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AtomExp 2 2016

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???????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?а??????????. ?а??????????? ????????????
????? ?а????????????????? ?????? ??
?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????
???????? ???????????? MOX- ?а?????????? ???????, ???????????, ??????????????, ?? ??? ?а???. ?а?????????? ????? ?????? MOX-???????
??? ??????????? ??? ?????????
?????????????? ? ??? ????????????? ????-??????????? ???, ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????
???? ???????? ??-800.
? ??? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? л??????╗ ???, ???????
?а?????? ??????? ?а??????: ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????,
26 ? ??????? ??????? ?2 (44) 2016
????????? ? ??????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ????а?
?????? ?????. ??? ??????????
???????? ??? л????????????
???????????????? ?????-?????????? ????????????╗
(?????) ? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????, ?а????? ???????????? ?????????? л?????╗
?ал??????╗. ? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????
????? ??????????.
?????????? ???????????????
??????.
???, ?а????????? ??? ???????????
??????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
?? ??????? ????????? ?????????????-???????????? ????????? ?????:
????????? ????????????????? ????????? (????) ?а???????????? ???????, ????????????????? ??????
(???) ?а???????????? ????, ????????? ????????????? ??????????
????????? (????) ?а????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ????????? (???) ?а??????? ???????.
?а?????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????
5-?? ?????????, ??????? ??????????
?а????? 1960-? ?? 1980-? ????. ?? ?????? 2000-? ????? ??? ?????????? ??
?????????? 6?7-?? ?????????. ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????????
?????? ?а????? ???????????? ????????; ????? ????, ??? (?????????? 6-?? ?????????) ???????????? ??
??????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????????? ?а????? ??????????????
????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????. ?а2003?2004 ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? 8-?? ?????????,
?а?а??????? 2012 ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????.
??????
??????? ?????
?????? ????
?????? ????
1996???2001 ??.
2001???2005 ??.
??????????? ??????? ?????????
??????????? ????????? ????
???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? л????╗
???????????? ??????? ?а??????
????? ???????????
???????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????:
??? (????????????)
???? (???????????)
??????? ???????
??????? ???????
????? ?????: 38?%
????? ?????: 49?%
?????????? ??????????? л??? ???╗
??????? ???????
????? ?????: 33?%
??? (??????????)
????????????? ???
(??????? ?? ????????????)
?????? ?????
????? ?????: 51?%
??????????? ???.
????? ?????: 38?% (???????????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????)
88,27?%
???? ?а????
95,81%
???? ?а???
79,58%
???? ?а???
97,23%
???? ?а????????????? ???
2002???2003 ??.
?????
???????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????
??????-????? ?????
????? ?????: 80,12?%
??? (??????)
л?????╗
л??????╗
????????
????? ?????: 51?%
?????????? ?????????? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ?????
????? ?????: 97,85?%
????? ?????: 99,49?%
?????? ????
2007 ?.*????.??.
??????????? ???? ??????
????????? ???????????????
???????, ???????????? ???????
?? ??????????
100%
????? ?? л????╗ ???????? л???????????????╗,
?а?????а? ????????
? ?????? ????? ???????:
??????????????? ????:
????????????? ???;
л??????????╗;
???-?????? ????????;
?????????-???;
?? л??????? ??????? ??????????╗ (???)
????????????
?????????:
??? л???╗ (??????)
??????? ??????????
????? ?????: 67,5%
2009???2010 ??.
?? ???? ????? ??????????????? ??????, ????????? ? ???????????
????? (?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? л???????????????╗
??? ? ????????????? ???????????)
?????????????? ?????????:
??? л????╗ (???????????)
?? л????╗ (???????)
?? л?? ???╗ (???????????)
??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????
????? ?????: 100% ? ???
????? ?????: 100%
??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????
?? л??? ????????╗
(????????)
?? л????╗ (???????????)
????? ?????: 99,9% ? ???
????????????? ??? ???????
?????????
?????? ?????: 96% ? ???,
4% ? ????
??????
??.а?.?.????????
??????? ??????????
????????
??????????? ?????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????????,
??????? ????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????
????? ?????: 99,9% ? л?????????????-??????????? ????????╗ (???, ?????? ?ал??????????????╗)
?? л???╗ (???????)
??????????? ?????, ?????? ??а??????????, ????????? ? ???????? ????????
н??????????
?????? ?????: 77% ? ???,
4,5%а? ???????, 11% ? ????
* 2006???2007 ??. ? ?.?. ???????????? ????? ????????
??????? ??????? ?2 (44) 2016 ? 27
??????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? (??????? 30 ???), ?? ??????????????????
?а????????? ??? ??????, ?????????????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ????.
?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????
????????? ?? ???н?????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? Urenco (? ??? ?????
??????????? Areva), ?а?а???????????, ????????, ?а?а???????, ???????
??????????? ????????? ?а???, ?????,
??????.
??? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????, ??
?а1990-? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ?а??? ?????? ????????
?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????? ???????? ???????. ????? ????,
????????? ???????? ?а?????????
???, ??? ?а???????? ????? ?????????
????????? ?? ????????? ???????????
?????????? ?а?????????????? ??????
?????????? ???????, ???? ?а?? ????
???????????? ???????? ????? (? ???
????????? ????).
?????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????-??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???????????
????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? л??????????????╗ ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? ????????, ????? ???????
л???????????? ????????╗, л??????????╗, ???? ??.а?.?.а???????????,
н?????, н?????? ??.а?.?.а???????,
н?????? ??. ?.?.а?????????, ??? ??.
?.?.а???????????, ?
н ?????? ?а??????.
? ?????????? ?а???????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????????????
??? 1-?? ????????? ?а2?3-?? ?????????. ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????
28 ? ??????? ??????? ?2 (44) 2016
?????? ?????????: ?????????? ???????? ?????; ????????? ??????????
?а??? ??????????????; ?????????
???????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ?? ?????????????????
?а???????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????; ?????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ?????????
???????? ????????; ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???; ????????????? ?????????? ????????????
?а??????? ????????? ????????; ????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????? ?а?.?.
???????? ?а????????? ??????????
????????? ????????? ?????? ????
?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????, ?????????????? ????????
?????????????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????-1000. ???? ??. ?.??. ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????
?? ??????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?а1998 ????, ?а????? ????????? ????????? ????????
??????
?? л????╗ ??ан??????? ?????
45?%
????? 85?%
100?%
??????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????
?????????????? ???????
36?37?%
????-1000 ????-440
?? ?????? ??????????
??????????
??????????? ???????????
?а??????? ??? ??????????
?????????
17
????-440
?????????????? ??????
????? ??ан??????? ?????
21
????-1000
16?17?%
25?%
??????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????-1000 ?а????-440,
??а??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????
17?18?%
??????????*
36?%
2016
40?%
2020
45?%
2025
*????????? ?ал????????????????╗
л?????????╗ ????????? (????-?????,
????-?, ????-12, ????-?, ????-Plus).
??? л??????????╗, ??? ???????
н?????, ??????? ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ?????? (????), ?а??????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????
???????. ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а1998 ???? ?? ????????,
? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????? (л?????╗, л????????╗). ?????
л??????????╗ ????????? ?а???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (????2),
???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????????. ??
????????? ???????? ?а2003а????. ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???-2? ?а????-Plus,
??????? ??????????, ??????????????, ?а2006а?а2010а?????. ?а?а?????????
????? ????????? ????????? ??????
?? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????-1000.
?????? ????????? ?а???????????
??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???а??????????????????, ?а?????
???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????-??????,
??????????? ???????? ?????????,
????????? ?а?????????????. ?а?????????, ????? ?????? ??? ?????????
???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????
?а?????? ???, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????
???????? ?????????, ?????????????
????????? ???????? ??? ?а????????
????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ???????
?а?.??. ??? ???????? ????????-??????,
?а?????????, ???? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ????????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ????????
????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????????????
???????, ????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????, ??? ?а????. ????? ???????
????? ?????? ?а??????? ????-1000 ??????????? ??????? ?а?а???????????
?????? ???????????? ?а???????????
??????? ??? 3?4-?? ?????????. ???
???????, ??????????? ?а?????? ????? ???, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? 2 ??.
???????, ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????? 1-?? ????????? ?а??? ???????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????
??????????. ?а?????????, ??????? 1-?? ????????? ??? ?????????
?????440 ??а???????? ?а?????????
??? ??????????? ?а???????????????
??????????.
? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ????? (?????????? ??????????? ????????)
??а??????????? ??????, ??????????
????????? ???????? ??????????.
?а?????????, ????? ?110 (????????
?а~1?% ??????) ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?а???????? ??????
????????? ???? ?а????, ????????????????? ???????, ?а????? ???????
????????? ?????? 1-?? ?а2-?? ????????? ????????? ????-440. ????? ?125
(???????? ?а~2,5?% ??????) ???????????, ?а?????????, ??? ????????????
?????? ??? ????-1000 ??????? ?-187
(?? ????? ?5 ??????????????? ???),
??????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????. ????????????????? ?????
?635 (????? ???????? ?а??????, ??????? ?а???????, ?????????? ???????? ?а???????) ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????,
??????????? ????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????, ?а????? ??????? (? ???????
????????? ????). ???н???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? (? ??? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???? ?? ??????
??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????) ?а????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????. ????????? ???
??????? ??????? ?2 (44) 2016 ? 29
??????
?а??????????? ???????? ?а2012а????
??????????? ?а???????? ???????
???????.
???? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????
??????? ?? ???????? ????, ????????? ???????? ??? ??-???????? ???????? ?? ????? (????????, ??????? ?а??????? ??? ?а????????? ?????).
?а??? ????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????. ?????? ??? ??????
?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???, ????????, ????????? ????? ???????
???? ?????????? ~1,2 ?? ??? ?????
????? ??????? ??? ??????? 115 ??.
??? ??????? ????-440 ???????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????.
?а??????? 3-?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ???, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? 8 ?? ????????
?а??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?а???????? (???? ?а?????????) ????????
?а?????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а??????? ???????? 3-?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????
????????? ?????? ?а??? ???????????? ????????????? ?а????? ?????? ??
???????????? ?????? (?? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??????? 3-?? ?????????, ???????? ???????????). ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????
?????440 ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? (?????
?? ??????????????? ?????????????
???????? ????) ?? ???? ????????????????? ?????????? ?? ????: ?а??????? 2-?? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? 12,3 ??, ?а???????
3-??а? ?? 12,6 ??. ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ????????????
????-???????? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????, ?? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????-????????? ?????????
?а???? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? BNFL-Westinghouse ???
????????? ????-440, ?????? ??? ????
?????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а?????????. ???????,
????? ??????????? ???????????????
??????? (????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
???? ? ????).
?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????
?а????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????.
??? ?????, ?а?????????, ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а???
(?????? ?? ??? ??????????), ???
?а????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????. ???, ?а??? ????????? ????, ??????? ???????????
?? 1997а????, ?????????????? ???????? ????????? 7,53??7,57а?? ?а?????????? ?? 2,3а??. ?а?????????? ?а1998
???? ??????? ???? ?а???? ??? ????????? ?????1000 ?а??????????? ??????? 1-?? ????????? ??? ?????440,
??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????,
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? 1,4?1,5а??. ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????1000 (????2?,
????-Plus, ????-?) ??????? ????????
?????? ?? 7,6 ??, ?а????????? ??????????? ?? 1,2а??. ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? 7,8 ??
??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ?а????
??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????-1000
(????-?????, ?????12) ?а?????440
(??-3), ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?а?????????, ??? ????????? ?а????????????
???????????? ??????? 4-?? ????????? ????????? ????-1000 ?а??????? ?????? 3-?? ????????? ????????? ?????440, ?а????? ??? ???????
?????1200 ?а????-???.
30 ? ??????? ??????? ?2 (44) 2016
????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????????
(9,1а?? ??? ????????? ????) ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? 7,93 ??
?, ??????????????, ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? 0,65 ?? (? ????????, ?? ?? ??????, ??? ???????????
??? ?а????????? 7,6 ??), ?а????? ?а??
0,57а?? ?а?????? (??? ??????????
???????? 7,8 ??). ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ??? ?а????
??????? (????????, ? ??????? 2-?? ????????? ????????? ????-440 ? ?????? ????????????????? ??? ???? ???????????) ?????????? ??????????
?????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????. ?а????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? (? ????????? ???????
??????? 2?3-?? ?????????) ??? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????. ???
????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
??? ???????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ? ????????
?? ??????, ???, ?а???? ???????, ?????
????? ?? ????????, ?????????????
?????????? ???????????? ???????
(? ?????? ?????? ?110).
?????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
?????1000 ?а????-440. ????????, ?а??????????? ??? ?????????
?????1000 ??? ???????? 3680 ??, ???
??а150а?? ????, ??? ?а??????? ?????? ???????. ?а????????????? ??????? ??? ????-1200 ?а????-??? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????
200а?? (?? 3730 ??).
??? ??? ???? ????????? ?????????
???????? ????? ?а???. ???, ??? ?????? ????-440 ??????????? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? 3-??
????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?а1-? ?????????? ????? ???
??????
??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?а1990-? ?????
??????? ??????? ?????????, ???╖?????/?? ?????
?????????? ???????, ?%
4,88?4,95
50?58
29
????
3,77?4,31
42?43
40?43
?????
????-1000
????
????-440
3,28?3,62
26?30
22
?????
4,87
????
?????
????
????
?????
????-1000
????
?????
????-440*
2,40
2,6?2,8
????
?????
????
*?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????:
1-? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ? ???????
?? 10а??а? ?а~120а?? ?? ~132 ?? (?????? ????? ??? ????? ?а??? ?? ?????
??? ????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????????). ??? ?????? ????????? ?????1000 ??? ??????? ?????? ?а????? ??? 500 ?? ???
??? 1990?? ????? ?? ~525?527 ?? ???
???? ?а???-2?, ?а??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? (?????12, ????-ALFA) ????? ????????? ~545а??. ?а??????? 4-??
????????? ??? ????????? ????-1000
?????????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ~568 ??.
?????? ?????????? (?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????
?а???????? ??????????????) ?????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????? ????????. ???
????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ???? ????? ???????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????,
???????? ????????? ???? ?а???? ???
?????? ???????????. ??????? ?а????? 1990-? ????? ?а??? 2-?? ?????????
??? ????-1000, ?а??????????? ?????? ????? ?а?а??????? 2-?? ????????? ??? ????-440 ???? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а??????
????????? ???????? ????????? ??????а? ??? ?????????? ?????? (??????? ????????? ???? ???????????
?а????????? ????-??????? ????????? ??? ?а1980??а?????, ?а?а????????? PWRа? ?а1970-?). ?а?????????
?????1000 ??? ??? ?? ???? ?а?????
1990-? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?а????? ????? 0,4?%. ??????????
???????? ?????????? ????????????
???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????
????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????? ??а~10?% ??? ?????? ?????????
?? ????? ?а????????????? ?????????
??????? ????.
????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ?????????
?????????? ???????. ???, ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????
~1,8??2?% (?а1970?1980-? ?????) ??????? ?? ~2,4?% ?а1990-? ?????, ?а?????
?? 2,6??2,8?%. ?а?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?? ~3?%. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????
????-440 1-?? ????????? (????????????, ?а?????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??а1,а2 ???????? ???, ??а3,а4 ???????????????
??? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ???) ???????? ?а3,28?3,62?% ??
3,82?%. ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? 2-?? ????????? (?????????????
?а????????? ??????? ?-213а? ?? ?????? ??а3,а4 ????????а??? ?а???? ??????????? ??????????? ????-440)
?????????? ?? 4,25?4,38?%, ?а?????
?а?? 4,87?%. ??а????????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? 3-?? ????????? ??? ????
?????????. ??? ?????? ????? ???????
?????1000 ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а3,77?4,31?% ?а?????
1990-? ????? ?? 4,88?4,95?% ?а????????? ????. ?а??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ???? ?? ~5,5??7?%.
????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ??
? ???????? ????????????? (??????????????? ????????????, ??????? ????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?? 5?%) ,
? ????? ? ???????????? ?? ???????
??????.
????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ?а????? 1990-? ????? ????????
??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ???, ??? ????????????
?????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?а?? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?а??????????
???????. ????????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ??? ???, ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????? ??????? ?2 (44) 2016 ? 31
??????
?а??????. ??? ?????????? ??????????
?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????
?????? ?????????? ?????, ?а?а????
??????? (????????, ??? ?????????
????) ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????.
? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ???? ???
?????????????, ????????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?а????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????.
?????????????? ??????? (??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????) ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????
????????????? ?а?????? ???????
?????? ?а??????????? ??????, ???
??????
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Категория
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