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Бахрейн
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???-?????? ??[1] ) ? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????, ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?
????????? ?????? ???????? ? 16 ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ???? ???????
????????????? ??????.
?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ? ?????????, ????? ??????.
1. ???????
? III ??????????? ?? ?. ?. ?? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????
??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????.
????????? ? ????????
? IV?VI ???? ? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????
?????????, ????? ? ????????? ????????.
? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ? 1946 ???? ?????? ? ??????????
????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????.
? IX?XI ???? ? ????? ??????????? ????????.
? ???????? XIII ???? ? ???????? ?????????????,
?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????.
? 1968 ? ????????? ? ??????? ? ??????????
?????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????.
? 1521 ????1602 ??? ? ???????? ??????????.
? XVII?XVIII ???? ?
???????????? ?????.
??????
?
??????
? 14
???????
?????????????.
1971
?
?????????????
? 1780-? ? ????? ????????????? ?????????????.
? 1975 ? ???????? ?????????.
? XIX ??? ? ? ??????? ????????? ?????????.
? 1990-? ???? ? ???????? ? ????????, ?????????
? ??????????????? ????????.
? 1871 ? ?????????????? ?????????????
??????????? ??? ?????????, ?? ??????????
?? ????????? ? ???????.
? 14 ??????? 2011 ? ? ?????? ???????? ????????
???????? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ? ??????. ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? 2012 ????[4] .
? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????. ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????- ????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????
?????????? (??????????? ? ???? 29.09.1990).
?? ?????.
1
2
2
?????????
1.1. ????????? ??????????????
Persian Gulf
n
hrai
Ba
of
Ki
ng
do
m
Manama
Awali
Main Pre-historic Burial
Mound Sites
????? ?????????? ???????????
??? ???? ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????
? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ??????
????????? ?????????? ???[5] . ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????
???????? ??????? ? ??????? ???. ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ?
???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ???? ????????? ? ????????
???????, ??? �???? ??????? ???? ?????� (??????
??-??-???????'), ? ? ?????????. ?????? ??????????
??????????? ???? ??? ???? �???? ???? ???籟6] . ????
?? ??????? ????????? ????? ????, ??? ???????? ?
???????? ? ????????? ???, ??????????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????, ? ???? ???????? ????????? ???
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ? ??? ??????[7] .
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??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????�, ? ?????
?? ?????????? ??? �???? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ????
?????籟8] .
?. ?. ??????????? ?????[9] : �?????????? ????????
???????? ??? ?????, ???????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????, ??????????, ? ?????????, ? ?????? ????????????????? ??? ??? ????? ???????????�.
???????? ????? ???????. ????????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????
??????????? ?? ?. ?. ????? ???????????, ? ???
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?????, ??????? ????? 1,5 ?. ? ???????? ??????
?????????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????????.
? �??????� ???????????? ?????????? ???, ????????????? ???? ??? ??????, ???????????? ??????,
???????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ??????????
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????? ???????? ????????? 15 ??????. ????????
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?????????. ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????
?????? ?. ?.[10] . ????? ??????????? ???? ????????
?? ?????? ??-?? ???????????? ??????, ?? ? ? ?????
? ??????? ? 1950-? ????? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
2. ?????????
? 2007 ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? 708 573 ???., ?? ??? ????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ? ????? ?? ?????, ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????; ? ?????? ????? ?????????
????? ?????? ? ????? ????. ??????????? ???? ?
????????, ???????????? ????? ??????????, ????? ?
????.
????? 30 % ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 15 ???, 68 % ? ?? 15 ?? 65 ??? (?? ??? 44 %
? ???????????), 3,2 % ? ?????? 65 ???. ? 2003 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ? 19,02 ?? 1000 ??????????????
??????????-?????????????
?????- ?????, ?????????? ? 3,99 ?? 1000, ?????????? ?
??? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? 1,07 ?? 1000, ??????? ????????? ???????? 1,61 %.
?????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? 18,59 ?? 1000 ???????-
3
????????? ????????????. ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ??????????????? ????? (???????
??-????) ??????????? ???????. ? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? 40 ???????. ???????????? ?????? ?????????.
4. ?????????
??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????
??????. ??????? ????????????????? ????? ????????? ? 73,7 ???, ?????? ?????? ? 71,3, ? ?????? ?
76,2. ??????? ??????? ????????? ? 28,7 ??? (??????? ? 31,6, ??????? ? 25,1). ????????? ?????????
?????? ?????????? 1142,9 ???./??�. ???????, ???????? ????? ?????? (137 ???. ???????), ????????????? ?? ??????-??????? ?. ???????, ? ??????? ???????? ????? (???? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ??????
?????? ??????????? ??????).
?? ???????? ? 1932 ?. ????????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? (????2.1. ???????
??? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????). ??????
? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? 60 % ???,
????? 80 % ????????? ?????????? ????????????- ?????? ? 30 %. ????????????? ???????????? �????? ??????? ? ?????, 75 % ?? ??? ????? ? 25 ???? ??????� ??????????. ???????? ?? ???, ? 2015 ??% ??????? (? ??? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ??- ?? ? ?????? ???? ?????? 18,462 ??? ???????? ?????,
???). ????????? ?????????? 10 % ?????????, ??????- ??? ???? ?????? 2014 ???? ?? 3,7 %[11] . ? ?????? ?????? 10 % ? ?????, ????????, ??????, ???????? ? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ???,
????????????.
?????? ???????? ???????????. ?????? ?????????
?????????? ??????.
3. ??????????????? ??????????
? ?????? ???????????? ????-???????? ??????
???????? ????????????????? ??????????. ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????,
???? ????? ??????????? ????? (???? ???????????? ??
?????????).
? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????
(???????? 2/3 ?????????????? ?????), ??????????,
??????, ????????, ???????? ????????, ?????, ?????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????. ????????? ????????: ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????, ???????, ???????? ??????, ????????? ????? �???�.
???????? ?????? ????????: ????????????? ? ?????,
???????? ? ??????.
?????? ? ????????
????????????: ????????????? ????? ? ????. ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ?? ????? ??- ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????. ??????????
????????? ????? ?????? (?? 2002 ? ????). ?????????- ??????????. ??????. ???????????? ????????. ?????? ??????????? ???????-???????. ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????.
?? 23 ?????????.
?????? ???????: ??????????? ???????? ?????-
4
6 ???????????????? ???????
??, ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????- 5.2. ????? ? ?????
??. ??????? ??????? ??????????? (15 %) ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????.
?????????. ? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????, ??????
??? ????????, ??? ???????, ????????? ???????, ????1000 ??????.
????, ???????? ? ??. ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ??????
????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ? ?????????5. ?????????
?????. ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??. 400 ?????
???, ? ??? ????? ???????????. ?????????????? ??????? ????????. ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????, ???????, ??????????, ??????????, ? ??? ?????
????????????. ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? (????? 2000 ?????).
6. ???????????????? ???????
????? ????????
??????? ?????????? ?? 33 ????????.
?????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ??
33 ??????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?????? ?
???????, ????????????? ? ?????? ?? ?? ?? 50 ??,
? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? 15 ??. ???? ?????? ??????
????????????, ? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????. ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? 30-35 ?, ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? (134 ?).
5.1. ??????
?????? ? ?????? ?????, ???????????. ?? ???????
???????? ? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????
????????? ????? ??????? ????. ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ? ??????? ???? ?????
????????. ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????????
???????? ???????. ???? ?????? (??????? ??????????? ?????? ? +17� ?), ???? ????? ?????? (???????
??????????? ???? ? +40�). ???????? ? ??????? 90
?? ??????? ? ???.
???????????????? ??????? ????????
??????? ?????????????? ?? 5 ???????:
? ????????? ????????
? ??????????? ????????
? ???????? ????????
? ???????? ????????
? ????? ????????
5
?? 3 ???? 2002 ???? ??????? ??????? ?? 12
???????????????:
? ???-?????? (Al Manamah)
???-??????
? 1 ??? ? ???? ?????
? 16 ??????? ? ???????????? ????
? ???-??????? ???-????? (Al Min?aqah al Wus?�)
? ???-???????
Gharb?yah)
? 1 ?????? ? ????? ???
(Al
Min?aqah
al
? ???-??????? ??-??????? (Al Min?aqah ash
Sham?l?yah)
? ???-????
? ??-???? ?? ???-??????? ???-????????
? ????? ????
? ?????? ?????
? ???, ????????
? 17 ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????
8. ?????
? 2004 ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????-??? ???????? ????????1 ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? �????�, ???????
??????????? ???????.
? ?????? 2008 ???? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????, ?????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????????
??????.
? ?????
? ?????
9. ??????????? ????
7. ????????
????? ???? ??? ???
????? ????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????. ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? �??????????? ???????????? ?????� ? ???????? ?
??????. ???????? ????????????????????? ????????
???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????, ??? ??????, ???????????? ?????.
7.1. ?????????
? 1 ???????? 2006 ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?
????????? ?????. ????????????? ?????????:
??????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ??????????
???? ??????? ????????. ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? (???????? F-16, F5, ????????? UH-60, ????? M60, ? ?????? ??????
?????? ?????? ????? RBNS Sabha). ?????????????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????
? ???????????? ?????? ??? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????-??????? ???? ???????? ? ?????? 1990-? ?????. ?? ???? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????-??????? ???
??? (???????????? ?????? ?????), ? ????? ???????
1500 ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????.
10. ???????????
? ???????? ??????: ??????????? ? ????????
6
? ?????? XX ???? ????????? ????? (???????) ????
???????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????. ???
???? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????. ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????. 1919 ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ? ????????,
????? ????? ??? ????????? ???-?????? ???-??????
???? ??????? ? ?????? ????????. ? 1926 ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ?????????. ? 1928 ???? ?
?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ???????.
13 ??????
?????? ???????. ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????: �??-????� (�??�, 37 ???. ???.),
�???? ???-??????� (�?????? ??????�, 25 ???.),
�??? ????? ????� (20 ???.). ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????? �??? ???-?????� (�?? ??????�,
35 ???.) ???????? ? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ??
???? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ????? ????, ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? �??????????� (�????�, ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????) ? �???? ?????� (�???? ?????�, ????? ????????? ?????? ????????). ?
?????? ????????? ????-???????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? (???????????) ?????? (????????, ?????, ??????, ???????, ???????????? ????????
????????, ?????????? ??????), ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? 1978 ????. ? ?????? ?????? ?????
?????-????? ?????? (???????? ??????).
? 2004 ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????
?????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????
?????????? ??? ????????? 12-??????? ???????????
? ????????. ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????
???????? ?????? ??????. ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????. ??????
?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? (????? 12. ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???, ?????????????? 12???
?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????). ?? ???? ?? ?????????, ? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? (A-Level) ??????? ?????????? ? 7 ?????? ??????????? ?????,
??????? ? 1984 ????, ?? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ???????
???????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????.
? ?????? ??????????? ?????. ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????. ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????,
??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ???- ?????? ???? ? ? 2012 ???? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????.
?? ???????? ????????????.
??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???
?????????????, ??? ? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????. ???????????
???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????????. ??????? ???????????
???? ????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????????
??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????,
??????? ????????, ??????????, ??????????? ??????,
???????????. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? 2001 ???? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????. ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ? ???????????????
??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????. ? 2005 ???? ???
??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ?? ????
?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?
????????, ?????????????????? ????????????? ??
???????? ??????.
13. ??????
??????? ? ??????? A?ali
11. ???????? ???????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ????? 8 ????????? ???????? ? ???.
??????????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ???????? ????????
?????. ?????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ??-?? ????????
???????. ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ??, ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????- ???????????[12] . ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ????-
7
???? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????-??? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ? ??????
????????1.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????
?????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ????? ???
???????????. ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????,
? ?????????, ?????-???-???????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????. ????????????
????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????????
???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??
??????? 9 ????? ??? ?????.
14. ??. ?????
16. ??????????
? ????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ??????? (??????????). ? ??????: ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? �????�, 1976. ?
312 ?. ? 12 000 ???.
17. ??????
?
? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? Open Directory
Project (dmoz).
? ??????? ?? ????? �???????? ?????????�
<a
class='CategoryTreeLabel
? ????? ????????
CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory'
href='/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F:%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85
? ?????????-??????????? ?????????
15. ??????????
[1] ???/???????
[2] Human
Development
Report
2013
(????.).
United Nations Development Programme (2013).
???????????? ?? ?????????????? 13 ??????? 2013.
[3] ??????????? ? ?????????? ????. ?????????? ???????? // ????? ???? / ????. ? ??????. ? ???. ??? �??????????� ? 2009 ?. ; ??. ???. ?. ?. ???????. ? ?. :
??? �??????????� : ???-?? ?????, 2010. ? ?. 14.
? ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (???????????). ? ISBN
978-5-488-02609-4 (?????).
[4] �??????? ?????� ????????? ? ????????, Russia Today
(10 ??????? 2012). ????????? 10 ??????? 2012.
[5] 5000 ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????.
[6] ??????????????? ????? ??????.
[7] ?????????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ?????? ? ?.: ?????,
1979, 220 ?., ? ??. 73, 124
[8] ?. ???. ??????? ??????????? ? ?.: ?????, 2002, 480
?.
[9] ??????????? ?. ?. ????? ???? ???????? ? /? ??.:
?????. ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ? ?.-??.: ????? ???. ????????, 2012, ?. 3
[10] ?????? ? ??????: ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.
[11] ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ? 2015 ????
[12] Bahrain, Destination Guide Lonely Planet
8
18
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
18. ????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
18.1. ?????
? ???????
????????:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B9%D0%BD?oldid=
78242170 ??????: Suisui, Drbug, Romanm, Monedula, Maximaximax, Nikiforov, Wulfson, Paul Pogonyshev, ????????? ???????, HedgeBot, Kaganer, Hashar, YurikBot, ????? ????????, Roboto de Ajvol, KokoBot~ruwiki, Zwobot, Roxis, Winterheart,
Lt-wiki-bot~ruwiki, JaroslavleffBot, ??????, Zimin.V.G., LJay, Athelstanus, Sasha Krotov, Ghirlandajo, Sergei, ?.?. ??????,
Mansur, Insider, Nejron, Startreker, Golddim, ???????, Escarbot, ZsergheiBot, TuvicBot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Liv, ??????????
??????? ??????????, Wybot, Dzerod, CommonsDelinker, SJaguar, Alex Smotrov, Fire Wire, Rei-bot, Nickst, DorganBot, VolkovBot,
DodekBot~ruwiki, ??????? ????????, Deerhunter, Idioma-bot, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, Samvlamix, RussianSpy, Liquid-aim-bot,
ShinePhantom, Synthebot, VVVBot-temp, SieBot, ?????? ????????, Gerakibot, Walik, BotMultichill, Yaroslav Blanter, AlleborgoBot,
????? ??? ????????, Niklem, Anahoret, Bortorix, PipepBot, DragonBot, KnightMirko, MaxBet, ?? ???, Jeka3000, RoadTrain,
Adaykz, GreenStork, Darkicebot, Tat1642, Dec16, SilvonenBot, Vong, VlsergeyBot, Ds02006, MelancholieBot, Hamelia, CarsracBot,
Peti610bot, AlnoktaBOT, HerculeBot, LaaknorBot, Amirobot, Luckas-bot, ???????? ????????, Igel B TyMaHe, Ptbotgourou,
Rubinbot, ??????? ??????, ????????-?????????, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Okras, Nazarius, Peterburg23, Almabot, Xqbot,
SassoBot, Master Shadow, GhalyBot, Ilya2008, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, Tutaishy, ?????????? ????, Nemtsev, ?????? ?????,
Valerytembi4, MastiBot, Rufus Total, Flint1972, Victor Korniyenko, Web2.0, Jim Fitzgerald, Alexandronikos, VAP+VYK, TobeBot,
KamikazeBot, Wormsky123, Dinamik-bot, ????????????? ?????, TjBot, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, Kalendar, Gerard, GrouchoBot,
Z閞oBot, HRoestBot, Anto110, J vekilov, ????? ??????????, Kepka75, Artemis Dread, Ain92, OneLittleMouse, TReX92, Migel
Sances Huares, ChuispastonBot, Verman1, WikitanvirBot, Mjbmrbot, Tobby72, Izhvol, Movses-bot, KrBot, Vestnik-64, WebCite
Archiver, ?????? ??????, User 699, Philip J.1987qazwsx, Lightfairy, MerlIwBot, ?????? ??, MBHbot, ????????? ?????, ???? ??
?????????, 91i79, JhsBot, Demetry71, Konstantin Yufa, ???????, ?????????, ElphiBot, ???, Stas1995, SantoshBot, TheVovaNik,
Crow F13, Kadavr2000, Glovacki, Citing Bot, BookBoy77, ?????? ???, ?????? ??????, NapalmBot ? ??????: 102
18.2. ???????????
? ????:4bahrain22011.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/4bahrain22011.jpg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Al-aradi
? ????:A'ali_Burial_Mounds.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/A%27ali_Burial_Mounds.jpg ????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: Flickr: A'ali Burial Mounds ????????: Step
? ????:AncientTombsOfBahrain.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/AncientTombsOfBahrain.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Philg88
? ????:Bahrain_fountain.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Bahrain_fountain.jpg ????????: CC
BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Vladimir Arshinov (Vladimir_arsh)
? ????:Bahrain_pol_2003.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Bahrain_pol_2003.jpg ????????:
Public domain ??????: CIA [1][2] ????????: CIA
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Bahrain.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Emblem_of_Bahrain.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: symbol created in the 1930s by the British advisor to the King of Bahrain (then emir) -- updated,
with five white ?valleys? representing the five pilars of Islam. ????????: Tonyjeff, based on national symbol.
? ????:Commons-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions used to
be slightly warped.) ????????: SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier PNG version,
created by Reidab.
? ????:Copia_de_Enki.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Copia_de_Enki.jpg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ?????????? ????????: ?
? ????:Emblem_of_the_Arab_League.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Emblem_of_the_Arab_
League.svg ????????: GFDL ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Jeff Dahl
? ????:Flag_of_Algeria.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Flag_of_Algeria.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: SVG implementation of the 63-145 Algerian law "on Characteristics of the Algerian national emblem" ("Caract閞istiques
du Drapeau Alg閞ien", in English). ????????: This graphic was originaly drawn by User:SKopp.
? ????:Flag_of_Bahrain.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Flag_of_Bahrain.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: http://www.moci.gov.bh/en/KingdomofBahrain/BahrainFlag/ ????????: Source: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten by
User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Djibouti.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Flag_of_Djibouti.svg ????????: CC0
??????: From the Open Clip Art website. ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Egypt.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: From the Open Clip Art website. ????????: Open Clip Art
? ????:Flag_of_Iran.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg ????????: Public domain
??????: URL http://www.isiri.org/portal/files/std/1.htm and an English translation / interpretation at URL http://flagspot.net/flags/ir'
.html ????????: Various
? ????:Flag_of_Iraq.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Flag_of_Iraq.svg ????????: Public domain
??????:
? This image is based on the CIA Factbook, and the website of Office of the President of Iraq, vectorized by User:Militaryace ????????:
Unknown, published by Iraqi governemt, vectorized by User:Militaryace based on the work of User:Hoshie
18.2
???????????
9
? ????:Flag_of_Jordan.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Kuwait.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Flag_of_Kuwait.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Lebanon.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ? ????????: Traced based on the CIA World Factbook with some modification done to the colours based on
information at Vexilla mundi.
? ????:Flag_of_Libya.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Flag_of_Libya.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: File:Flag of Libya (1951).svg ????????: ???????? ??? ????? SVG-????? <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external
text' href='//validator.w3.org/check?uri=https%3A%2F%2Fcommons.wikimedia.org%2Fwiki%2FSpecial%3AFilepath%2FFlag_of_
Libya.svg,<span>,&,</span>,ss=1'>?????????</a>.
? ????:Flag_of_Mauritania.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Flag_of_Mauritania.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Morocco.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Flag_of_Morocco.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Flag of the Kingdom of Morocco
Moroccan royal decree (17 November 1915)
????????: Denelson83, Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Oman.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Flag_of_Oman.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Palestine.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Flag_of_Palestine.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ??????. Based on Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the
year 2005 on the Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag ????????: Orionist, previous versions by Makaristos, Mysid, etc.
? ????:Flag_of_Qatar.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Flag_of_Qatar.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Drawn by User:SKopp ????????: (of code) cs:User:-xfi? ????:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg
????????: CC0 ??????: the actual flag ????????: ??????????<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.
svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/
40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='1050' data-file-height='590' /></a>
? ????:Flag_of_Somalia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Flag_of_Somalia.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: see below ????????: see upload history
? ????:Flag_of_Sudan.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Flag_of_Sudan.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: www.vexilla-mundi.com ????????: Vzb83
? ????:Flag_of_Syria.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/Flag_of_Syria.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: see below ????????: see below
? ????:Flag_of_Tunisia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Flag_of_Tunisia.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: http://www.w3.org/ ????????: entra頽eur: BEN KHALIFA WISSAM
? ????:Flag_of_Yemen.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Flag_of_Yemen.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: Open Clip Art website ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_the_Arab_League.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Flag_of_the_Arab_League.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Flad
? ????:Flag_of_the_Comoros.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Flag_of_the_Comoros.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????:
???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Nightstallion (??????????? ?? ????????? ??
????????? ?????).
? ????:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Flag_of_the_
United_Arab_Emirates.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:GCC_Flag.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/GCC_Flag.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Image:Int-GCC-flag.gif and Image:GCC Logo.svg ????????: Rico Shen
? ????:Governorates_of_Bahrain.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Governorates_of_Bahrain.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Escondites
? ????:LocationAsia.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/LocationAsia.png ????????: Public
domain ??????: own work - map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book ????????: Dado
? ????:Manama,_Bahrain_Decembre_2014.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Manama%2C_
Bahrain_Decembre_2014.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Wadiia
? ????:Map_of_Bahrain.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/Map_of_Bahrain.svg
Public domain ??????: self-made using File:Map of Oman.svg ????????: Connormah
????????:
? ????:Religious_element_-_Flickr_-_Al_Jazeera_English.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/
Religious_element_-_Flickr_-_Al_Jazeera_English.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 2.0 ??????: Religious element ????????: Al Jazeera
English
10
18
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Searchtool.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Searchtool.svg ????????: LGPL ??????: http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz ????????: David Vignoni,
Ysangkok
? ????:Traditional_Wedding_Dress_of_Bahrain.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Traditional_
Wedding_Dress_of_Bahrain.jpg ????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: originally posted to Flickr as DSC_0322 ????????: Jayson De Leon
? ????:US_Navy_061105-N-3455P-002_USS_Boxer_(LHD_4)_and_ships_assigned_to_Boxer_Expeditionary_Strike_Group_(BOXESG)_steam_along
????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/US_Navy_061105-N-3455P-002_USS_Boxer_%28LHD_4%29_
and_ships_assigned_to_Boxer_Expeditionary_Strike_Group_%28BOXESG%29_steam_alongside_while_transiting_to_U.S._5th_
Fleet%27s_area_of_responsibility.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????:
This Image was released by the United States Navy with the ID 061105-N-3455P-002 <a class='external text' href='//commons.wikimedia.
org/w/index.php?title=Category:Files_created_by_the_United_States_Navy_with_known_IDs,<span>,&,</span>,filefrom=061105-N3455P-002#mw-category-media'>(next)</a>.
???? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??-???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????. ??.
Commons:?????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????.
????????: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Paul Polach
? ????:Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. ????????: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006
(UTC) Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally
uploaded by Simon.
? ????:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: AleXXw
? ????:Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Russian Wiktionary ????????: One half 3544, VPliousnine
18.3. ????????
? Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
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