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1051.Полилог культур один мир - многообразие языков

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??? ?????-???? ?????????, ? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????
???? ??????????, ???? ??????????????? ????????-????????????
?????????╗ [1, ?.а 8]. ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????а? ?? ????? ? ?????? (??????????) ? ?? ?????? ? ?????
(????????????????). ??? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ?????
??????? (л???????╗), ???? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?
???????? ??????? (л????????? ???????????╗).
????????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????????? ?????,
??????, ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????
??????, ??????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ????????, ?????????????, ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ???????????
??????, ? ?????? ? ??? ?????????. ???, ?.а?????? ????? ?? ?????? л??????????? ?????????╗ ??. ??????: л???? ??????????
л??????╗ ???? ??? ???????????? ????????, ?? л???????????
?????????╗ ???????????? ????? ???????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????╗ [2, ?.а454]. ????????? ????????
?????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ???? ?????
????? ???????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????
?? ? л???????????╗, ? ? л????????╗.
??????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????????а ? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ??
?????? ???: ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ??????
???????????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????????? ???????????? ??????. ????????? ?????? per se ??
????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????, ? ??????? ?? ?????????. ? ????????????? ???????? л?????? ????????╗, ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??
????????? ???????????. ????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ????
???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ?????
?? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????-??. ??? ???????????? ???? ???14
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?? ????? 3 ?????? ?????: ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?
????? ? ??????? ???????? ????, ????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????
???? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????, ? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ? ? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ?????. ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????,
? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????????
????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????????????????. ??? ???????, ???????????? ?????????, ??????????
???? ?? ????? ?????? ? ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????
????????? ????? ????????, ?? ??????а ? ????????? ?? ???????
???????, ? ???????а? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????.
??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????. ??? ??????? ? ???? ??????? л???????? ????????╗ [3, ?.а15].
????????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????????????
????????, ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????
? ? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ??, ??? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????,
????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? cultural notes (?????????????????? ???????????):
housewife a woman who works at home for her family, cleaning,
cooking, etc., especially one who does not work outside her home.
Cultural note: in the past the typical wife was a housewife. The
stereotype of a good housewife was someone who was expected to
clean her house regularly, take good care of her children and have
a meal prepared for her husband as soon as he returned home from
work. She should be good at cooking and sewing, be kind and caring
to her children and husband and allow her husband to make all of the
main decisions for the family. Many housewives did not work professionally because their husbands earned enough money to support the
whole family. Today very few women are housewives because most
married women work and both the husband and the wife are responsible for cooking, cleaning and taking care for children [4].
???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????, ????
????????? ????? ? ?????????????, ?? ???????????????? ?????15
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????, ? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ????????. ??? ????, ???
?????? ?????? ? ????? ???? ? ?? ??????, ? ????????? ??????? ???
????? R, ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? cultural notes.
???????? ???????????а? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????. ??, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ??
? ?????? ???????????, ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ? ????????. ?????? ??? ?????????а? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????????
?????????. ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? [5, ?.а109].
???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????
? ?????????: л??? ??????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ????????????
?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????
? ???? ???????????? ???????╗ [6, ?.а122].
??????????
1. Cassirer E. Philosophie der symbolischen Formen //а Die Sprache.
Berlin, 1923.
2. ?????? ?. ??????? ?????????? ??????????. ?., 1956.
3. ??????? ?. ??????. ???????????. ????. ?????. ?., 2000.
4. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Harlow, 2002.
5. ??????? ?. ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????.
?., 2009.
6. ?????? ?. ?????? ? ??? ???????? ??????. ?., 1983.
? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????
? ???????????
?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
solminorfh@mail.ru
? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??? pars pro toto ???????? ???????, ???, ??????????,
????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????16
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????? ??????????. ?????? ? ? ????? ???????? ?????????????
??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????: ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?????, ? ?????? ? ????? (verbo sed sensum
exprimere de sensu). ? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? ????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????: ???? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????
л????????╗, л????????╗ ? л?????????????╗ ? ??????????
????????????????, ????????????? ??????? ? ????????????
?????????? ????? ??????????? ????, ???? ??? ??????????????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ????? ????????? (? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????) ?????????? ????????, ? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????. ????? ??? ?? ?? ????????? ? ? ??????? (?, ??????, ? ???????, ???????? ???????),
???? ???????? ??, ???? ????????? ?? ???????????.
?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????? ???? ???
??????????? ??????????????????.
??-??????, ??? ???????????????? ???? (? ??????????????,
? ??????????????) ?????????? ?? ??????????????, ??? ?????
??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????
???????. ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ????????????: ?.а???????? (??????????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????), ?.а????????? ? ?.-?.а??????? (????????????? ? ???????
???????????? ?? ????? ?????????), ?.а ????? (л??????? ?? ??
????? ?? ???????╗), ?.а??????? (??????? ???? ????????????? ?
???????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?.а?????) ? ??. ??????,
??????? ??? ???????? ??????????: л????????????????а ? ??
?????? ??????????╗ [3, ?.а270]. ?? ?????????? ????? ????????
?.а??? ?????? ???????????, ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????: л????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????╗ [3, ?.а 280], л? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ????????
?????? ? ???? ?? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????
????? ??????╗ [3, ?.а297].
17
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????? ?? ???, ???, ????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????, ??
????? ??????? ????? ? л??????╗ ? ???? ????? ??????????????а?
??, ??????????, ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????, ?? ? ? ????,
???????????.
??-??????, ????????? ?? ?? ? ??????? ????????????? ???,
????????, ?????????,а? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ???
?????? ????????????? ? ??????. ?? ?????? ??????, ? ??? ? ???
????????????? ????? ???????????????, ?.а ?. ??? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????????, ?????
???????????? ????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????: ? ??????
??????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???
?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?
?????, ??? ???????, л????????╗.
??? ??????????? ??????? ?.-?.а ??????? ? ????? л?????? ?
?????╗, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????????
?????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ???????????: л?? ?????? ??????
? ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?, ? ??? ????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ? ??????????а? ?????? ???????? ? ????????. ?????????? ?????????????
??????? ? ????????????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????? ????????????╗ [2, ?.а426?428].
???????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?.-?.а????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? л??????????????╗ (? ??????????
?? ??????????? ?????) ? ?????????????? (??????????????)
????? ?????????????.
1.а ????????????? ??????? ???? (???????????????) ??????? ?
???????????????? ?? ????? ? ?? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??????
??? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????
? ??????????????. ???? ????? ? ??????????? ??????: ????? ?????????????? ????????????????а? ????????? ??? ? ? ???? ?????
????????? ???????: ?)а╗?????????? ?????? ??????╗; ?)а╗??? ??????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ?????╗. ??????? ???????, ??? ??
????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????. ??? ?????? ?????
???? ??????????, ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??18
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???, ? ????????????? ? ??????-??????????? ???????????? ?????
??? ????, ? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????? ???? ? ?.а?.
2.а╗???????????╗ ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????. ?? ????????? ??????? ???????, ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?????
??? л???????╗ ????????, ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????? ??????????????,
??? ?????????????? ? ??????????. л???????????╗, ????????,
???????, ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????, ???? ?? ???????
? ???????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ?????, ???? л???? ?
??????╗. ? ??? ?????? ??? ?.а?????? ? ????? л?????????????
????╗, ? ??????????? ???????-????????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ?? ???????-?????????? ?????????.
3.а ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????, ???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????,
?????????? ???????. ???????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????
????. ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?.а?.а??????? (????????????? ? ??????????? ???????), л??,
??? ????? ????? ???????????,а? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ??????. ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????, ? ?????????
????????????: ??? ?????? ??????????????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ?????? ??????╗ [1, ?.а56.] ????????,
?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????????.
??????? ? ?????? ???? ?? ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ? ??
??????????? ?? ? л???????╗ ??????? ???? ????? ????.
?????????? ??? ???? ????????. ??? ??????????? ? ???,
???, ???? л???????????╗ (????????, ???? ??? ????????) ?????
???????????? ?????? ? ??????, ?? ?????????? ????? ????????????? (????????, ????????? ??? ???????????????). ?? ???
??? ???? ?????????? ?????????.
??????????
1. ??????? ?.а?.а?????? ?????????. ???., 2009.
2. ??????? ?.-?.а?????? ? ?????. ?????? ??????????? ????????????. ?., 1988.
3. ??? ?.а??????? ????? ?? ?? ?????: ????? ? ????????. ???., 2006.
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The Idea of Dialogue in the Work of Martin Buber
and Mikhail Bakhtin
E.аN.аShekhtman
Orenburg State Pedagogical University,
Orenburg, Russia
eshekhtman@yandex.ru
The idea of dialogue had been developing in Western Europe long
before its penetration into Russia. In Russia the theory of dialogue is
primarily associated with the name of M.аM.аBakhtin (1895?1975).
Thus, I.аV.аArnold says that лthe concept of dialogue formulated by
Bakhtin has remained the dominant of his creative work╗ [1, p.а389].
But it is also known that Bakhtin read and admired the works of European dialogists in the early twenties of the 20th century [3, ?.а65]. In
this connection the following names should be mentioned: Hermann
Cohen (1842?1918), Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy (1888?1973), Franz
Rosenzweig (1886?1929) and Martin Buber (1878?1965). Namely
Martin Buber, a Jewish-German philosopher, did a lot to deepen and
to popularize the concept of dialogue. Some information about him
would suffice.
Martin (Mardochei) Buber was born on the 8th of February 1878
in Vienna. The setting of his youth was the Austro-Hungarian empire
with its multiethnic population. Buber became a multilingual bookish
aesthete, and his languages were Hebrew, Yiddish, German, Polish,
Greek, Latin, French, Italian and English. Hence, it is considered, his
lifelong obsession with words and meanings. He studied in Vienna,
Leipzig, Berlin and Zurich, where his subjects were history of art,
German literature, philosophy and psychology. Buber developed a
close intellectual companionship with Franz Rosenzweig who became
Buber?s chief collaborator in the project to produce a new translation
of the Bible into German. Buber lived and worked in Frankfurt, then
since 1933 in Switzerland, until his emigration to Palestine in 1937.
The remainder of his life he lived and taught philosophy mostly in
Jerusalem, where he died on the 13th of June, 1965.
Buber popularized the idea of dialogue primarily in his most famous book лIch und Du╗ (лI and Thou╗) which was first published in
20
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
1922 in Berlin. Buber says in it that to a man the world is twofold in
accordance with his twofold attitude, contrasting the two main pairs
of categories, concepts, or basic pairs of word combinations, I?Thou
and I?It. The I does not exist by itself, but only as the I of the word I?
Thou and the I of the word I?It. The word I?Thou establishes actual,
actualizing, live, personal, dialogic approach, whether this be a relation to objects, to people, or to God. Whereas with the I?It approach
we enter a daily utilitarian relationship. Buber says: лThe one, while
being in relationship, participates in real existence. ?Every reality is
activity in which I am participating, but which I cannot own. Where
there is no participation there is no reality. Where there is owning
there is no reality. The participation is all the more complete the more
immediate the contact with Thou is. I becomes real through its participation in reality. It is the more real the more complete is the participation╗ [4, p. 333?334]. лThe world as experience belongs to the basic
word I-It. The basic word I-Thou establishes the world of relation╗
[ibid., p.а296]. Buber says: л?in all the seriousness of truth, hear this:
a human being cannot live without It. But whoever lives only with It
is not human╗ [ibid., p.а315]. Buber always insisted that the dialogic
principle, i.e., that the duality of primal relations was not a philosophical conception, but a reality beyond the reach of discursive language.
He strove at changing the human way of thinking and substantiating
the belief in God as the ultimate sense of existence. To treat a thing,
a living being, God as Thou is to enter into an ontological dialogue.
The dialogue is understood as the radical experience of otherness, acceptance of this Other as лone?s Other╗, the recognizing of the Other,
having their voice, under which silence can be understood as well.
Buber says also: лThe relation to man is the direct likeness of the
relation to God: the true address receives the true answer. But only
in God?s answer everythingа? the whole universeа? discloses itself as
the language╗ [ibid., p.а359]. This embraces the dialogue of a more
sublime form, as Buber is writing: лGod embraces the whole universe,
but He is not the whole universe, God embraces myself, but He is
not myself. This unspoken lets me, in my language, and everyone in
their language, say Thou, because of this and for the sake of this I and
Thou exist, the dialogue exists, the speech exists, the spirit exists (and
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
speech is the very primary act of spirit), the Word in eternity exists╗
[ibid., p.а354].
Thus is the dialogue treated by Martin Buber. Let us now address
the treatment of this concept in the writings of Mikhail Mikhailovich
Bakhtin.
Since his earliest texts Bakhtin had been a very individual philosopher, though it can be seen from his works whose texts he was
reading at the time (among them are the works of Kant, Schopenhauer,
Nietzsche, Solovyov, Hirzel, Husserl, Cohen and Buber). It was the
tragic finale of the twenties (his arrest and exile) that brought Bakhtin
to his author??????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а? Dostoevsky,
???????????????????????????????????????????????????
the author whose word sounds polyphonically, that is, the hero?s word is as weighty as the author?s word. These
voices are independent and are in a dialogue. These ideas were formulated in the end of the twenties in Bakhtin?s book лThe Problems of
Creative Work of Dostoevsky╗. V.аS.аBibler says that Bakhtin is not
to be explained away from the stream of лlikenesses╗, лinfluences╗ or
лborrowings╗, Bibler says: лIdeas of others, immersed in the caustic
essence of Bakhtin?s thoughtа? are rethought so drastically (and are
coming from such an unexpected, purely Bakhtin?s intention) that it is
most dangerous to be tempted in our analysis by their outward similarity лto╗ [?]╗ [5]а? and yet Bibler himself mentions those authors
who, albeit differently, treated the concept of dialogue; and among
them are H.а Cohen, R.а Hirzel (who is alluded to by Bakhtin), and
M.аBuber with the dialogism of лI and Thou╗, whose books Bakhtin
read and admired in 1923 [ibid.].
It must be remembered that Bakhtin?s theory was developed with
special reference to Dostoevsky. Bakhtin considered that Dostoevsky
had made three discoveries: the first one is the new image structure of
a human being with the consciousness having the completeness and
equality to the consciousness of the other. The consciousness of the
other is not introduced into the frame of the author?s consciousness,
it?s disclosed from within. The second discovery is that the self-developing idea, inseparable from the personality, becomes the object of art.
The third discovery of the artist, according to Bakhtin, is ???????????
л??????????
the dialogism as a specific form of interaction between the consciousnesses of
equal rights and equal significance╗ [ibid.]. Bibler says: лI am not sure
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that these three discoveries belong to Dostoevsky alone. Rather there
is a co-authorship here. These are Dostoevsky?s-Bakhtin?s discoveries╗ [ibid.]. Bakhtin speaks of the dialogic nature of life itself л?it
is possible to say that for Dostoevsky everything in life is dialogue
?╗ [2, p.а 307], лto live is to participate in a dialogue: to question,
to perceive, to respond, to agree, etc. In this dialogue a human being
participates with his whole self and with his whole life ?. He endows
his word with his whole self, and this word enters ? into the world
symposium╗ [5]. Bakhtin often uses the terms, sometimes in German,
which are redolent of the German philosophical texts of Buber, e.аg.
лTo see and to understand the author of the work means to see and to
understand the other, foreign consciousness and its world, that is the
other subject (лDu╗). ? Understanding is always ? dialogic╗ [See:
5]. Another quote: лThe human being really exists in the forms of I
and Other (???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
л??????????????????????????????????????????????????????
thou??????????????????????????????????????????????????
╗?????????????????????????????????????????????????
, ???????????????????????????????????????????????
л??????????????????????????????????????????????
he????????????????????????????????????????????
╗???????????????????????????????????????????
, ?????????????????????????????????????????
л????????????????????????????????????????
man?????????????????????????????????????
╗????????????????????????????????????
) (The last word in this Russian extract is spelt namely thus, man, that is, as the German word). [3, p.а12].
And still another quote: лThe limit is not I, but I in the relationship
with other personalities, that is I and the Other, I and thou╗ [3, p.а136].
Thus, it can be seen that the idea of dialogue is seminal for both
Buber and Bakhtin. It can also be observed that in Buber?s text the
concept covers a wider scope of existence and embraces the relationship of a human being and the whole: inanimate things, feeling creatures, other human beings, spiritual essences and God.
References
1. ??????? ?.а ?.а ???????? ??????????, ??????????????????? ?
???????????? //а?????????. ??????????. ???????????????????: ???????
??????. ???.: ???-?? ?????, 1999. ?.а380?441.
2. ?????? ?.а ?.а ???????? ??????? ????????????. ?.: ?????????????? ??????????, 1972. 470 ?.
3. ?????? ?.а ?.а ??????? ? ???? ????? /а ????., ???????., ??????.
?.а?.а?????????.а?.: ???-?? ??????????? ????????? ??-??, 1995. 150 ?.
4. ????? ?. ? ? ?? //а?????????????: ??????????? ???????? 1991.
?.: ??????????, 1992. 400 ?. ?.а294?370.
5. ?????? ?.а?.а?????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ????????
(?? ????? ? ????????????? ??????). ?.: ??????, 1991, URL: http://www.
bibler.ru/index.php?sec=bakh1
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?????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ????
? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????
?.а?.а??????????
??????? ??????????????? ???????????????
???????????, ?????, ?????????? ????????
litvyn@yandex.ru
? ?????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
XXI??????????????????????????????????????????????
???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????, ????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???? ???? ??????????????, ????????????? ? ??????. ????? ? ???? ???? ???????
??? ?? ????????, ??? ? ?? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?
???????? ????? ? ????????, ?? ????????????????, ???????? ?
???????????? ??????? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?
??????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????????,
??????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????
??? ? ??????, ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????????
????????. ???????, ?? ??????? ??? ?? л????╗ ? л?????╗ ?? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
?????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ???????.
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??????????
1. ????? ?. ?????? ? ???????? ????: ?? ????????? ????????.
?????: ???-?? ??????, 1995.
2. ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ????: ?? ????? ?????? /а??? ???.
?.а?.а??????, ?.а?.а???????????. ?????: ???, 1999. 180 ?.
3.а ?????????? ?.а ?.а ?????????? ????: ?????????? ????????, ??
??????????? //а????????? ??????????. 1989. ?а1. ?.а132?137.
4.а??????? ???????: ???? ???а? ???????????? ??????: ??. ????. ??.
/а???. ???. ?.а?.а??????????. ?????????: ????, 2009. 238 ?.
5. ??????? ?.а?.а???????? ????а? ????????? ???????? ????????????.
??????: ????? ??????????? ??????, 2002. 120 ?.
27
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29
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????????,а? ????????? ? ??????? (Hispanics & Latinos).
?? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? (Department of Labor statististics) ??????? ???????? ?????
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31
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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??????????
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//а??????? ??????. 2007. ??????а? ???????.
2.а??????? ?.а?. ??????? ?????-??????? ??????????? ???????, ?.:
???????, 2003. ?.а387.
3. Rodriguez, Cristina M.аAccommodating Linguistic Difference: Toward
a Comprehensive Theory of Language Rights in the United States //аHarvard
Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. Winter 2001. Vol.а36. ?а1.
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? ??????????????. 2 ????????? ? ??????
Rosie Finlinson
???????????? ???????????, ????????, ??????????????
The University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Great Britain
rf303@cam.ac.uk
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? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??????а? ???????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ????????а? ????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????
? ???? ?? ?????? ?????. ?? ???????????? ??????а? ??????????
????????????? л???????╗. ??????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????????,
?? ????, ??? ???????. ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???????????
л??????╗, ??? ????? ??????.
???????, ??????, ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????
????????а? ? ?????????????, ? ??????????????, ? ????????????.
34
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ?? ????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ?????. ??????? ??????, ???????? ????????????
? ?????????????? ???????а ? ??? ??? ???????, ??????? ??????
?? ????????????? ????????. ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???????, ?
??????? ?? ????????????, ?? ???? ?????,а? ??? ????????? ????,
????? ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????.
?????????????, ?? ????????? ? ???????????, ???????? ??????
?????????. ????????, ??? ??????? ? ??????? ????????, ????????
? ??????? ????, ?? ????? ?????????, ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ? ???????????. ???????????
?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????
?? ??? ????. ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????, ???, ????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????
??????, ??? ????? ?????? ? ???. ? ????? ????, ??????? ???????
????? ????????, ????????????? ? ??????, ??? ?????????, ???????? ?? ?????????. ??????? ??? ?? ????: ?????????? ???????????,
??? ????? ??????, ????? ???, ??? ?? ???????. ??????? ??????а?
??? ??????? ?? ??????. ? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ? ?????,
?????? ??????? ? ????? ?????, ??????? ? ????? ????? ????. ?
?????? ?? ??? ????? ? ??????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????. ????? ????? ?????????? ??????а? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????????. ?? ???????? ????????, ??????????????. ??? ???????,
??? ????? ????????? ?????????. ???? ?? ? ?????? ???? ?????????, ????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????????.
????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????????????? л???????╗. ?????? ?????? ????????, ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??????
????????, ?? ? ????????. ???-?? ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ???
л???????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????????╗. ?????????, ??? ? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ? ???????. ?????? ??????
?? ???? ???????? ??-???????. ?????? ????? ????????, ???????
? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ??-??????.
????, ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ???????????, ??????? ?
???? ?????, ? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ???? ????
?????? ??????? ????? ????????, ???? ? ??? ????? ????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????,
35
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????, ?????????,
??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????. ???
???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????
???? ????????? ? ???????? ? ???????. ??????? ??, ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ?? ???а? ???????
? ?????????? ????????.
??? ????? ????????? л????????╗ ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????, ? ??? ???????? ? ??????????. ?? ????а? ??? ?? ??????,
?? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????
?? ?????, ??????, ??????, ???????? ? ?.а ?. ??????? ????????
???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????: л...?? ????????, ????
????╗ (лbut perhaps there is a key╗) [4]. ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ? ???????? ??????. ????
??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????а? ??? ??? ?????
??? ???????? ????????????? ???????.
??????????
1. URL: http://www.britac.ac.uk/policy/language-matters/position-paper.cfm
2. URL: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/erasmus_mundus/
3. URL: http://www.rlus.co.uk/
4. URL: http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/31000.html
?????????? ???????? ?????
? ???????? ???????? ?????????
?.а?.а?????????, ?.а?.а?????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
tro1@mail.ru
???????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ???? ??????????
??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????
?????????????? ?????????????? ????.
? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ? ??????? ???? ? ??????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????. ????? ????, ??? ???? ????????36
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ??????. ??? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??
???????????? (????????, ????? ?????, ????).
? ?????? ???????? ? 1961 ?. ????????? ??????? ????? ???
??????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????. ?? ????? ??? ???????, ????? ????? ????????? ? 90-?
???? ?? ????. ? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????. ????? ? ??????????? ???????????????
??? ????????. ?????а ? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ??????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ?
????????????? ??????????????????, ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ???? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??I ????, ???
??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?
??????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????.
?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????????. ???, ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????? (1975 ?.) ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????.
? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????, ???? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????.
?????? (????. business) ??????????? ??? ????, ???????, ?????????
? ?????? ???????, ??????????, ??? ?? ??????????????? ??????
?????????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???
???????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????????????????? ?????????????. ????????, ??????? businessman ? 1964 ?. ????????????
??? ?????, ????????, ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ???????
??????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? [1, ?.а 102]. ? 1977 ?. ? ?????-??????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????: ?????, ?????????,
?????????? [2, ?.а23]. Business ?????????? ??? ??????, ????, ???????????????????, ?.а?. ????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????????
???????. ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?
?????????. ? ????????? ????? ?????????а? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ????? ? ??????????????????? ?????????????. ???????????????а? ??? ????, ??????? ?? ????????37
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ?/??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ?????????
???????. ? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????,
?????????, ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ????? ????
???????????? ? ????????????. ????? ????, ????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????????????? ?????????????: ???????????????, ?????????????????, ????????
??????????? ????, ??????? ??????????????? ? ????????????
?????, ???????????? ???? ?? ????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????????. ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????? л? ???????????? ? ??????????????????? ???????????? ? ?????╗ ?? 25.12.1990 ????.
????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? 1990? ???? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????. ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????. ???, ? ??????-??????????? ??????? 1962 ?. [3,
?.а841.] ??????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? (direction, administration, gouvernement).
?????? ?? ??????????-??????? ???????, ???????? ????? ??, ????
?????? managerа? ??????????, ???????? [4, ?.а495], ?.?. ??????
??????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????????,
?? ?? ??????? ??????????.
?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????,
????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????????
???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????-??????????????
?????. ? ???????????? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????. ???, ???????-???????
??????? 1969 ?. [5] ???????? ????? 165 ????? ????, ? ?.а?. ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????. ? ???????? ???? ?????
?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? (management). ? ?????? ???????
??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????: Managementа? ???????????,
??????????, manageа ? ???? ????????????? (??????????); ?????????????, ??????????????, Managerа ? ???????????, ??????????; ???????????????, ???????????, ????????????, Manager38
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
krankheitа ? ???????, ???????? ??? ????????????? (??????????,
????????-?????????? ???????????) [5, ?.а54].
?????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ???????? ? ?????????
?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????, ? ????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ?????? ????? ???. ? ?????????????? ??????? 1960 ?. ??? ??????????? [6], ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????.
??? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????? ?????. ??? ??????? ? ???,
??? ????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ????? ? ????????????, ??
?????? ?????? ? ???. ????? ?????, ??? ??????????, ???????????
(????????) ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? Verwaltung (f) ? Leitung (f).
? ???????? ??????? ╓konomisches WЎrterbuch (1968 ?.) ????
?????? ????????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????. ???, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????: л??? ??????????╗а? Leiter (m), Leitungskraft
(f), F№hrungskraft (f); л??? ???????????╗а? Manager (m), Verwalter
(m), Geschфftsf№hrer (???????????????????????????????????????????????
m??????????????????????????????????????????????
) [7, ?.а223, 595]. ????? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ????????а? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????.
? ?????????? ??????? Duden?????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????????????????
, ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ???????? 5 ????? ????? ????, ? ??? ????? Managementа? Leitung eines Unternehmens; Managerа? ????????????????????
leitende????????????
???????????
Pers???????
Ў??????
nlichkeit in einem Unternehmen; Managerin; Managerkrankheit [8, ?.а628].
??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? лDer Brockhaus in einem Band╗ [9, ?.а577].
?????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????
???????????. ???, ? ?????-??????? ?????????-??????????????
??????? 1974 ?. [10] ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??
400 ????? ????. ??????????? ????, ???????? ? ?????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?? 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 28 ? ?? 149
??? ?????????? ????? management [10, ?.а107?108]. ?????? ? ????????? ???? management, manager ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????:
39
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
assistant managerа ? ???????? (???????????) ?????????; general
managerа ? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ????????; join
managerа? ?????????????.
? 1977 ?. ??????? ????? ??? ???????а? ?????-??????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????-??????? ????????????? ??????? [2;
11]. ?? ??????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????
???????? ???????? ?????????.
?????-??????? ????????????? ???????????????????????
???????????????
??? ??????? ????? ? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? (???????????? Die
Wirtschaft), ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????-?????????
?????????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????
???????????????, ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????
?????????-????????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????
????????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????. ???????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ? ??? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???????,
??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????,
??? ????????? ??????????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????, ????????
?????????, ???????? ?????????, ?????????-??????????????
??????, ?????? ????????? ????????????, ?????? ???, ????????????? ???????????. ???? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????
?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????????,
????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????, ?????????? (??.а ?.а ?????, ?.а ??????????, ?.а ?????????). ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
???????? ??????????.
40
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? management ??????? ???????: 1)а ?????????? (????????????, ?????????????, ????????); ???????????, ??????????;
2)а ??????????? ????????????; 3)а ????????; ?????????????. ?
????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? (automated management, automated production management), ?????????
??? ???? ?????????: ? 1970-? ????? ??????????????? ???????
?????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????
?????????????.
????, ?????-??????? ????????????? ??????? (1977 ?.) ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
I????????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????. ??????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??????????????а? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ????????
????? ??????????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ??????????.
? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ? ????????
?????? ????? ? ????????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ?????
??????????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????????, change-management (?????????? ???????????) [12, ?.а10] ??? ???? ? ????? ????????????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????.
??????????
1. ??????? ??????????? ???? /а??? ???. ?.а?.а?????? ? ??. ?.: ????????? ????????????, 1964. 784 ?.
2. ?????-??????? ????????????? ??????? / ??? ???. ?.а?.а???????.
?.: ??????? ????, 1977. 728 ?.
3. ??????-??????????? ??????? /а????. ?.а?.а????? ? ?.а?.а?????????. ???.а8-?. ?.: ???. ???-?? ??. ? ???. ????????. ?., 1962. 852 ?.
4. ??????????-??????? ??????? /а????. ?.а?.а???????. ???.а5. ?.,
1962. 652 ?.
5.а??????? ???????-??????? ??????? /а????.: ?.а?.а?????? ? ??. ?.:
????????? ????????????, 1969. ?.а1?2.
6. ??????-???????? ??????? / ??? ???. ?.а?.а????????; ???. 4-?. ?..
1960. 919 ?.
41
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
7. ╓konomisches WЎrterbuch. Russisch-Deutsch. Berlin, 1968. 690 S.
8.аDuden. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung 22, vЎllig neu bearbeitete und
erweiterte Auflage. Herausgegeben von der Dudenredaktion. Auf der Grundlage der neuen amtlichen Rechtschreibregeln. Mannheim, 2000. 1152 S.
9. Der Brockhaus in einem Band. F.а A.а Brockhaus GmbH., Leipzig,
2000. 1024 S.
10.а?????-??????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? (?????????)
/а????. ?.а?.а?????????. ?.: ??????????, 1974. 221 ?.
11. ???????-??????? ????????????? ??????? / ??? ???. ?.а?.а????????. ?.: ??????? ????, 1977. 664 ?.
12.аGrЎger H. лChange-Management: Strategien zur Stфrkung╗ //аJournal
zum Prфsidentenprogramm f№r russische Manager. 2009. ?а1?2. ?.а10?13.
?????? ??????????? ? ????????
??????????? ????????? ????????????
?????????????? ????????
?.а?.а????????
??? ??? л?????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ? ?????????? ??. ?.а?.а????????????╗,
?????? ? ?. ??????, ?????????, ??????
zelenova@yandex.ru
???????????? ???? ? XXI ???? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??
???????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???, ??? ?????? ????
????????? ???????????, ????????, ??????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????????? ??????????
????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????: ????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????. ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ???? ? ? ?????? ?????????. ?????????????, ??? ? ??????
????????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????
?????????.
??????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????. ???????? ???? ??????
???? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????????, ????42
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ? ???????. ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? л?? ??????
?????? ? ???????╗ ? ?????????? ???????? л??????? ???????╗
?????????? ??????. XXI ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????
????? ??????:
?а????????????? ????????? ? ??????????;
?а???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????;
?а???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????;
?а ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????;
?а??????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????;
?а????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ?.а?.
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????????, ???
л??????╗а? ??? л??????????, ????????? ????? ???????? ?????
????? ?????????, ????????╗ [2, ?.а 196], ?????? л???????????╗
(???. ?ivilis) ?????????? ??? л??????? ????????????? ????????,
???????????? ? ???????? ????????╗ [2, ?.а 680]. ?? ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????????а? ??? ?? ??? ????, ??? ?????????
????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ????????????? ????????. ????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ? XIX ???? ????????????
?.а ????????: л????????, ??? ???????????, ?????? ? ???????
??????????????? ??????, ???? ????? ????????, ?????????? ?
???? ??????, ?????????, ?????????, ??????, ?????? ? ????????,
????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ???
?????? ????????╗. ? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????, ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????,
?????????? л????????????╗, ??? ? ??????????????, ??? ???????
????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ? ??????
?????????. ?? ?????? ???????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????
л???????????╗ ???????? ???????? л????????? ???????? ??, ???
?????????? ??? ?????? ????????, ? ??, ??? ??? ????? ?????????:
??????? ????? ??????????????, ???????? ????? ??????, ????????
?????? ???????? ??????, ??? ???????, ?? ??? ? ?????? ??????╗ [3].
??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????? ???????????
????????? ??????? ? ????? ? ??????????????? ????, ??????????
???? ???????????????, л????????? ????????? ???????????╗,
????????? л????? ???? ?????? ????╗ ? ?.а?. ???????? ???????,
43
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????
????? ????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????
???????????? ???? ? ????????????????? ???????????????????
??????????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ? ??????????.
????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ??????,
??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????
??????????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????. ??????????
???????-????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?
???? ????????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????,
??????????? ? ????? ???????????? ???????????. ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??
????, ????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ???????
??????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????, ?????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????????
??? ? ????????? ??????, ??? ? ?? ???? ????. ????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????????? ????????,
??????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????
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л?????? ???????????╗, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?
????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????.
? ?????? ??? 2004 ???? ? ????? (?????) ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? л?????? ? XXI????????????????????????
???????????????????????????
????: ??????????? ????44
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????╗, ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? 300 ???????????? ?
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???????-??????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????, ? ????? ?????????? ????????????
????????? ? ??????? [1].
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???? ???????
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? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????????
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?а ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????
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л???????╗ ? л??????╗;
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??? ????????? ????? л??????? ?????╗ ?? ???????????? ??????;
?а?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????;
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??????;
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???? ????????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???45
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????????. ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?
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????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????
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??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??????
???? ????? ?????????? ????????.
??????????
1. ??????? ???????????? ????? л?????? ???????????╗ //а???????. 2004. ?а2, ??.а1. ?.: ??????????? ????, 2004.
2. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????. ?.: ??????? ????,
1993.
3. Norbert E. The Civilizing Process. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.
????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ? XXI ????
?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
kulikov_d_a@mail.ru
????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????,
??????? ? ?????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ????? ????? ????.
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?????, ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????,
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????.
? ????? ? ????????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ?
???????, ???? ? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????????, ? ??????????? ????????
???? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????46
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????? ????? ????? ????, ????? ???????????? ???????????
?????? ??????? ? ???????????. ? ???????? ????? ?????????,
????? ????, ???????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ?
?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ???? ? ?????
????????????? ????????.
??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????, ????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????????????, ? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????
??????????: Computergastarbeiterа ? ??????????????????????,
Compi-Yugendа? ???????? ???????????? ???, Citycallа? ???????
(??????????) ?????????? ?????, Telematikа? ??????????, der CDPlayerа ? ??????, ????????????? ?????, der Laptopа ? ???????,
Internetadressа? ????? ? ?????????, hostа? ??????? ?????????, der
Walkmanа ? ??????, surfenа ? ???????? ?? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? [1].
????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????:
Zivilgesellschaftа? ??????????? ????????, Perestroikaа? ???????????, Global Playerа? ?????????? ?????.
?????, ??????????? ? ???????? ? ????????, ??? ???????????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?
??????????????? ?????: Genchipа? ??? ? ?????, Gen-Foodа? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, Klonа? ????.
? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?????
????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????: Global
Bankingа ? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ????????
?????? ? ?????? ??????.
????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????: Actorа ? ?????????,
Blockbusterа? ??????????, Soundtrackа? ?????? ? ??????????.
???????? ????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ???, ????????,
????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????: Joggingа? ??? ???????, Fitnessа? ??????, Beach????????
-???????
Volleyballа? ??????? ????????, Raftingа? ????? ?? ?????? ?????.
????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????, л??? ????? ??????╗, ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ? ?????? ?? ????????:
47
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????, ????: Loveparadeа? ????????? ???????? ????????????
????? ?? ?????? ???????, hipа? ????., ????????, coolа? ??????,
??????; Tripа? л???????? ???????????╗а? ???????? ??? ??? ????????: ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? (?????????),
Rosenkriegа? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???? ? ?????
????, ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? л????????
??????? ? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ??????????????╗. ??? ???? ??????????????? ? ??????????????, ??? ?????????
???????? (???????) ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ???.
? ?????? ????? ????, ??????????? ? ???????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????, ? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????????????? ?????????????. ?????
????? ????????? ???????? ??????-???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????. ? ??? ??? ?? ??????
????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????,
??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ?? ????? ???? ?????????
???????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????. ????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????. ???? ? ?? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????: Greenfeeа? Green Fee,
Hotdogа? Hot Dog. ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????,
????? ?????????? ? 7-?? ??????? FremdwЎrterbuch Duden. ? ?
???????????? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
??????? WЎrterbuch der deutschen Gegenwartssprache ??? ????????? ?.а?????????? ??? ? 3-?????? ??????? Deutsch- Russisches
WЎrterbuch ??? ????????? ?????.
????? ?????а ? ??????? ????????. ????? ???? ? ??? ?????
?????? ??????????, ? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ???????????? ?? ???????????: Euro-Ticket
?n, sа? ????????? (????? ?? ???????? ????, ??????????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? 3%) [2].
????????????, ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???
????????? ????????? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????: FremdwЎrter sind Gl№cksacheа? л??????????? ?????а? ???? ?????╗.
48
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????????? ?????????а? ??? ???? ????, ? ?? ????? ??????, ?????? ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????. ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?
?? ????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????.
? ?????? ????? ???????????, ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ????????????????
????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????? Kleidung ? Getrфnke (л??????╗, л???????╗) ?????????? ???????????? wear, drinks ? ??????????? ??????????. ??????????????
???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ????
??????? ??? ????????????. ??? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? Denglisch, ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? Englishа? ???????????, ??? ?? Deutsch. ???????? ???????? ????????
? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ? Denglisch ?????? ?????.
??? ???????????? ????? ????????, ??? o?key, goodbye, ? ????? ????????? ????? ???????????, ??????????? [3].
????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????
?????. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????????. ???, ????? Klon ????
????????????? ????????. ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? Kloni
л??????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????╗. ?????????? ?????а?
????????? ??????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ????.
? ?????????? ??????, ? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????
???????????? ???????? Diplom ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????: Diplom-Zyniker, Diplom-Dandy. ? 60?70 ??. ? XX ?.
?????????? ???????? Assi л??????????? ???????, ????????, ??
??????? ?????? ? ?? ???????? ????????╗, ???????? ???????
??????????????? ? ??????. ? ?????????? ?????? Assi ???? ????????? Assel.
?????????? ????? ????????? ????, ????? ????, ?? ??????
????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ???? ????
????? ??????????. ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????
????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? Philister.
49
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???
?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?, ? ?????????, ????????????
???????. ???, ????????: Das neue
FremdwЎrter Lexikon, Das Buch der neuen WЎrter von Sebastian
Laskant [1]. ????? ????????? ??? ????????????? Denglisch: л???
????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????, ? ?????? ????????? ? ???? ? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????╗.
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????. ????????,
????? ??? ????? ??????????? ????? Handyа? ????????? ???????а?
?????? ????????? ????? schnurloses Telefonа? ???????????? ???????.
? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ??????????? ????????
л???????? ???????????╗, ????? ??? лFremdwortа ? was ist das╗,
лFreund oder Feind╗, лBedrohung oder Bereicherung╗. ????? ?????: ????????? ????, ?? ??? ?????? ????????????.
??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????. ? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????, ??
???????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????, ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????. Besitzstandsdenken n, sа? л????? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ????
????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????╗. Meeresgrundforschungslaborauswertungsberichtа? л?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???╗. ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????: л???? ????? ?? ? ???, ????? ?????????
??????????? ?????, ? ? ???, ????? ?? ?????????╗.
??????????
1.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Das neue FrendwЎrter Lexikon: Das
?????????????????????????????????
Buch der neuen WЎrter von Sebastian Loskant. Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag. Berlin, 1998.
2. Duden. Das gro?e WЎrterbuch der deutschen Sprache in zehn Bфnden. Berlin, 2003.
3. Deutsch??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Russisches WЎrterbuch von Ronald LЎtzsch. Berlin: Akademieа? Verlag, 1984.
4. ???? ?. ? ??. ???????-??????? ???????. ???? ?????. ?., 2005.
5. ???????????? ?.а?., ?????????? ?.а?.а????????????????????????
Neue????????????????????
W??????????????????
???????????????????
Ў?????????????????
rter?????????????
im??????????
????????????
21. Yahr?????
hundert: Deutsch-russisches WЎrterbuch. ?., 2007.
50
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???? ??????? ?? ??????????
? ??????? ???????? ????????
(? ????????? ???????????? ????????????)
?.а?.а???????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????
A.аShustrov@list.ru
? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ????? ????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????????
???? ????????, ? ?? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????
???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????.
??????? ??????????, ??? ????? ????????????????????
??????. ? ?????? ??????????, ? ???????? ??????, ? ??????
?????? ????????, ??? ? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????. ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????: л?????? ??????
???? ????? ??????? ? ???, ???? ?? ??????, ???? ??????????? ?
?????????? ???? ???????. ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????
?????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????????
?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????
???????????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ????, ???, ????????, ?????? ???
????????? ??????, ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ? ????? ???????, ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ??????
?????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????: ??? ??
?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????
????????????? ??? ????? ????╗ [1, ?.а279].
???????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?????????
????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????
? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ? ???? ?
????????????. ??? ??? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ??????
????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????????.
51
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?? ?????? ???????? ??????, ??????а? ????? ????????. ???
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???????. ???????? ?????????, ???, ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ???????? ????????? ??????????? [2, ?.а619]. ?????
???????, ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ? ????????.
???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ????????? ??????????? ????
??? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ? ??????? ????????.
??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????. ??????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ?????????, ? ???????????? ???????? [2, ?.а579, 843].
?????? ??????? ??????????а ? ?????????? ????????????
??????? ? ?????????? ? ???????. ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????, ???? ??? ????? ? ???? ????????, ?? ? ??????? ???????
?? ???, ??? ?? ???? ??????????????? ????????. ??? ?? ??????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????. ????????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ????????, ??????? ?? ? ?????????? ??????, ????????
????????? ?????? ? ??????. л????????????, ?????????????
??????? ???? ???? ?????, ???????? ????????, ?????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????????а? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?
???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????, ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????,а? ??? ????????
???? ????????? ???????. ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
??????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????╗ [2, ?.а671].
???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??
??, ??? ???, ??? ???? ??????, ?????????? ?????????, ?????????, ???????. ??? ????? ?????????? ? ???????, ????? ?? ????. ???????????? ? ??????, ??????? ????????, ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????. ? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????????.
??????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ???? ???
???? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????
52
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????, ?? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????. ???? ????????? ????????
?????? ?? ??, ??? ???????? ??? ?????????.
??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????.
???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??? ? ????. ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????
?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????, ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ? ???????????, ?? ????? ???????????? ? ????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ? ??????, ? ?? ?????? ? ??????. ??? ??, ??? ?
?????? ??????, ? ????, ????? ??а? ??, ??? ? ????? ??????, ? ??????а? ????????? ????????.
??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????????, ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ????????????????, ???????????? ??????, ???????? ? ?????????? ????????, ???????,
? ???? ???????, ????? ? ??????????? ????????. ????? ???????,
?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ??
??????. ???? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????????
????????. ??????, ????? ???????? ?????????, ???? ????????
[2, ?.а833]. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????, ????? ???????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ???? ? ????????? ?? ????
?????????? ????????. ? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????а? ??????????.
??????? ??????????? ???????, ? ??? ????????? ????????, ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????????. ??? ????? ????
??????????? ? ????. ?????????? ????, ?? ???? ?? ????????????
???????, ? ????????? ??????? ????, ??????????? ?? ? ??? ???????? ????, ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ?????. ??
?????? ?????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????????
?????? ?????? ????, ??? ???? ? ???? ???????? ????. ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?
????? ??????. ? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????????: л??? ??????????, ????????????, ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ??????
53
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?? ?????? ?????????????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???????,
????? ? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?????╗ [3, ?.а62].
?????? ? ???????????? ?????????а ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????. ????????????? ??? ? ????????? ?????????
??????????, ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ????????. ??????????????
???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ??
????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????, ? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????
?????????????? ????.
??????????
1. ???????? ??????. ?????? ? ??????????????????????. ?., 2003.
2. ???????? ?????????. ?????????. ?????? ??????????. ??????????. ???., 2002.
3. ????? ?????. ????? ??????????????. ?., 2006.
? ???????? ???????????? ????????????
? ??????????? ???????
?.а?.а???????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
jkarabardina@mail.ru
??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ????????
??????? ???????????? ? ? ???????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????????. ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? л????????????╗
? л??????????????????╗, ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???? ????? ??????, ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ??????????????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????.
???, ? ??????? 2010 ?. ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ?????
??????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? л?????????????????????????? ????╗ ? ?????? ???????? [1] ???????: л????????????╗, ?????????, ? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ? ???? ???????54
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????, ?? ????????╗. ?? ?????? ?-?? ???????, ?????? ??????, ???
??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????
? ????????, ????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????????? ????????
??????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ????????.
?????????? ???????-??????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? 47-? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? [2] ????? ???????
????????????? ???????? ???????????????????. ?? ??? ??????,
?????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ? ???? ???, ???
????????? ???????? ????????, ???? ?? ?????????. ?????????? ??????? ? л???????????? ???????????╗, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????????, ?????? ????,
?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????.
?, ???????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??-1 11 ??????? ????? ????
[1], ??? ???????? ??????????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????. л??, ??? ??????. ???? ? ???, ??? ?? ????
??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????
???????????? ???, ??? ????????? ? ??????, ? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???, ??? ?? ?????????╗,а? ??????? ???????.
????? ?????????? ?.а??????? ? ????????? ???? ?????? ????
?????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? л??????????? ???????????? ????????????╗.
??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????, ?.а??????? ????? ????????? ? ????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ????????. ??????????
???????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? л????????╗ (????????????) ???? л???? ?????╗ [3, ?.а22]. ???????? ???????? ?? ????
??????? ???????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????? Front National, ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????: л ???? ???-??? ?? ????? ???????, ?????
???????╗, л? ?? ????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????,
???? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????╗ ? ?.а?.
????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
???? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????,
???????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????, ???????
55
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????????? ? 18 ??? 2007 ?. ?? 13 ?????? 2010. ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ??????????? л??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? 25000 ????????? ???????????
?? ??? ??????????? ?? 2007 ???╗ (???????? ???? ?????????????
?? ??????? ??????, ? ? 2008 ?. ???????? ????? ?? 29,5 ?????),
? ????? ???? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? (????? 15 ????? л???????????╗ ?????? ??
?????? 6 ??????? 2009 ?.) [4]. ??????????? ? ???? ????? ???????
л????????????╗ ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??
???? л???????????? ????????????╗, ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??? ? ??????? ????????, ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???? ???????,
?.а?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????: л?? ?????? ?????????
???, ??? ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????... ?????????? ???????
? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????, ??? ???????? л???? ?????????╗.
??????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????????а? ?? ?????????? (л??? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????
?????? ? ???, ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ???????????? ???, ???
????? ???????? ?? ??????????????╗) ?? ???????? (л?????, ?????
????????? ????? ???????????, ??? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????╗), ?????????? (л??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????
???????? ? ??? ????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????, ? ????????
????? ?????-????????????╗) ?, ???????, ????????. ???, ? ??????
2009 ?. ? ?????? Libщration ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????, ??????????, ?????????,
???????????? ? ??. ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? [5].
??? ?? ??????????????? ??? л??????????? ????????????
?????????????╗, ????????, ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????
?? ??????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????? identitщ? ?? ??????????? ?????,
?????? ???????? ??? ???????? 1)а???????????????, ?????????? ?
56
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
2)а???????????, ????? identitщ ????? ????? ???????? 3)а????????,
?????? ? ???????? ( щtablir l'identitща? ????????????? ????????; carte
d'identitща? ????????????? ????????; piшces [papiers] d'identitща? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????), 4)а??????. ???????? (identitщ
socialeа ? ?????????? ????????; ?????????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ??????), 5)а????????????, ?????????.
? ????????? ? ?????????????? nationale, ??? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?.-?.а ???? [6], ??? ????? ??????????????
???? ? 80-? ????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????: ?????? ?????, ??????????
? ????? ????????? ????????? лidentitщ nationale╗, ???? ?????? ?
1978 ?. ? ??????????? 20 ??? ???? ???????????? 30 ????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ? ??? ??????? ?? ??
????????? 10 ???.
?? ???? ? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ???? ????? л????????????╗ ????? ???? ???????. ? 60-? ????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ? ?????????? ????????, ? ? ?????? ?????. ???? ???
? ???????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????,
??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ? ????? ???? ?? л????????╗ ? ??????? ????????.
?.-?.а ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????. л?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ??? ??????, ????
??? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????. ?? ???????? ????????? л???????????? ????????????╗
????????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ????
?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???? ??????????, ? ??
??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????????
?????? ?.-?.а?? ???? (???????????? ?????).
?? ???? ????????? ???? л???????????? ????????????╗ ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ??
???????????? ???????????? ???, ??????, л???????????? ???????╗
(le sentiment national) ???????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????.
????????? ? XIX ???? ????????????? ? ??, ??? ???? ??????? л??57
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???╗, ??? л??????╗ ?????. ? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ????? ???
??????? ???-?? ????? л?????????╗ ????????????? ????????? (??
??????????? ???????? ?.а????????, лun kit identitaire╗): ???????
???????-??????????? (????? ??? ?????????), ???????????? ???????, ??????, ?????, ?????????, ??????????? ? ?.а?. ??????? ????????, ??? ? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????, ??????? ? ????????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????.
???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????, ???????
???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? л?????????????╗ ???? ??????? ? л?????????????╗, ? ???? ???????, ?? ????, ??? ?? ??????
??????????????? ? ????????, ??? ? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??????
?????? ?? ??? ???????, ????????, ????? ???? ?????? ?????. ? ????? ?? ?????, ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????
????????????.
??????????
1. URL: http: //www.rg.ru/2011/02/11/shestakov-site.html
2. URL: http: //demoscope.ru/weekly/2011/0453/gazeta013.php
3. ??????????? ?.а ?. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ??????-??????? 2005 ?. //а????????
??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????: ??. ????. ??. ?? ?????????? ????.
????.-?????. ????. ?????????: ??????????????????????, 2006. 186 ?.
4.аURL: http: //www.immigration.gouv.fr/spip.php?page=dossiers_det_
res&numrubrique =420&numarticle=2154
5.а URL: http://www.liberation.fr/societe/0101606559-nous-exigeonsla-suppression-du-ministere-de-l-identite-nationale-et-de-l-immigration
6.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
?URL:
http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2009/11/06/aux-ra??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
cines-de-l-identite-nationale_1263699_823448.html
58
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
Paese che vai, usanze che trovi. Co ????? ???????
? ????? ????????? ?? ?????, ??? ???????????
????????????? ????????? ??????????
?.а?.а?????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?. ?????????, ??????
masnatalia@yandex.ru
??????? O sole mio? o mamma mia? arrivederci, spaghetti,
Prada, pizza, dolce vita, amore mio, tutte le strade portano a Rom?.
??? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? OGGI, ECCO, AZZURRO,
Bosco di Ciliegi. ??????? ??? ???? ? ????????? ??, ???????, ???????????, ?? ???????????, ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????: ?????, ????, ??????????? ????, ?????? ???????, ??? ???
??? ??????? ? ???????. ??????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ? ??, ??? ??
???? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?????
???????? ????????? л????????????? ???????╗. ? ?????? ? 50-?
????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????
?? ????? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????
? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????. ???? ? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????, ?????? ???? ? ??????
?? ?????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????. ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ???. ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????
?? ??????????? л????╗ ? ????? ? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????
????????, ???? ??????????? pasta-spaghetti, ??????? ?????? ?
?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????, ????? ??? ??????? ?????????,
???? ???????, ??? ???? ? ?????? ?????, ?????? ???????. ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ????????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????
????? л??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????╗, ? ?????? л?? ????????╗ ? ????????????? ??????? ???? ????? л???╗.
??, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ? ???????, ????? ???????? ????????????
? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????. ?? ???
?? ??? ??????, ??? ????????
59
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ??, ???????, ????????? ? ?????? ? ???? ??????, ?? ????????, ??? ???? ??? ????????????, ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????.
1.аCiaoа? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?? ? ??????????? ? ??????. ????? Ciao ????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? лS?ciavo vostro╗ , ? ??? ??????а? лschiavo
vostro╗, ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? л??? ???╗, ??? ?????
?????а? л? ????? ???????╗.
2.а?? ???????????, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ??? ????, ?????? ? ??? ???????, ? ??? ????????. ???? ?? ?? ?? ????????? ????? ???????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
3.а ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ???????, ?????, ????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????. ??, ???????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??????
???, ??? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ???, ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????. ??????????? ????, ?? ??? ???????
? ?? ????, ??? ??????????, ????????? ?? ????. ?? ?????? ????????а? ??? ?? ???? ?????????, ? ??????? ?? ???????, ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ??????????? ???? ??? ?
????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????. ??? ????? ???? ????
???????? ? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???.
4.а ????. ?? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???. ?? ???-??
????! ??-??????, ??????? ????? ????, ?? ???????. ??-??????,
???? ? ????????, ?? ?????. ?? ? ?-???????, ??????? ?? ??????
?? ???????! ?? ? ???????? ??????, ?? ? ???????, ?? ? ?????????.
????? ???? ?????? ????!
5.а ??????, ? ????. ???????????? ???????? ????????????
???????? ???????? л??????? ???? ?╗, ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????: macchina (????????????),
miscela e tostatura (????? ? ???????), macinatura e dosatura (?????
? ?????????), manutenzione (???????????? ????????????) ? mano
(????). ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ????:
caffe? espresso (???? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????-?????????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????), caffe? ristretto
60
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
(???? ???????), caffe? doppio (???? ???????), caffe? macchiato
(???? ? ???????) , caffe? corretto (???? ? ???????? ??? ???????,
??????????? ???????? ?????), caffe? cappuccino (?? ????????
????????). ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????. ???? ?? ????????
??? ? ????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ????????, ? ??????, ?? ??????????? bella figura, ?? ???? ? ???????
????????. ???? ?? ??, ??????? ??? ??????????, ????, ???????,
?????? ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???? all?italianaа?
??, ???????, ??? ???????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ??????????. ???? ???? ??-?????????? ?????
??????????? ?????? ? ??????а? l?aria non c?e! (л?????? ?? ???!╗)
6.а ? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????!!!
???, ???????, ???? ?? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??
???????????, ? ??????????? ?? ??????????. ???? ?? ? ?????
???????, ? ????????????, ? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????. ??
??????? ??? ??-???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???????
???? л?????????╗ [1].
7.а???? ???? ?????, ? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????а? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ? ???? ??????! ??? ????? ??????
??????? ??? ??????????.
8.а?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????, ?? ????? ??????? ? ??????,
???? ? ????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????: ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????. ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????.
9.а?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????. ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????а?
???? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??? ????? ???! ? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????: ? ???? ??? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????. ???????,
???? ?????? ?????????, ??? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ???????
?????. ?????, ???? ?? ????, ? ?????????а? ??? ???? ??????? ?????.
10.а??????????? ???????. ??? ?? ???????, ?? ??? ??????????? ?? ? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ? ??????? ????????, ????????
? ??????????. ????? ??? ??????, ?????? ? ??????, ????????,
?????? ?? ?????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ???61
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ????????????. ????? ???????а? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????, ?????????? ????????, ?????? ?????????????????? ???????:
????????? ??????, ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????,
?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????, ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?
??????? ??????? ??? ? ????? ? ???? ??????, ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ??????????а? ??? ?????????? bombonieraа? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????. ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????
?????? ? ???????: лSposa bagnata sposa fortunata╗ (?????? ???????а? ?????????? ???????). ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?
????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????. ????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????, ?????????? ????????.
???? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???, ??? ??? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ? ????? ??????????????, ??? ????????? ????? ??????
?????????????????, ???????? ????????? ? ??????.
Di Venere e di Marte non si sposa, non si parte, nщ si dр principio
all'arte╗а? ?? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ???????, ?? ????????,
?? ???????? ?????-???? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ???, ??? ???????а? ????, ??????????? ???? ?????, ?????; ?
???????, ?? ???????,а? ????, ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????. ???
???????? ????????? ???? ??????, ?? ??????????? ? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ???????? ? ????? ? ???????,
??????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ? ???????, ???????? ?? ?? ???
??? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????, ?????????
???? ??????? ????????????????.
11.а??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????. лDottore╗а ? ????? ?? ??????????? ????,
? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????; лProfessore╗ ???????? ???? ????????, ? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????;
лMaestro╗ ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ????????????, ?? ?
????? ?????? ??????????????, ???? ???????? ?? ????????; лI??
ngegnere╗а? ????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ??????
????? ? ?????????? ????????????.
62
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
12.а?? ???????, ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????, ?? ????, ?? ????????
?? ????? ??? ??? ?????????, ??? ??? ?????????? allegriaа? ??????
???????? ????????????. ??? ? ??????? ????, ? ??????? ???, ? ???????? ???????, ? ??????? ? ??????, ? ??????? ??? ????????
????????. ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????. ????? ????, ??????
??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. ? ? ????? ????,
??? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? л?????╗ ???????? ?? ???? ? ?????????
?????????-???? ? ?????????? ????.
13.а? ?????? ?????????. ??????? 17-? ???????? ????????? (?
????????? ????????). ???? ? ???, ??? ? ??????? ???? ?? ???????
?????? VIXI (???), ? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? XVII (17).
14.а? ?????? ? ??????? ???????а? ???? ????????. ?????????
?????????, ?????? ??, ?? ??????????? ???? ?? ??? ????????????
?? ?????? ??????????, ? ????????, ??????????, ??? ?????????????. ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????????. ???, ???????, ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ? ??????, ?????????
??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ???????
???? ????? ? ????, ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????, ????????
????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????. ?? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????, ? ?????? ???
?????а? camorra. ????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??
???? ????. ????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ????????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????а? ???????? ???? ??????! ???? ???
???????? ???? ? ???????, ?????? ????????? ???????????а ? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ????????!
????????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? scippatore
(????????? ???)а? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????,
??? ?? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ? ?????? л???????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ??????╗ ??????????? ????? ???????
????? ?????? ????????: л???????, ????? ?? ???????, ??а? ????????????!╗
63
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
15.а ???? ?? ?????? ? ????-?? ? ?????, ?????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????а? ?? ????? ?? ???????. ???? ?? ??
????????? ?? ???, ?? ???????????, ???? ??????? ????????? ???????: ??????? ?? Fratelli Rosetti ????? ??????? ?? л???? ????╗, ???
??????: ??? ?? ?? allegriaа? ??????? ?????, ???????? ? ???????.
16. ?? ???????????, ???? ??, ?????? ??????????? ???????
???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? (????????, ? ????????) ??? ? ???????, ??????? ? ??????, ??? ?? ????????? ??????
?? ?????????. ???? ?????? ?????? 100 ? ????????? ??? ? ??? ???,
??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????. ????????????
????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????(1807?1882) ? ???
?????????? л??????╗ (?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????) ?????? ??????????
??????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????, ??? ? ????? 1860 ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ? ?????? 1861 ???? ????? ??? ??????
???? ??????????. ?? ?? ??? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ??????
???????? ???? ?????. ?? ?? ???????????????! ?????????, ?????
????????? ?????, ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ???, ????
?? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ? ?????????? ?? ? ??? ????. La vita e?
dolce e sempre bella!
??????????
1. ?????????? ?.а?. ?????? ? ?????????. ?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????. ??????????????, Digipack, 2008.
????????? ?????? ? ???
?? ??????????? ?????
?.а?.а???????
????? (???), ?????????, ??????
win1945@yandex.ru
??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????
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64
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????, ?? ? ?????????????????. ? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????, ??????????????, ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????, ????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ????????
???? ???????????, ????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??
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? ?????????????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????
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? ???????????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ? ??? ? 2010 ???????? 4 ????????? ??????? (1,3% ????????? ???), ???????????? ? ?????? 90-? ????? XX
???? ? ??? ? ????????? ???? [1]. ?????????? ??????? ??????????
????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? ? ???.
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????? ??
??? ???????: 1849?1882 ??., 1882?1965 ??., ? 1965а? ?? ???? ???.
?????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?
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? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????. ??????????? ?
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л?????? ? ??????????? ????????╗, ???????????? ????? ? ???
????????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????????
????????? ???. ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? л????????? ??-??╗. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?
???????? ??????? (???????? ??????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ? 1871 ?. ? ? ?????? ?1877 ?.). ????? ???????????????? ???????
????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? 1965 ????. ??????
????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????, ??? ????????
65
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? л?????? ? ??????????? ??????╗ 1964 ?. ????? ? ????????????? ? 1978 ???? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????
??? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???.
?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (?????? ??? ??????) ?
??? ????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????: ?? ????????????? ????????? (??????????????? ? ??????????), ??????-??????? (???????, ???-??????, ???????????, ????????????) ? ?? ??????.
??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?
???????????? ????????. ? ????? XIX ???? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????
??????????????? ?? ????????????, ????????????? ????????.
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?????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ??
??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????
??????????? ??????????? ? ??? ????????. ???, ????????, ??
???????? ????????? 1920 ???? ?????? 30% ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? [2, ?. 387].
?????? ???-????????? ??? ??? ?????????: л? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????. ???
??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???, ???????? ?
?????? ?????, ?????? ?? ????????????? 1906 ????. ?? ????????
????? ???????? ????????, ? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????╗ [2, ?. 390].
??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???? ???
? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????????,
66
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????
?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? [3]. ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ????????, ??? ? 40-? ????? XIX ????, ????? ?
?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?
??? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????. ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????,
?????????? ? 80-? ?.?. XIX ????, ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ????????????? ??????. ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????-?????? ? ??????????
??? ? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ? ???????????? ???????????? 40-? ????? ?????
??????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?
??????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????. ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????
?????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????. ????????????, ???
???????? ?? ???, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????. ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????
??????? л?а ? ??????╗, ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????.
? 50-? ???? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? л???????? ??????╗
????? ?? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? л????????╗. ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????,
??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ??? ???
????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ? 80-? ????
????? ???? ??? ? ??? ?????? ????, ? ????? ????? ?????????
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?????????? ????? ??? ? ?? ??, ??????? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ????? ????? ????. ????????????, ??????????????? ? ???67
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ? 80-? ???? ?????
???????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ? ???. ?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????
? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????????? ????? ???. ?
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??? ?? ?????????????, ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ???????????
л?????╗. ????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????? ? ???
???? ?????? ????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????????????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ??? 1999 ????. ????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?
?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ? ?????? ???????, ??? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????????. ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ????? 11
???????? 2001 ????, ????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??
???????, ????????? ? ??????.
??????????
1. Chinese American Society blog. Timeline. URL: http://ca-soc.org/
2. Encyclopedia of Diasporas. NY: Springer, 2005.
3. Iris Chang Chinese in America, 2004. URL: http://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=9h8LVorTecE
?? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????
????-?????????? ????????
?.а?.а???????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
liztitkova@yandex.ru
??????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ? ?????????, ????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?
?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???????????
68
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???? ????????. ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?
??????????? ????????а? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????.
? ???????? XVI???????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????
???? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ?????? (1532?1595) ???????? ? ?????? 300 ?????????? [4, ?.а 23]. ?????????? ????
?????????? ? ???? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????.
?????????, ???????, ?????а? ??? ??????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???? ? л?????? ???????╗, ??? ???????, ????????? ? ??? ???????? ?????а? ????????? ? ?????????,
?????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????
??????: ??????, ??????, ????????, ????????? [2, ?.а27].
???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???? ????????????.
?????? ????? ??? ??????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????????? ? 1522 ????, ????????????? ??????? ???? 1585 ????, л?????? ??????╗ ?????? ????????? 1613
????. л????? ????? ??????╗ ???? ?????????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ??????? VI (1547?1553 ????), ????????? I (1558?
1603 ????) ? ????? I (1603?1625 ????). ? ? 1551 ?. ??? ??????
л????? ????? ??????-??????╗. ??? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? [1, ?.а69]. ? ??????
????????? ????????? I ???????? ?????????? ????? Dell-Art, ???
?????? ???? ????????? [2, ?.а200].
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ???? ???? ? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????? ????? [4, ?.а10?14]. ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????????? ??????
??????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?
???????. ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????. ????? ????, ?????? ????
????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?
???????????.
????????? ????????? ??????-??????. ???????? ???????,
?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? XX ????, ????????
??? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??69
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????? ?????? ? ???????? XVI ????. ?????? ??????, ???????
?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ???
??????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????????. ??? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????.
????? ??? ???? ? ??????????а ? ???????? ???????? ??????????
???? (1630??1658 ??.) [2, ?.а 201]. ?? ??????????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? [1, ?.а75]. ??????
?????? ????????? ?????????????, ????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? [1, ?.а68]. ??? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????а ? ???
?????? ????? ???? ? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????? ? ????.
????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ?????????. ????????? ???? ????? ???????? ? ?????
? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ????. ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????. ????? ? ???
??????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ????
????? ????????? (????а ? ??????? ????? ?????? XVIII ????).
???? ????????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????: ?????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???? ? ?????????, ???????????
???????? ?????????? ? ???????????. ?? ?? ????????? ????? ??
?? ???????????? ?? ??????. ???, ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ???
????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????
???????, ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ? ??????? ???? ????????
?????? ??????? [4, ?.а10?11]. ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???? ?????????????, ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? [1, c.а89]. ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????????
????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ? ????? ????????? ??????????а? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?
???, ? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ???????.
?????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? XVI ????,
???????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????
??????????? ???? ??? ????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????70
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???? ?? ???? ???????. ?????????? ????????????, ?? ???? ?????. ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????
????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????.
??????????
1. Gretchen G.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а??????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Black England. Life before Emancipation. L.: John Murray Ltd., 1995. 244 p.
2. Scobie E.а The black in Western Europe / I.а Van Sertima. African
Presence in Early Europe. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1985. 317 p.
3. Sherwood M.аAfter abolition / Britain and the slave Trade since 1807.
L.: I.аB.аTauris & Co. Ltd. 246 p.
4. Walvin J.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Black ivory. Slavery in the British Empire. Oxford????????
: Black??????
well Publishing, 2001. 324 p.
???????????????? ?????? ???????? л???????╗
?? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????
???????? ? ??????????? ??????
?.а?.а???????
????????????? ???????? ???????
? ????? ??????????, ?????????,??????
dmit_gol@rambler.ru
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????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ? ?????-????
??????? ????????????????.
?????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????,
??? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????
??????? л???????╗ ??????????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ????? ???????, ??? ?????????, ????????, ??????, ????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????
??????.
71
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ????????, ????????? ? ??????, ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????, ??-??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????
????????, ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????: ???????? ????
???????; ??-??????, ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????????: ??????? ? ???? ?????????; ?-???????, ?? ????????
???????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????: ??????? ??????? ????????; ????? ????, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????
????????? ???: ?????? ??? ???????, ?????? ???? ??????. ?????
????????? ???? ????, ??? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??
?????????????, ???? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????????: ???? ?? ??, ?? ???? ????. ??????? ????? ????????,
??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ? ??????????????. ???, ????????,
????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????: ??? ????? ????, ???
? ??????; ?????? ???? ?????? ?????. ??, ? ?????? ???????, ?
?????????? ??????????, ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????: ??????? ??? ? ??????, ???????а? ? ?????. ????? ???????,
????? ?????????, ??? ??????? л???????╗ ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? (?? ?.а?.а?????????) ? ?????????? л????????╗,
л?????????╗ ? л??????╗, ???????, ? ???? ???????, ????????????
(?? ?.а?.а????????) ????? ?????. ????? ????, ???????? л????╗,
л???????╗, л???╗, л????????╗, л?????????╗ ? л??????╗ ???????????? ? ????????? л???????╗, ??????? ????????????? ?????.
? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????
????????, ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ????????:
?)а??????????? ? ????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?
??????????: A man of courage never wants weapon;
?)а ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????: He was a bold
man that first ate an oyster;
?)а???? ????, ????????????? ? ????????. ???????? ??????????, ??????? ? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????, ???? ?????:
Nothing is impossible to a willing heart;
72
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?)а ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????: If you gently
touch a nettle, it?ll sting you for your pains; grasp it like a lad of
mettle, an┤ as soft as silk remains;
?)а??????????????????, ?.а?. ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ? ??? ??????????: Valour that parleys is near
yielding;
?)а???????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????????,
??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ? ????: Courage ought to have
eyes as well as arms;
?)а ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??
??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?.а?. ????????????? ????? ? ?????????: He who hesitates is lost;
?)а??????????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????
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???????????????????????????????????????
, ?????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????
?????????????????????
?????????????????????
????????????
????????????
????
???????????? ??????????: It is a bold (or wily) mouse that breeds (or
nestles) in the cat?s ear.
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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, ??????????????????????????????????????????
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???
???????, ??? bravery, boldness, valour, will, uncompromisingness, selfassurance, quick wit, fortitude, fearlessness ? watchfulness. ?????
????, ????? ??????????, ??? ?????????, ??????? ?????????????
??? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????, ????????? ? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????????. ???????, ?????? ???????????? ?.а ?.а ?????????,
????? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? л??????????????
heroism???????
╗ ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? [2,?.211] ? ?????????? лbravery╗,
лboldness╗ ? лvalour╗, ??????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????
????? ? ?????????? ????????? (?? ???????????? ?.а?.а????????
[5,?.16]), ? ? ?????????? лwill╗, лuncompromisingness╗, лself????
-???
assurance╗, лquick wit╗, лfortitude╗, лfearlessness╗ ? лwatchfulness╗
???????? ? ????????????? ????????? [2,?.211].
?????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? л???????╗ ??? ?
?????????????, ??? ? ? ???????????? ??????????????, ????????
? ???????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???????
????????? ?? ????????, ??????????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ? ???????????.
73
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????, ??? ? ???????????? ???????????????, ??? ???????, ??? ? ??????????, ? ??????????????
??????, ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????
????? ??? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????.
????? ????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????
? ?????????? ????????, ????????????????? ????? ???????? л???????╗ ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ?
??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ????????. ???, ????????, ??
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616 ?.
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1976.а355 ?.
3. ????? ?.а?.а?????-??????? ???????????????? ???????. 4-? ???.,
???????. ? ???. ?.: ???. ??., 1984. 944 ?.
3. ??????? ????????? ? ?????????. ??? ???. ?.а?.а??????? ; ????.
?.а????????? ; ?.а??????; ?.а??????. ?.: ?????????????? ??????????,
1988. 431?.
4. ??????? ?.а?.а???????????? ???? ????????: ??????????. ????,
2004. 103 ?.
5. Dictionary of Quotations and Proverbs: The Everyman Edition /аCompiled by D.аC.аBrowning. L., 1987. 745 p.
75
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
2. ????????, ?.а?.а?? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? // ????? ? ?????????-?????????????? ?????????????.
?.: ???-?? ????, 2006. ???. 1. ?.а107?115.
3. ?????? ?.а?.а?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????:
?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????.а? ?.: ?????, 2004.а? 304 ?.
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???.: ??? ???, 2000.
5. ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????: ???. ? ????. /а???. ???. ?
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die Toleranz, ?????????а ? tollerancia, ???????????а ? tolщrance,.
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85
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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86
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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88
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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//а???????????. 2002. ? 6.
2.а???????? ?.а?.а??????????????? ???????????. ?.:а???????? ???????????, 1999.
3.а?????????? ?.а?.а????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? //а???????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??? ??????????????? ??????. ?.: ?????, 1972.
4. ?????????? ?.а?.а??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????. ?.: ???????????, 1973.
5. ??????? ??????????? ????????????. ?.: ????????; ????????????, 1994.
6. ???????? ?.а ?. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?
????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????. ???????: ??????, 1996.
89
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Supщrieure) ????? ?? ?????, ??? ? ? ????? ?????????. ??? ?????
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????? ??????? ??????? 29). ? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? (????????,
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93
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???? ??????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?
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94
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????.
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1. ??? ?., ?????? ?., ????-????? ?.а ??????????? ??????????.
?.: ???, 2006. 311 ?.
2.а?????? ?., ??????? ?.а??? ????? ??????????? ?.: ???????????,
2007. 190 ?.
3.а ??????? ?.а?. ? ???????????? ?????????? //а?????? ?????????????? ????. 1998. ? 5.
4.а ????????? ?.а ?. ???????? ??????????, ??? ? ?????????? ???
????? ???????? ???????? //а????? ???????????? ?????????. 2009. ? 3.
96
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?????????? ????????? (?? ?.а?.а???????, ?? л???????? ?????????????╗ ? л???????? ????????╗) [1].
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97
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????? л???????? ??????? ????╗ ??? ?????????, ???????????????, ? ?????????, ? ????????? ????.
??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ????, ?????????; ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????????
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???????????? ????????╗ [1, ?.а19]. ??????????? ??????? ???????
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????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????
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???????? л??????????╗ ???????? ?? ?????????? л????????╗ ?
л?????????╗, ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????а? ? ??????????????? ???????????? л??????? (??????????)╗ ? л?????????????
????????? ?????-?????? ??????, ?????╗ [4, 7, 9].
??????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?
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98
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????? л??????????╗, ????????????? ? ?????? ??????.
???, ? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????
????? л??????????╗: ?)а ????????а ? Erreichung; ?)а ????????????? ?????????а? Erfolg (?????; ?????; ?????????), Errungenschaft
(1.а??????????, ??????????; 2.а??. ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????), Leistung (1.а ?????????????, ??????????? ??????; ?????; ????????? (??????); 2. ?????. ??????; ?????????; 3.а???.
??????????????????; ???. ????????; 4.а???????????? ? ???????
?????????; 5. ??????????, ??????) [5].
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?????; 2. ??????????; 3. ????????; ????????????; ??????????;
??????; 4.а??????????, ????????? ? ??????; 5.а?????????? (??????????, ????????????? ????????), acquisition (1.а ????????????
(?????? ? ?.а?.); ????????????? ????????, ????????; 2)а????????????, ???????); ?) ????????????? ?????????а ? rщsultat, succшs
(?????, ?????; ??????????) [3].
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л??????????╗: ?)а????????а? raggiungimento, conseguimento (?????????, ??????????); progresso (1.а???????????, ????????; 2.а????????, ????????????????; 3.а????????, ?????????????????); ?)а????????????? ?????????а? realizzazione (1.а??????????, ?????????????;
2.а????????, ????????; 3.а??????????? ? ????????? ?????, ????????? ? ???????? ??????; 4.а?????????; 5.а~ scenica ?????????? ?????????), risultato (1.а?????????; 2.а(??)?????????; ????) [8].
? ????????? ????? ????? л??????????╗ ?????????? ???:
?)а ????????а ? Progreso (1.а ?????????. ???????????, ????????
??????; 3) ????????, ????????), obtenciєn (?????????, ??????????); ?) ????????????? ????????? logro; щxito (?????); Logro:
1)???????????; 2) ??????????????; lucro: 1) ?????, ???????; ??????; 2) ??????, ??????. ╔xito: 1) ?????????, ?????; 2) ?????, ????? [2].
99
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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3.а ??????), ?) ?????, ????????????? ?????????а ? attainments
(2.???????????, ??????, ??????), achievement (1.а ??????????,
?????). ????????????? ???? л??????????╗ ???????? ?????: fulfilment (1.а??????????; ??????????, ?????????????; ??????????;
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????? 3)а???????????; ???????) [6].
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????╗ (?????.). ?????????????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????а?
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????. ??????)а ? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ?
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??????????), ??? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??100
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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л?????????? ????????╗а? ??????????????????????.
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??????????
1. ?????? ?.а?.а?? ???????????а? ? ?????? ????????: ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ???. ?., 1990.
101
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
2.а ??????? ??????-????????? ??????? /а ??? ???. ?.а ?.а ????????.
URL: http: //аlingvo.yandex.ru.
3. ??? ?.а ?., ??????? ?.а ?.а ????? ??????????-??????? ???????.
?., 2000.
4.а???? ?.а?.а???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. ?.а1.
???.; ?., 1880.
5.а???????-??????? (????????) ???????. ?., 1998.
6.а????? ??????? ??????-?????????? ??????? /а????. ?.а?.а?????????, ?.а?.а?????????.а? ?., 2004.
7. ?????? ?.а?.а??????? ???????? ?????. ?., 1964.
8.а????????? ?.а?., ??????? ?.а?.а??????????-??????? ???????. ?.,
1972.
9.а???????? ??????? ???????? ????? /а??? ???. ?.а?.а???????. ?.а1.
?., 1935.
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[4, ?.а20]. ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ? ????? ???????, ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
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102
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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? ?????? [1, ?.а37].
103
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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???????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????:
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??????????? ???????, ? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????╗ [5, ?.а30].
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????????????.
104
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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105
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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?., 2006.
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?????. 2007. ?а8.
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4.а??????????? ??????. 2006. 4 ????.
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???? ? 2000 ???? ?? ???? 177579 ???????, ? 2005 ????а? 300252,
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1. URL:а http://www.hivrussia.org/stat/2007.shtml (???? ?????????:
14.02.2011).
2. URL: http://www.hivrussia.org/files/stat/2010/prichiny_zarojenia.
doc (???? ?????????: 01.02.2011).
3. URL: http://www.u-hiv.ru/news_hivinrussia_stat-101001.htm (????
?????????: 01.02.2011).
4. URL: http://www.hivrussia.org/stat/2007.shtml (???? ?????????:
14.02.2011).
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114
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118
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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119
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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122
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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2000.
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3.а?????????? ?.а?.а????????? ??????????????? ?????: ????????
? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????. 2003. ? 6. ?.а27?36.
4. ??????? ?.а??????? ?????? ??????????. ?., 1992.
123
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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124
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????
???????;
?а?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
?? ?????? ????????.
?????????????? ??????? (??????? ????????????) ????????
??????? ??????????: ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????
?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ????????. ????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ? ?????
????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ??? ???
????????? ?????????????? ??????????????, ???????? ? ????????
??????????. ?????????? ????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? [2], ??????? ??????? ????????-????????? ? ????????????
? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??:
-????????????, ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????;
-??????????????, ????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ? ???????? ????? ????????;
129
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
-?????????????, ???????????, ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????.
?? ??????, ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????: ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ???????
????????? ??-?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????. ?
???? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????,
???????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????.
??????????, ??? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????????
?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? л?????????? ????????╗, ???????????????? ?? ??????? ? л??????? ????????╗ ??????????????:
л????? ???, ??? ?????? ??????. ????? ???, ??? ??? ?????, ??? ??
????????. ??? ??????? ????????, ???, ??????? ? ????? ????????,
????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????, ????????,
?????????? ???? ????????, ?? ????????? ????? ???????, ?????????, ?????? ?????╗ [3].
???? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????:
???????? ???????????? ? ????????; ???????? ??????? ? ??????,
??????????????? ???? ? ???? ????????; ??????? ?????????
???????? ? ??? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????
????????? ????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????
???????????? ? ????????: ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????. ??????
????????? ??????????? ?????????а? ?????? ??????? ? ??????а?
?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????, ?????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?????,
????????? ????????? ? ?.а?.
??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ???????: ??????????????, ????????????? (????????????), ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?
??????-???????????? ?????????? [4]. ????? ??????????? ???
???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ???130
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????а ? ?????? ?? ?????????????а ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????
????????? ????????? ?? ? ????? ????????. ? ???????? ?????????
???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ??
??????????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????
? ????????. ??? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????????????, ??????? ???????? ??????
??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????????,
? ????????????, ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????
?????????? ???????.
????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????
????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ?? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????.
??????????
1. Lewis R.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
When Cultures Collide. Managing successfully across cultures. L., 1999.
2.а???????? ?.а?. ? ??. ????????????? ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????????????. ?., 2003.
3.а??????? ?.а?.а?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? // ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ???., 1995.
4. Weinert A.аOrganisationsphsychologie. Weinheim, 1998.
???????????? ???????????
? ?????? ???????????
????? ????????????? ????????????
?.а?.а??????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
л????? ?? ???????? ???, ??????, ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ? ???? ?????╗а ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????, ????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????
131
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????, ????? ???
??????????? ????? ????????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?
???, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ? ? ???? ????? ??????????
????????????, ???????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ? ???????????? ????? ????????????.
??????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????. ????????, ??? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????,
???? л????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
???? ? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ??????. ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??? ????????, ?.а?. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?
?????????╗ [1, c.а403].
?????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????, ?.а?. ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????. ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????.
?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????
????? ?????, ??????? ????????, ??? ???????а? ????? ???? ?????
??????? ??????? ? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????. ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ? ??? ??????, ???, ????? ? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?????, ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????.
?? ?????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????
??????? ????? ????? ???????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????. ? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????
????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????
????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
???? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ?? ?????? ? ?????????
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????. ????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????
???????????? ???????????. ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
132
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????. ? ???
????, ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?? ?????????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ????????. ????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ??
??????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????.
??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ?
?????? ???????а? ??? ?????? ????? ????. ? ??? ?????? ??????
лfootprint?? (????????????? ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ????????
?? ????? ????????)а? ?? ?????? ????. ??? ?????????? ?????????
???????????? ? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????. ? ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ? ?????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????
????????. ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ? ?? ????? ????????????, ???? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ? ????? ????????
????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ?????????,
??? ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????.
???????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????, ???????? ??, ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?????, ??? ???
????, ??????????????? ? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ???? ??????. ????? ??????????????, ??? л?????? ????╗, л???????? ????????????╗, ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????, л?? ????? ??????
лshopaholics?? [2, c.а 3]. ?????????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?????
??????? ??????: ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ????
????????, ?.а?. ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????. ????? ????,
???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????
?? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????? ?????. ??? ????, ?????????????? ?
??????. ??? ???? ???? ???? ???????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ???? ????. ????????? ???????? ????? ?
?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????. ?? ???? ????????, ??? ??????
?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? л???????╗.
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ? ????? ????. ??? ???????????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ? ?? ????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????,
?????? ? ???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????. ?????????????, ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ? ??????? ??????????????
????? ?????????? ?????.
????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????
??? ????????? DIY Style (?????? ???). ??, ??? ?????? ???,а? ?????. ????????, ??? ????, ?????????? ? ?????? ??????. ???-?? ????????? ???? ??-?? ???????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ? ?????
?????? ?????????????? ??????????????. ? ?????????? ??????????
?????, ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????.
????, ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ? ??????, ??? ????????? ? ??????? ????????, ?
????? ?????, ??????? ????? ????????, ? ?? ?????????, ?????????????. ???? ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???
???????????????? ??????????????. ????????????? ????????
????? ?????????? ????????, ? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?????????
?????? ?????, ???????? ???? ? ???????? ? ????????. ??????
???? ???? ?????? ? ???????, ?.а?. ?????? ? ????????? ????????
????????? ???????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????.
?????? ???????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???
???????? ????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????.
??????????
1. ????????. 2009. ?а6, ??????????????.
2. Blanchard Tamsin. Green is the New Black. London, 2007.
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????? ???????? ????????
??? ?????????????? ????????
?.а?.а????????
????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ????????, ????????????, ??????
tasha_chaser@yahoo.com
? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????
???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????, ? ??????? ??
?????????.
???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?
????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????. ????а ? ??? ??????
????????????? ???????? ? ????, ?????, ????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????? ??????????????? [3, ?.а 76]. ????????????,
?????? ?.а???????? [5], ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????????
???????? ??????????? л?╗ ? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????, ???????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???, ??????????????, ?????????
???? ??????????? ? ???? ???? ? ??????? ?????. ????????????,
????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????.
??? ???? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????????????, ?
???????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ???????: ???? ??????
??????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????. ???????
????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ? ? ?????????????? ???????.
???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???
????????, ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ????. ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????.
???? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ?.а????? [1], ????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ?????????
135
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????? ? ???????? ???????
???????? ? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ????, ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????. ?????
???????, ??? ?????????? ? ?????, ????? л? ????? ???????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????, ????????????????, ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????╗ [1, ?.а155].
?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? л????????????╗ ????? ??-??? ????????, ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????
????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ? ????????
??????????????? ?????.
???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????, ? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????, ? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ????????. ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????
?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????
???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????.
?? ????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ???????
????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ??????
? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????, ????????? ????????? ?????????????. ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????-??????????, ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????:
1)а?????? ?????а? ??????????? ??? ????, ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????;
2)а?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???
??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????;
3)а????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???????????????? ?? ????????136
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????????????
???????? ? ????.
????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????
????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????.
?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????
????????? л????╗, л????????╗, л????╗, ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????.
??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ?????? ? ?????,а? ???????????,
?????????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ?????,
????, ????????, ????????. ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????
??????????, ??? ?.а???????, ?.а?????, ?.а?????, ?.а??????, ?.а???????, ?.а???????, ?.а?.а???????, ?.а?.а?????????, ?.а?.а?????? ?
??., ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????, ???????, ??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?
??????? ?????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ??????????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
????????????? ?????????, ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????.
? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????а ? ??????, ??????, ???????, ??????? ????
??? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????а? ????????
??????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????, ???????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????.
??? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ??? ??????????????? ??????????, ????????????????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????????????? ????????,
? ????? ???????, ? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????, ? ??????,
?????????? ????????? ????????? (????? ???????????) ? ????? ?
????. ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ????? ??? ? ???????? (???????? ?.а?.а???????).
137
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????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????,
??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????
???????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ??? ???????????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????.
??????????
1. Davis Wayne. Meaning, Expression and Thought. Cambridge?????
????
University Press, 2003. 651 p.
2. ????????? ?.а?.а???????? ? ???? // ????. ???.: ? 6 ?. ?.а2. ?.,
1982.
3. ??????? ?.а ?????????: ??????????? ? ???????????. ?.; ???.:
??????????????? ?????, 2000.
4. ??????? ?????. ??? ????????. ?.: ???, 2008. ?. 557.
5. ??????? ?.а????????????: ?????? ? ??????. ?.: ????????, 1996.
344 ?.
Language Apprehension, Context,
and Literature: Wittgenstein and Kate Chopin?s
лThe Story of an Hour╗
Matthew W.аBinney
Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA, USA
In the language-learning process, an often overlooked, but essential aspect in foreign language instruction is understanding the various
contexts and functions of word and phrasal usage. I will argue that
literature contributes significantly to identifying contexts and functions of word and phrasal usage in language apprehension by applying
Ludwig Wittgenstein?s notions of meaning and language to a reading
of Kate Chopin?s лThe Story of an Hour╗.
In Philosophical Investigations (1953), Ludwig Wittgenstein
states that лthe meaning of a word is its use in the language╗ [1,
sec.а43]. If a word?s meaning connects directly to its use in language,
then it is important to recognize the circumstances in which the word
is used to determine the word?s function. That is, when saying that
someone understands something, лfor us it is the circumstances under
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
which he had such an experience that justify him in saying in such a
case that he understands, that he knows how to go on╗ [1, sec.а155].
These circumstances or contexts indicate specific functions: лThe
functions of words are ? diverse ?. What confuses us is the uniform appearance of words when we hear them spoken or meet them in
script or print. For their application is not presented to us so clearly╗
[1, sec.а11]. Words can be unclear because the same word may have
different applications in very different circumstances, and many of
those different circumstances alter the rules [2] that apply to that word.
Since a word?s usage occurs within circumstances, with distinct applications or functions that accompany those contexts, then our initial
experience and understanding of the word in a particular context may
prove unclear as we experience the word again in a separate languagelearning situation or scenario.
This lack of clarity between language-learning situations makes
language appear labyrinthine: лLanguage is a labyrinth of paths. You
approach from one side and know your way about; you approach the
same place from another side and no longer know your way about╗ [2,
sec.а203]. Indeed, our understanding of a word?s meaning may change
once we experience the same word within a separate context, causing
the word to have a very different function with different rules.
So, broadly stated, language apprehension occurs when people
experience the rules that apply to using a word within a specific context, and we are trained to follow rules based upon the circumstances
in which we experience words and phrases.
Wittgenstein?s theory of meaning and language applies directly to
literature and its role in language apprehension. Pointedly, literature
exposes readers to the varied contexts or circumstances, functions or
rules that accompany the complex usage of words in any language.
By briefly analyzing Kate Chopin?s лThe Story of an Hour╗ I
hope to show how reading literature assists students in cultivating an
awareness for different contexts in which words are used so that they
will be trained to recognize the rules that accompany the usage of certain words and expressions in specific circumstances.
In the short story a character reports to the protagonist that her
husband has been killed in an accident. The protagonist withdraws to
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
her room, while those outside remain concerned. Unexpectedly she
exclaims: лfree, free, free!╗ [3].
Within the context of the story we discover that the лfree╗ that
the protagonist celebrates is not simply an abstract notion of лfree╗
or a broad dictionary definition: that is, лnot under the control or the
power of another?????????????????????????????????????????????????
╗????????????????????????????????????????????????
. What this definition means exactly becomes unaccountable in certain circumstances. Does not the woman have the
ability to move about her own house, to tend to herself, etc.? The lack
of restriction on movement would suggest that she is лnot under the
control or the power of another╗. However, the context of the word,
лfree╗, within the text, provides the circumstances and thereby rules,
that assist our understanding. The context trains us to recognize the
use of the word лfree╗ in the woman?s situation.
Ironically, even though locked in her room, she is лfree╗ because
she feels that the patriarchal restrictions imposed by society, embodied within her husband and her marriage, have been lifted in his death.
The performative and restrictive social criteria accompanying лwife╗
and the social roles that accompany the title of л??????????????????????
???????????????????????
wife??????????????????
╗?????????????????
, to the protagonist, have been lifted by the symbolic death of the husband.
The rules for the notion of ?????????????????????????????????????
л????????????????????????????????????
free????????????????????????????????
╗???????????????????????????????
would be quite different, however, if one were within a different contextа? for instance an assembly
when a speaker says to an audience member, лYou are free to speak.╗
Here лfree╗ would not apply the same performative constraints as the
protagonist in л??????????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
The Story of an Hour??????????????????????????????????
╗?????????????????????????????????
. ???????????????????????????????
л??????????????????????????????
Free??????????????????????????
╗?????????????????????????
in an assembly still requires the recognized audience member to conform to the rules of the
order. That is, he cannot speak past an allotted time; he must address
the topic, etc. The rules in the case of an assembly would be quite different than the rules or the prescribed gender roles for the protagonist
in л??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
The Story of an Hour??????????????????????????????????????????
╗?????????????????????????????????????????
. The rules change based upon the circumstances in which the word, лfree╗, appears. Literature exposes us to
these different circumstances in which words are used to show how
different functions apply within different contexts.
Thus, literature offers the student of language the ability to probe
the contexts in which words and expressions emerge. Literature helps
to train and strengthen the student?s awareness of word usage within
specific circumstances, ultimately assisting students in refining their
140
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
comprehension of the word, as Wittgenstein would say, by broadening
their knowledge of the language.
References
1. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, trans.
G.аE.аM.аAnscombe (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001). Subsequent citations use this
edition.
2. лRules╗ for Wittgenstein do not mean technical grammatical лrules╗,
but his rules лdescribe how we use words in order to both justify and criticize
our particular utterances??????????????????????????????????????????????????
╗?????????????????????????????????????????????????
. See Anat Biletzki and Anat Matar, л????????????
?????????????
Ludwig Wittgenstein╗, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition),
ed. Edward N.аZalta,
<http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2010/entries/wittgenstein/>.
3. Kate Chopin, лThe Story of an Hour╗, Ann Woodlief?s Web Study
Texts, 11 March 2011, <http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/hour/>.
???????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????
???????????????? ??????????? ???????????
? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????
?.а?.а?????????
??????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а??????, ????, ??????
kartashova_vn@mail.ru
?.а?.а?????????
???????? ??????????????? ??????????????
???????????, ??????, ??????
dr.alex48@gmail.com
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????
??????. ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?
???????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????????, ????? ???????????????? ???????????.
? ????? ? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ???????, ???,
141
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????????????,
???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
?????????????? ???????????????-???????????????? ??????? ?
?????????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ?????????. ????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????.
?????? ????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???
??????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?
??????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????????.
??????? ????????, ??? л? ????????? ???? ??????? л???????????╗ ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????, ?????????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ? ???
????????-????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ????? ???????????. ????????? ????????
? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????╗ [2, ?.а60].
???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??
? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????. ????? ????? ? ?????
???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?
??????? ??????????, ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????
????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ???
???????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ??????
? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ??
??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????
???????? ? ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????????????
????, ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????. ? ?????????,
?????????? ??????????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????142
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????
???????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????, ??? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????
???????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????.
??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????????? ????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? II ????? ???????? ?
????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????????
???? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????. ????? ?????, ???????
? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ???
?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????.
?????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????
? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???? ?? ????????
?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????.
?????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????, ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????
?????? ????????. ? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????. ???
?????????? ?????????, ??????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ????????,
????? ? ???????????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ????????????????????????, ????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?
???????????????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????.
143
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????? ???????????? ???????? ???? л????????? ????????
??? ???????????? ???????╗ [1, ?. 55]. ???? ??? ???? ??????????????? ??? ????????, ? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ?? ????????, ???
???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????
???? ???????????? ? ???? ?????? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????
? ???????????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????, ???? ???????
?????????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????.
????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????
????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????. ?? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????.
??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????
?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????????
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
???? ????, ??????????, ? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????
?????????????. ? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? (?.а ?.а ???????????,
?.а ?.а ????????????, ?.а ?.а ????????). ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????
???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??
???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ?????
??? ?? ?? ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????.
????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????, ????? ???????
?? ??? ???????????? ?????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ?? ?
????????? ? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ? ?????? ? ?
????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????
144
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????: ???????
???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ?????, ??? ???????????????? (???????/??????? ????????????, ????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????
?????) ? ????? (???? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?? ??????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????). ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????
? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ? ???????? ?????? ??
???????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????
?????????? ?????????????? ????????? л???? ??? ????????? ???????╗ ? ???????????-????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????.
???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????
?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ??????: ??????????????, ?????????????-?????????? ??????????,
?????????????-???????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????-?????????????? ??????????????,
??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????, ? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ? ??????????,
? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
???????????? ?????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????????
???????????????? ?????? ? ??????; ?? ??????????????, ????????????, ??????????????? ? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ? ???????????, ?????????????? ?
??????????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????, ????????? ? ??? ??????????
????????????, ? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????.
?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???,
??? ??????? ?????????????, ? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????
???????? ????? ???????? ? ????, ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? л?????? ???? ?????????╗ (?.а?.а????????????), ? ?? ????? ?? ? ????????? ? ? ???????.
145
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????
1.а????????? ?.а?.а????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? //а??????? ???. ???.а19, ??????????? ?
????????????? ????????????. 2002. ?а3. ?. 54?60.
2.а????????? ?.а???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????????????? ????????? ??????????? //а ???????? ???????????.
2003. ?а2. ?.а58?64.
??????????????????? ????????????? ??????
? ?????? ???????????????? ????????
(?? ????????? ??????????? ????????
??????????? ?????)
?.а?.а???????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
lisali56@mail.ru
??? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????,
?? ? ????? ?? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????????. ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??????????
??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????,
?? ? ???????? ????????????: ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????. ???????? ???, ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?, ???????, ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????а? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??
????? ???????. ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????, ???????
?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????.
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????:
? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ????
?? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??????????, ??? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ???, ???????,
? ??????, ????? ?????.
146
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????????? ?????? [3, 5], ?????????? ???????? лhuman
communication╗, ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?
???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????????? ?????????????а ? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????. ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????
???????? ????????? ??????????: ?pening, feedforward (Amer.)
or advanced organizer (Br.), big talk, feedback, closing. ???????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????,
????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????. ??????
?? ????????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????,
?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ? ??? ?
???????????. ????????? ????????????? [6], ??? л????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????????
? ????? ???????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???
л?????? ???????╗, ????????? ??????????? ????????, ? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????╗. ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????, ??
????????? ????? ?? ??????а ? ???? ?? ??????????? small talk ?
??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????. ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ???
?? ???????, ????? ???????а? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????, ????? ?? ????? ????
??????? ??????, ?? ??? ???? ? ???????? ????? ????? ??????????
????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????: ??????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?
??????????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ????????????-?????????
? ?????????????? [1]. ??, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? (л????????????? ??????????????╗ [1]). ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????
? ?? ????????? ??????? ????: ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????
? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????????. ??? ??????, ??????????
?.а?.а??????? [1] ?? ?????? J.аAsher, ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????????? ????? ?????????
???????: лDarling, you are looking absolutely wonderful! And
???????
Mi147
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
chael, dear, you are well, too, I see? I am absolutely thrilled you?ve
both made it, ? can you just open the gate a bit again, please, dear.
That?s it, thank you! Oh! What a lovely perfume, Juliet, darling, is
it a new one? Now, do come in, both of you. Michael, can I get you
a sherry or would you like a gin and tonic?... Juliet, darling, do sit
down! You shouldn?t be standing so much, you know! Put your feet
up, darling, and I?ll bring you an orange juice or something. Or would
you like a glass of milk??╗ ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????,
?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????:
?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ? ????????????
? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????.
?.а?.а?????? ? ????? ????? л????????? ?????????? ? ?????
????????????╗ ????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????, ????????????? ?????. ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????, ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????-?? ????????
???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??
?????? ?????. ??? ?????????????? [1, 3, 4, 5, 6] ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????. ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????, ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????: лWould you ever
have five minutes?╗, лDo???????????????????????????????????????????
you???????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????
by????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????
any????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????
chance?????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????
happen??????????????????
????????????????????????
to???????????????
?????????????????
know??????????
??????????????
the??????
?????????
agen?????
da for today?s meeting?╗, лCould I have a word with you?╗, лCould
you possibly see to my luggage?╗. ???????, ??? ??????? ??????
???????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????? ????????????
??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????
?? ?????, ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????,
????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???. ????????? [1, 4, 5] ?????????
?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????
????? ????????, ????????????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ????
??????? (??????? ?????) ????? ????????????? ????? ????????,
??? лI was wondering╗, лI wonder╗, ??????? ?? ??????? ????????
???? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??
??????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????148
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
???????????. ????????????? ????? [1, 3, 5] ????????? ?????????
????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????, ????????? ??? ?????????????: лI don?t suppose you?d know the time, would you?╗,
лI don?t know if you will feel like joining our soiree?╗ ????????
??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ???? л???? ?????╗ ?? ?????????? ????????.
? ????????????, ???????????? ?.а????? ? ?.а???????? [3], ???
???????????? ??????? ? ??????? (лhedges╗), ?? ??????? ???????,
???? ?? ???????, ?? ??????????, ? ????????? ?????? ?????????.
???????????? Magna Carta. ??? ????????????? [1. 3, 5] ????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????????, ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ????????, ???????, ??????????, ? ?????
??????? ???? ??. ?.а?.а?????? [1] ????????????, ??? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ? ????????????,
??? ? ? ?????????????? ???????: ????????????? ?? ?????? ??????
? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? ? ???????? ???????? ???????
????? ??? ? ???? ? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????-????? ???????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????: ?????? ?? ? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????
????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????
???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ??? ? ??????. ?
??? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????. ?? ??????????? ?????????????? [1, 5], ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
?? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????а? ???? ??? ???
????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????, ????? ?? ????.
??????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? (? ?????????) ??????:
лSure, I?ll come!╗, лYeah, I?d love to!╗, лThat sounds great!╗, лI
wouldn?t miss it!╗, лI?ll definitely come!╗, лThat would be lovely!╗, лI
wish we did it more often!╗ ? ?.?. ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??
л????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????
? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ??
??????? ????, ??? ?? ?????, ????? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ?
??????????????????╗ [1, 6]. ????????? [1] ????????, ???, ???149
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?? ????????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ? ?????? ?
??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????????, ????? ??? ?
?????? ?????????? ??-???????? ????????????? ??????????????
??????? ????????????? ?? ????????-??????????? ?????????????,
? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????а ? ?????????-???????????????
?????????. ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ???? ???
?????? ????????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??
???????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ? ??
??, ??? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????.
????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? лTelephoning╗
? ?? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????: лCould I ask who?s calling,
please? Could you spell it, please? Could you read it back, please?
Could I take a message?╗ etc. ?? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????
????? ?????? ???????????? ??????: ?? ????????, ?????????????
? ?? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????
??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????, ????????????????? ? ????? ?????????? ? ?.а ?. ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????,
????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????, ?, ?? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ? ??????
???????????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?
???????????? ???????? л?????-???????╗, ??? ?????????? ?????
? ????????????? ?????????а? ?? ????? (?? ? ?? ?????!), ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????.
?????? ?????? [3, 1], ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?
??????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????,
??? ??????? ????????, ????????, ???????? л???????? ????╗,
?? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????
???? (???????/????????? ?????????????????). ??? ???? ?????
150
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????? ????????? ????? л???????╗ ??? ?????? ??????????
???????? ????????, ????????????? ????????? ???????: 1)а?????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? лI know this is
a bore but?╗, лI am sure you must be very busy but?╗; 2)а????????
???? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? лI hate to intrude
but?╗, лNormally, I wouldn?t dare to ask ?╗, лI???????????????????
??????????????????
am????????????????
???????????????
terribly???????
??????
embarrassed to have to admit?╗; 3)а ???????? ???????????? ???????
?????????????: лI can think of nobody else who could ...╗, лI?????
sim????
ply can?t manage?╗, лI am absolutely lost╗; 4)а??????? ???????? :
лWould you forgive me?╗, лI am sorry to bother you?╗.
??? ??? ???????????, ????? ?????????????? ?? 5 ?????? ???????????????? ? ?? ????????? ????. ???????? ??????? ?????? ?
????????????? ? ?? ???? ??????. ?.а?.а??????????? [6] ????????
??????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? (?? ?????? ??????): лI may be wrong here?╗, лI
haven?t read the entire monograph?╗. ??? ????? ?????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? л?????? ?? ??????????╗ (credentials): лSome of my research
advisors are experts on?╗. ? ???????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ???
????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????, ??
?????? ??????? ?? ????????? л??????╗ (лsin license╗) ? ?????
л?? ???????? ????╗: л I know this statement is sort of out of place,
but do consider the following?╗, лIf you allow me a few more minutes, I will tell you exactly what line of reasoning applies here?╗.
????? ?????????? ??????????????? [6] ?????????? ?????????
??????? ????? лfeedforward╗ ? ?????????? лfeedback╗, ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????. ????? ??????????? ????????
???????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????. ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????
????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????
???????? ??????????????.
???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????????????; ?????? ?????? ???? ????????,
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???????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ???, ??? ?????? ?????
????? ???? ???????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?
?????????? ????.
??????????
1.а ?????? ?.а?. ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????? //а?????????? ????????? ??????? ????, ?., 2009.
2.а ??????? ?.а ?. Essentials of Conversational English Grammar. ?.:
????????, 2008.
3.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
., ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????
.аPoliteness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
4.а ???????? ?.а ?. ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????????????? ?
????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? //а??????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? 22, ?????? ????????. 2009. ?а1. ?. 25.
5.а ???? ???? ???????? ?? ???????????: ??????? ??????? ?????????. ?., 2008.
6.а??????????? ?.а?. Academic project presentations. ???????????
??????? ????????. ?.: ???? ?????, 2009.
Methods of Communicative Language Teaching
?.а?.а??????
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????,
?????????? ? ???????????, ?????????, ??????
darvin79@mail.ru
A central concept in English as a second language is communicative competence, a term first created by Dell Hymes, a linguistic
anthropologist. Communicative competence includes the skills and
knowledge necessary to successfully convey meaning through language. Applied linguists Michael Canale and Merrill Swain developed
a model of communicative competence that describes the components of language that are crucial to successful communication. These
components are grammatical (linguistic), sociolinguistic, strategic,
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and discourse competence. Grammatical competence refers to the
ability to manipulate language forms according to grammatical rules;
a person demonstrates grammatical competence by using grammatical forms accurately, but he or she may not be able to explain the rules
(as in the case for most native speakers). Socio-linguistic competence
is demonstrated when an individual uses language appropriately in
different contexts. The status of participants, the purpose of the interaction, and local norms all affect what is considered to be appropriate.
Strategic competence is the ability to use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies to rectify or avoid communication breakdowns
and to enhance communication. Several researchers have developed
long lists of communication strategies, such as paraphrase, repetition,
clarification requests, etc. Discourse competence refers to the ability
to link forms and meanings in both written and spoken language. This
includes using discourse markers, such as first, next, then, and finally,
to help the listener follow a sequence of events, for example. Several
researchers have developed versions of Canale and Swain?s model,
but the same skills and basic concepts are emphasized.
Over the years, the methods of teaching foreign languages have
changed a great deal. In second language teaching, methods have moved
from teacher-centered approaches to learner-centered approaches that
emphasize the student as a whole. Methods have also moved from an
emphasis on linguistic competence and grammar structures to communicative competence and learning strategies. Communicative approaches, which stress language learning for the purpose of oral and
written instruction, differ from structural approaches, which focus on
grammar and syntax. Teachers and students work collaboratively [1].
Important features of communicative teaching include the following:
1. Meaning is the primary focus, rather than drills and other forms
of rote learning.
2.а Meaningful communication results from students processing
content that is relevant, purposeful, interesting and engaging.
3.аCommunicative competence (not linguistic competence) is the
desired goal.
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4.аLanguage learning is a gradual process that involves creative
use of language and trial and error. Mistakes are necessary to learning. However the ultimate goal of learning is to be able to use the new
language both accurately and fluently [3, p.5].
5.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Dialogues illustrate communicative functions but are not memorized as a way to absorb patterns.
6.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
A Whole-to-part orientation instead of a part-to-whole approach. This involves such approaches as beginning with meaningful
whole text and then helping students understand its features, e.g. the
choice of words and the organizational structure.
7.а Focusing greater attention on diversity among learners and
viewing these individual differences not as impediments to learning
but as resources to be recognized, catered to and appreciated. Sometimes such factors as amount of exposure, motivation, personality
traits, have more impact on ultimate attainment than age [2].
8.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Translation is permitted when needed and when there is a benefit. Judicious use of the home language is also permitted.
9.аA view of learning as a life-long process rather than something
done to prepare students for an exam.
10.аStudents are expected to interact with other people.
Classroom activities typically have some of the following characteristics:
? They seek to develop students? communicative competence
through linking grammatical development to the ability to
communicate. Hence grammar is not taught in isolation but often arises
out of a communicative task. Students might carry out a task and then
reflect on some of the linguistic characteristics of their performance.
? They create the need for communication, interaction, and
negotiation of meaning through the use of activities like problem
solving, information sharing, and role play.
? They provide opportunities for both inductive as well as
deductive learning of grammar.
? They make use of content that connects to students? lives and
interests.
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? They allow students to personalize learning by applying what
they have learned to their own lives.
? Classroom materials typically make use of authentic texts to
create interest and to provide valid models of language.
Classroom activities in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
It is difficult to describe a particular procedure that all lessons in the
communicative approach employ. Nonetheless, activities should engage
learners in communication; and require information sharing, negotiation
of meaning, and interaction. These goals are achieved through a number
of generally accepted teaching practices, including (a) exploiting reallife language in the classroom, (b) constantly using the target language,
(c) tolerating linguistic errors because accuracy is less important than
fluency, (d) arranging instruction to encourage cooperative learning
relationships between students, and (e) eliciting the understanding of
grammar and vocabulary as an outgrowth of the range of functional and
situational contexts that are a part of the lesson itself [1].
1. Accuracy versus fluency activities
One of the goals of CLT is to develop fluency in language use.
Fluency is natural language use occurring when a speaker engages in
meaningful interaction despite limitations in his or her communicative competence. Fluency is developed by creating classroom activities in which students must negotiate meaning, correct misunderstandings and work to avoid communication breakdowns. Fluency practice
can be contrasted with accuracy practice, which focuses on creating
correct examples of language use. Differences between activities that
focus on fluency and those that focus on accuracy can be summarized
as follows:
Activities focusing on fluency
? Reflect natural use of language
? Focus on achieving communication
? Require meaningful use of language and the use of communication
strategies
? Produce language that may not be predictable
Activities focusing on accuracy
? Focus on the formation of correct examples of language
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? Practice small samples of language and language out of context
? Do not require meaningful communication
? Choice of language is controlled
2. Mechanical, meaningful, and communicative practice
Another useful distinction is the one between three different kinds
of practiceа? mechanical, meaningful, and communicative.
Mechanical practice refers to a controlled practice activity which
students can successfully carry out without necessarily understanding
the language they are using. Examples of this kind of activity would
be repetition drills and substitution drills designed to practice use of
particular grammatical or other items.
Meaningful practice refers to an activity where language control is
still provided but where students are required to make meaningful choices
when carrying out practice. For example, in order to practice the use of
prepositions to describe locations of places, students might be given a
street map with various buildings identified in different locations. They
are also given a list of prepositions such as across from, on the corner of,
near, next to. They then have to answer questions such as лWhere is the
book shop?╗, etc. The practice is now meaningful because they have to
respond according to the location of places on the map.
Communicative practice refers to activities where practice in using language within a real communicative context is the focus, where
real information is exchanged, and where the language used is not totally predictable. For example students might have to draw a map of
their neighborhood and answer questions about the location of different
places in their neighborhood, such as the nearest bus stop, etc. [3,p.13].
References
1.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
URL: http://www.sage- rereference.com/humandevelopment/Article_n232.html>.
2. URL: http://www.sage-ereference.com/educationalpsychology/Article_n90.html>.
3. Richards Jack C. Communicative Language Teaching Today. N.аY.:
Cambridge University Press, 2001.
4.аURL: http://www.sage-ereference.com/bilingual/Article_n67.html>.
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Using computer technologies as a way of motivation
in the foreign language teaching process
?.а?.а?????
?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ?????????
tati_ptv@mail.ru
Time is changing and all around us is changing too. Respectively,
our requirements to life quality and first of all to education quality
also change. As a norm, in the modern world the person is the highest
and absolute value of society. And it means that educational process
should provide personal development in every sphere and development of students? individual abilities. So, education is one of the primary factors promoting the development and self-determination of the
student, his adaptation to the modern world. The student is becoming
the subject of education in the modern higher school. The main aim of
the school is to help in harmonious development and full realization
of the given subject of education. The problem of mastering teaching modern technologies is to facilitate the studying process for the
student, mastering the material and achieving the greatest success in
educational process. It is the integral condition for creating the most
comfortable conditions for realizing the potential and creative ideas
of the trainee.
The widely applied person-focused approach in foreign languages
teaching, that is process of teaching with pleasure and understanding
the necessity of foreign language learning, is the most efficient and productive. This is the way of expressing the opinion, individual feelings,
emotions of the trainee, his private judgments for this or that problem
and unique ways of solving them etc. It is necessary to motivate the
student to express his or her personal opinion, to develop their abilities
to allocate their own ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????
л????????????????????????????????????????????????????
I???????????????????????????????????????????????????
╗??????????????????????????????????????????????????
s, as the natural motivation is a necessary condition for achieving the learning objectives, first of all for developing the
communicative competence of the trainee. Communication is a process
of exchanging thoughts and different points of view. Application of the
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situations similar to natural and mentioning personal interests of the student is the most effective as they give trainees the chance to realize his
or her person-focused approach in full.
The major factor influencing the success of studying is personal
interest in learning the foreign language; therefore using computers
and other multimedia means in the process of teaching is one of the
ways to increase interest in studying. Teaching with the use of computers gives the chance not only to regulate the educational problems
such as complexity degree, but also to encourage correct decisions.
Using computers and other multimedia in teaching and educational
process is multifunctional. It enables testing students on a grammatical, lexical, phonetic theme and also training certain skills such as
preparing multimedia presentations.
The computer is one of the means for developing high motivation in foreign language teaching. The specificity of subject causes
using computer actively during the lessons. The leading component
of foreign language training is teaching all kinds of speech activity:
speaking, listening, reading and writing. The training computer program is the trainer that organizes students? independent work, manages and creates the conditions under which students form their own
knowledge. It is very valuable, because when students get ready-made
knowledge, such knowledge is likely not to remain in memory.
Teachers of foreign languages use different elements of ICT during the lessons. Exercises for mastering the dialogue have the function
of self-control and, therefore, allow students to work with such kind of
exercises alone. The most common types of work are:
1.аReading and writing the text simultaneously. While listening to
the text the pronounced sentences are highlighted.
2.аListening and choosing the answer. Students should choose the
correct variant.
3.аDialogue with the freely-constructed response. Such dialogue
provides a tutorial with all the possible answers to each question posed
by the computer so that the latter could лknow╗ and лevaluate╗ the
correct answer.
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4.аDialogue with a programmed response. Such dialogue provides
multiple answers, one or two of which are the right response to what
was said. If a student chooses the wrong answer, the program makes
лa remark╗, not only correcting the student, but doing it in a humorous
form. Such remarks invariably cause a positive reaction of the student
and serve as a more stable memory of required skills.
5.аQuestion-answer dialogue. The essence of the student?s work
is to participate in the reproduction of a dialogue, using the linguistic
material contained in the dialogue and shown in the dialog box on the
screen as a basis. The pronounced dialogue is recorded so that you can
listen to evaluate the quality of the dialogue reproduction. The tutorial
simulates the full participation of the student in the dialogue.
When you work on vocabulary, grammar and syntax the following kinds of work are possible:
1.аFilling the gaps exercises. Training program offers the student
a set of sentences with gaps. In case of incorrect answers the following
variants are possible:
a)аstudent is not allowed to move to the next task or sentence;
b)?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
student may do the next task or sentence with subsequent adjustments, for example, the correct answer is highlighted, or mark лX╗
is put, meaning a wrong answer.
2.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Exercise in the form of crossword puzzles, where while spelling a word a wrong letter is displayed in gray not in black.
3.аExercise in the form of games on composing sentences, during
which the trainee hovers over the desired word, which then moves to
the sentence, and becomes the last word of the displaced. The disadvantage of this game is the inability to move in the desired location,
any word displaced earlier than the last one without a fundamental
breakdown of the proposal.
Multimedia presentation, i.e. presentation based on the multimedia presentation is widely used in foreign language classes for presenting projects.
In this case, the use of ICT allows individualizing the learning
process, increases the students? activity, creates a comfortable learning
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environment, motivates students and creates the conditions for independent work and for developing the student?s individual creative skills.
Using ICT in the classroom extends the sphere of both teachers?
and students? activities. Using a computer in the lesson has become
commonplace, and sometimes replaces the blackboard and chalk. But,
unfortunately, the computer has not become a familiar tool for teachers
yet, although using it in the classroom is growing and sometimes
becomes necessary.
References
1.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
а??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Armstrong Thomas: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD, 2000.
2. Cooper J.аM.аClassroom teaching. Skills: Six edition, 1999.
3.а ?????????? ?.а ?., ???????? ?.а ?.а ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????? //а????????? ?????????????? ???? л???????? ????╗а? 2004/05 ??. ???: ?????????????? ??.:
????. л???????????? ??????????? ??????╗. ?.: ?????? ????????, 2005.
4.а ????????? ?.а ?.а ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????. URL: http //www.
news.1september.ru
? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????
???????? ???????? ???????
?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ???? ? ???????????
?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????.
????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????
??????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ??????. ? ??????
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???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ??
??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????,
?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ????.
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ??????? ????, ????????? ?????, ???????
?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????, ???????? ????? ???????. ?? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????
? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???? ??????? ?
????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ????????
????????????? ????????????.
????????? ????????а? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?????
?????? ? ???? ???????? ????????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????
??????, ???????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????, ????????, ???????? ? ??. [1, c.а243]. ?????? ?????????? ??????????
?? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ????????, ????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??????????????,
?? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????,
???????? ???? ?????, ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????. ? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????,
???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????, ? ????
??????? ???????? ?)а????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????,
?????????? ????????? ??????????, ?)а ???????? ????????????,
??????? ? ???????????, ????????? ??????, ?)а???????? ??????,
????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????.
?????????????, ? ????????, ?????????????? ????? ?????????161
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????
? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????.
??????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????, ???????
????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????????
????? [2, ????????????????????????????????????????????????????
c???????????????????????????????????????????????????
.а 108]. ??????? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ???
?????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????
????????. ??????? ????а? ??? ????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????: ?)а?????????? ??????? ????, ?)а?????????? ??????? ????, ?)а????????????
??????????. ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????
???: 1)а????????????, 2)а??????????. ? ??????????? ?? ?????????
???????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?? 1)а?????????????? (????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????), 2)а????????-?????????????? (?????????
???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ?????), 3) ????????? (??????? ?????? ???? ? ?????????????? ????).
??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? (fillers) ??? ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ? ??????: well, really, that?s
a bit unexpected, let me think a minute.
????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ???????????????
??? ????, ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????:
That?s interesting! Could you specify the point? Could you be
more specific? If I got you right, that means?
?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? л???????? ??????╗ (small talk), ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????
????? ???????? ? ??????, ?????, ?? ????? ???????? [3, c.а 27].
?????? ????? ??????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ?? ????????, ? ?????????? ??????????
????, ???????? ??, л?????????╗ ????????, ?????????? ????????
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???????: How is your family? What?s the weather like in London
today? How is your General Manager Mr X getting on?
?????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?????
???????? ??, ??? ?? ??????. ??????????, ? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ????? ????????. ?? ??? ????? ? ????? ???????? ? ?? ????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????, ???
???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????,
????????? ????? ????: I see. Do you follow me? Are you still there?
?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????????, ? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????
????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ???: Could
I speak to?? Speaking. Who is calling, please? I?m calling about?
Can you call back later? Will you leave a message? Can I take a message? Hold on, please. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????? ???????. ? ???????? ????? ?????????????
?????????? ????? ????????????:
-???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????;
-???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????
?? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????-???? ?????
????????;
-???????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????.
?????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????, ??? ????????
???????? ?????????? ????, ?????????????? ?)а??????? ???????
???????? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ???????????????, ?????????????????: The design of our beds is unsurpassed! Our cars leave
other cars standing! ?)а???????? ??????: Rock-bottom prices in our
sale! Prices slashed! ??????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????
) ???????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????
, ????????????????????
????????????????????
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boost energy levels!
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5.а??????? ?.а?.а???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????.
?.: ?????? ?????, 1996.
168
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1. Prensky M.а Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants // On the Horizon.
MCB University Press: 2001. Vol. 9. ?а5.
2. ??????? ?.а??? ????? ??? 2.0 // ???????????. 2005. ?а37 (609).
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? ??????????? ??????????. ????????? ????? ???? ???????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ???
?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ??
??? ??????? ????????? 60?90 ?????.
2.а ?????? (Reading). ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ??? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????. ????????, ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????
? ???????? ?????????? ????????.
????? ? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????
???????, ???????? ?????? ??????????, ? ????? ????? ? ?????
???? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?????. ?????????? ????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????.
????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ??????? л??????╗ ????????
?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????
???????. ? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?? 36?70 ????????. ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? 60 ?? 100 ?????.
3.а ?????? л?????? ????╗ (Speaking) ???????? ?????????
?????. ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???????; ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? 15?30 ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???, ?? ??? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????
45?60 ??????. ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? 20 ?????.
?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???
?????????. ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????
175
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????, ??? ???????? ??? ????????????
???.
????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ? ??? ?????????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????, ????????
?? ????????? ??????. ????????, ??? ????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ????
?????????. ?????? ??????? ? ???, ????? ??????????? ?? ??????
? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ????.
????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????
? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ???, ???? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????.
????? ??????? ? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??, ??? ???
??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????.
4.а?????? (Writing). ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????. ??? ? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????? ????,
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????. ? ???? ??????? ? 300 ???? ??????????, ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ????,
???????? ???????????? ????.
? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ? ? ??????
?????? ?? ???????????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????. ?? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? 20 ?????.
???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ???? ????? ????????
??????? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ??, ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????
????? ????? ????????.
????????? ????????? ? ? ??????? ??????. ????? TOEFL
iBT ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????:
176
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????????? (Listening)
0?30
?????? (Reading)
0?30
?????? ???? (Speaking)
0?30
?????? (Writing)
0?30
????? ???? 0?120
??? ?? ???????????, ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????,
??????? TOEFL, ???????? ????????? ????а ? ????. ??????
????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? л???????????╗ ?????а ? ??? ?????? ?? ??, ??? ????????? ??? TOEFL.
??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????????
??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ? ???? ???? ????
????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ?? ??, ???
????????? ?? ?????????????. ???? ??-???????????а? ??? ??????
????????????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????? (? ??????? ?????
700 ????, ?? ???? 1,5 ????????), ?? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????:
???? ?????а ? ???? ????, ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????????
?????????. ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ????? ??????
????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????. ???? 30-???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? Kaplan, ? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ???: 1?3 ?????? ??????????? ? ???????, 5 ????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????, 17 ????? ?????? ???? ???? ? ???
5?7 ????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?????? [1].
???? Listening ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ??????????
? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ????????
???????????? ? TOEFL ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???? ????????. ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????, ? ?????????? ???????? CNN.
??? ???? ??????? ??????а ? ???????? ???????????? ??????
??? ????????. ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????: ????? ???? ?????????????? ? ????????????
?????, ??? ? ??????.
? ??????? Reading ?????? ??????? TOEFL ????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????????
177
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?? ????????. ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? Kaplan, 40% ???????
(topics) ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????, 30%а?
???????????? ???????, 15%а ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????????? 10% ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????, 5%а? ??
??????????? ????? [1]. ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ????? ???????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????: ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ????????
? ???????. ????? ???????, ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????
??????. ? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ????, ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ????????? ?
?????? ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ???????????? ????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????.
?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????
??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ? ???????. ????? ??????
??????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????. ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????. ???
?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???. ?? ???? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????. ?? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????
???????? ??????????? ? ??????. ??? ???????, ??? ??????????
??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????.
???????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????а? ????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????
? ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????. ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ? ????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????. ??????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???178
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????, ???????????
??????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????.
?????????? TOEFL ???????????? ? ??????? ???? ???. ????? ????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????
??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ??? ?? ???????????.
???????, ?????????????? ? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????.
??????????
1. TOEFL iBT, New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2009.
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????
? ?????? ???????????? ??????
?.а?.а??????, ?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
buzdarya@yandex.ru
? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????.
????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?
???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??. ?.а?.а????????.
????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ?????????????? л???????????╗ ? ????????
??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? л???????????,
?????????╗ [3]. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
????????. ? ????? ?????????, ????? ????????а? ??? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????а ? ?
?????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????.
179
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ???????, ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
??????а? ??? ????????? (??????????) ?????????????? ??????? ?
????????? ? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?
??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ??? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????, ? ????????????
????????????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ?
??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ??????
????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? [2].
????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ?
???????. ?? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ????????,
??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? [4]. ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????? [5]. ??????????????? ?.а ????????
????? ?.а ?.а ??????????????, ?.а ?.а ????????, ?.а ?.а ????????,
?.а?.а??????, ?.а?.а?????????, ?.а?.а???????????? ? ??????, ?
??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? л???????????╗, ????? л????????-?????╗ ?, ?????, л??????????? ?????╗.
?? ??? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ? ?????? ??????????? ?????,
???????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ??
???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? (CRDF) ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????????????????? ??????? ??????. ????????? English Language
Intensive Training (ELIT) Camp, ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? (?????? ???????? ?????), ?????????? ??? ????????? CRDF ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????
?? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????. ??
180
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????????
???????????? ? ?.а????????????? ? 2002 ????. ????? ELIT ????????? ? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????
??????????????? ??????????? (2003), ?????????? ???? CRDF
(2004), ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? (2005), ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
(2006), ????? ??????????? ??????????? (2007), ??????????
??????????? (2008), ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
(2009), ????????? (???????????) ??????????? ???????????
(2010). ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ??????, ????????
??????????? ? ????????? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????. ????????, ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ???? ????????
????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????, ??????????????
? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????.
??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ? 2010 ????. ????? 2010 ????
?????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? л???????? ???╗ ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????????????? ?????? л????????? ? ?????????? XXI ????╗
?????????? (????????????) ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????: ??? ????????? ? ??????????
? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??
???? ??????????. ?? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ???
????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ??????, ? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
???????, ??????? ??????-??????, ? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????????
181
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????. ? ????????? ??????? ??????? 64 ???????? ? 40 ?????????????? ?? 20 ??????? ????????????? ?????? [1].
???? ???????? English Language Workshop (ELW)а ? ?????
?????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ?????
????????, ??????????? ?? ????????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????????????? ?????
????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? (??????-????????????????
??????) ??? ????, ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????
?????????. ? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????????
??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????
? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????
????? ? ????????? ??? ???????.
????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ? ?????????. ? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????
????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????. ?? ??????
???? ????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?
???, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ? ?? ????????? ????? ???????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????. ?????? ???? ? ???????
?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?
???????? ???????????? л???????? ???????╗. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????. ?
???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????
182
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? (?? ??????? ???), ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????.
??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? English Language
Intensive Training (ElIT) Program Course Book, ????????????? ????????????? ???????????????, ???????????? ???????
? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ??????
?? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????
?????????????, ???????????? ?? 4?5 ??????? ?????????????????? 1,5 ???? ? ?????? л????????╗ (???????????) ???????. ?
??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??
???????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
? ?? ??????????.
?????? ??????а? ????????????? ??????а? ???????? ??????
?????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ? ?????? ?????, ????????? ? ???????, ???????????
???????????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????
??????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.
? ????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????
??????? ? ?????-????????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ????????.
??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????
??????????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????
??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????, ? ????? ?????? ????????
183
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ??? ???????
????????? ??? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ????.
????? ????, ? ????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ???????????.
??? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????, ??????, ????????, ????????, ??????????. ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???
????????? ? ????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ????? ???????????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ???????
??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????а ?
??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????
???????а? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????? [6].
????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????
????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ??? ????
???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?
????????? ???? ??????????? ??????. ?? ??????? ????????? ?
???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????
????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???? ????????????
???????????????? ???????????? ??. ?.а?.а????????.
??????????
1. ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????
(CRDF) ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
www.crdf.ru/Summer_Camp_2010.html.
2. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ????????????????
URL?????????????
: http???????
???????????
://????
englishtips.org/1150822358-intensivnoe-obuchenie-inostrannym-yazykam.
html.
184
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
3. ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????: ? 4 ?. /а??? ???. ?.а?.а???????. ?.а1. ?., 1935; ?.а2. ?., 1938; ?.а3. ?., 1939; ?.а4, ?., 1940. (????????????? ? 1947?1948 ??.); ?????????? ???????: ?., 1995; ?., 2000. URL:
http://ushdict.narod.ru/286/w86024.htm.
4. ???????????. ???????. URL: http://filolingvia.com/publ/67-1-0-105.
5.а???????????. ?????????????а? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????. URL: http://filolingvia.com/publ/67-1-0-104.
6. Elit Program Course Book. English Language Workshop, University
Workshop Addition 2010. Kazan, 2010.
?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????
??? ???????? ?? ????????
?? ??????????? ?????
?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????а? ????????? ?????
? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? лPower Point╗ ? лMovie Maker╗.
??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ???????.
??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ???? ??????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????
????????, ? ?????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ? ???????.
?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????,
????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????, ???????? ??? ???????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ????
?? ???????? ??????? ?????а ? лA Team-based Approach to Work╗,
?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????. ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????
?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????.
185
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????, ????????????????, ???? ?????? ??? ?????????
??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????. ?
???????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ????????-???????,
?????????, ??????? ? ??????? ??????????. ?? ???? ????? ??
????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ? ???? ??? ??????????. ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????:
1.а The need of a completely different set of employee?s skills
nowadays.
2.аAbility to work as part of a team.
3.а Learning to build a different kind of relationship based on
trust, rather then seniority.
4.аBeing able to act independently in a team.
5.аDrive for self-perfection.
6.аDesire to help people.
7.аListening skills.
8.аInterest in foreign languages and new technologies etc.
??? ????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????, ?????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ??
?????????, ????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ???????
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2.аIs it easier for you to work in a team or alone?
3.аWhat?s the difference between working in a team and working individually?
4.а Tell about the other members of your team and their functions. Were all of you the adherents?
5.аWhat knowledge and experience were shared in your team?
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??????????
1. Prensky M.а Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants // On the Horizon.
MCB University Press: 2001. Vol. 9. ?а5.
2. ??????? ?.а??? ????? ??? 2.0 // ???????????. 2005. ?а37 (609).
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TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language)а ? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????. TOEFL ??? ??????
? 1975 ???? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????а ?
Educational Testing Service (ETS) ????????????? ????????????,
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Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
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(topics) ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????, 30%а?
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??????????? ????? [1]. ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ????? ???????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????: ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ????????
? ???????. ????? ???????, ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????
??????. ? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ????, ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ????????? ?
?????? ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ???????????? ????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????.
?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????
??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ? ???????. ????? ??????
??????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????. ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????. ???
?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???. ?? ???? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????. ?? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????
???????? ??????????? ? ??????. ??? ???????, ??? ??????????
??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????.
???????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????а? ????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????
? ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????. ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ? ????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????. ??????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???178
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????, ???????????
??????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????.
?????????? TOEFL ???????????? ? ??????? ???? ???. ????? ????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????
??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ??? ?? ???????????.
???????, ?????????????? ? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????.
??????????
1. TOEFL iBT, New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2009.
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????
? ?????? ???????????? ??????
?.а?.а??????, ?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
buzdarya@yandex.ru
? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????.
????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?
???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??. ?.а?.а????????.
????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ?????????????? л???????????╗ ? ????????
??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? л???????????,
?????????╗ [3]. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
????????. ? ????? ?????????, ????? ????????а? ??? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????а ? ?
?????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????.
179
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ???????, ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
??????а? ??? ????????? (??????????) ?????????????? ??????? ?
????????? ? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?
??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ??? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????, ? ????????????
????????????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ?
??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ??????
????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? [2].
????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ?
???????. ?? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ????????,
??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? [4]. ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????? [5]. ??????????????? ?.а ????????
????? ?.а ?.а ??????????????, ?.а ?.а ????????, ?.а ?.а ????????,
?.а?.а??????, ?.а?.а?????????, ?.а?.а???????????? ? ??????, ?
??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? л???????????╗, ????? л????????-?????╗ ?, ?????, л??????????? ?????╗.
?? ??? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ? ?????? ??????????? ?????,
???????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ??
???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? (CRDF) ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????????????????? ??????? ??????. ????????? English Language
Intensive Training (ELIT) Camp, ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? (?????? ???????? ?????), ?????????? ??? ????????? CRDF ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????
?? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????. ??
180
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??? ????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????????
???????????? ? ?.а????????????? ? 2002 ????. ????? ELIT ????????? ? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????
??????????????? ??????????? (2003), ?????????? ???? CRDF
(2004), ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? (2005), ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
(2006), ????? ??????????? ??????????? (2007), ??????????
??????????? (2008), ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
(2009), ????????? (???????????) ??????????? ???????????
(2010). ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ??????, ????????
??????????? ? ????????? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????. ????????, ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ???? ????????
????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????, ??????????????
? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????.
??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ? 2010 ????. ????? 2010 ????
?????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? л???????? ???╗ ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????????????? ?????? л????????? ? ?????????? XXI ????╗
?????????? (????????????) ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????: ??? ????????? ? ??????????
? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??
???? ??????????. ?? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ???
????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ??????, ? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
???????, ??????? ??????-??????, ? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????????
181
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????. ? ????????? ??????? ??????? 64 ???????? ? 40 ?????????????? ?? 20 ??????? ????????????? ?????? [1].
???? ???????? English Language Workshop (ELW)а ? ?????
?????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????
??????????? ????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ?????
????????, ??????????? ?? ????????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????????????? ?????
????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? (??????-????????????????
??????) ??? ????, ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????
?????????. ? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????????
??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????
? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????
????? ? ????????? ??? ???????.
????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ? ?????????. ? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????
????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????. ?? ??????
???? ????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?
???, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ? ?? ????????? ????? ???????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????. ?????? ???? ? ???????
?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?
???????? ???????????? л???????? ???????╗. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????. ?
???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????
182
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? (?? ??????? ???), ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????.
??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? English Language
Intensive Training (ElIT) Program Course Book, ????????????? ????????????? ???????????????, ???????????? ???????
? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ??????
?? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????
?????????????, ???????????? ?? 4?5 ??????? ?????????????????? 1,5 ???? ? ?????? л????????╗ (???????????) ???????. ?
??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??
???????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
? ?? ??????????.
?????? ??????а? ????????????? ??????а? ???????? ??????
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???????? ? ?????? ?????, ????????? ? ???????, ???????????
???????????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????
??????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.
? ????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????
??????? ? ?????-????????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ????????.
??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????
??????????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????
??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????, ? ????? ?????? ????????
183
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ??? ???????
????????? ??? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ????.
????? ????, ? ????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ???????????.
??? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????, ??????, ????????, ????????, ??????????. ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???
????????? ? ????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ????? ???????????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ???????
??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????а ?
??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????
???????а? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????? [6].
????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????
????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ??? ????
???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?
????????? ???? ??????????? ??????. ?? ??????? ????????? ?
???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????
????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???? ????????????
???????????????? ???????????? ??. ?.а?.а????????.
??????????
1. ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????
(CRDF) ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
www.crdf.ru/Summer_Camp_2010.html.
2. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ????????????????
URL?????????????
: http???????
???????????
://????
englishtips.org/1150822358-intensivnoe-obuchenie-inostrannym-yazykam.
html.
184
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
3. ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????: ? 4 ?. /а??? ???. ?.а?.а???????. ?.а1. ?., 1935; ?.а2. ?., 1938; ?.а3. ?., 1939; ?.а4, ?., 1940. (????????????? ? 1947?1948 ??.); ?????????? ???????: ?., 1995; ?., 2000. URL:
http://ushdict.narod.ru/286/w86024.htm.
4. ???????????. ???????. URL: http://filolingvia.com/publ/67-1-0-105.
5.а???????????. ?????????????а? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????. URL: http://filolingvia.com/publ/67-1-0-104.
6. Elit Program Course Book. English Language Workshop, University
Workshop Addition 2010. Kazan, 2010.
?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????
??? ???????? ?? ????????
?? ??????????? ?????
?.а?.а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.а?.а????????, ?????????, ??????
? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????а? ????????? ?????
? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? лPower Point╗ ? лMovie Maker╗.
??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ???????.
??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ???? ??????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????
????????, ? ?????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ? ???????.
?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????,
????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????, ???????? ??? ???????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ????
?? ???????? ??????? ?????а ? лA Team-based Approach to Work╗,
?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????. ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????
?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????.
185
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
??????, ????????????????, ???? ?????? ??? ?????????
??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????. ?
???????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ????????-???????,
?????????, ??????? ? ??????? ??????????. ?? ???? ????? ??
????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ? ???? ??? ??????????. ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????:
1.а The need of a completely different set of employee?s skills
nowadays.
2.аAbility to work as part of a team.
3.а Learning to build a different kind of relationship based on
trust, rather then seniority.
4.аBeing able to act independently in a team.
5.аDrive for self-perfection.
6.аDesire to help people.
7.аListening skills.
8.аInterest in foreign languages and new technologies etc.
??? ????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????, ?????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ??
?????????, ????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ???????
??????? ??????.
?? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?? 3?4 ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????
????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????-??????. ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ?????, ???????????? ? ?.а?. ??? ????????????? ???????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ??????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????.
?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????? ????
????????? Power Point , ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
??? ??? ????????? Movie Maker, ??????? ???????????? ?????186
Copyright ??? л??? л??????╗ & ??? лA???????? K????-C?????╗
????? ? ??????????, ???????? ??????????????? ????? ? ????????????????.
? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????????? ???????????. ????????
???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????
???????, ??????????? ?????????????.
?????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????????
?????, ???????????????? ??????????????????? ? ????? ????????????. ????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????????
??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? лTime╗, лAnthology of a
Kiss╗, лZapatista╗, лAll the Miracles of the World╗. ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ???? ???????
?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????. ??? ????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????:
1.аWere the roles in your team assigned from the start?
2.аIs it easier for you to work in a team or alone?
3.аWhat?s the difference between working in a team and working individually?
4.а Tell about the other members of your team and their functions. Were all of you the adherents?
5.аWhat knowledge and experience were shared in your team?
?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????. ???????? ??, ???????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ??????
????????? ???? л?╗, ????????? ??? ? ??????, ?????? ? ?????????
???????? ???? ?????, ???????????? ??????, ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ?? ?
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