as catalysts can significantly reduce the
polluting byproducts generated in the process used to manufacture
propylene oxide. Propylene oxide is used to produce common
materials such as plastics, paint, detergents and brake fluid.
Producing solar cells that generate electricity at a competitive
cost. Researchers have demonstrated that an array of silicon nanowires
embedded in a polymer results in low cost but high efficiency solar cells.
This, or other efforts using nanotechnology to improve solar cells, may
result in solar cells that generate electricity as cost effectively as coal
or oil.
Increasing the electricity generated by windmills. Epoxy
containing carbon nanotubes is being used to make windmill blades. The
resulting blades are stronger and lower weight and therefore the
amount of electricity generated by each windmill is greater.
Cleaning
up
organic
chemicals
polluting
groundwater. Researchers have shown that iron nanoparticles can be
effective in cleaning up organic solvents that are polluting groundwater.
The iron nanoparticles disperse throughout the body of water and
decompose the organic solvent in place. This method can be more
effective and cost significantly less than treatment methods that
require the water to be pumped out of the ground.
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Capturing carbon dioxide in power plant exhaust. Researchers
are developing nanostructred membranes designed to capture carbon
dioxide in the exhaust stacks of power plants instead of releasing it
into the air.
Clearing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from
air. Researchers have demonstrated a catalyst that breaks down
VOCs at room temperature. The catalyst is composed of porous
manganese oxide in which gold nanoparticles have been embedded.
Reducing the cost of fuel cells. Changing the spacing of
platinum atoms used in a fuel cell increases the catalytic ability of the
platinum. This allows the fuel cell to function with about 80% less
platinum, significantly reducing the cost of the fuel cell.
Storing hydrogen for fuel cell powered cars. Using graphene
layers to increase the binding energy of hydrogen to the graphene
surface in a fuel tank results in a higher amount of hydrogen storage
and a lighter weight fuel tank. This could help in the development of
practical hydrogen-fueled cars.
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
environment
pollution
to improve
solvent
to disperse
to decompose
ailing
to pursue
avenue
to pump
to capture
exhaust
byproducts
competitive
array
to release
volatile
ability
to embed
amount
to generate
to store
hydrogen
light
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: to apply –appliance – application – applicable –
applicant
to improve
to exist
to pollute
to manufacture
to demonstrate
to generate
to compose
to produce
to reduce
to research
to store
to develop
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
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улучшить окружающую среду; сделать рентабельным
(прибыльным); значительно снизить; тормозная жидкость; давать
(вырабатывать)
электричество;
очищение
(фильтрация)
органических растворителей; загрязнять грунтовые воды;
рассеиваться на поверхности воды; более легкий топливный бак.
Exercise 4: Find in the text adjectives used in the comparative
form. Give the superlative forms from the following adjectives:
new; little; significant; competitive; low; high; effective; light.
Exercise 5: Translate the sentence. Pay attention to the
underlined comparative construction. Give 5 examples practicing the
construction as … as.
This, or other efforts using nanotechnology to improve solar
cells, may result in solar cells that generate electricity as cost
effectively as coal or oil.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) What are the applications of using nanotechnology to improve
the environment?
2) What can significantly reduce the polluting byproducts
generated in the process used to manufacture propylene oxide?
3) Is it possible to produce solar cells that generate electricity as
cost effectively as coal or oil?
4) What is being used to make windmill blades? Why is the
amount of electricity produced by each windmill greater?
5) What kind of nanoparticles can be effective in cleaning up
organic solvents that are polluting groundwaters?
6) What can be done using nanoparticles instead of releasing
carbon dioxide into the air?
7) What is the use of a catalyst demonstrated by researchers?
8) How can the cost of the fuel cell be reduced?
9) What could help in the development of practical hydrogenfueled cars?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Discussion: Nanotechnology could make fuel cellpowered cars a reality. Research what is being done today by car
manufacturers to reduce gas emissions, and compare those methods to
the use of fuel-cells. How would getting rid of gas-powered cars help
our environment?
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Presentation: Research one of these two topics and prepare a
presentation:
What impact would it have on our economy if nanotechnology
got rid of all forms of pollution?
What impact would it have on our health and life spans if there
were no more pollution on our planet, plenty of drinkable water, and
no global warming?
Optional Activity: Write a brief description of a recent
environmental disaster and the impact it had on our environment.
UNIT VII. Nanotechnology: Is it Safe?
There's an old saying: Be careful what you wish for. Could all the
promise that nanotechnology hold be a double-edged sword,
delivering miracles while causing unanticipated problems? Because so
much of nanotechnology is new or still under development, various
safety concerns have been raised about the safety of nanomaterials.
Here are a few examples:
• When mice inhale carbon nanotubes, the material has been
shown to lodge in their lungs, in a pattern similar to asbestos. What is
not known is whether inhaled carbon nanotubes can cause cancer.
• If nanoparticles used in creams such as sunscreens could
penetrate the outer layer of skin would they cause damage to cells in
the body? We found a variety of opinions on this question. To find the
answer, the US National Center for Toxicological Research is
conducting studies of the toxicity of the nanoparticles used in
suncreams.
• Can nanoparticles used in cleaning products cause damage to
the environment? Perhaps. One study by researchers at Purdue
University found that silver nanoparticles suspended in a solution
were toxic to minnows.
Dr. Linda Birnbaum, the director of the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences and the National Toxicology Program,
made the following statement about nanomaterials: «We currently
know very little about nanoscale materials' effect on human health and
the environment. The same properties that make nanomaterials so
potentially beneficial in drug delivery and product development are
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some of the same reasons we need to be cautious about their presence
in the environment».
Nanotechnology Safety Programs
To address some of these concerns, several organizations are
setting themselves the task of watchdogging nanotechnology and
safety issues. Here is a list of some of those programs:
• The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's National Center for
Toxicological Research has created a Nanotechnology Core
Facility that has stated that its mission is to: «support nanotechnology
toxicity studies, develop analytical tools to quantify nanomaterials in
complex matrices, and develop procedures for characterizing
namomaterials in FDA-regulated products».
• The U.S. Department of Health and Human Service's National
Toxicology Program is also concerned. The program has engaged in a
research program whose purpose it describes as: «to address potential
human health hazards associated with the manufacture and use of
nanoscale materials. This initiative is driven by the intense current and
anticipated future research and development focus on nanotechnology.
The goal of this research program is to evaluate the toxicological
properties of major nanoscale materials classes which represent a
cross-section of composition, size, surface coatings, and
physicochemical properties, and use these as model systems to
investigate fundamental questions concerning if and how nanoscale
materials can interact with biological systems».
• The National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NOISH) has created its own field research team and directed
it to: «assess workplace processes, materials, and control technologies
associated with nanotechnology and conduct on-site assessments of
potential occupational exposure to a variety of nanomaterials».
• The NanoHealth Enterprise Initiative was proposed by the
National Institutes of Health to address critical research needs for the
safe development of nanoscale materials and devices. According to
the NIH website, they propose: »a broad-based initiative that will
employ state-of-the-art technologies in research to examine the
fundamental
physicochemical
interactions
of
engineered
nanomaterials (ENM) with biological systems at the molecular,
cellular, and organ level. The NanoHealth Enterprise proposes a
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partnership of NIH institutes, federal agencies, and public and private
partners to pursue the very best science, leverage investment for
research efficiencies, and minimize the time from discovery to
application of engineered nanomaterials».
The UK's Institute of Occupational Medicine has formed
the Safenano Initiative which they have stated aims to: «interpret and
disseminate emerging scientific evidence about the health, safety and
environmental issues of nanotechnology to industry, academia,
occupational health practitioners and the general public. Our aim is to
become the UK's premier independent site for information about
Nanotechnology hazard, risk and good practice».
• The Safety of Nano-materials Interdisciplinary Research Centre
(SnIRC) is a collaboration between the Institute of Occupational
Medicine in Edinburgh, Napier University, Aberdeen University,
Edinburgh University, and the US National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health. Their stated goals are to:
– increase awareness of the issues relating to nanoparticles,
health, and environment.
– become the UK centre for information and advice on the
potential health, safety, and environmental impacts of generic or
specifically engineered nano-materials, especially nanoparticles and
nanotubes.
– generate a comprehensive and coherent body of scientific
evidence which would help towards developing relevant policies to
promote UK nanotechnology growth while safeguarding workplace,
public, and environmental health.
– assist UK industry in developing safe nano-materials.
– maintain and promote an international network of researchers
and regulators actively involved in the safety of nanomaterials.
– be the organisation for integrating UK research with
corresponding US and European efforts.
– maintain dialogue with the Research Co-ordination Group led
by DEFRA in response to the Royal Society/Royal Academy of
Engineering Report.
– raise support and funding for these activities.
The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development
(OECD) has a program in which organizations in member countries
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are testing 14 key nanomaterials for human health and environmental
safety.
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
careful
promise
deliver
to anticipate
various
concern
to inhale
to lodge
to cause
to penetrate
layer
to suspend
statement
currently
beneficial
cautious
to watchdog
to support
to engage
hazard
to associate
goal
to evaluate
to represent
to investigate
to interact
to create
to assess
to propose
to pursue
evidence
collaboration
awareness
impact
comprehensive
coherent
relevant
to promote
to maintain
to involve
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: safe – safety – safely
care
to deliver
to anticipate
to vary
to penetrate
benefit
caution
to concern
to create
to state
to associate
to evaluate
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
палка о двух концах; непредвиденные проблемы;
беспокойство о безопасности; оседать (накапливаться) в легких;
быть причиной раковых заболеваний; проникать в наружный
покров (слой) кожи; проводить исследования; сделать заявление;
наблюдение (контроль) за нанотехнологиями; вред (опасность)
здоровью;
самые
современные
техологии;
научные
доказтельства.
Exercise 4: Find in the text sentences containing modal verbs.
Translate them into Russian. State their functions.
Exercise 5: Name the tense and voice in each sentence and
explain their use:
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1) The US National Center for Toxicological Research is
conducting studies of the toxicity of the nanoparticles used in suncreens.
2) One study by researchers at Purdue University found that silver
nanoparticles suspended in a solution were toxic to minnows.
3) Several organizations are setting themselves the task of
watchdogging nanotechnology and safety issues.
4) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's National Center for
Toxicological Research has created a Nanotechnology Core Facility.
5) This initiative is driven by the intense current and anticipated
future research and development focus on nanotechnology.
6) The NanoHealth Enterprise Initiative was proposed by the National
Institutes of Health.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) Why have many safety concerns been raised about
nanomaterials? Give examples. Do you share any of the concerns?
2) What’s Dr. Linda Birnbaum opinion about nanomaterials? Do
you agree or disagree with her statement? Why?
3) What’s the common purpose of Nanotechnology Safety
Programs?
4) What’s the mission of a Nanotechnology Core Facility?
5) What’s the goal of The U.S. Department of Health and Human
Service’s national Toxicology Program?
6) What’s the aim of NOISH?
7) What does the NanoHealth Enterprise Initiative propose?
8) What’s the main aim of the Safenano Initiative?
9) What kind of an organization is SnIRC? What are their goals?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Choose one of the listed organizations and prepare a
report (presentation) about it.
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UNIT VIII. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cells
Catalysts are used with fuels such as hydrogen or methanol to
produce hydrogen ions. Platinum, which is very expensive, is the
catalyst typically used in this process. Companies are using
nanoparticles of platinum to reduce the amount of platinum needed,
or using nanoparticles of other materials to replace platinum entirely
and thereby lower costs. Fuel cells contain membranes that
allow hydrogen ions to pass through the cell but do not allow other
atoms or ions, such as oxygen, to pass through. Companies are using
nanotechnology to create more efficient membranes; this will allow
them to build lighter weight and longer lasting fuel cells. Small fuel
cells are being developed that can be used to replace batteries in
handheld devices such as PDAs or laptop computers. Most
companies working on this type of fuel cell are using methanol as a
fuel and are calling them DMFCs, which stands for direct methanol
fuel cell. DMFCs are designed to last longer than conventional
batteries. In addition, rather than plugging your device into an
electrical outlet and waiting for the battery to recharge, with a
DMFC you simply insert a new cartridge of methanol into the
device and you're ready to go. Fuel cells that can replace batteries in
electric cars are also under development. Hydrogen is the fuel most
researchers propose for use in fuel cell powered cars. In addition to
the improvements to catalysts and membranes discussed above, it is
necessary to develop a lightweight and safe hydrogen fuel tank to
hold the fuel and build a network of refueling stations. To build
these tanks, researchers are trying to develop lightweight
nanomaterials that will absorb the hydrogen and only release it
when needed. The Department of Energy is estimating that
widespread usage of hydrogen powered cars will not occur until
approximately 2020.
Researchers at the University of Illinois have developed a proton
exchange membrane using a silicon layer with pores of about 5 nanometers in diameter capped by a layer of porous silica. The silica
layer is designed to insure that water stays in the nanopores. The
water combines with the acid molecules along the wall of the
nanopores to form an acidic solution, providing an easy pathway for
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hydrogen ions through the membrane. Evaluation of this membrane
showed it to have much better conductivity of hydrogen ions
(100 times better conductivity was reported) in low humidity
conditions than the membrane normally used in fuel cells.
Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have investigated
the storage of hydrogen in graphene (single atom thick carbon sheets).
Hydrogen has a high bonding energy to carbon, and the researchers
used annealing and plasma treatment to increase this bonding
energy. Because graphene is only one atom thick it has the highest
surface area exposure of carbon per weight of any material. High
hydrogen to carbon bonding energy and high surface area exposure
of carbon gives graphene a good chance of storing hydrogen. The
researchers found that they could store14% by weight of hydrogen
in graphene. Researchers at the SLAC National Accelerator
Laboratory have developed a way to use less platinum for the
cathode in a fuel cell, which could significantly reduce the cost of
fuel cells. They alloyed platinum with copper and then removed the
copper from the surface of the film, which caused the platinum
atoms to move closer to each other (reducing the lattice space). It
turns out that platinum with reduced lattice spacing is a more effective
catalyst for breaking up oxygen molecules into oxygen ion. The difference
is that the reduced spacing changes the electronic structure of the
platinum atoms so that the separated oxygen ions more easily
released, and allowed to react with the hydrogen ions passing
through the proton exchange membrane. Another way to reduce the
use of platinum for catalyst in fuel cell cathodes is being developed
by researchers at Brown University. They deposited a one
nanometer thick layer of platinum and iron on spherical
nanoparticles of palladium. In laboratory scale testing they found
that a catalyst made with these nanoparticles generated 12 times more
current than a catalyst using pure platinum, and lasted ten times
longer. The researchers believe that the improvement is due to a
more efficient transfer of electrons than in standard catalysts.
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Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
catalyst
fuel
expensive
entirely
to create
efficient
to recharge
to insert
to propose
improvement
to absorb
to release
pathway
evaluation
conductivity
humidity
to investigate
significantly
copper
film
lattice
separated
to deposit
pure
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: to use – user – useful – usefulness – useless
to create
to build
to design
to research
to propose
to discuss
to estimate
to occur
to insure
to combine
to evaluate
to conduct
to investigate
to treat
to move
to differ
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
сократить (снизить) необходимое количество платины; переносные (портативные) устройства; обыкновенные батарейки;
воткнуть в розетку; находиться в стадии разработки; топливный
бак; авторазливочная станция; широко распространенное использование; обеспечить легкий путь; иметь лучшую проводимость;
связующая энергия; значительно сократить; делать сплав
платины и меди; поверхность пленки; период решетки (пространственная решетка); оказываться; благодаря (вследствие).
Exercise 4: Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the prefix re-:
replace; recharge; remove; reuse; rearrange; relocate; rebuild;
remake.
Exercise 5: Form adverbs from the following adjectives and
translate them:
typical; efficient; direct; conventional; simple; safe; approximate;
easy; normal; high; close; effective.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) What kinds of catalysts are used to produce hydrogen ions?
2) Is platinum cheap?
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3) Why are companies using nanoparticles of platinum and of
other materials?
4) What allows hydrogen ions to pass through the cell?
5) What will allow companies to build lighter weight and longer
lasting fuel cells?
6) What are DMFCs? What is their difference from the
conventional batteries?
7) What fuel do most researchers propose for use in fuel cell
powered cars?
8) What is also necessary to develop in addition to improvements
of catalysts and membranes?
9) Why are researchers trying to develop lightweight
nanomaterials?
10) What have researchers at university of Illinois developed?
11) What have researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
investigated?
12) How could researchers at the SLAC National Accelerator
Laboratory have developed a way to use less platinum for the cathode
in a fuel cell?
13) What is being developed by researchers at Brown University?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Find more information about the latest investigations
in the field of fuel cells and present it to the class.
UNIT IX. Nanotechnology Battery
(Nano Battery)
Using nanotechnology in the manufacture of batteries offers the
following benefits:
• Reducing the possibility of batteries catching fire by providing
less flammable electrode material.
• Increasing the available power from a battery and decreasing the
time required to recharge a battery. These benefits are achieved by
coating the surface of an electrode with nanoparticles. This increases
the surface area of the electrode thereby allowing more current to flow
between the electrode and the chemicals inside the battery. This
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technique could increase the efficiency of hybrid vehicles by
significantly reducing the weight of the batteries needed to provide
adequate power.
• Increasing the shelf life of a battery by using nanomaterials to
separate liquids in the battery from the solid electrodes when there is
no draw on the battery. This separation prevents the low level
discharge that occurs in a conventional battery, which increases the
shelf life of the battery dramatically.
• Researchers at Stanford University have grown silicon
nanowires on a stainless steel substrate and demonstrated that
batteries using these anodes could have up to 10 times the power
density of conventional lithium ion batteries. Using silicon
nanowires, instead of bulk silicon fixes a problem of the silicon
cracking, that has been seen on electrodes using bulk silicon. The
cracking is caused because the silicon swells. It absorbs lithium ions
while being recharged, and contracts as the battery is discharged and
the lithium ions leave the silicon. However the researchers found
that while the silicon nanowires swell as lithium ions are absorbed
during discharge of the battery and contract as the lithium ions leave
during recharge of the battery the nanowires do not crack, unlike
anodes that used bulk silicon. Researchers at MIT have developed a
technique to deposit aligned carbon nanotubes on a substrate for use
as the anode, and possibly the cathode, in a lithium ion battery. The
carbon nanotubes have organic molecules attached that help the
nanotubes align on the substrate, as well as provide many oxygen
atoms that provide points for lithium ions to attach to. This could
increase the power density of lithium ion batteries significantly,
perhaps by as much as 10 times. A battery manufacturer called
Contour Systems has licensed this technology and are planning to
use it in their next generation Li-ion batteries. Long shelf life
battery uses «nanograss» to separate liquid electrolytes from the
solid electrode until power is needed. Lithium ion batteries with
electrodes are made from nano-structured lithium titanate that
significantly improves the charge/discharge capability at sub
freezing temperatures as well as increasing the upper temperature
limit at which the battery remains safe from thermal runaway.
Ultracapacitors using nanotubes may do even better than batteries in
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hybrid cars. Battery anodes using silicon nanoparticles coating a
titanium disilicide lattice may improve the charge/discharge rate of
Li-ion batteries as well as the battery lifetime.
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
to offer
benefit
to provide
flammable
available
to decrease
to deposit
to require
to achieve
to coat
current
efficiency
to separate
to attach
liquid
to prevent
to occur
dramatically
substrate
density
capability
bulk
to swell
to absorb
to leave
however
to crack
to remain
Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: offer – offering – offeror – offeree
to provide
to require
to achieve
to allow
to separate
to prevent
to demonstrate
to absorb
to deposit
to attach
to improve
to freeze
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
производство аккумуляторов; следующие преимущества;
загореться; время, необходимое для подзарядки аккумулятора;
покрыть поверхность; повысить эффективность; значительно
уменьшить вес; срок хранения; подложка (основание печатной
платы) из нержавеющей стали; увеличить плотность
рассеиваемой мощности; требования безопасности; улучшить
производительность (характеристику); тепловое убегание.
Exercise 4: Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the negative
prefixes: de- / dis- / in- /un- / non- / il-/ ir- / im- / mal- and mis-.
decrease; decompose; discharge; disconnect; invisible; inactive;
unconventional; unbelievable; non-effective; non-metallic; illegal;
illiterate; irregular; irresistible; impractical; impossible; malfunction;
malformed; misapply; misdirect.
Exercise 5: Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the negative
suffix -less:
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stainless; pointless; effortless, hopeless; helpless; homeless;
fearless; nameless
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) What benefits does using nanotechnology in the manufacture
of batteries offer?
2) How are increasing the available power from a battery and
decreasing the time required to recharge the battery achieved?
3) What prevents the low level discharge that occurs in a
conventional battery?
4) What have researchers at Stanford University done and
demonstrated?
5) What kind of technique have researchers at MIT developed?
6) Which battery manufacturer has licensed the technology and
are planning to use it in their next generation Li-ion battery?
7) Why does long shelf life battery use «nanograss»?
8) What can significantly improve the charge / discharge capacity
at sub freezing temperatures and increase the upper temperature limit
at which the battery remains safe from thermal runaway?
9) What may improve the charge / discharge rate of Li-ion
batteries and battery lifetime?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Find more information about the latest developments
in the field of nanobatteries and present it to the class.
UNIT X. Nanotechnology in Food
Nanotechnology is having an impact on several aspects of food
science, from how food is grown to how it is packaged. Companies
are developing nanomaterials that will make a difference not only in
the taste of food, but also in food safety, and the health benefits that
food delivers. Clay nanocomposites are being used to provide an
impermeable barrier to gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide in
lightweight bottles, cartons and packaging films. Storage bins are
being produced with silver nanoparticles embedded in the plastic. The
silver nanoparticles kill bacteria from any material that was previously
stored in the bins, minimizing health risks from harmful bacteria.
Researchers are using silicate nanoparticles to provide a barrier to
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gasses (for example oxygen), or moisture in a plastic film used for
packaging. This could reduce the possibility of food spoiling or drying
out. Zinc oxide nanoparticles can be incorporated into plastic
packaging to block UV rays and provide anti bacterial protection,
while improving the strength and stability of the plastic film.
Nanosensors are being developed that can detect bacteria and other
contaminates, such as salmonella, at a packaging plant. This will
allow for frequent testing at a much lower cost than sending samples
to a lab for analysis. This point-of-packaging testing, if conducted
properly, has the potential to dramatically reduce the chance of
contaminated food reaching grocery store shelves. Research is also
being conducted to develop nanocapsules containing nutrients that
would be released when nanosensors detect a vitamin deficiency in
your body. Basically this research could result in a super vitamin
storage system in your body that delivers the nutrients you need, when
you need them. «Interactive» foods are being developed that would
allow you to choose the desired flavor and color. Nanocapsules that
contain flavor or color enhancers are embedded in the food; inert until
a hungry consumer triggers them. The method hasn't been published,
so it will be interesting to see how this particular trick is
accomplished. Researchers are also working on pesticides
encapsulated in nanoparticles; that only release pesticide within an
insect's stomach, minimizing the contamination of plants themselves.
Another development being pursued is a network of nanosensors and
dispensers used throughout a farm field. The sensors recognize when a
plant needs nutrients or water, before there is any sign that the plant is
deficient. The dispensers then release fertilizer, nutrients, or water as
needed, optimizing the growth of each plant in the field one by one.
Exercise 1: Translate the following words:
impact
to deliver
clay
impermeable
embedded
previously
harmful
silicate
moisture
to spoil
to incorporate
contaminate
sample
to conduct
properly
nutrient
flavor
enhancer
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to trigger
to accomplish
to pursue
dispenser
deficient
fertilizer
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Exercise 2: Give derivatives from the following words and
translate them:
Example: to deliver- delivery – deliverer
to embed
harm
to spoil
to conduct
deficient
to enhance
to trigger
to publish
to accomplish
to pursue
frequent
to fertilize
Exercise 3: Find the English equivalents in the text:
иметь влияние на кого-либо (что-либо); польза для здоровья;
непреодолимый барьер; углекислый газ; упаковочная пленка;
контейнер (бункер) для хранения; встроенный в пластмассу;
обеспечить антибактериальную защиту; улучшить прочность;
заметно (значительно) сократить; зараженная еда; недостаток
витаминов; доставить питательные вещества.
Exercise 4: Name the tense and voice in each sentence and
explain their use:
1) Clay nanocomposites are being used to provide an
impermeable barrier to gasses.
2) Researchers are using silicate nanoparticles to provide a barrier
to gasses.
3) Nanocapsules that contain flavor or color enhancers are
embedded in the food; inert until a hungry consumer triggers them.
4) The method hasn't been published.
5) It will be interesting to see how this particular trick is
accomplished.
Exercise 5: Find in the text all the non-finite –ing foms. State
whether they are Participles or Gerunds.
Exercise 6: Answer the questions.
1) What are the aims of companies developing nanomaterials?
2) Why are clay nanocomposites being used?
3) Why are storage bins being produced with silver
nanoparticles embedded in the plastic?
4) How can zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated into plastic
help?
5) What will allow for frequent testing at a much lower cost than
sending samples to a lab for analysis?
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6) Under what condition has this point-of-packaging testing the
potential to dramatically reduce the chance of contaminated food
reaching grocery store shelves?
7) What kind of system will be a super vitamin storage system in
your body?
8) What would «interactive» foods allow you to do?
9) What is the benefit of pesticides encapsulated in nanoparticles?
10) How can a network of nanosensors and dispensers used
throughout a farm field help?
Exercise 7: Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 8: Choose one of the listed developments and prepare a
presentation using additional material.
UNIT XI. Nanotechnology in Electronics
(Nanoelectronics)
How can nanotechnology improve the capabilities of
electronic components?
Nanoelectronics holds some answers for how we might increase
the capabilities of electronic devices while we reduce their weight and
power consumption. Researchers are looking into the following
nanoelectronics projects:
1. Building transistors from carbon nanotubes to enable minimum
transistor dimensions of a few nanometers and developing techniques
to manufacture integrated circuits built with nanotube transistors.
2. Using electrodes made from nanowires that would enable flat
panel displays to be flexible as well as thinner than current flat panel
displays.
3. Using MEMS techniques to control an array of probes whose
tips have a radius of a few nanometers. These probes are used to write
and read data onto a polymer film, with the aim of producing memory
chips with a density of one terabyte per square inch or greater.
4. Transistors built in single atom thick graphene film to enable
very high speed transistors.
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5. Combining gold nanoparticles with organic molecules to create
a transistor known as a NOMFET (Nanoparticle Organic Memory
Field-Effect Transistor).
6. Using carbon nanotubes to direct electrons to illuminate pixels,
resulting in a lightweight, millimeter thick «nanoemmissive» display
panel.
7. Using quantum dots to replace the fluorescent dots used in
current displays. Displays using quantum dots should be simpler to
make than current displays as well as use less power.
8. Making integrated circuits with features that can be measured
in nanometers (nm), such as the process that allows the production of
integrated circuits with 22 nm wide transistor gates.
9. Using nanosized magnetic rings to make Magnetoresistive
Random Access Memory (MRAM) which research has indicated may
allow memory density of 400 GB per square inch.
10. Developing molecular-sized transistors which may allow us to
shrink the width of transistor gates to approximately one nm which
will significantly increase transistor density in integrated circuits.
11. Using self-aligning nanostructures to manufacture nanoscale
integrated circuits.
12. Using nanowires to build transistors without p-n junctions.
13. Using magnetic quantum dots in spintronic semiconductor
devices. Spintronic devices are expected to be significantly higher
density and lower power consumption because they measure the spin
of electronics to determine a 1 or 0, rather than measuring groups of
electronics as done in current semiconductor devices.
14. Using nanowires made of an alloy of iron and nickel to create
dense memory devices. By applying a current magnetized sections
along the length of the wire. As the magnetized sections move along
the wire, the data is read by a stationary sensor. This method is
called race track memory.
• Choose one of the listed above projects and prepare a 10-minutes’ presentation.
• Read the article given below and summarize the main idea in 5–
7 sentences.
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New Stanford techniques make carbon-based
integrated circuits more practical
Stanford engineers have built what they believe is a chip with
the most advanced computing and storage elements made of carbon
nanotubes to date by devising a way to root out the stubborn
complication of nanotubes that cause short circuits. Nanotubes,
which resemble microscopic straws of rolled-up chicken wire, are
widely viewed as the potential next generation of materials for
enabling improved speed and energy efficiency of computer chips.
The researchers presented their results at the International Electron
Devices Meeting (IEDM) in Baltimore, along with another advance
in using nanotubes to make multilayered, three-dimensional circuits.
«This body of work illustrates that carbon nanotube transistor
technology has moved beyond the realm of scientific discovery and
into engineering research», said H.-S. Philip Wong, a professor of
electrical engineering at Stanford and a co-author of the paper. «We
are now able to construct devices and build circuits on a wafer scale
as opposed to previous 'one-of-a-kind' type demonstrations. Devices
are in a circuit environment that is relevant to both today's and
tomorrow's system needs». The handful of nanotube transistors in
the circuits the team fabricated can't compare to the hundreds of
millions of transistors on a commercial microprocessor or memory
chip, but their arrangement, the way they were made and their
properties are much closer to commercial-grade than any nanotube
devices made before, said Subhasish Mitra, an assistant professor of
computer science and electrical engineering at Stanford. The
transistors are grouped in the same «cascading» sequences needed
to produce computational logic and memory, and the process used
to make them is compatible with the industrial VLSI (very large
scale integration) manufacturing standard. «We are very pleased
with the rapid progress being made by Professors Wong and Mitra
and their research teams in developing these technologies to help
overcome barriers to further integration of complex carbon-based
electronic circuits, which will lead to more useful products for
future generations», said Betsy Weitzman, executive vice president
and director of the Semiconductor Research Corporation's Focus
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Center Research Program, which helped fund the research, along
with the National Science Foundation. The chips employ three
advanced techniques invented at Stanford to overcome endemic
problems associated with nanotubes. One, invented in 2007, allows
transistors to work regardless of whether the component nanotubes
lie perfectly straight. Another, invented in 2008, enables VLSI-scale
fabrication of nanotube transistors on a chip. The one announced at
the IEDM, is a process for reliably removing nanotubes that always
conduct electrical current even when they are not supposed to. Such
troublesome «metallic» nanotubes can short-circuit transistors if
they aren't removed. The difficulty researchers have faced is finding
ways to remove all the troublesome nanotubes, without damaging
any other part of a circuit, including the nanotubes that behave
properly. The new technique, which the researchers call VLSIcompatible Metallic Nanotube Removal (VMR), builds upon an idea
first proposed by Paul Collins and colleagues at IBM in 2001. That
idea was to break up the nanotubes by exposing them to high
current. The Stanford team has now made the idea practical on a
VLSI scale by creating a grid of electrodes that zap away the
unwanted nanotubes. That same electrode grid can then be etched to
produce any circuit design, including ones that make use of the
Stanford-developed techniques mentioned above. The lead author
on the VMR paper presented at IEDM is electrical engineering
Stanford graduate student Nishant Patil. Other authors include
electrical engineering graduate students Albert Lin, Jie Zhang and
Hai Wei, and undergraduate student Kyle Anderson.
• Translate the following article in the written form.
3-D nanotube circuits
Like multilevel parking garages, three-dimensional circuits allow
for packing of more units – in this case, transistors – into a confined
area. On chips, the third dimension can also reduce the lengths of
some interconnecting wires, reducing energy required for data
transmission. While engineers have recently begun making progress in
building three-dimensional circuits by stacking and connecting layers
made with conventional materials, the Stanford work shows it can be
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done with nanotubes in a way that is integrated from the start as a 3-D
design, yielding a higher density of connections among layers.
Indicating that progress may be possible with nanotubes, the Stanford
researchers were able to fashion a prototype three-layer chip with
dozens of nanotube transistors that were connected in functioning
logic gates by nanotube and metal wiring. What made the feat
possible, Mitra said, was the use of a relatively low-temperature
process that the researchers developed last year in which nanotubes
are transferred from a quartz wafer onto a silicon chip. A remaining
challenge is to increase the number of nanotubes that can be properly
patterned on a given area of a chip, to allow for making the millions of
transistors that modern designs require. That’s not a hurdle that
researchers expect to leave unleapt. Both projects were supported by
the Focus Center Research Program and the National Science
Foundation’s Directorate for Computer and Information Science and
Engineering (CISE). «NSF and in particular CISE, is very interested
in exploring exciting new avenues of obtaining continued hardware
performance improvements beyond the limits of Moore's Law», said
Sampath Kannan, a CISE division director at the National Science
Foundation. «The team led by Professors Mitra and Wong, supported
by several grants from CISE, is pioneering research along one of these
avenues. Their new results on VLSI-scale technique to deal with
metallic carbon nanotubes for circuit design and their experimental
demonstration of imperfection-immune VLSI-compatible CNT
circuits take us closer to making integrated circuits using carbon
nanotubes a practical reality».
• Student A reads Text 1, Student B reads Text 2. Report the
main idea of your text to your partner in 5–7 sentences.
Text 1. IBM Scientists Demonstrate World's Fastest
Graphene Transistor
This accomplishment is a key milestone for the Carbon
Electronics for RF Applications (CERA) program funded by
DARPA, in an effort to develop next-generation communication
devices. The high frequency record was achieved using wafer-scale,
epitaxially grown graphene using processing technology compatible
to that used in advanced silicon device fabrication. «A key
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advantage of graphene lies in the very high speeds in which
electrons propagate, which is essential for achieving high-speed,
high-performance next generation transistors,» said Dr. T. C. Chen,
vice president, Science and Technology, IBM Research. «The
breakthrough we are announcing demonstrates clearly that graphene
can be utilized to produce high performance devices and integrated
circuits». Graphene is a single atom-thick layer of carbon atoms
bonded in a hexagonal honeycomb-like arrangement. This twodimensional form of carbon has unique electrical, optical,
mechanical and thermal properties and its technological applications
are being explored intensely. Uniform and high-quality graphene
wafers were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a silicon
carbide (SiC) substrate. The graphene transistor itself utilized a
metal top-gate architecture and a novel gate insulator stack
involving a polymer and a high dielectric constant oxide. The gate
length was modest, 240 nanometers, leaving plenty of space for
further optimization of its performance by scaling down the gate
length. It is noteworthy that the frequency performance of the
graphene device already exceeds the cut-off frequency of state-ofthe-art silicon transistors of the same gate length (~ 40 GigaHertz).
Similar performance was obtained from devices based on graphene
obtained from natural graphite, proving that high performance can
be obtained from graphene of different origins. Previously, the team
had demonstrated graphene transistors with a cut-off frequency of
26 GigaHertz using graphene flakes extracted from natural graphite.
Text 2. An organic transistor paves the way for new
generations of neuro-inspired computers
For the first time, CNRS and CEA researchers have developed a
transistor that can mimic the main functionalities of a synapse. This
organic transistor, based on pentacene and gold nanoparticles and
known as a NOMFET (Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field-Effect
Transistor), has opened the way to new generations of neuroinspired computers, capable of responding in a manner similar to the
nervous system. The study is published in the 22 January 2010 issue
of the journal Advanced Functional Materials. In the development
of new information processing strategies, one approach consists in
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mimicking the way biological systems such as neuron networks
operate to produce electronic circuits with new features. In the
nervous system, a synapse is the junction between two neurons,
enabling the transmission of electric messages from one neuron to
another and the adaptation of the message as a function of the nature
of the incoming signal (plasticity). For example, if the synapse
receives very closely packed pulses of incoming signals, it will
transmit a more intense action potential. Conversely, if the pulses
are spaced farther apart, the action potential will be weaker. It is this
plasticity that the researchers have succeeding in mimicking with
the NOMFET. A transistor, the basic building block of an electronic
circuit, can be used as a simple switch – it can then transmit, or not,
a signal – or instead offer numerous functionalities (amplification,
modulation, encoding, etc.). The innovation of the NOMFET resides
in the original combination of an organic transistor and gold
nanoparticles. These encapsulated nanoparticles, fixed in the
channel of the transistor and coated with pentacene, have a memory
effect that allows them to mimic the way a synapse works during the
transmission of action potentials between two neurons. This
property therefore makes the electronic component capable of
evolving as a function of the system in which it is placed. Its
performance is comparable to the seven CMOS transistors (at least)
that have been needed until now to mimic this plasticity. The
devices produced have been optimized to nanometric sizes in order
to be able to integrate them on a large scale. Neuro-inspired
computers produced using this technology are capable of functions
comparable to those of the human brain. Unlike silicon computers,
widely used in high performance computing, neuro-inspired
computers can resolve much more complex problems, such as visual
recognition.
• Summarise the following text in 5–7 sentences and give your
opinion on the ideas given.
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Novel material paves the way for next-generation
information technology
UQ researchers have successfully demonstrated a futuristic
semiconductor technology that will pave the way for the next
generation of electrical and information technology systems.
Professor Jin Zou and Dr Yong Wang from the Faculty of
Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology have
collaborated with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
and Intel Corporation to create advanced ‘magnetic quantum dots'.
Magnetic quantum dot technology is expected to underpin future
communications and resolve power consumption and variability
issues in today's microelectronics industry by providing computers
and other devices with extraordinary electrical and magnetic
properties. Professor Zou said the team's breakthrough had enabled
their magnetic quantum dots to simultaneously utilise both ‘charge'
and ‘spin' – two types of outputs generated by electrons.
«Developing quantum dots which are able to harness both outputs
may help to significantly reduce the size of electrical devices and
reduce power dissipation inherent in electrical systems, because the
collective spins in spintronics devices are expected to consume less
energy than current charge-based technology», Professor Zou said.
Significantly the team was able to prove the novel technology in
experiments at relatively high temperature, which was not
previously thought possible. ARC Australian Postdoctoral Fellow
Dr Yong Wang said the successful operation of the technology in
sustainable and manageable conditions would enable it to be more
easily integrated into existing silicon-based microelectronic
technology, which is the current platform used by industry. This
research will lead to greater efficiency and stability for electrical
systems and information technology which provide essential
infrastructure for every sector. «We hope our work will help to
improve the performance of microelectronics in applications used in
health care to defence to communications», Dr Wang said. The
breakthrough research was published in prestigious scientific
journal Nature Materials. Executive Dean of the Faculty of
Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology Professor
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Graham Schaffer congratulated Professor Zou, Dr Wang and their
colleagues on their achievement. «This exciting advance is the
result of collaboration between researchers from across the globe»,
Professor Schaffer said. «In particular I would like to highlight the
work done by Dr Wang of UQ and Dr Xiu of UCLA, who are young
up-and-coming researchers in their fields», Professor Schaffer said.
Dr Wang and Dr Xiu worked to progress the technology with
Professor Jin Zou of UQ and Raytheon Professor Kang L Wang of
UCLA who have collaborated for more than 10 years on the
development of various semiconductor materials.
UNIT XII. Nanotechnology in Building Materials
The construction industry has much to gain from nanotechnology.
Solutions in the offing range from materials with better insulating
properties, to solar cells that power your house more economically,
and siding that is protected from the effects of weather.
Nanotechnology applications in building materials include:
• An insulating material called aerogel, composed of silica
nanoparticles separated by nanopores, is mostly air, making it an
excellent insulator. For example insulating the walls of your house
would only need about one third the thickness if you used this material
instead of conventional insulation.
• Windows that hold the heat in better. Much of the heat loss in
buildings occurs through windows. Companies have developed
windows with aerogel between the window panes. This can increase
the insulating ability of the windows to almost that of a typical
building wall in situations where slightly translucent windows are
acceptable…
• Longer lasting concrete, researchers have found that carbon
nanotubes can fill the voids that occur in conventional concrete.
Because it's these voids that allow water to penetrate into concrete,
resulting in the formation of cracks; including nanotubes in the
mix stops the cracks from forming.
• Leveling compound used to prepare floors for laying tile that
may eliminate the need for backer board. This compound
contains nanopores as well as rubber granules that reduce the chance
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of tile cracking if it is laid down on material (such as plywood) that
expands at a different rate than the tile.
• Paint that reduces the chance of mold and mildew growing on in
moist areas of buildings such as bathrooms or on the exterior siding.
The paint contains nanoparticles of silver that inhibits the growth of
mildew and bacteria.
• Solar cells that can be installed as a coating on windows or
other building materials, referred to as «Building Integrated
Photovoltaic's».
Choose one of the listed applications of nanotechnology in
building materials and prepare a report about it.
UNIT XIII. Nanotechnology in Space
Nanotechnology may hold the key to making space flight more
practical. Advancements in nanomaterials make lightweight solar sails
and a cable for the space elevator possible. By significantly reducing
the amount of rocket fuel required, these advances could lower the
cost of reaching orbit and traveling in space. In addition, new
materials combined with nanosensors and nanorobots could improve
the performance of spaceships, spacesuits, and the equipment used to
explore planets and moons, making nanotechnology an important part
of the «final frontier». Researchers are looking into the following
applications of nanotechnology in space flight:
• Employing materials made from carbon nanotubes to reduce the
weight of spaceships while retaining or even increasing the structural
strength.
• Using carbon nanotubes to make the cable needed for the space
elevator, a system which could significantly reduce the cost of sending
material into orbit.
• Including layers of bio-nano robots in spacesuits. The outer
layer of bio-nano robots would respond to damages to the spacesuit,
for example to seal up punctures. An inner layer of bio-nano robots
could respond if the astronaut was in trouble, for example by
providing drugs in a medical emergency.
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• Deploying a network of nanosensors to search large areas of
planets such as Mars for traces of water or other chemicals.
• Producing thrusters for spacecraft that use MEMS devices to
accelerate nanoparticles. This should reduce the weight and
complexity of thruster systems used for interplanetary missions. One
cost-saving feature of these type of thrusters is their ability to draw on
more or less of the MEMS devices depending upon the size and thrust
requirement of the spacecraft, rather than designing and building
different engines for different size spacecraft.
• Using carbon nanotubes to build lightweight solar sails that use
the pressure of light from the sun reflecting on the mirror-like solar
cell to propel a spacecraft. This solves the problem of having to lift
enough fuel into orbit to power spacecraft during interplanetary
missions.
• Working with nanosensors to monitor the levels of trace
chemicals in spacecraft to monitor the performance of life support
systems.
Prepare a 5-minutes’ presentation about one of the ideas given
above.
UNIT XIV. Ethics and Nanotechnology
The ability to produce drastic change is the reason that
nanotechnology is often referred to as a «disruptive» technology.
What kind of challenges would such change offer? For one thing, just
about all the possibilities for how nanotechnology can help us improve
our lives raise some interesting ethical questions.
• Answer the following questions. Give your reasons.
1) If nanotechnology helps us to live longer or produce
manufactured goods from inexpensive raw materials, what is the
moral imperative about making such benefits available to all?
2) Is there sufficient understanding or regulation of nanotechbased materials to avoid harming people or our environment?
3) How could molecular manufacturing have an impact on our
global economy? (Molecular manufacturing could spawn another
dramatic shift akin to the industrial revolution that would completely
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change the way we do business and put billions of people out of work.
Whole industries may become obsolete. At the same time, such
advances could make it easy and cheap to produce powerful
weapons).
4) What would the molecular replicator, once developed, do to
our society as we know it today? If people could simply produce many
items they need themselves, what would motivate people to work hard
for the things they want in life?
5) What would happen if nano medicine made it possible for us to
halt aging by making repairs at the cellular level? If everybody could
live hundreds of years, what would happen to our economy and
society? Would only an elite few get such treatment and what
consequences would that have? If nobody ever died, would people
have to stop having children to avoid overpopulation?
6) What should be the priorities of nano research? If third world
countries could be helped by improvements in energy production or
water quality, should those more basic needs come before the need of
a middle-class person to replicate his own iPhone or only have to
charge his laptop once a month? Will the attraction of consumers able
to spend money on a product or service outweigh the needs of poor
countries or starving children?
Organizations Working on the Ethical Issues
of Nanotechnology
The Nanoethics Group is a non-partisan organization that studies
the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology. They also
engage the public as well as collaborate with nanotech ventures and
research institutes on related issues and initiatives.
The Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (CRN) is a nonprofit research and advocacy think tank concerned with the major
societal and environmental implications of advanced nanotechnology.
The International Council on Nanotechnology is an international,
multi-stakeholder organization whose mission is to develop and
communicate information regarding potential environmental and
health risks of nanotechnology, thereby fostering risk reduction while
maximizing societal benefit.
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Latin American Nanotechnology and Society Network (ReLANS)
intends to create a forum for discussion and exchange of information
that follows the process of nanotechnology development in Latin
America. To that end, ReLANS will establish links and collaboration
agreements with academic institutions, governments and society,
intending to examine and evaluate the political, economic, social,
legal, ethical and environmental implications of nanotechnologies that
are domestically developed, and/or in collaboration with foreign
centers and institutions, and imported goods that contain
nanocomponents.
Focus nanotechnology Africa Inc.(FONAI) was formed in 2006
as a 501c3 not-for-profit educational and scientific organization
especially in the US, Africa and the Caribbean to combat brain drain
and all forms of poverty including science and technological poverty.
And various research groups such as the Whitesides Research
Group at Harvard University. An important problem is to use firstworld science to benefit the welfare of people in developing
economies. The Whitesides group is using its competencies in
materials science, engineering and biology to attack this type of global
problem, with a focus on health diagnostics and local energy
production.
Examples of research that could help improve water quality is the
research at Rice University to remove arsenic from well water.
• Find more information about one of the listed organizations and
present it to the class.
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Contents
UNIT I. Introduction to Nanotechnology.............................................................. 3
UNIT II. The History of Nanotechnology............................................................. 8
UNIT III. What’s so special about nanotech and why is it an issue now? ......... 11
UNIT IV. Nanotechnology in Medicine – Nanomedicine .................................. 15
UNIT V. Life Extension through Nanotechnology ............................................. 18
UNIT VI. Environmental Nanotechnology ......................................................... 23
UNIT VII. Nanotechnology: Is it Safe? .............................................................. 26
UNIT VIII. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cells ......................................................... 31
UNIT IX. Nanotechnology Battery (Nano Battery)........................................... 34
UNIT X. Nanotechnology in Food...................................................................... 37
UNIT XI. Nanotechnology in Electronics (Nanoelectronics)............................. 40
UNIT XII. Nanotechnology in Building Materials ............................................. 48
UNIT XIII. Nanotechnology in Space ................................................................ 49
UNIT XIV. Ethics and Nanotechnology ............................................................. 50
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Учебное издание
Колобанова Юлия Николаевна
Английский язык
для студентов
физического факультета
Методические указания
Редактор, корректор М. В. Никулина
Верстка Е. Л. Шелехова
Подписано в печать 13.10.2011. Формат 60×84 1/16.
Бум. офсетная. Гарнитура "Times New Roman".
Усл. печ. л. 3,25. Уч.-изд. л. 2,54.
Тираж 20 экз. Заказ
Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе
Ярославского государственного университета
им. П. Г. Демидова.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет им. П. Г. Демидова.
150000, Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
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Ю. Н Колобанова
Английский язык
для студентов
физического факультета
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