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?. ?. 2.43333� ?. ?.
???????????? ???[7] (??????? ???????? ?? ????. Great
Britain) ??? ??????????? ??????????? (United
Kingdom [j??nai?t?d k???d??m]? , ?????????? UK); ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ? ??? ?????? ????? ????[1] (????. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland) ? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????[8] . ?????????????? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???. ??????????
?????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????, ? ?????????????? ? XIX ? ?????? XX ?????.
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??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? �??????????? ?????????� (??-????????? ? 玞ountries�, ?? ???? �?????�): ??????, ?????????, ????? ? ???????? ????????. ????? ???????????????-????????????????
?????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ???? ??? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? (????? ??????) ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????.
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1. ?????????
????? 17 820 ?? ?????[10] . ????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ???????????
?????? 50 ?? (?? ??????? 38 ?? ??? ?????). ??? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????[11]
??? (?????? ??????????????, ??????-????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ???? . ???????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??- ??? ???????? ????? 360-???????????? ??????????
??? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????, ????? ????- ??????? ? ??????????? ????????, ? ???[3]???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???- ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? .
????, ??????, ?????, ????) ? ????????????? ???- ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????. ????????? ????????, ??????????, ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ? ?????, ???????????? ??????. ???-????????? ????????? ???- ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ? 35 ?? ?? ????????? ????????? ???? 49� ? 61� ? ????? 9� ???????? ??????? ? 2�
???????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ??-????[3] . ????????? ???????.
??????? ?????????????? ?????????? 243 809 ??�, ??
??? ???? ? 240 579 ??�, ?????????? ???? ? 3230
??�. ?? ?????? ?? 1993 ??? 10 % ???? ???? ???????
?????, 46 % ?????????????? ??? ????????, ? ??? 25
% ?????????????? ? ??????????[9] . ????????? ?????
?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? 130 395 ??瞇12] .
??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????????????[9] . ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? (?????????? ????) ? ??????-?????? (?????????????? ????). ?????
1
2
2 ???????????????? ???????
????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????- ?[9] .
???? (978 ?)[9] . ??????????? ?????? ????????
?????, ?????? ? ??????.
1.1. ??????
???-????? ? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????
?????????? ????????.
????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? 78 772 ??瞇13] .
??? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????[14] , ? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????.
????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????
? ??????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ??
?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????
????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????[15] . ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????: ??????-??????????? ??????? (???????) ??
??????-?????? ? ??????? ?? ???-???????. ???????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????, ??????? ???-?????, ??????? ? ??????? ? 1343
? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????[16] . ???????, ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????-??-????? ? ??????-????, ????????? ????? ??? �?????????? ????�,
??????? ??????, ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
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????? ????[3] . ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?12癈
??? ??????????? ???? 35 癈[19] . ???????? ?????
???? ? ???-?????? ? ????? ???????? ???????? ?
?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????[3] , ??????
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????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????
???? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? 20 779
??瞇17] . ????? ? ? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???? ????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????. ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????, ??????? ??????????
?????? ???????, ?????? ? ???????. ????? ???????
???? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????? (? ??? ????? ???? ??????? 1085 ? ???????)[9] . ????????? ?????
?????? ????? ????????????? ? 1200 ?? ??????????
???????????????? ??????? ??????????????.
???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????-??????.
???????? ???????? ???????? ????? 13 843 ??� ? ?
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????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? (388 ??�)[18] . ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????-?????? ? ????? ????? ? ??????? 852
?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????
???? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????? ???
?? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????. ?????????????? �? ?????????? ????????????
2.1
????????? ??????????
3
?????? ???????????????? ???????, ???????????? 2.1. ????????? ??????????
??? ??????????????�. ?? XIX ???? ???????????
??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????[20] . ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ????
????????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????
?????????, ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????,
??? ? ? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????????????.
Gibraltar
Bermuda
Akrotiri & Dhekelia
Turks and Caicos Islands
Anguilla
British Virgin Islands
Montserrat
Cayman Islands
Ascension Island
British Indian Ocean Territory
Saint Helena
Pitcairn Islands
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????
??????, ? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ??
??????? ????????????. ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????, ????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????
??????????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? ???
????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????.
???? ??????, ??????? ??????, ????? ???? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ? 2000 ???? ????? ?????????
????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? 1998 ????[21] . ??????????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????
???????????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?
??????-????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? 2004 ???? ????????? ??? ????[22] . ???? ????????????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????????, ? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ????? ????
??????? ?? 32 ?????????? ????. ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????[23] .
??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? 32 ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????
? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ???. ?????? ??????,
????????, ??????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????
?????????, ????? ????? ??? ? ???????, ???????
???????? ? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????, ??
????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? 200 000 ???????. ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? 1222[24] ? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ??
??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????
???? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ????????
????????????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ???????.
????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? 22 ????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????, ?????? ?
???????, ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????
????????????[25] . ?????? ?????????? ??? ? 4 ????
?? ???????????? ???????[26] . ???????? ???????? ?
1973 ???? ???? ????????? ?? 26 ???????. ?? ?????
?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????,
??? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ???????[27] . 13 ?????
2008 ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? 11 ?????
??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????[28] .
????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? 2011
???? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????[29] .
Tristan da Cunha
Falkland Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
British Antarctic Territory
???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????.
??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???
??????????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????: 14 ?????????? ????????? ??????????[30] ? ??? ???????? ?????.
????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????: ??????? (??????? ?????), ??????? (??????? ?????????), ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (??????? ??????), ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? (??????? ?????-??????), ??????????
?????????? ??????? (??????? ???-????), ?????????
(??????? ?????????), ????????? ??????? (???????
??????????), ?????? ?????????? (??????? ??????),
??????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ? ???????-??????? (??????? ??????????), ?????? ??????? (??????? ?????????), ??????? ????? ? ?????? (??????? ??????-????), ???????????? ??????? (???????
??????), ????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? (??????? ?????????) ? ?????????? ???????
???? ?? ????? (??????? ????????)[31] . ????? ?????
????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
?? ???????? ???????????????[32] , ??????? ???????
??? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????, ? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????. ??????
????????? ?????????? ???????? 1 727 527 ??� (???
?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? 18 127
??�), ? ?? ????????? ?????????? 260 000 ???????[33] .
??? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?
?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????
??????????? ????????????.
???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ?
??????? ?? ????????? ??????????[34] . ???? ??????
?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?
??????? ??-???? ? ?????? ??? ? ?????????? ????. ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????
766 ??�, ? ????????? ? 235 000 ???. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ???? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????
???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????. ????? ????-
4
??? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????[35] .
??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? (? ???? ? ? 1986
?., ?????? ? ? 2004, ?????? ? ? 2005).
3
?????????
????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? 2,11 ? 2008 ????[43] .
???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ? 2016 ?. ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????
64 716 000 ???????.
3.1. ???????????? ??????
3. ?????????
???????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????
???????????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????
???[37] .
?? ???????? 2011 ???? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? 63 181 775 ???????. ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? 3-? ????? ? ??, 5-? ? ?
??????????? ????? ? 21-? ? ? ????. ? ???????? 2011
???? ??? ??????????? ? 62 698 362[3] . ?? ????????
????????? 2011 ???? ????????? ?????? ????????? 63
181 775 ???????[36] . ? 2008 ???? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ? 1998 ????[38] . ? 2001 ???? ?? 2008 ????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? 0,5 %, ??? ?????? 0,3 % ? ?????? ? 1991 ????
?? 2001 ? 0,2 % ? ?????????? ???????????[38] . ?????????????? ? 2008 ???? ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????? 2007 ???? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ?
??????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????? ?? 16 ???[39] . ?? ????????? ???????, ????? ????? ????????? 100 ??? ? ?????
???????? ?? 626 000 ? 2080 ????[40] .
????????? ?????? ? ???????? 2008 ???? ???????????
? 51,44 ????????[38] , ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ?????
?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????, ??????? 383 ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? 2003[41] , ? ????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ? ?? ???-???????[42] . ?????? ???????? 2008 ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? 5,17
?????????, ?????? ? 2,99 ????????, ? ???????? ???????? ? 1,78 ???????[38] ? ??????? ????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????. ? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????
?????????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????, ???????????????? 2008[38] . ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
??????, ?????????, ??????, ?????????, ????.
? 2008 ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? 1,96 ??????? ?? ????
???????[43] . ???? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ???? ????? ? ???? ?????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???? �???-????� 1964 ???? ? 2,95 ??????? ?? ???? ???????[44] ? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ? 2,1, ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????????
2001 ???? ? 1,63 ??????? ?? ???? ???????[43] . ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? 1,8 ???????
?? ???? ???????, ? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ?? ?????????? ?? XI ????: ???????, ??????,
???????????, ???????? ? ?????????. ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ????? 50
????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? Y
?????????[45] , ???? ?????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? �??????? 75 %
?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????
6200 ??? ?????, ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???
????????? ????�, ? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????
????? ??????? ? ???????[46][47][48] .
??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ????? ????? ??????
?????????? ????????? ? ??????, ???????? ??????
??????? ??? ??????? ? 1730-?[49] , ? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? XIX ????[50] .
? 1950 ???? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????
20 000 ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??
???????[51] .
? 1945 ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????,
????????? ???????? ? ????? ????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ? ???????????
? ????????? ?????? ? 2004 ???? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????[52] , ?????? ? 2008 ????
???? ????? ???? ???????????????, ????????? ??????
???????? ????? ???????????? ?????[53] .
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????. 30,4 % ??????????? ?????????[54] ? 37,4 %
???????????[55] ? 2005 ???? ?????????? ???????, ? ??
????? ??? ????? 5 % ????????? ??????-?????????
??????, ?????? ? ???-???????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? 2001
????[56] .
3.2. ?????
??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????[59][60] ? ?????????????????
????, ??????????? ?? ?????????????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??
????????????????????, ????????????, ????????????
? ?????????? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????
4.1
?? 1707 ????
5
4.1. ?? 1707 ????
?????????????? ???. ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ?????-?????, ??????, ??? ?? ???????????, ??
?? ???? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ??????-?????. ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????
???????????? ?????[57] ? ???[58] .
?????????? ??????? ? ???? ????????????? ???- ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? 2500
??? ??????? ? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?. ?,
????????? ??????[61] .
????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????????? ????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????, ??????? ?? ???????????
????? 30 000 ??? ????? ? ??????????? ???????[72] .
??????, ??? ? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????
?????????, ??? ? ????? ??????????????? ???????
????????, ??????????-??????????? ????[62] . ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????
???? ????????? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ??????: ??????????, ??????????, ????????? ? ????????.
???? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????????[73] .
?? ????? ???????? 2001 ???? ????? 21 % ????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ? 43 ????????????[63] , ??? ?????? 18 % ? ???????? 1991 ?? ?. ?., ??????? ? 400-??????? ????????? ????
????[64] . ??? ????? 200 000 ???????, ??????? ? ??- ??? ????? ?????? ????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?? ??????????[65] .
??????, ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ????????. ???
???????? 2001 ???? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ??? 167 487 (10,4 %) ????? �???? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????[74] . ???????? ?????? ???????????�, ??????????? ??? ? ??
?????, ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????????????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????????.
?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? X ????[75] , ????? ???
????? 92 000 ??????? ? ????????? (???? ????? 2
???? ??????-???????? ???????? (????????????????,
%) ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? 72
????????????? ?? ??????-???????? ???????? ? V ??[66]
% ??????? ??????? ?????? . ?????????? ???????[76][77] ) ???????????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ? IX
?????, ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ???
???? ??????????? ???????????[78] .
?????????? ????? ??????[67] . ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ? ????? ?????????, ?????? (???????? ?? ??????? ????-??????)[68] , ? ? ????????? (?????????) ? ??
??????????[69] .
? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????????? ???????: ?? 14 ??? ? ??????[70] , ? ?? 16 ? ?????????.
??????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ???? ???? ????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ?? 16 ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??????????, ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????[71] .
4. ???????
????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ? ???????,
????????? ? ???.
6
4 ???????
? 1066 ???? ????????? ????????? ? ??????, ? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???
?????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ?
??????????-??????????? ????????[79] . ???????????
????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????,
?? ? ????? ???????????????? ? ????[80] . ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????
?????????????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ? ???????. ???????????? ????????????
?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ???????????
???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?
????????? ? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ??????????????.
??????? ??????? ????????? ?????[81] .
? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????
????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ? ????????
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????
?? ?????[82] . ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????[83] , ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????
???? ? ?????????? ???????[84] . ?? ???????????, ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????
???? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????[85] . ? 1603 ???? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ? ???????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????? ????, ????? ?????? ????
I ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ? ??????. ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????????
?????????[86][87] . ? ???????? XVII ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? (??????? ??????????? ?????), ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????
???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????[88][89] . ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????????, ??? ?????????????? (? ??????? ????????? 1688 ????), ???, ? ??????? ?? ?????????
??????, ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?
?????????????? ????????[90] . ?? ????? ????? ???????, ???????? ? ??????, ???????? ??????? ???? (? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????) ?????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????, ? ???????? ? ???????? ???????[91][92] .
4.2. ????? ???? ?? ???? 1707 ????
1 ??? 1707 ???? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????????? ?
????????? ?? ????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?
?????????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ????????????[93][94][95] .
? XVIII ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????, ????????? ? ?????[96] .
??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???????.
? ??? ????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ???????
????????????, ???? ????? ???????? ???? ? ???????????? ? 1807 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??????
?????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ???[97] . ???????? ????
? ???????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ? ????????
???????. ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????
????? ?? ????????????? ???, ????????? ???????
?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????, ? ????????? ??
?????[98] .
? 1800 ????, ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ? ??????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????????, ??????????? 1 ?????? 1801 ????[99] .
????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????
? ?????? Pax Britannica.
????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?
?????????????? ?????? (1792?1815) ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? XIX ???? (? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ? 1830 ?? 1930 ????)[100] ?
?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? XX ????[101] .
4.2
????? ???? ?? ???? 1707 ????
?? ???? ??????????? ?? ????, ???????? ???????
?? ???? ???? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ???,
??????? ????????? ??? 玃ax Britannica籟102] . ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? �????????? ????�,[103]
? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????. ?????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????,
????????? ? ????[104][105] . ?? ?????????? ?? ?????
????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????
? laissez-faire ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????. ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?
??????? ????, ?????????????? ??????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????[106] . ? ????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?
?????????????? ?????????????[107] .
7
???? ? 1921 ????[111] , ? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????,
?????????? ?????? ??????????????[112] .
??????? ????????? (1929?1932) ??????? ?????, ?????
??????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????[113] .
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? 450 000 ???????.
?????????????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????
????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????. ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ? ?????????, ? ???????? ? ?????
?? ???????? ? ????? ?? ?????????. ????? ??????
??????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?? ????
???????????, ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????. ????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????
?????????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?
??????? ?? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????
[114]
.
?? ?????. ????? 885 000 ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????
????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????.
??????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ???????,
???????? ? (????? 1917 ????) ???, ???? ?????
?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?
?? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????? (1914?
1918)[108] . ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? 5
????????? ???????[109] , ????????? ?? ???? ???????
? ????????? ???????? ??????, ? ?????? ???? ??
???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????. ????? ?????
???????? 2,5 ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????
? ???????? ?????????? ??????[109] . ????? ?????
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ??
?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????????
???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????
????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ???? ?????
????? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????? ????????
?????????[110] . ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????
??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???-
??????????, ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????
???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????,
????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????[115] . ?????? ??????
?????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????????, ???? ???????? ???????????
8
5
??????????????? ??????????
???????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??- ?????[124] .
????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????
???? ???????[116] . ? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????, ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?
5. ???????????????
??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ? ????????? ? 1947 ????[117] . ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????.
??????????
???? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ????????????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ? 1956
????, ??? ?? ?????, ???????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?
????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ?????? (????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? 1952 ????). ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
? ????????, ? ? 1960-? ? ???-???????? ????? ?????????
??????? ?? ????????.
? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? 1950-? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????-?????????? ????????[118] .
? 1973 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????
? 1992 ????, ???????? ???? ????? ?? 12 ?????????????????. ? ????? 1960-? ???????? ????????
???????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????
(?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ????
?????????? ????????). ? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ? 1998
????[119][120] .
????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????? ????????????? ?
1970-? ?????????????? ????????????? 1980-? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????, ????????????
???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????
???????? ??????????[121] . ??? ????????? ? 1984 ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????[122] . ? ????? XX ???? ?????????
??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ????-????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???? ????????. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? XXI ????, ???????? ????????? ? ???? ? ????????? ????????[123] .
? 2013 ???? ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
?????????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?
????????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????
II ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????
???????????. ????????? ?????????? ??????, ???
?????? ????? ?????? ?????????????, ??????
???????????? ???? ? ?????? ????? �???? ?? ????????????????, ????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ??
??????????????籟125] , ?????? ??????? ????????, ???
?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ??????, ????? ?????
???????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????, ? ?????
??? ????????? ????????????????? ????? ?????
5.2
???????????? ??????
9
????????? ????? ?????? ???????. ??????????????
?? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????[126] , ???
? ????? ???? ? ???? ????? ? ???? ? ????? ????????,
??????? ? ???-??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????, ????????
??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ???????
? ???????????????? ????????. ????????? ???
??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????
????????? ? �?????????????? ??????�, ?????????
?????????????? ????? ???????? �??????????????
???????� ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ?, ?????
???????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ????? ?????
??????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????.
??????? ???????????. ?????? ????? ????????, ??? ??
???? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????, ???????
?? ???????? ?????, ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????
????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????????[127] .
???????-???????. ????????????? ???? 1911 ? 1949
????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????
5.1. ?????????????
?? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ??? ? ??????????[131] .
?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ? ????????
????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????: ???????? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ????? ???????. ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????
???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?, ????????????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????.
??????? ???????-????????, ????? ?????????????
??????????????, ??????????? ????? ??????????,
??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ? ??????. ????????? ?????????????? ? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???
???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????, ??????
???????-??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?, ?? ????????, ???????? ??????? ????? ???????-????????[128] .
????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????????? ??????
? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ????? ????? ??????? ? 2010 ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? 622 ????? ?? 650 ????????? ? ?????? ?????[132] . ??????????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????
? ????? ????? ????????: ??????????? ????????????
?????? (?????? ? ?????????), ?????? ?????? (?????? ?????) ? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????-??????????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???? ????
(??? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????????, ???? ????
???? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????). ? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ????
???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??
????????????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????
????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ????
? 2002 ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????????[133] . ??? ???????
? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? 72 ????????, ????????? ? 12 ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????[134] .
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????-???????? ? ?????
??????? ??????????, ?? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?? ????????????. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????-????????? ? ??- 5.2. ???????????? ??????
???????, ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????. ?????????????? ????? ????- 5.2.1. ?????
???, ????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ????????????, ?????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????
[129]
????? ???????????? ?????? 11 ??? 2010 ????
.
??? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????? Respect ? ???????????????????? ???????????
????? ???????? ?? 650 ????????????? ???????[130]
????????, ????? ??????
??? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????
??????? ????????????. ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????-
10
5
??????????????? ??????????
???? ???????????
5.2.2. ?????????????
? ?????????????
??????
??????????????? ??????,
????????? �??????? ????�
?
?????????????????????
5.2.3. ?????????
? �??????????
?????????�
??????????? ??????
?
??????-
5.2.4. ??????????????
? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????????,
???????????????? ??????
?????? ? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
5.2.5. ??????
? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ??????
????? ?????? ?? ??????? 2007 ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ?????????????,
???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????[138] . ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??
5.3. ?????????
??????????? ?????????[139] , ??????? ? 2009 ????
?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?????????
????-??????? (British Trades Union Congress), ??????- ????????? ??????, ??????? ????????
[140]
??????????
?
?????????
???????
. ?? ???????
?????? ????? 6 ????????? ??????? ??????????.
2011 ???? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????[141] .
? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????
5.4. ?????????????? ???????????? ??- ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????, ???
???????????
???????????[142] . ????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? 2006 ???? ????????? ????? ?????????
?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????
???????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????
????? �?????????????? ??????籟143] , ?????? ? ???
2011 ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????
???????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????????
?????????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????? 2011 ???? ?
????? ????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????
??? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ?????? ? ??????? 2009 ????[144] .
?????????, ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????????
?????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????
??????????????? ??????. ??????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????????, ?? ????? ?? ??????????????,
?? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??
???? ????????. ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? �??????? ????????? ???????�, ????????? ?
???, ??? ???????? ?? ?????????, ?????? ? ????????
???????? ????? ??????????, ? ?????? ????? ???????? ????[135] , ?? ????????, ?????????? ??????,
??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ????????[136] .
??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????
??????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????? ??- ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????, ??????? ?? ????- ???. ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????, ??????
???? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? (??????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ???????????, ???????????????, ???????? ??????) ? ?????????? ?????? ???????
?????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????????[137] . ?????? ?????????? (???? ????)[145] .
5.5
???????? ???????
11
??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????.
5.5. ???????? ???????
??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????
???????, ????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? 19 ?????????? ?? ??????????? 1706 ???? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????[146] . ??????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????
???????: ?????????? ?????, ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????. ???????? ???????????????
????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? 2009 ???? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????[147][148] . ???????? ??????? ???????
??????, ?????????? ? ???? ???? ?????? ??????????
????, ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????
??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????
??????.
? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????
???????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?
????????? ??????????????? ??????. ???????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? (1215),
?????? ?????? ???, ????? ? ?????? (1689) ? ??? ? ???????????????? (1701).
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????.
??????????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????, ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????
????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????. ??????????, ??? ????? ????? ????????? ??????
??????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? (????????) ?
?? ??????????, ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????
(�????? ?? ????????�)[150] . ??????????? ???? ??
??????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ????? ?? ?????????. ????
?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????, ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????,
???????? ???? ?????????? (??? ??????????? ???) ?
???? ?????? (??? ????????? ???). ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????????, ?
??? ????????? ??? ? ??????, ?????? ? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ???? ???????????, ? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ??????
??????????[151] .
??????? ????? ???????? ????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????
????????????????, ???????? ? ?????? ? ?????????
(Companies Act). ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????
?? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????. ?? ??????? ?? 1300 ?????? ? 16 ??????????, ??????????
????? 700 ???????. ?????? ???????? ??? ????, ???
????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ? ?? ??????????
???????? ????????, ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??????- ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ? ???????????????? ?????. ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????.
?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?
?????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ?????? ? ????- ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? (??? ??????, ? ??????-?????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????????????)[152] . ????????? ??? ??????????????[149] . ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ?? ??
12
??? ?????????[153] . ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???, ??? ? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????: �??????�,
�? ???????�, ? �? ????????�. ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????[154] , ? ??????? �? ????????� ????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? �? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ??
?????籟155] .
? 1981 ???? ?? 1995 ???? ?????????? ????????????
? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ?????? ?????, ? 2008 ????, ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? 48 %[156] . ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????
?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? 80 000,
??? ????????, ??? ?????? ? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????
? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? 147 ??????????? ?? 100 000 ???????[157] . ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? 2010 ???? ??????????? ?? ??????
??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? 32 ????, ???? ?? 10
%[158] . ? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? 80 000[159] , ????? ??? ????????? ??????????[160] .
5.6. ????????????? ?????????
5
??????????????? ??????????
5.6.1. ??????????? ?? ?????
1 ??? 2012 ??? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????. ? ??????? ??? ?????????:
?????? ?? ????? ? ??????????????
????? ? ????? ??????? ????????????????
?? ???, ? ????????? ??????? ???????
???????????, ???????? ? ?????????????
??????? ???????? ?? ?? ???????????? ?
?????????? ???? ????????
? ??-??-??: �??????? ?????????
????? ??????????? ???? ????????�
�????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ?
2011 ????� ???????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????. ? ??? ?????????, ? ?????????, ? ????
?????? ???????????. ?????? ????????????, ??? ????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ???????????
? ???????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ??? ???????[164] .
5.6.2. ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????
24 ?????? 1963 ???? ????? ??????????????? ? ????
???? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????
??????????[165] . ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????? XX ???? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????. ????? ??????? ????, ????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????
? 2000-? ????? ????? ?????????? ??-?? ???????????
?? ???????????? ? ???????, ???????? ???? ??????????.
???????-??????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? G-20 ? ???????
2010 ????.
?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
?????? ???????????? ???, ?????? ???????????
?????, G7, G20, ????, ????, ???, ?????? ??????,
????. ?????????????? ????? �????? ?????????�
? ???[161][162] ? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????,
�???????? ??????????�, ? ????? ????? ?????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????
????????. ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ? ???? ? ????? ???????????, ? ?????
??????. ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????
??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????, ???????????
?????? ? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????[163] .
?????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????
?????. ???????????? ??????????????, ????? ???????, ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ??????????
? ????????? ??-??????, ????????, ?????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????
?? ???????? ???????. ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ???????, ????? ???????????????????? ?????????-?????????? ???????
?? ???????? ? ??????????? (????). ?????? ????
???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????. ????????? VIII ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? 26 ?????? 2010
????.
???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? (???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?
???????????? ?? ??????????????), ?????????????
??????? ??????????????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????
13
???????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????
?????? ? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????????, ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????[166] .
???? ? ???? ? ?? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ????[172] .
???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????
?????????? �2 ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ???? �??? ????????� 3 ????
2008 ????[173] . ?? ?????? 2009 ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????? 105 750 ??????????????, ??? ?
43 300, ? ???? ? 38 160[174] . ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????
??????? ????????????????????? ???????? ?? ?????,
???? ? ? ???????, ?????? ? ???????, ??? ????? ???????????. ????? ??????? ????????? ????, ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????, ????????????? 404
090[174] .
? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????,
????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????, ?????????
???? ?? ???????, ??????? ????????? ??????????
? ??????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ?????????
???? ????? ? ????? ????????????, ????????????
???????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?
?????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????????
???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????????[167] .
??????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ???????? ??5.7. ??????????? ???? ???????????- ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????. ??????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ?? ???????
???
??????????, ? ??????, ??????, ??????, ?????, ???????????, ????????, ?? ??????????, ? ??????????,
????? ? ??????[175] .
???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????,
? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???, ??? �??????? ???????????? ????????� ?????????? ? ??????? ????????[176] . ?? ??????
??????????? ? ??????-????? ? 2000 ????, ??????????
??????? ???????? ? ??????, ??????, ???????????,
?????, ? ?????? ???????? ? ?????, ??????? ?????
???????????. ????????? ?????, ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????, ???? ???????????? ????? ? 1982 ????, ??????? ?????????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? ? ?????
6. ?????????
?????????????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ? ????
? ?? 2008 ??? ????? ????? 20 ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????[168][169][170] . ?? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????, ???? ???????? ???? 27-? ????? ?? ???????????
?????. ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? 2,5 % ?? ??? ??????[171] . ?????????? ?????,
??????????? ??????-????????? ???? ? ???????????
??????-??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????????. ???
??? ???? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????
???????. ????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ????????
????????? II.
???????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? 1992?2009
?????, ? ????????? ?? ?????? 1992 ????
?????????????? ????? ???????? ????????????
???????? ?????????[180] . ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????, ?????????????? ????????
?????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ? ??????
14
6
?????????
?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ???? ??????? ?
???-??????[177][178][179] .
? ?????? ????? ????????[181] . ???????????? ??
??????????, ????????????? ?????????, ????????????
?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
????????. ???? ?????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????????
?????? ?????? ??????????. ????? ????????? ?
???????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????
????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????
??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????. ????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ? ???? (????? ??????? ??? ? ????)[182] .
? 1997 ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????
?????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????
?????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ??? ??????????
???????? ?????? ????????, ????????????????
????????? ????????[183] .
???? ??????, ??????????? ???? ??????????????.
? ????????? ???????? 2008 ???? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ? 1991 ????[184] .
??????? ??????????? ????? ? 5,2 % ? ??? 2008 ????
?? 7,6 % ? ??? 2009 ????, ? ? ?????? 2011 ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? 18 ?? 24 ??? ???????
? 11,9 % ?? 20,3 %, ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??
??????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? 1992 ????[185] .
????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????
????? ? ????????? Airbus A380 ???????????? ? ??????????????.
? 44,5 % ??? ? ??????? 2007 ???? ?? 76,1 % ??? ? ??????? 2010 ????[186][187] .
?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? 73 %
???[188] . ??????, ???? ?? ???? �?????? ??????????� ??????? ?????????? (??????? ? ???-??????
? ?????)[189] , ???????? ?????????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ? ???-??????[177][178][179] ? ?????
??????? ????????? ??? ? ??????[190] . ????????
????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????
???????[191] .
?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ???????[192] ? ????????? ?????, ???????
??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ? 27 ?????????? ???????? ? 2004 ????, ??????
???????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????
????[193] , ? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ????[194] .
????????????
?????????
????????
?
??????????????[195] ? ??????????? ?????? ??
??????????? ??????????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????, ???
????????????, ?????? ???? ? ??????????????[196][197] .
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ????????
???????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? XIX
????. ?? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ?????,
?????? ? ????? ???????? ???????, ??????????????
????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????
?????????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ???????????? ??-???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ?????????,
?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ? 2003
????[198] .
????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??
???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????
? ? ??? ???????? ?????? 800 000 ??????? ? ?????
???????? ? � ????????? ? ??????? �,6 ?????????? ????????[199] . ??????????? ??????????????
???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???? (? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????) ? ????? ????? ?????? ? � ??????????[200][201][202] . ????????????????
15
?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????? (????? ??? ? ??????)[203][204] .
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?
??????? ????????? ????????, ?? ???? ??????? ???
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? 20
% ?????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ?????
�?????? ???????籟205] .
??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? 60 % ??
???????? ?????? ?????????????. ? 2007?2008 ?????
13,5 ????????? ??????? (22 % ?????????) ???? ??
?????? ????????. ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ????.
?????????? ? ?? ????? ??????? ?????[206] .
6.1. ?????????
??????? ??????? ????????? 9,5 ????????????? BTU,
?????????? ?? ????? (38 %), ?????????? ???? (36 %),
???? (13 %), ????? (11 %) ? ?????? ??????????????
?????????? (2 %)[213] . ? 2009 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? 1,5 ???????? ???????? ????? ? ????, ? ?????????? 1,7 ???????? ????????[214] . ?
????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????
??????????? ? ? 2005 ???? ?????????????? ????????
?????????? ?????[214] . ?? 2010 ??? ???????? ?????
????? 3,1 ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
????? ?????, ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??[214] .
? 2009 ???? ?????????????? ???? ????? 13-? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???? ? ??????????
5-? ???????? ??????, ????????? ? ????? ??????? ????- ? ? ??[215] . ??? ?? ??? ? ? ??????, ? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????[207][208] .
?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ? ? 2004 ????
?????? ????? ????????????? ???[215] . ??????????????
???????? ???? ?????????? 3 497 ?????????? ?????- ? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????, 3 497 ?? ??????????????? ? 344 000 ??????? ???? ? ?????? ? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????[3] . ? 2009 ???? ? ????- ?? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????????
?????????? ???? 34 ???????? ?????????????????? ???????[216] .
???????????[209] . ??????????????? ???? ????? 16
116 ?? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? 303 ?? ? ???????? ? ??? ?? 2009 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??????????? 18 000 ?? 19,7 ????????? ???? ???? ? ????????? 60,2 ???????? ????[213] . ?? 2005 ??? ????? ??????? ??????????
?????????? ? 1000 ???????? ???????[3] .
? ?????? ???? ?????????? 171 ??????? ????[213] , ???? ??? ? ??????? 2009 ?? ???????? 2010 ???? ???- ???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????? ????????? ???????- ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?? 7 ?? 16 ????????? 211,4 ???????? ??????????[210] . ?? ???? ????- ??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????[217] . ???? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? (65,6 ????????? ??????????), ?????? (31,5 ????? ???? ??????, ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??
????????? ??????????) ? ???????? (18,9 ??????- ?????? ?? 200 ?? 400 ???[218] .
??? ??????????)[210] . ??????, ????????????? ? 24
?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????
????[207][208] ? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????- ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, BP
[219]
.
??????? ?????? ? British Airways, ? ????? ??? ????- ? Royal Dutch Shell
[211]
???????? BMI ? Virgin Atlantic
.
6.2. ??????????
7. ????? ? ??????????
? 2006 ???? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? XVII ????[220] , ?
??????????????[212] . ? 2007 ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????-
16
8 ????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, ??????? ???????? Rolls-Royce, ?????? ????? ??????????????, BAE Systems, ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ???
?????????, ? ????? ?????? ????????-??????????
??? ???????? Airbus[231] . ??? ?????????? ????????
GlaxoSmithKline ? AstraZeneca, ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????[232] , ? ?
????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ? ????? ?????? ??????
????? ???[233] . ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ??
??????? ????????????? ??????????????, ? ????????? ??????????, ? ????? ????? 2600 ?????????????? ???????????[234] . ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ??????????[235] . ? 2004?2008 ????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??????? 7 % ??????? ???????
????????????, ?????? ????? ? ???? ????? ??? ?
?????[236] . ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
?????? ?????? (1809?1892), ??? ?????? ???????? ????- Nature, British Medical Journal ? The Lancet.
???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????
????????????? ?????.
8. ????????
??? ? XVIII ????[195] ? ? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????[221] . ????? ??????? ?????? XVII-XVIII ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?????[222] , ? XIX ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????, ? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????, ? ????? ??????? ??????? ??
????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ? ????????
?????? ???[223] . ??????? ???????? XVIII ???? ???????? ???????, ???????? ????? ??????????[224] , XX
???? ? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????[225] ? ????????? ???, ???????? ?????????
??????[223] . ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????
???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ? XVIII ????[226] , ???????????? ? XIX ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ???????
?????[227] , ? ?????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????[228] , ?
????? ???????????? ? XX ???? ?????? ???????
????????? ????? ????? ?????[229] , ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ???????-??[230] . ?? ????? ???????? ?
??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????, ?????????? ? 1660
????.
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????. ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????: ?????????
???????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??
??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????, ? ????? ??? ????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????
????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????, ???????? ? ???????.
????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
???????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????,
???????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ?????????, ??????, ?????,
????????, ????? ????????, ??? ? ???.
8.1. ????????????
?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????
?????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????[237] , ? ????? ??????
????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????, ?????? ???????, ?????? ???? ? ????? ??????[238][239][240][241] . ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????
????? ??????, ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????,
???? ???????, ?????? ??, ?????? ??????, ????????
??????, ?????? ????????, ???? ???????, ??????
????????, ??? ?????. ????????? ?? ????? ????????
? ???? ? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????
??????? ? ??????????????, ????? ??????? ? ?????
8.2
??????????
??????? ??????.
17
???????????? ???????, ?? ???????, ??? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ? ???? ????? ??????? (????? ?????? ?
?????? ????)[242] . ?????? Ealing Studios ????????- ??????????? ????????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????,
?? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ?? ???????????. ????????
????[243] .
????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ???????, ???- ???? ?????. ? 2005 ???? ? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? 260 000 ????, ? ? 2006 ???? ??????
??????? ?? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ? ??- ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??- ????? ? ????[246] .
????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????- ?????????? ????????? ? ???? ?????? ???????
????, ? ??? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????[247][248][249] , ?? ? ??? ????????????
????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ????????- ????????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ??????
???? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ????????. ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ??? ????????, ???, ????????, ???????, ???? ???????, ??????? ??????, ????? ????? ? ???
????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????.
???????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????,
? 2009 ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? 2 ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????, ??????? 7 % ???? ????? ? ???? ? 17 % ?????? ????? ??????????????[244] .
????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?????
944 ????????? ?????? ? 2009 ???? ??? 173 ????????? ????????? ???????????[244] .
?????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????? 100 ??????, ?? ?? ??????, ?????????? ???????. ?????????
?????? BAFTA ???????? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ?????[245] .
8.2. ??????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?
????? ??????????????, ??? ? ? ??????? ???,
???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (XIV ???), ??????
?????? (XV ???), ?????? ???? (XVI ???) ? ?????
???????? (XVII ???). ? XVIII ???? ??????? ???? (????? ????????? ?????) ? ?????? ?????????
????? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ? XIX ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????
?????, ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ??????,
??????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?
??????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? XX ???? ????????: ???????? ???????? ??????; ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ????? (????????? ?????-????) ? ???? ???????; ???????????-
18
???? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ?????????
????; ???????? ?????? ??; ???????????? ?????????
??????? ???????; ?????????? ???????? ????? ?
????? ?????; ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????; ??? ???????? (????????? ??????? ?????); ?????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ? ???? ?????; ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????, ??????
?????? ? ????? ???????.
8 ????????
????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ? ????????
XX ????. ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????
?????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? 1996 ????.
?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ? ???????? ?? ????? ???????????, ???????? ? ???, ???? ? ???????? ?
??????????????. ?????? ????????? ????? ???????
????????? ??????, ?????? ???????, ????? ???????, ???????? ???, ??????? ???????, ?????? ??????, ???? ??????, ? ????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?
?????? ?????.
8.3. ???
?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????
???????? ?????? ????? ????? (????????? ???????
??????), ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????. ????? ???????????
??????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ??????.
????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????????
????????? Y Gododdin, ?????????? ???????? ? ?????
VI ???? ?? Yr Hen Ogledd (??????? ??????). ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????????????
? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????[250] .
???????? ??????? ? XVII ???? ????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????, ? ?????
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????[251] . ????? ?????????
?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????
?? ?????? (1320?1370), ??????? ????? ? ???????,
??????? ? ? ?????. ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????[252] . ?? ????? XIX ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ??????
??? ???????????????? (Broadcasting House) ? ???????,
????-???????? BBC.
?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ? ??????????????: ??????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?
????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???, ????
????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????.
????????, ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?
??????[253] . ? 2009 ???? ???????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? 3,75 ???? ? ???? ? ?????????? ? 2,81 ???? ?????? ?????. ? ???? ?? ???? ????????????? ?????????? BBC ???????? 28,4 % ?????????? ???????????; ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? 29,5 %, ? ?????????? 42,1 % ??????
??????????? ? ???????? ??????[254] . ? 1970-? ???-
8.4
??????
19
???? ????? ?????? ???????????, ? ? 2009 ???? 42 %
????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????[255] . ? 2010 ????
82,5 % ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?????????????
?????????? ????? 20 ????? ? ?????????? ??????????
???????????[256] .
????????????????
???????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????????. ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????? BBC[257][258] .,
???????? ?? 1-? (BBC One) ? 2-? ?????? (BBC Two)
? 4 ???????????? (BBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 2, BBC
Radio 3, BBC Radio 4). ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ITV[259] ????????
?? 3 ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????, Channel 4 ???????? ?? 4-? ?????? ??? ? BBC ?????????? ?????- ?????? The Beatles ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????
???????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? [263][264][265]
???? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????
.
?? ???? ???????, ? Channel 5 ???????? ?? 5-? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
??????
???????? ???? ?????, ????? ???????, ???? ???????, ???? ??????, ????? ?????????, ????? ??????, ???? ????? ? ????? ???????-???????. ?????
??????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ? ????????, ???
???????????????? ?????????? ???????????[266] , ?
????????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????[267] . ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ? ??? ?????? ??
?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????????
????-???? ? ????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????[268] .
???????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????, ???????????, ???? ??????, ???????, ?????? ? ?????????
?????????, ????? ????? ?????? ????? 20 ??????????
?????? ? ? ??? ???????? ????? 167 000 ???????[260] .
News Corporation, ??????? ????? ???????? News
International ??????? ??????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? The Sun ? ?????
?????? ?????????? ?????? The Times[261] , ? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? BSkyB[262] .
???????????? ?????? The Beatles ??????? ??????
????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ????8.4. ??????
??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????[263][264][265] . ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????- ???????? ?????? ????????? 50 ??? ????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? Queen, Deep Purple, Black Sabbath,Iron Maiden,
??????, ?????????, ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????- The Who, ?????? ???????, Bee Gees, ?????? ???????? ????-??????? ? ????-?????. ????? ??????- ??, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd ? The Rolling Stones,
?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?? ??????- ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? 200 ????????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????, ?????? ????????? ?????[269][270][271][272][273][274][275] .
????? ???????, ?????? ?????, ?????? ?????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? 8
???????? (???????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ?? 10 ????? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????
???????????? ???????? ??????????), ????? ????- ????? ? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ?????????????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????? ????????- ???: Status Quo, Queen, The Rolling Stones, UB40,
??? ?????????? ?????. ????? ???????? ????? ????- Depeche Mode, Bee Gees, Pet Shop Boys ? Manic Street
???? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????- Preachers[276] . ?? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? The
??????. ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????????- Prodigy, Muse, Coldplay, Radiohead, Oasis, Spice Girls,
?? ?? ???? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ??-??- ?????, ?????? ????, KASABIAN, ?????, Arctic
??. ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??- Monkeys, Franz Ferdinand, Gorillaz, ??? ????????,
??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ?????????? ? East 17, Blur, Plan B, ????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????. ????????? ????????????????? ????, Klaxons, Example, One Direction, Sex Pistols, The
20
Cure ? Massive Attack.
8 ????????
8.6. ?????
8.5. ??????????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? �?????�, ???? ?? ????? ???????
?????-???? ??????????? ????????? ????[278] .
?????? ?????????? ???? ??????, ????? ???????
??????, ????????, ??????15, ????????????? ??????,
????, ?????????, ??????, ??????, ????? ? ?????, ????????? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?
??????? ?? ????????????????. ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????,
?????????, ????? ? ???????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ? ?? ????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ? ??????, ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????????, ? ??? ????? ??????????? ????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????. ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ???????????, ?????, ?????, 1799 ???.
??? ??????????? ??? ? 1908 ? 1948 ?????, ? ? 2012
???? ???? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????- ???? ???? ??????.
??????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????.
????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????: ??????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????- ???????, ???? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????; ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?
??? ???????????, ? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??
??????; ?????????? ?????? ?????????; ???????
???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????- ???????????????? ???????? (????????,?????? ????). ??????? ??????, ?????????, ?????? ? ????????
??; ????????????? ???????? ??????; ?????????????? ???-???? ?????? ??????, ??????? ????????- ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ???
????????? ???????, ??-?? ???? ?????????????? ??
?? ? ?????? ?????; ???? ??????? ? ??????;
? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????? ????????; ??????????? ???????????
???? ???[279] ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? 2012 ???? ?
?????? ??????, ????? ?????? ? ????? ????. ? ???[280]
.
?? 1980-? ? 1990-? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ??- ???????
????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????-???????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?
??????????, ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? 2012 ????, ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ?????????: ?????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ???, ?????? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ???????, ?????? ????, ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ???????? ???????????, ??? ??????-??? ? ?????? ??????.
???????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????, ????????, ???
[281]
. ???????
??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ??- ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????
??????
????????
?????
????????
???????,
???????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????
????
??
??????
?????
?
1966
????,
????
?????? ? ??????????????. ????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????????
???????
?????????????
??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????
????
?
?????????.
???????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ????
?????? ? ???? ??????, ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ??
???????????? ????????? ? ???????? 4,7 ???????? ??- ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ???????. ????? ??
????????? ? ???[277] .
????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ? ?????-
21
???????? ????? ????????. ???? ????? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????????[286] .
?????????????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????1 ??????????
?????? ?????, ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????. ? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ? 1950 ???? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????-??? ?????????????? ? ???? ??????? ????.
? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??
?????.
??????? ????????? ? ????????,
?????????? ???? ?? ????? 1999 ????.
????????
?
9. ???????
??, ????? ??? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????????
???? ???????. ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????. ?? ???????? ? ???????????
? ? ???? ? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????[282] .
?????? ??????? �????????? ????� ?????? ????????? ? ????? ???? ? ???????? ??????, ?????? ? 2008 ???? ??????, ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???
????????? ??????[283] . ? ??????15 ??????? ??????,
?????????, ?????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ?????
??????. ????? ????? ?????, ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ?
???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????
??????[284] .
??????????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????
???????????? ??????, ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????
?????????? ? ?????????, ??????, ?????? ???? ??? ????.
???????? ???????: ????????????, ????? ???????????????? ??????? (42 079 000) ? 71,6 %, ????? (1 591
000) ? 2,7 %, ??????? (559 000) ? 1 %, ??????? (336
000) ? 0,6 %, ??????? (267 000) ? 0,5 %, ???????
(152 000) ? 0,3 %, ?????? ??????? (179 000) ? 0,3
%, ??????? (9 104 000) ? 15,5 %, ???????????? ??
?????? (4 289 000) ? 7,3 %. ?? ?????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?
??????? ??????, ???????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ?????????
???????, ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????.
???? ? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? 1859 ? 1865 ??????. ???????????? ?????? ? ??? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?
????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????, ? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????????, ? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ? ????????[285] . ? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????, ???
???????? ?????? ? ???????, ?? ????? ? ??????? ??- ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?
22
??????????????? ???????? ????????? (????? 25 ???),
???????? (5,6 ???), ????????????? (????? 1 ???). ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? (??. 1 ???[287] ).
???????? ?????????????, ??????????? ???????????
? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? 38 % ????? ???????? ? ????? ???? ? ???? (玜 God�)[288] , ????, ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??
2005 ???, � % ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????籟289] .
11 ??????????
[7] ???????? ?????????????? (????. Great Britain) ???????? ???????????? ? ?? ????????????? ? ???????????
??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?
??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????????,
?? ? ???????? ????????.
[8] United Nations Statistics Division ? Standard Country
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?????? ?? ????? ??? (????.)
[9] Latimer Clarke Corporation Pty Ltd. ?????????????? ?
Atlapedia Online (????.). Atlapedia.com. ????????? 29
???????? 2013. ???????????? ?? ?????????????? 27
??? 2012.
???????? ??????????????? ? ?????? 2008 ???? ????????????, ???????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????? Joseph Rowntree Foundation, �??- [10] Neal, Clare. ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????� ???????? ?????? ?? ???????
????????? (????.). British Cartographic Society. ???????? ?? �????????? ???籟290] . ????? ?? ???????????? 29 ???????? 2013. ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
???? 27 ??? 2012.
????????????.[291][292]
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10. ??. ?????
? ??????????? ??????????????
? ????????? ? ??????????????
? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????
? ?????????? ??????? (????????????)
? ????????? ??????? ??????????????
? ????????? ????? ? ??????????????
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1986. ? 152 ?. ? (? ????? ????). ? 100 000
???. (???.)
31
13. ??????
? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??-??-??.
32
14
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
14. ????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
14.1. ?????
? ?????????????? ????????: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B1%
D1%80%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=78334432 ??????: Theta682, Andre Engels, Suisui, Drbug,
DIG, Romanm, Wind, Guaka, Webkid~ruwiki, Monedula, Maximaximax, Torin, Nikiforov, Slipstream, Dionys, Dodonov, Yegorm,
????????? ???????, HedgeBot, Kaganer, Ornil, Hayk, Obersachse, Maxim Razin, Ustas, Yuriybrisk, Mitrius, Butko, Al Silonov, ?????
????????, Rokur, Dusty, IgorMagic, Roboto de Ajvol, Mr. Bot, Chavash~ruwiki, APTEM, Zwobot, Purodha, Chobot, OckhamTheFox,
Volkov, JaroslavleffBot, Zimin.V.G., Obakeneko, Vald, ??????? ??, Koryakov Yuri, Ben-Velvel, LJay, Alghenius, Sasha Krotov,
Lite, Muchok, Jaspe, AndyVolykhov, Vlad2000Plus, Pauk, The Wrong Man, Sergei, Volodymir k, George Shuklin, Doomych,
Scrub, ?.?. ??????, Angryxpeh, Asta~ruwiki, BotCat, Ace^eVg, Simonf, Prandr, Dyukon, I1481, Aktron, Edwardspec TalkBot,
ConstantinetheGreat, HenryS, Nejron, Esp, Shura007, Thirteen, Croaker, ???? ???????, Startreker, Golddim, GCRaistlin, ????????
?????? ?????????????, Afinogenoff, Escarbot, Putnik, Azh7, ZsergheiBot, ??????? ?????, Kharitonov, TuvicBot, StraSSenBahn, ????????, Abune, Thijs!bot, ??????????, Lockal, JAnDbot, Maximus123, Blacklake, Alex Spade, Mir76, Andrey Kartashov, V.A.KeRneL,
JuliaTl, ?????? ????????, Otto Magnus, ???????, DVD R W, Alex Smotrov, Celest, Rei-bot, Nickst, Piranha~ruwiki, SashaT,
VolkovBot, Latitude, HeatSink, Victoria, ??????? ????????, Pk boot, Deerhunter, Klip game, Idioma-bot, Aleksandrit, Pavel Matrosov,
Muscovite99, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, ?????????, Samvlamix, ???, Vs64vs, Vizu, FearChild, Rlu, TarzanASG, Lvova, X-Pilot, Homo
Computeris, Synthebot, Rombo, Paralingua, Comt Till, ????? ??????????, CheloVechek, SieBot, ?????? ????????, Pudeo, Dinamik,
INS Pirat, Loveless, Inquisitorex, ??????, BotMultichill, ???? ???????, NBS, Yaroslav Blanter, Divine Moments Of Truth, Jack who
built the house, Flrn, AlleborgoBot, Vlsergey, Viplux, Byrialbot, Iakov, Wonomatr, Bortorix, PipepBot, K AHTOH, Worobiew, ?????,
robot, Goodcodemaker, Monfornot, Talusha, DragonBot, Marhorr, Manslay, ?????????, ???, RoadTrain, Cantona, Orange-kun,
?????? ??????, Darker108, BOTarate, ????????? ????????, HazzikBot, Khairporcht, LatitudeBot, Tat1642, Jackie, SilvonenBot, Vong,
Anton Shershnev, Cleox~ruwiki, ????? ??????????, Qkowlew, Ds02006, Artemka373, Vittalio, Innv, MelancholieBot, Track13, Daria
max, Pinkponk, SpeakF, Corwin of Amber, Abiyoyo, Proudkeep, Volgar, Mr. Oakenshield, Dmitrij1996, ????? ?????, CarsracBot,
AlnoktaBOT, Mind abuse, Zorrobot, Louperibot, Michaello, AmphBot, AVB, Luckas-bot, Wanwa, Anjey, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot,
Mark Ekimov, Harry Tolkiger, JackieBot, Jotterbot, Pieter Baas, Faraon bula, Troutnev, Morrotr08, ????, Vipdeluxe, Obersachsebot,
ArthurBot, TaBOT-zerem, Marishka36, Comp1089, ????????, ???????, Xqbot, SassoBot, ??????, Master Shadow, SPKirsch,
GhalyBot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, Ninelon, Igriks, John-AndrewF, ?????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????, Z-Gleb, DumZiBoT,
???????? ??, LucienBOT, Valerytembi4, A Looker, SergeyTitov, D'ohBot, Ryadinsky Eugen, Erik Warmelink, Exdeath, Sigwald,
TwoPizza, Vasssya, Occupied Username, Anzgar, Boodjoom85, ????????? ?????????, MariaSan, WindBot, Michgrig, Galanthus,
Varlaam, Eagver, TheOne she, Kobac, VAP+VYK, Gryllida, RedBot, Abramesku, TobeBot, Sergen355, KamikazeBot, DixonDBot,
Martsabus, Krassotkin, Dinamik-bot, Murenysh, Funny-shmunny, Convallaria majalis, Vikeke, Lbunknown, PlatonPskov, ??????, ??????? ?????, TjBot, Ripchip Bot, Valdis72, Mystery train, EmausBot, Akatamus, ?micier Dzika?ski, Alpunin, Temi4-hik, Primrosehill,
Evgenior, Gamliel Fishkin, Amtin, ??????????, EvgeniaTR, ?????? ???????????, Chupina ria, AndreyIGOSHEV, Gerard, Ll0l00l,
????????? 337, Invincible-randajad, Prorok-777, Qweasdqwe, ???????!!, GrouchoBot, Z閞oBot, HRoestBot, ?????????? ????????, Dimmyboy, Helgi-S, Natalia Petrova, ?????67, DmitryKo, Pehryanin, ???????69, Centurion198, ?????????, Artemis Dread,
LankLinkBot, Basilius von Poljakow, OneLittleMouse, Ovcharenko93, El-chupanebrej, Anastasiyona, ????? ???????, Aavindraa,
Haffman, Hatifnatter, MaxBioHazard, Oleg Yunakov, MGriBot, ???? ??????????, Wikifido, ???????????????, ChuispastonBot,
H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, CratoS, Movses-bot, ???????? ???????, KrBot, Vestnik-64, Zooro-Patriot, Absconditus, WebCite Archiver,
?????? ??????, ???????? ???????, U.Steele, ????????, ?????? ???????, MerlIwBot, ???????, Zazulia, MBHbot, MalarzBOT,
DmitryABC, ?????? ?????, Derslek, P. S. F. Freitas, Capitalbook, Sealle, Alexander Mikhalenko, SV team ESQ, SpBerkut, Saint
Johann, AvocatoBot, Daiv44, Reddle, Draa kul, ????????5-??????, Stolbovsky, Jusbonumque, ALFA-CODE, Dima st bk, Flomru,
Vlada super, Sharik-off, Emilianka, MrBigKent, Y.m.oxon, Ua1-136-500, Taxcons, Sozertsatel, ?????, Inctructor, Rus1984, ??????
??????, Nabramkin, Bierce, Vcohen, Nimeru23, IvanIvanov 1, ?????? ?????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????????????,
StanTRC, El Presedente, NightShadow23, AngelaSh., Stas1995, Anton9828, ???? 333, Trilelea, Nord-w, ??????, LEANSER, Eligatron,
RotlinkBot, NicciRicci, RockerBodya, Sn1971, Braginjohn, Shogiru, IRio14, Sergey Cepblu, TheVovaNik, ????????? ??????, Slivkov
vitali, Martanda, Wind with, Shes192, Addbot, Poti Berik, ?????? ??????????, Rqasd, LebedevXD, Tsoytimofey, ???? ?????????,
Meir�, StarikDen, Glovacki, ?????? ????????, Mendezraymundo, Vasyan174, LewisF1Hamilton, ???? ???????, ???? ???????, ?????????? ?????, TemirovBot, Q-bit array, Gooneranar, ??????111, Nik.rumyantsev.03, MrMaximMinkin, ElexisSykesFranco, Assanfer,
Alex NB IT, ????????, Alexlipetsk48, ????? 12, ??????????, Alsolinn, Katya.pleshakova, Yqwertyu, ???????????, Sanek-8.16,
Gandon GandonbI4 ? ??????: 601
14.2. ???????????
? ????:Alfred_Hitchcock_NYWTSm.jpg ????????:
NYWTSm.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Alfred_Hitchcock_
? Alfred_Hitchcock_NYWTS.jpg ????????: Alfred_Hitchcock_NYWTS.jpg: Fred Palumbo
? ????:Anglospeak.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Anglospeak.svg ????????: Public domain
??????: Based on Image:Anglospeak.png, which was Coloured by en:User:Iamvered from public domain Wikimedia Commons source.
????????: User:Shardz
? ????:Battle_of_Waterloo_1815.PNG ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Battle_of_Waterloo_1815.
PNG ????????: Public domain ??????: Napoleon.org.pl ????????: William Sadler II
? ????:Bayeux_Tapestry_WillelmDux.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Bayeux_Tapestry_
WillelmDux.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: The Bayeux Tapestry ????????: alipaiman
? ????:Bbc_broadcasting_house_front.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Bbc_broadcasting_
house_front.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Original uploader was
Briantist at en.wikipedia ????????: Briantist at en.wikipedia
? ????:BenNevis2005.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/BenNevis2005.jpg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Thincat
14.3
????????
33
? ????:Centre_Court_roof.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Centre_Court_roof.jpg ????????:
GFDL ??????: Photo ????????: Albert Lee
? ????:Charles_Darwin_aged_51.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Charles_Darwin_aged_51.
jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:City_of_London_skyline_from_London_City_Hall_-_Oct_2008.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/f/f6/City_of_London_skyline_from_London_City_Hall_-_Oct_2008.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ???????????
?????? ????????: Diliff
? ????:Commons-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions used to
be slightly warped.) ????????: SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier PNG version,
created by Reidab.
? ????:David_Cameron_and_Barack_Obama_at_the_G20_Summit_in_Toronto.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/b/be/David_Cameron_and_Barack_Obama_at_the_G20_Summit_in_Toronto.jpg ????????: Public domain
??????: http://www.flickr.com/photos/whitehouse/4753653798/ ????????: ??? ?????
? ????:Dickens_by_Watkins_detail.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Dickens_by_Watkins_
detail.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: [1] ???????????? ?????????? ???????: NPG P301(19) ????????: George Herbert
Watkins, born 1828
? ????:EU-United_Kingdom.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/EU-United_Kingdom.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????:
? File:Europe-EU.svg ????????: NuclearVacuum
? ????:Flag_of_Angola.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Flag_of_Angola.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Drawn by User:SKopp ????????: User:SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Argentina.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Here, based on: http://manuelbelgrano.gov.ar/bandera/creacion-de-la-bandera-nacional/ ????????:
Government of Argentina
? ????:Flag_of_Australia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Ian Fieggen
? ????:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%
29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Brazil.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: SVG implementation of law n. 5700/1971. Similar file available at Portal of the Brazilian Government (accessed in
November 4, 2011) ????????: Governo do Brasil
? ????:Flag_of_Canada.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Flag_of_Canada.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: See below ????????: Created by E Pluribus Anthony / User:Mzajac
? ????:Flag_of_Chad.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Flag_of_Chad.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Quelle � Fonto: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/td.html ????????: SKopp & others (see upload log)
? ????:Flag_of_Chile.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Denmark.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Flag_of_Denmark.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: User:Madden
? ????:Flag_of_England.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Flag_of_England.svg
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: (Vector graphics by Nicholas Shanks)
????????:
? ????:Flag_of_Europe.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Flag_of_Europe.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????:
? File based on the specification given at [1]. ????????: User:Verdy p, User:-xfi-, User:Paddu, User:Nightstallion, User:Funakoshi, User:
Jeltz, User:Dbenbenn, User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_France.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/de/frankreich_3/frankreich-entdecken_244/
portrat-frankreichs_247/die-symbole-der-franzosischen-republik_260/trikolore-die-nationalfahne_114.html ????????: This graphic
was drawn by SKopp.
? ????:Flag_of_Germany.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Guernsey.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_Guernsey.svg ????????:
CC0 ??????: From the Open Clip Art website. ????????: User:Nightstallion
? ????:Flag_of_India.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Self-made, based from ISI 1:1968 Specification for the national flag of India (cotton khadi)
14.3. ????????
User:SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Indonesia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Law: s:id:Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 24 Tahun 2009 (http://badanbahasa.kemdiknas.go.id/
lamanbahasa/sites/default/files/UU_2009_24.pdf) ????????: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe
34
14
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Flag_of_Italy.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: There has been a long discussion on the colors of this flag. Please read the talk page before editing or reverting this
image. Pantone to RGB performed by http://www.pantone.com/pages/pantone/colorfinder.aspx ????????: see below
? ????:Flag_of_Japan.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Law Concerning the National Flag and Anthem (1999) URL link in English, actual law (Japanese; colors from
http://www.mod.go.jp/j/info/nds/siyousyo/dsp_list_j.htm#Z8701 ????????: Various
? ????:Flag_of_Jersey.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Flag_of_Jersey.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Jordan.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: SuffKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Malaysia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Create based on the Malaysian Government Website (archive version)
????????: SKopp, Zscout370 and Ranking Update
? ????:Flag_of_Mexico.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Inkscape. ????????: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006
? ????:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://www.mch.govt.nz/files/NZ%20Flag%20-%20proportions.JPG ????????: Zscout370, Hugh Jass
and many others
? ????:Flag_of_Nigeria.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Northern_Ireland.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Flag_of_Northern_Ireland.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: My rework of well-known design ????????: Mamadou
? ????:Flag_of_Norway.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Dbenbenn
? ????:Flag_of_Russia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ?????: (Blue - Pantone 286 C, Red - Pantone 485 C) ????? ?? [1][2][3][4] ????????: Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg
????????: CC0 ??????: the actual flag ????????: ??????????<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.
svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/
40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='1050' data-file-height='590' /></a>
? ????:Flag_of_Scotland.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Flag_of_Scotland.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://kbolino.freeshell.org/svg/scotland.svg ????????: none known
? ????:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Flag_of_South_Africa.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Per specifications in the Constitution of South Africa, Schedule 1 - National flag ????????: Flag
design by Frederick Brownell, image by Wikimedia Commons users
? ????:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Ordinance Act of the Law concerning the National Flag of the Republic of Korea, Construction and
color guidelines (Russian/English) ? This site is not exist now.(2012.06.05) ????????: Various
? ????:Flag_of_Spain.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: ["Sodipodi.com Clipart Gallery?. Original link no longer available ] ????????: Pedro A. Gracia Fajardo, escudo de Manual de Imagen
Institucional de la Administraci髇 General del Estado
? ????:Flag_of_Sweden.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: This flag is regulated by Swedish Law, Act 1970:498, which states that ?in commercial activities, the coats of arms, the flag
or other official insignia of Sweden may not be used in a trademark or other insignia for products or services without proper authorization. This
includes any mark or text referring to the Swedish government which thus can give the commercial mark a sign of official endorsement. This
includes municipal coats of arms which are registered. Carl Wadenstierna? http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/19700498.HTM] ????????:
Jon Harald S鴅y and others. All authors are listed in the ?File versions? section below.
? ????:Flag_of_Turkey.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Turkish Flag Law (T黵k Bayra?? Kanunu), Law nr. 2893 of 22 September 1983. Text (in Turkish) at the website of the
Turkish Historical Society (T黵k Tarih Kurumu) ????????: David Benbennick (original author)
? ????:Flag_of_Venezuela_(state).svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Flag_of_Venezuela_
%28state%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: User:Denelson83
? ????:Flag_of_Wales_2.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Flag_of_Wales_2.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Open Clipart Library ????????: Unknown
Vector graphics by Tobias Jakobs
? ????:Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Mann.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Flag_of_the_Isle_of_
Mann.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????????: <a
href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg' class='image'><img alt='Flag of the Isle of Man.svg' src='https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg/40px-Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg.png'
14.3
????????
35
width='40'
height='20'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg/
60px-Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_the_Isle_
of_Man.svg/80px-Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='600' data-file-height='300' /></a> Flag of the Isle
of Man.svg. ????????: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Fry1989' title='User:Fry1989'>Fry1989</a>
<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Fry1989' title='User talk:Fry1989'>eh?</a>
? ????:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_China.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_
the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ??????, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/
eng/n_flag/design.html ????????: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_
Kingdom.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? per data at http://flagspot.net/flags/gb.html ????????: Original
flag by Acts of Union 1800
? ????:Flag_of_the_United_Nations.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Flag_of_the_United_
Nations.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Flag of the United Nations from the Open Clip Art website. Modifications by
Denelson83, Zscout370 and Madden. Official construction sheet here.
United Nations (1962) The United Nations flag code and regulations, as amended November 11, 1952, New York OCLC: 7548838.
????????: Wilfried Huss / Anonymous
? ????:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: SVG implementation of U. S. Code: Title 4, Chapter 1, Section 1 [1] (the United States Federal
?Flag Law?). ????????: Dbenbenn, Zscout370, Jacobolus, Indolences, Technion.
? ????:GDPBV.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/7/7b/GDPBV.png ????????: ???????????? ????????? ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: SashaT
? ????:Hdr_parliament.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Hdr_parliament.jpg ????????: CC BY
2.0 ??????: originally posted to Flickr as hdr parliament ????????: Graeme Maclean
? ????:Heathrow_T5.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Heathrow_T5.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA
2.0 ??????: Flickr ????????: Warren Rohner
? ????:High_Court_of_Justiciary.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/High_Court_of_Justiciary.
jpg ????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: self-made, http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronalmog/98421827 ????????: RonAlmog, (Flickr page)
? ????:Infantry_waiting_to_move_off_'Queen_White'_Beach.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/
af/Infantry_waiting_to_move_off_%27Queen_White%27_Beach.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Inside_the_Millennium_Stadium,_Cardiff.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Inside_the_
Millennium_Stadium%2C_Cardiff.jpg ????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: inside Millennium Stadium ????????: TFDuesing / Thomas
Duesing profile at Flickr website
? ????:Land_Rover_Defender_110_patrol_vehicles.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Land_
Rover_Defender_110_patrol_vehicles.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Location_of_the_BOTs.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Location_of_the_BOTs.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: Location of the BOTs.png: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_of_the_BOTs.png'
class='image'><img alt='Location of the BOTs.png' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9d/Location_of_
the_BOTs.png/150px-Location_of_the_BOTs.png' width='150' height='88' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/9/9d/Location_of_the_BOTs.png/225px-Location_of_the_BOTs.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/9/9d/Location_of_the_BOTs.png/300px-Location_of_the_BOTs.png 2x' data-file-width='735' data-file-height='433' /></a>
????????: Richardprins
? ????:London.bankofengland.arp.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/London.bankofengland.arp.
jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: Taken by Adrian Pingstone in November 2004 and released to the public domain. ????????:
Adrian Pingstone
? ????:Map_of_the_administrative_geography_of_the_United_Kingdom.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/d/d6/Map_of_the_administrative_geography_of_the_United_Kingdom.png ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ???????????
??????, using this diagram ????????: Maximilian D鰎rbecker (Chumwa)
? ????:Oil_platform_in_the_North_SeaPros.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Oil_platform_
in_the_North_SeaPros.jpg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image:Oil_platform_in_the_North_Sea.jpg ????????: Erik
Christensen. Processing: NoiseReduction+EnhancedContrast by User:Roarjo
? ????:Qantas_a380_vh-oqa_takeoff_heathrow_arp.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Qantas_
a380_vh-oqa_takeoff_heathrow_arp.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Adrian Pingstone (talk)
? ????:Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/
Royal_Coat_of_Arms_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Sodacan
? ????:Royal_Irish_Rifles_ration_party_Somme_July_1916.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/
Royal_Irish_Rifles_ration_party_Somme_July_1916.jpg ????????: Public domain ??????: This is photograph Q 1 from the collections
of the Imperial War Museums (collection no. 1900-02) ????????: Royal Engineers No 1 Printing Company.
? ????:Royal_courts_of_justice.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Royal_courts_of_justice.jpg
????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: Flickr ????????: Anthony M. ?? Rome, Italy
? ????:Scotland_Parliament_Holyrood.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Scotland_Parliament_
Holyrood.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Mogens Engelund
36
14
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Searchtool.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Searchtool.svg ????????: LGPL ??????: http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz ????????: David Vignoni,
Ysangkok
? ????:Shakespeare.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Shakespeare.jpg ????????: Public domain
??????: Official gallery link ????????: It may be by a painter called John Taylor who was an important member of the Painter-Stainers?
Company.[#cite_note-NPG-1 [1]]
? ????:Stonehenge2007_07_30.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Stonehenge2007_07_30.jpg
????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: http://www.flickr.com/photos/garethwiscombe/1071477228/in/photostream/ ????????:
garethwiscombe
? ????:The_British_Empire.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/The_British_Empire.png ????????: Public domain ??????: File:BlankMap-World-large.png and own work by uploader. Composed from maps found in: ????????:
The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick
? ????:The_Fabs.JPG ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/The_Fabs.JPG ????????: Public domain ??????: ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???, ????? ???????? ? ?????????? (Prints and Photographs division), ?????
???????? ????????????? (digital ID) cph.3c11094.
??? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??-???????? ??????????. ??. ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????. ????????: United Press International (UPI Telephoto)
Cropping and retouching: User:Indopug and User:Misterweiss
? ????:Treaty_of_Union.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Treaty_of_Union.jpg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://collections.europarchive.org/ukparliament/20090701100701/http://www.parliament.uk/actofunion/
actofunion_interactive.html ????????: Scottish Parliament
? ????:Turner_selfportrait.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Turner_selfportrait.jpg ????????:
Public domain ??????: 1. Web Gallery of Art: <a href='http://www.wga.hu/art/t/turner/1/1000turn.jpg' data-x-rel='nofollow'><img
alt='Inkscape.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Inkscape.svg/20px-Inkscape.svg.png' width='20'
height='20'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Inkscape.svg/30px-Inkscape.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Inkscape.svg/40px-Inkscape.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='60' datafile-height='60' /></a> Image <a href='http://www.wga.hu/html/t/turner/1/1000turn.html' data-x-rel='nofollow'><img alt='Information
icon.svg'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Information_icon.svg/20px-Information_icon.svg.png'
width='20' height='20' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Information_icon.svg/30px-Information_
icon.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Information_icon.svg/40px-Information_icon.svg.png
2x' data-file-width='620' data-file-height='620' /></a> Info about artwork
????????: ?????? ??????
? ????:UN_emblem_blue.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/UN_emblem_blue.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????:
? ??????????? ??????
? <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='http://www.airliners.net/photo/United-Nations-(FAI/Gates-Learjet55/1972296/L/,<span>,&,</span>,sid=e877288d1c7a0f3384d40c49990739bf'>Photo</a> for reference use on <a
href='//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_aircraft_insignia' class='extiw' title='en:Military aircraft insignia'>Military
aircraft insignia</a> page.
????????: Joowwww
? ????:United_Kingdom-CIA_WFB_RU.png
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/United_
Kingdom-CIA_WFB_RU.png ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Wikimedia Commons (for the former English version)
CIA World Factbook (wp-EN) for the original work. ????????: of the translation : Veikia
? ????:Wembley_Stadium,_illuminated.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Wembley_Stadium%
2C_illuminated.jpg ????????: CC BY 2.0 ??????: Wembley Stadium ????????: Rob from United Kingdom
? ????:Westminster_abbey_west.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Westminster_abbey_west.jpg
????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: english Wiki - ????????: Image by ChrisO.
? ????:Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. ????????: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006
(UTC) Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally
uploaded by Simon.
? ????:Wikisource-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg ????????: CC
BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Rei-artur ????????: Nicholas Moreau
? ????:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: AleXXw
? ????:Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Russian Wiktionary ????????: One half 3544, VPliousnine
? ????:???????????????_????_??????????????.ogg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/%D0%
93%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%
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80%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B8.ogg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: The National Anthem (arr.
Elgar) (1995 Digital Remaster) ????????: Cambridge University Musical Society Chorus/Choir of King?s College, Cambridge/New
Philharmonia Orchestra/Sir Philip Ledger
14.3
????????
37
? ????:???????_??????_????????????_???????????_??????????????_?_????????_????????.gif
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/%D0%9A%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5_
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D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE_%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%
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D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B8_%D0%B8_%D0%A1%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B9_
%D0%98%D1%80%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%B8.gif ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ???????????
?????? ????????: Y.m.oxon
|
? Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
}}
???????????? ??
News (21 January 2002). ????????? 17 ??????? 2008.
?????????????? 27 ??? 2012.
[134] ??????????? ??????: ?????????? ? ??????????????
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?????? ??????, Darker108, BOTarate, ????????? ????????, HazzikBot, Khairporcht, LatitudeBot, Tat1642, Jackie, SilvonenBot, Vong,
Anton Shershnev, Cleox~ruwiki, ????? ??????????, Qkowlew, Ds02006, Artemka373, Vittalio, Innv, MelancholieBot, Track13, Daria
max, Pinkponk, SpeakF, Corwin of Amber, Abiyoyo, Proudkeep, Volgar, Mr. Oakenshield, Dmitrij1996, ????? ?????, CarsracBot,
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???????? ??, LucienBOT, Valerytembi4, A Looker, SergeyTitov, D'ohBot, Ryadinsky Eugen, Erik Warmelink, Exdeath, Sigwald,
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H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, CratoS, Movses-bot, ???????? ???????, KrBot, Vestnik-64, Zooro-Patriot, Absconditus, WebCite Archiver,
?????? ??????, ???????? ???????, U.Steele, ????????, ?????? ???????, MerlIwBot, ???????, Zazulia, MBHbot, MalarzBOT,
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??????, Nabramkin, Bierce, Vcohen, Nimeru23, IvanIvanov 1, ?????? ?????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????????????,
StanTRC, El Presedente, NightShadow23, AngelaSh., Stas1995, Anton9828, ???? 333, Trilelea, Nord-w, ??????, LEANSER, Eligatron,
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vitali, Martanda, Wind with, Shes192, Addbot, Poti Berik, ?????? ??????????, Rqasd, LebedevXD, Tsoytimofey, ???? ?????????,
Meir�, StarikDen, Glovacki, ?????? ????????, Mendezraymundo, Vasyan174, LewisF1Hamilton, ???
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