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??????????: 7�?00? ?. ?. 65�?00? ?. ?. / 7.66667�
?. ?. 65.21667� ?. ?.
?????????, ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??[4] (???. Rep鷅lica Bolivariana de Venezuela, ??? (???.): [re?pu?lika
?oli?a??jana 餰 ?ene?swela]) ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????. ????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????, ???????? ? ??????? ?? ???????, ????????? ? ?? ??? ?
????????? ? ?? ??????.
1. ?????????
??????? ??????? ?? ????
???????????? ???? ???????, ????????????? ? ?????
??????? ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?
????
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?????? ??? ?????, ??????-??????-??-?????? (????)
?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????????
?????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ? ???????
? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????
?????????? ???????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????
????????. ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? 600 ?? 1850 ?????? ??? ??????? ??????�??? ???-?????, ?????????? ??????? ???? ?
????????? ???????
????. ???? 1800 ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????. ?? ??????? ????? 3000 ? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????1
2
1 ?????????
???? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????-?????????, ?????? ????? ?????
??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????, ?????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????
?. ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???-?????. ??? ?????????? ????, ????????? ???????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????, ? ????? ?????????? ? ? ????????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????. ????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????, ???????????
? ???????????.
??????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ????
??????? ??????????, ? ???????? ????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ? ???
?? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?? 280 ??
?? ????????? ????????? ?? 2000 ?? ? ????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ?? ???????????
??????? ??? ? ????????? ???????????. ????? ?????
???????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????.
?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ??????????? ?????
????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????
???????? ?????. ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ??????.
????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????, ??????
Capparia, Jacquinia ? Ziziphus. ????????????? ????
? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????. ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? (???????????? ?????) ? ????????? ????? ????????, ? ????????? Espeletia, Geranium, Ceroxylon,
Cinchona, Miconia ? Gentiana. ????? ??????????????
?? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????
????? ?????????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????
????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????. ??????
???????????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????????? ?? ???? ??????.
???????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????
?????? ? ?????????. ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????, ??? ????? ??????????? ? ????????
?????????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? (????????).
????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????-
??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????
?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????
??????? ??????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????. ?? ??????
?????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????. ????, ?????????? ????? ????????????
???????, ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????
???? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????. ?? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ?????
?????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????. ????????? ???????
???????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????,
? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????.
?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ?????
?????? ???????? ??? ????????. ??? ???? ??????? ?????? (Cinchona), ????? ??????????? ?????????
?? ???????. ???? ??????? ????????????? ????????
????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? Espeletia, ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????, ???????
??????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????. ? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????.
? ????????? ??????? ?????, ????, ??????, ????????????? ??????, ??????? ? ??????? ?????, ?????, ????????, ?????????, ??????, ???????????? ????????,
????? ? ??????. ??????????? ????? ????? ? ????????. ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????
? ????????. ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????,
?????? ???? ? ???????. ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ??????, ??????, ???? ? ??????
?????? ????, ? ? ????? ? ?????? ????.
2.2
????????? ??? ??????
2. ???????
2.1. ????? ?????????????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? 1958 ????, ?
?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????. ?????? ? 1968 ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???
???????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????? (??) ? ??????-???????????? ?????? (?????).
? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????:
???? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????
20 ?????? ? ???????????, ?? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? 85 % ???????.
?? ???? ??????? ? ???????? 1941 ???? ? ??????? ???? ??????-??????????????? ???????, ??????
? ???????????????? ?????????????. ????????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? 1945?
1948, 1959?1969, 1974?1979, 1984?1993. ???????????? ? ?????? 1946 ???? ????? ? ?????? ???????????-??????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? �???????? ? ???????? ???????� ? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????, ????????, ???????, ??????????, ???????????????? ?
???? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ? 1969?1974 ? 1979?1984. ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????.
3
? ????? ???????, ? ? 1992 ???? ????????? ? ?????
???? ???? ???????. ? 1993 ???? ???????? ??????
?? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????
?? ?????????????? ?? ? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ??????
????????? ????????????.
? ?????? 1990-? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????.
????????????? ?????? 1993 ??????? ?????? ?????
??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????
????? 17 ????????????, ????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ????? ? ???????? ???? ???. ?? ????? ???????????? ????????
???? ??????????? ???????.
2.2. ????????? ??? ??????
?? ????????????? ??????? 1998 ???? ?????? ???????
??????????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????, ??????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? 1997 ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? (???).
??????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????: ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ????, ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????????????. ??????
??? ????? �????????????? ????????�, ?????????
???????????? ??????, ? ?????? ???????, ? ?????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ? ????????- ??????? ?????????.
???? ?????? 1980-? ?????, ???????? ????????????
?????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???- ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????, ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???, ? ??? ????? ??? ? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ? ???????????. ?????? ?????, ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????. ??? ????? ???????,
???????? ? ?????????? (???), ???????????? ? ?????? ????? 55 % ???????, ?????? ??? ???????? ??
1971 ???? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????????- ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ????????????
???? ??????. ??? ?????? ?? ????????, ??????? ? ?????????.
�?????????????�, ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????????, ???, ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ? 1968 ???? (???????? �????�) ? ??????? ??-???????? ???????????? ????????????
???????????? ??????? ????. ???????? ?? ???????- ??????? ?? ? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ? 1973?1993 ?? ?? ??????? 1998 ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????
????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????; ? 1988 ???? ??? ??????? ????? 10 % ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????, ????????? ????? 40 % ???? ???????? ???????. ? 1992 ???? ??? ???????? ?????.
?????????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????, ? 1995 ????
? ? ???????. ?????? ? 1990-? ????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ??????????
?????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? 1999 ????, ???? ???????
? ??????????? ???? (Causa R), ??????? ????? ????????, ??? 300 ????? ???????? ??????? ??????
???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ???????????????????????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????. ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????????. ?????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
? ?????? ?????????? ????? 1988 ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????
[5]
??????
?
?????
?????.
3 ????? ? ???????????? ????????? (??????????)
??????, ? 1989 ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? 2000 ???? ?
4
2 ???????
?????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????
???????? ???: ??? ????? ?????? ????? 60 % ???????, ? ??? ???????? ????????? 92 ?? 165 ???????? ?
???????????? ?????????. ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????: ?? ? 33,
????? ? 6, ?????? ????????? ? 6, ??? ? 6, ??????????? ???? ? 3, ?????? ??? ???? ? 1. ???????????? ???????????? (?????????? ??????? ????????) ? 1, ?????? ? 17.
24 ?????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????,
??? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ????????, ? 2009 ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ??? ?????????
?? ????????? ???? ????? ????, ??? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?
??????.
12 ????? 2006 ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? (??????????) ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????. ?????? ??
????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????
?????? ? ?????? XIX ????????. ? 1817 ???? ???????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????
?????-???????????? ????? ???????.
????????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????
?????????? ??? ??????????, ? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????. ???
?????????? ?????????? ??????, �??????? ???????????????? ??????� ????? ??????, ????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????, ? ?????
???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????, �?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????籟8] .
?? ???????????? ? ????????? 15 ??????? 2009 ????
??????????? 54,68 % ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????????2.2.1. ?????????? 15 ??????? 2004
??? ????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???? ?????????????? ????? ???
15 ??????? 2004 ? ????????? ????????? ??????????
??????[7] .
? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ??????.
???, ??????? ?? ??? ?????????, ??? ????? �??????
21 ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????�, ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????
????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ?????? ??????. ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????
?? ?????????, ???? ???? ????????? ?? 2019 ???? ? ????????? ? ????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????
??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????.
???????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????,
26 ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????- ?????????? ? ?????????????. ???? ?? ??????????
???????:
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????
?????????????? ??????[7] .
? ?? ? 5,8 ??? ??????? (59,25 %),
????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ????????? (?????? ? ? 1999 ?? 2006 ????,
? ?????? ? ??. 4 ??? (40,74 %).
?????? ? ? 2007 ?? 2009 ????) ??? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????,
????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????2.2.2. ????????
??? ??????????[7] .
???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? 2007
???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????, ??????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????,
??????? ???? ??????????? ? 8 ????? ?? 6, ????????
????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?
16 ???, ? ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??
??????????, ???????????? 2 ??????? 2007 ????.
?? ??? ???????????, 50,7 % ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????
?????????[6] .
????????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?
???????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ?????????????,
???????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ??????. ??? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???, ??? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? (???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????),
? ????????? (???????? ????????? ???????????? ?
???????????????????? ?????????).
5
2.2.3. ????????? ? ?????????? ?????
??????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????. ? 2007?2008 ????? ? ?????? ???? ????????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????, ?? ?
?????? ???????????, ????????? ?????????????? ?
????????? ?????. ??????????? ? ????? ???????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????.
�????????????? ?????????� ??????, ????? ???????,
???????? ? ???? ?????? ? ?????????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????. ? 2003
???? ? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???? ?? 400 ????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????,
�?? ?????? ? ????????? ? ?????? ??????�. ?? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ????????? (?
??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????) ?
?????? ???? ???. ???, ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???. ? ????? ?? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????
???????? ?????????? 21 % ? ???, ?????? ????????
??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? 50 % ????????.
?? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????
(PdVSA). ?? ?????????? ??????????? PdVSA ???????? ?? ????????? ?????, ? ???????? ??? ?????
?????? ?????, ????? ??????????????? ???? ??????.
?????????? PdVSA ? 2002 ???? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? (???
?????? ? ????? 3 ??? ???????? ? ?????, ??????? ?
??????? ?????? ???). ????????????? ??????? ?????
19 ???. ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ?? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????????
?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????.
??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????
????????????? ???????. ???? ? ???, ??? PdVSA ?????? ????????????? ?? ????? 3 ???? ???????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????, ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? 25 % ? ???. ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ??????? ????????????? ? 80 % ??????????
??????? ??????[9] .
???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????
? 2009 ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????- ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????- ? ????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????.
?????? ????, ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???
???????? ????????? ??????, ?? ?????????????? ???
????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????. ??? ????
???? ??????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ?????? ?? 3. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? (? 2013)
??, ? ????????????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ???,
??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? 3.1. ?????? ??????????
?????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????, ????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???- C 5 ????? 2013 ????, ????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????. ???????? ??????- ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????, ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????.
????? ? ?? ????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? 14 ?????? 2013 ????. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????- ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????
??? ??????? (????? ?? ????????), ???????? ??????- ????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ???? (?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??- ???. ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????.
???????) ? ???????????????.
? ????? ? ????, ? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????
??????? ????????? ???? ???? ? ????????? ??? ??
????? ?????. ? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?
???? ????? ????????: ????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??
??????, ??? ??????? ? ?????? ???. ? 2000 ???? ?????
??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? (??????
?? 25 ??? ? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????). ????????
???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????, ??? ?????????
??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???. ? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ????????, ????????? ? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? XXI ????,
???? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????.
3.2. ????????????? ??????
? 2013 ???? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ? ??????
?. ?????? (?????? 2013 ????), ??????????????? ????
????????? ???????? 70 % ???, ? ????????? ??????? ? 13 %[10] . ???? ?? ?????? 2013 ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? 1,6 %, ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????
??????? ? 56,3 %[11] . ??????, ??????? ?? ???????
???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ???????
???????, ??? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???- �???????????? ???????????� ?, ? ?????????, ????
6
30-?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????
? ????? ??? ?????, ???????????? ????? ? ?????????
??????[12] ). ? ?? ?? ????? ? ????????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????
�???????????? ?????�. ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? �???????????籟13] , ?
????????? 26 ?????? ???? ????????????????? ???????? ???? 獶aka� ?? ????? ???????? ????, ??????? ???
????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? 1000
????????? ??? ?????????? ????? 30 ?????????. ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????
???? ???? ??????????[14] .
2015 ???
? 2014 ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????:
?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????. ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????
?????[15][????. 1] . ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????, ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? 2015 ????????, ?? ???????, ??
??????? ???? 200 % ??????? (?? ??????????? ?????? ? 140 %)[15] . ? ??????? ???????? ????????,
????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ???? �?????????? ????� ???????
????? ??? ? 100 ??? ???????? ????????[15] . ??????
????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????????????, ???
??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
???????[15] .
4
?????????
??? ?? ???????? ? ??????? ???????. 1 ????? ??????
????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ? ??????????????, ????? ?? ????.
? ?????? ??????? 2014 ???? ? ????????? (? ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ???????) ????????
???????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?. ??????. ? ??? ??????? ??????? ??
?????? �?????? ?????�, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????, ?? ? ?????? ???? ?????????, ?? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?
???????????? ???????? �??????�. ? ?????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????
??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????? �?????????? ???????�.
12 ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????, ? ??? ???????????? ?
???????? ? ? ??????, ??????? ? ?????? ???? ???????; ? ???? ?????????, ?????????????? ??? ??????
????, ????? 40 ??????? ???????? ???????. 17 ??????? ? ???????? ?????????, ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? (?? ???????? ??? ??? ?????
????? ?? ?????, ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ???????), ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?. ?????? ????????
?? ?????? ???????????? (??????? ????? ??????? ?
????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????
?????????)[18] . ? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????? 50 ???????. ???????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ???? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?
????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????
????? ?????????[19] .
? ?????? 2016 ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? 4. ?????????
???????????? ?????????. ??? ? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ???????? ?????- ????????? ????????? ? 28,1 ????????? ???????[20]
??? ?????????? �???????????? ?????�, ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????[15] .
? ??????? ??????? ? 1,5 %;
??????? ???????
?????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ????? ???????: ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????
? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????????????
??????????????[16] .
? ??????????? ? 20 ?? 1000 (???????????? ?
2,5 ???????? ?? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ? 21 ?? 1000);
? ?????????? ? 5 ?? 1000;
? ??????? ????????????????? ????? ? 70,84 ???
? ??????, 77,87 ??? ? ??????;
? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? (???)
? 0,7 % (?????? 2001 ????).
3.3. ????????
??? ??????? ? 15 ?????? 2013 ???? ????????
?????????? ????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???????
??????? ?? ??????? ???? 7 ???????[17] . ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ???
???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????, ?
??????????? ??????: ?????? ? 67 %, ????????? (???????, ?????????, ???????????, ?????, ????????)
? 21 %, ????????? ? 10 %, ??????? ? 2 %.
??????????? ? 95 % (2005?2008 ????).
????????? ????????? ? 93 % (? 2008).
7
5. ???????????????? ???????
????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??:
? 23 ????? (estados): ????????, ?????????, ?????,
??????, ???????, ???????, ???????, ?????????????, ?????, ????????, ???????, ????,
??????, ???????, ???????, ?????-???????,
?????????, ?????, ??????, ????????, ???????,
??????;
? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????? ?
????? (?????? ??? ??????), 96 ?????????.
? ? ????? ? ???? ?? ??????? ? ??????? 2010 ???? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ????? ? ????????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ???? ?????
????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ? ?????????? ???????.
? ??????? ? ???????????????? (?? ??????), 3
????????.
? 1 ??????????? ????? ? ????? ???????
????????;
? ????????? ??? ???? ? ????? (?? ??????), 2 ????????.
? ??????????? ???????? (? 3 ??????? 2011 ???? ?
???????[21] , ???????? ????? ????? ???????????) ? ??????? ? ????????? ????.
? ??????? ???? ???????????????? ???????? (???.
Mesa de la Unidad Democr醫ica, ? ?????????
??????), 65 ?????????. ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??
?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????? �????? ?????????�, ???????????-??????????????? ?????? �??????????? ????????????� ? ?????, ???????????? ?????? �? ??????????????� ? �??????? ????�, ??????-??????????????? ??????
�???? ?????�, �?????????????? ????????�,
�??????? ? ??????????�, �????? ???????????? ??????� ? �???????????? ????????�, ???????????????? �?????????? ????� ? ???????????? �?????? ?????�.
????? ????????? ????????????? ? 9 ????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????.
6. ????????
????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????????.
???? ????????????? ?????????? ? 6 ???. ?????????
????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???. ????????? ????????? ????-??????????, ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ? ???? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????? 2015 ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????.
?? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????
????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????- ???????????????? ????????, ?????????? 56,2 % ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????- ????? ? 109 ?? 164-? ???? ? ??????????. ???????????? ????????????????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????- ????? 40,9 % ??????? ? ????? ????? 55 ????.
?????.
???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? 165 ?????????. 162 ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????-?????????
??????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? 97
???????????, ? 65 ? ?? ????????? ???????. ?????????? 3 ????? ??????????????? ?? ???????????????
???????? ??????? ?????????. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ? 5 ???. ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????.
7. ????????????
???? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????
?????????????? ????????. ? 2015 ???? ? ?????? ???? ????? ????? 28 ????? ???????, ??? 90 ??????? ??
?????? 100 ????? ?????????. ?? ????? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????
???????[22] . 90% ??????? ???????? ????????????.
?????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? 2005 ????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia). ??? ????????- ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????????[15] .
?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? 12-?????? ????.
6.1. ???????????? ??????
8. ??????? ????????
??????, ?????????????? ? ?????????? (?? ?????? ??- ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? 26 ???????? 2010 ????):
?? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
8
8 ??????? ????????
(???), ?????? ??????? ??? ????????. ??? ???? ???- 8.1. ??????????????? ?????????
?? ? ????? ?????-??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????? (????), ????????? ? 1960 ??MAR CARIBE
??. ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ????????, ?????????,
Nueva Esparta
Falc髇
Vargas
????????? ? ???? ? ? ??????? ????. ????? ????Sucre
Zulia
Miranda
Lara
????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????
Monagas
Cojedes
Trujillo
Anzo醫egui
Portuguesa
Delta
Gu醨ico
?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???M閞ida
Amacuro
Barinas
T醕hira
?? ? ?????? ??????????? ? 2005 ???? ?????????
Apure
???????????. ??? ?. ?????? ????????? ????? ? ???Zona en
Reclamaci髇
Bol韛ar
??? ?????????????????? ????? ????.
Aruba
Curazao Bonaire
Las Aves
Granada
La Blanquilla
Los Roques La Orchila
Tobago
La Tortuga
Yaracuy
Carabobo
? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????, ? 1970-? ???? ? ?????? 1980-?, ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. ???????????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ? ????????? ????????. ?? ???????????? ??????? ????
? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????, ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? (?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???). ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????? �??????? ????�.
????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????
?????????? ??????, ????????????? ? ?????? ?? ????
???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????, ? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?
????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????? 30 ??? ???? ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????
1980-? ? ?????? 1990-? ????? ? ????? ? ???, ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ????? ? ????? ? ????????? ????? ????????
????????????? ? ???? ??????.
Trinidad
Dto. Capital
OC葾NO
ATL罭TICO
Aragua
GUYANA
COLOMBIA
Amazonas
BRASIL
????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? (?? ???????).
? ????? XIX ???? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
???? ???????? ? ????? ????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????. ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? 1899 ????? ???? ? ?????? ????????, ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????
?? ??????-?????? ?????????? ??????.
? 1962, ?? 4 ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????, ????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ????? 160 ???. ??�, ?? ???? ????? ??? ????????
???? ?????????? ??????. ??? ????????? ???????????
????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ??? ???????.
8.2. ?????? ? ?????????
? 1989 ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????,
????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????
?????? ? ?????? ????????. ????? ???? ?????????? ??
??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ? 1997 ???? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????.
???????? 1990-? ????? ???? ???????? ????????????
??????????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ??????????????
??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ??-?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??
???????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????.
? ??????? 2015 ?. ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????
??? ?? ?????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????
? ????????????????, ???????? ??????????, ???????
???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????, ? ????????
???????.
????????? ??? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????
? 2004
????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ?
?????????? ?????????? (??????????? ? ???? 14
????? 1945 ????, ???????? 13 ???? 1952 ???? ? ????????????? 16 ?????? 1970 ????).
9.3
?????????????? ??????????????
9
? ?????? 2008 ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????
? ????????? ???? ? ????? ?? ???? ?? 90 ????. ?????????? ???????? ? ???? 6 ????? 2009 ????.
? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????. ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????
? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????, ??????
????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
????? ????? ?????????? ???, ???????? ? ?????? ????10 ???????? 2009 ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ??- ????. ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????, ???- ?? ???????? ???? ? ?????. ????????, ??? ? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????
? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????. 15 ??????- ?????.
?? 2009 ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??? ??????- ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????[24] .
??? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????- ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????. ? 2005 ???? ????
???? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????
??????? (????? ?????? ? ?????????) ???????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? 347 ??? ???????? (?????????
???????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????. ?????, ????? ???????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????
? ????? 2010 ???? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ? ???? ?????).
????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
8.3. ????? ? ?????????
??? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???,
??????? ? 1990-? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ? ??
???????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ???????
?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????. ??? ?????
???????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????. ? ???? 2010 ???? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?? 20 ???? ???????? ?? 10 ??? ? ????? ??
???????? ????????????? ?? 200 ???. ?? 300 ???. ???????? ? ????[23] .
9.3. ??????????????
?????
?????????-
?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ? 1950-?, ? ? ??? ??? ???????????? ? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????????. ???
?? ? ?????? 1990-? ? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? 15
% ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ? ?? ?? ????
??????????? 22 % ??? (?????? ????? ????? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????). ??????????
????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ? ????????, ? ?????
?????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????, ???????, ????????????? ??? ? ?????, ???????, ????, ????, ???????????????? ???????
? ?????????? ???????.
? 1960-? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????. ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????, ? ???????? ???????????? ????????
? ?????????. ???????, ??? ? 1970-?, ????????????
9.1. ?????
????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??- ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????????. ?????
????? ???? 95 % ?????????? ???????[24] , ????? 50 % 1970 ? 1980 ?. ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????,
???????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????? 30 ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? 15 ???. ? 1979 ?. ???????? ????? ??
% ???.
?????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????? (????? ??????????????), ??????? ?????? ???????? ????.
9. ?????????
9.2. ???????? ?????????
???? ????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ? 4 %.
? ??????? ?????? 13 % ??????? ????, ??? ??? ?????, ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????. ?????????????? ? ????????, ?????, ???????? ????????, ???, ??????, ?????, ????. ???????????? ????????, ???????, ??????, ????. ???????
???????????.
???????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????,
???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????
??????, ?? ????? ??????? ? ??????. ???????????
????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????
???? ? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????????????? ??????? ? ????? ? ???? (?? ???? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????) ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????????
10
12 ????????
????? ? ????????. ????? ????, ????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????: ??????? ??????????????? ????????
???????? ? ?????? ?????, ? ?????? ?? ????????, ???
???? ? ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????.
9.4. ??????? ????????
????? ?????, ????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????, ????, ?????, ??????, ????????, ??????, ?????.
??????? ?? ????????? (64,9 ???? ???????? ? 2010)
???? ? ???????? ? ??? (35,2 % ? 2009 ????), ? ?????
?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? 8,6 % ? ?
????? ? 5 %.
???? BE-11 玈im髇 Bol韛ar�
??????-????????? ???? ? 12 ?????;
????????? ??????????? (31,4 ???? ???????? ? 2010)
? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????- ???????????? ??????? ? 36 ?????.
??? ????????, ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ???
(23,7 % ? 2009 ????), ? ????? ???????? 14,4 %, ???????? 9,1 %, ????? 8,4 %, ??????? 5,5 %.
11. ?????
?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???? ????????? ? 43,4 ???? ????. (? ?????
??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??2009 ????).
?????????? ????? ???? ????.
9.5. ??????
????????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ? 2007
???? ?? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????,
????????????????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ?
2008 ???????????????? ???????????, ????????????
????? ? ??????. ? ???? 2008 ????? ????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ????? �????????? 21-?? ????�.
12. ????????
?
XVI ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????
???????? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????
?????, ????? ????, ? ???????? XX ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ????
?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????.
9.6. ?????? 2015 ????
????????? ????????? ????????? �??????� ? ?????? ?????? (??????), ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ? 2014-2016 ?? ?????- ????? ?????. ??????? ????????????? ??????????
?? ? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ????- ???????? ???????, ?? ?????, ????? ? ???????.
????????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ????????? ?? ?????
12.1. ??????
??????[24] .
??????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ??????,
?????????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????, ??10. ??????????? ????
??? ? ???????????????? ????. ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????- ?? ? ?????? (????????, ????????? ?? ??????????
?????? ???????? 129 ????? ?????????????? ? ???- ?????), ????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ??????
??????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
??????????? ??:
?????????? ???? ??????? (??????? ??????); ???????,
?????????? ?????? ? 63 ??????;
????????????? ??????????? ??????; ???????, ?????
??????-??????? ???? ? 18 ????? (??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????????????????
??????? ?????? ? 8 ?????);
?????????; ? �??????�, ????????????? ????????????
11
?????. ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???- ?? ?????? ?????-?-????? (1828?1902), ?????????????? ????? (??????) ? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??- ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????.
???? ??????. ?????? ????????-???????? XIX ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ????? ??, ?????? ???????? (1873?1898), ????? ???????
??? ??????????? ????? �?????�, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????.
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??- ?? ?????????? 20 ?. ???????? ???????? ???? ?????
????. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????- (1889?1974). ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???? �????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ?????. ????????????? ?????????? ??????????�, ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? (1887?1974). ???? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? (?.
1908). ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
???????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????.
????????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????. ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ???????, ?
????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????. ? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ????????????. ???? ????? ???????? ??12.2. ??????????
??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ? ????????.
? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?
?????? ????????. ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???? (1807?
1865) ? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? (1846? 13. ???????
1892). ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (1865?1917), ????? ?????? �??- ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?
???� (1890). ???????? ??????????????????? ?????- ??????-???????????? ??????, ? ?????? ??????? ?
????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????(1868?1927) ? ?????? ?????? ??????? (1974? ??, ?? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ????1944). ? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???- ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? (1891?1936), ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????. ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ????- ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? XX ???? ??? ???- ???????? ? ?????????. ? ????? ?? ????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? (1884?1969), ???????- ??? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????:
????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ????- �?? ??? ??? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????; ??? ????? �???? ???????� ?????- ??? ????? ? ???????????. ???????? ?? ????, ????????
??? ????????????? ?????????. ??????? ????? ??- ?????????!籟25]
??? (1901?1965), ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ???
????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????. ????? ? 2006 ???? ????????? �?????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????? 20 ?. ?????????? ???????- ?????????? ??????? ?????????�. ?? ????????????
?? ?????? ???? ?????? (1897?1955). ? ????? ?????- ???????? ???????, ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????
?????? ????? ?????? (1908?1985), ????? ???? ??- ?????????. ?????? ? ??? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????????? ?????? �??? ?? ??????, ????? ???- ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????� (1979); ? ?????? ????? ?????? (1906?2001), ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???
????? ?????? ? ??????????
????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ??????- ???????, ???????????
[26]
????????????
.
???????
?? ??????? ?? ????? ??????; ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????
?????????????
????????,
?? ??????? ??????
??? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????
?????????????????,
?????????
??????.
????????????
�??? ?????� (1931).
???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?? ????????? ???????
12.3. ???????? ? ???????????
??????, ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????2008) ??????? ??
?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????- ????????? ?????. ??????? (?? ????[27][28]
?????
.
????
????????
?
?????????
??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? (1724?1787),
???????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????
??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????
? ??? ??????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? ????????. ? XIX ???? ????????- ???????????
????????????
??????
?
12
?????????????. ?????????? ?????????????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????
???? ? 410 ???. ????????[29] . ?????????????????
???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????????
?????????, ??????? ????, ?????????? ???????
??????? ??????? ? ??. ?????????? ??????????? ?
????? ????? 197 ???. ????????[30] . ????????????
??????????? ????????? ?????????? 550 ??????? ?
45 ???. ????????[31] , ?????????? ?????? ? 23 ???.,
???????? ? 7 ???., ??????? ?????????? ? 5 ???.
16 ??????????
15. ??. ?????
? ??? ?????
? ?????? ??????? ?????????
? ?????-???????
16. ??????????
??????????
14. ??????
[1] ????? ????, ? 2015 ???? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ??
??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????? (玍enezuela: a nation in a state�).
? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????. ??????? ?? ??- ??????
??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ????, ??? ??- [1] Maduro appoints Arist骲ulo Ist鷕iz as new Vice????? ????? ?????? ??????: ???? ??? ???????President
?? ? ????????? �??? ?????????�, ????? �???
????�, ????? �??? ??????????� ? ?????? [2] Census.gov. Country Rank. Countries and Areas Ranked
by Population: 2013. U.S. Department of Commerce
�??? ?????�.
? ? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? (9357) ?????????[32] .
14.1. ?????????????? ??????? ????
19 ??????? 2007 ????????? ?????, ???????? ? ?????
????????????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????????. ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?? ?????
????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? 2007
????, ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????
??????? ????????? (? UTC-4 ?? UTC-4:30), ????????
? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ????????????
?? ???????? ???? ? �?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ????????????籟33] .
??????? ???? UTC-4:30 ??? ????????????? ? ????????? ? 1912 ?? 1964 ????[34] .
(2013). ????????? 9 ??? 2013. ???????????? ?? ?????????????? 9 ??? 2013.
[3] Human
Development
Report
2013
(????.).
United Nations Development Programme (2013).
???????????? ?? ?????????????? 13 ??????? 2013.
[4]
[5] �????? ?????????� ? ?????????????? ?????? ????? �?? ? ?????????? ?????� > <META
NAME="description? CONTENT="???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ???????
[6] BBC Russian.com // ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????,3 ??????? 2007 ????
[7] ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? // ??? ???????,14 ??? 2009
[8] ??? ???????//????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????,14 ??? 2009
[9] ???????//????? ????????????, ??????? 2009
??????????????? ?? 24 ???????? 2007 ???? ???????
??????? ??? ??????? ??-?? �?????????????? ???- [10] ?????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ? ??????? ????????
????????? ? ???????? ??????? // ???????????????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????�. ?????? ???????????? ????????. ? 2014. ? ?. 14. ? ?
??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??14. ? ?. 224
???? 2008 ????[35] .
26 ?????? 2007 ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ? 9 ???????
2007 ????[36] .
[11] ?????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ? ??????? ????????
????????? ? ???????? ??????? // ?????????????????? ???????????? ????????. ? 2014. ? ?. 14. ? ?
14. ? ?. 224?225
???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????[12] Venezuela Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation,
?? ????? ?????? ? 2007 ???? ???????? ???????????Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption
????, ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ? �???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? [13] Lenta.ru: ?????????: ????????????: ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
????????????? ???????籟37] .
13
[14] Lenta.ru: ?????????: ????????????: ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ????
[15] 玍enezuela: a nation in a state�, The Economist,
16.02.2016
17. ??????????
? ????????? // ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? : ? 86 ?. (82 ?. ? 4 ???.). ? ???.,
1890?1907.
[16] �????????: ?????? ?? ????? ?????� ??-??-??,
19.05.2015
[17] ???????? ? ?????????: 7 ????????, ????? 130 ?????????. ??????? ?????? ??-??-?? (16 ?????? 2013).
????????? 23 ??? 2016.
[18] ?????? ??????????. ? ????????? ??????? ???? ? ????? ???????. �?????� (17 ??????? 2014). ?????????
23 ??? 2016.
[19] ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????.
�?????� (27 ??????? 2014). ????????? 23 ??? 2016.
[20] CIA ? The World Factbook
[21] ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????????
???????
[22] Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia: Tasa de
homicidios aumenta en Venezuela | Solidaridad.Net
[23] ??????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????
XXI ????: ???????? ??????????? // ??????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? 25: ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????. - 2012. - ? 1. - ?. 107
[24] 玏hat has gone wrong in Venezuela?�, BBC, 19.05.2016
[25] Chavez: 獴isch鰂e sind H鰄lenmenschen� (???.)
[26] ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? �???????????� | ?????? | ???????????? ???????, ???????
???????, ?????????, ?????? ?????? ????
[27] ?????? �???� ? ??? ???????????????? ???? ???
?????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????
18. ??????
? Gobierno en L韓ea ? ??????????? ???? ????????????? (???.)
? Presidencia de la Rep鷅lica de Venezuela ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? (???.)
? Asamblea Nacional ? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? (???.)
? ABN ? Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias ? ??????????? ????????? ????????
? ABN ? ENGLISH VERSION ? ??? ??, ???????????? ??????.
? - MinCI ? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??
???????????? ? ??????????.
? - Venezolana de Televisi髇
? - teleSURtv ????????? �??????� (??????
????????? ????? ????????? ???????).
? ViVe televisora informativa, cultural y educativa
? Radio Nacional de Venezuela ? ????????????
????? ?????????.
? Venezuela?s News Channel
? One of Venezuela?s Radio Network
[28] ???????? ??????? | ??????????????? ????????????
??????? ?????????
? One of Red Youth Radio in Venezuela
[29] ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????
? Venezuela?s Electronic News
[30] Adventist Atlas ? Venezuela
? Venezuela?s Major Newspaper
[31] BWA ? Statistic
? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????
?????? ? ??????? ????????? ????? ?. ?? ???????
[32] ???? ?????? JPL ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????????
??????? (9357) (????.)
[33] ??????????.ru // ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????
???? ??????, 24 ??????? 2007
[34] Time and Date.com // Venezuela: Clocks to be set back
30 minutes on December 9, 2007 (????.)
[35] ??????????.ru // ????????? ???????? ????? ????????
?????, 24 ???????? 2007
[36] Gaceta Oficial de la Rep鷅lica Bolivariana de Venezuela
#38.819 // ?.2 (???.), 27 ?????? 2007
[37] ???????????-?????? ? 38 (742) // ?? ??????????, ??????? ??????, 1 ??????? 2007
? ?????? ? ?????????: ??? ???? ?????????? ?
? ????? ??????????? ?????????: ??? ???????, ???
?????????
? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????. ????????? ?? ?????????
? ?????? ? ??????? �????? ?????�
? ?????? ? ???????? ?. ??????
? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
14
19
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
19. ????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
19.1. ?????
? ????????? ????????: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%83%D1%8D%D0%
BB%D0%B0?oldid=78545982 ??????: Suisui, Maximaximax, Dana~ruwiki, Torin, Wulfson, Dodonov, Paul Pogonyshev, HedgeBot,
Kaganer, Maqs, Obersachse, Mitrius, YurikBot, A.I., Jannikol, ????? ????????, Roboto de Ajvol, APTEM, Zwobot, Eugrus,
OckhamTheFox, Winterheart, Volkov, JaroslavleffBot, Yuriy75, Anton n, Zimin.V.G., Gpvos, ??????? ??, Koryakov Yuri, LJay,
VanHelsing.16, Alghenius, Kaaa, Lite, Dmitri Lytov, Pauk, Vow, MoonGod, Nekromancer, Nejron, Rodion 4000+, Golddim,
J110, Escarbot, Azh7, ZsergheiBot, Carn, ???? ?? ?????, ????????, Thijs!bot, ??????????, JAnDbot, Alex Spade, V.A.KeRneL,
CommonsDelinker, ZAILTECH, Alex Smotrov, ?????????? ????, Rei-bot, Rave, Nickst, VolkovBot, Latitude, Victoria, Glossologist,
Idioma-bot, Johnny Rotten, TXiKiBoT, Art-top, Orel, Holop, Synthebot, SieBot, YonaBot, Vladimir Nosov, UncleMartin, Loveless,
Viejo~ruwiki, BotMultichill, ?????????? ?. ?., Divine Moments Of Truth, AlleborgoBot, Nickpo, NRozina, Bortorix, Zyz, Alex717,
Kwasura, Mr.BECK, DragonBot, Dkonst, Savinsasha, Jeka3000, ?????? ?????, RoadTrain, OKBot, Volk59, ????????? ????????,
LatitudeBot, Repovesi, Tat1642, SilvonenBot, Vong, Ds02006, Artemka373, MelancholieBot, Longbowman, ??????????? ???????,
Hamelia, Anton vk, AlnoktaBOT, Finnrind, Zorrobot, Louperibot, HerculeBot, Jsg08, AmphBot, LaaknorBot, Amirobot, Lainer
RZD, Luckas-bot, Cherttod, Dim?, Artefact, Lyovchik, Rubinbot, Homoatrox, WindEwriX, Nut1917, Obersachsebot, Kroschka Ru,
ArthurBot, MindfulOfTheGoal, ?????????, Shockzort, Dewaere, Umclidet, Xqbot, GhalyBot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, S.
Korotkiy, DenisKrivosheev, ?????? ?????, The Photographer, Valerytembi4, MastiBot, Rufus Total, Overandaway, Dh?rmikatva,
Boodjoom85, Pericluss, Vity OKM, Central Intelligence Agency, Xws, Kaiyr, Jim Fitzgerald, Kobac, Magnys, VAP+VYK, TobeBot,
Tpyvvikky, KamikazeBot, S Mikhalkov, Antemister, Smiga big, TjBot, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, Adavyd, Kalendar, Sentinel R,
HarDNox, Anna Krav4enko, Gerard, ?????? ???????, Z閞oBot, HRoestBot, Helgi-S, ARumyantseva, ?????07, Centurion198,
Esultanza, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, LarBot, ???????????????, ChuispastonBot, H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, Mjbmrbot, Sparkve,
Movses-bot, Scorpi174, KrBot, Vestnik-64, AZAZET, Paulaner-2011, Bogdanovich Anna, WebCite Archiver, Philip J.1987qazwsx,
SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, ????? ???????, Deus Amadeus, Autumn Leaves, MBHbot, Lerkach, Lasithiotakis, ?????? ?????????, AvicBot,
AvocatoBot, Draa kul, HiW-Bot, Virkato5V, Dutcman, Flomru, Mister-blondin, FoxBot, ?????? ???????, Konstantin Yufa, Inctructor,
?????? ??????, Nikifor5m, ?????????, LioN vlad, Spider197, El Presedente, Stas1995, Shadowxfox, ?????????, ???? ?????????,
RotlinkBot, TheVovaNik, Yurd124, Slivkov vitali, Androsat, ??????? ???????, Pavel Senatorov, DimaBot, ??????? ????????, Citing
Bot, AndreyRussia, ???? ? ????, Avocado is ada, ???? ????????, MaksOttoVonStirlitz, Jallej, Maxoperator, Oranserb 1 ? ??????:
166
19.2. ???????????
? ????:Amazonas_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Amazonas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Anzoategui_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Anzoategui_in_Venezuela.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Apure_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Apure_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Aragua_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Aragua_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Bandera_de_Caracas.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Bandera_de_Caracas.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ISO_639_Icon_es.svg' class='image' title='espa駉l'><img
alt='espa駉l' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/ISO_639_Icon_es.svg/30px-ISO_639_Icon_es.svg.png'
width='30'
height='14'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/ISO_639_Icon_es.svg/45px-ISO_
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Icon_es.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='400' data-file-height='180' /></a> File:Flag of Caracas-2.png ????????: ??? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????????: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:
Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg' class='image'><img alt='Coat of arms of Caracas.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/thumb/6/61/Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg/20px-Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg.png' width='20' height='20' srcset='https:
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2x' data-file-width='1213' data-file-height='1202' /></a> Coat of arms of Caracas.svg (?????: Heralder).
? ????:Barinas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Barinas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
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? ????:Bolivar_State_flag.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Bolivar_State_flag.png ????????:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image drawn in w:Macromedia Fireworks by User:Jecowa with the exception of the coat of arms which is
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????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
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? ????:Cayo_de_Agua,_Archipi閘ago_de_Los_Roques,_Venezuela.jpg
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http://www.flickr.com/photos/capiotti/6995517673/sizes/o/in/set-72157627378840726/ ????????: Paulo Capiotti
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Aragua.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Coat_of_arms_of_Aragua.
png ????????: CC BY 2.5 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Jolle
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svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????:
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? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_M閞ida_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Coat_of_arms_of_
M%C3%A9rida_State.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????:
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? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Sucre_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Coat_of_arms_of_
Sucre_State.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: ??????????? ??????, derivate work from 1 ????????: The Photographer
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Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Incendiary Iconoclasm
? ????:Cojedes_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Cojedes_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Commons-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions used to
be slightly warped.) ????????: SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier PNG version,
created by Reidab.
? ????:Delta_Amacuro_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Delta_Amacuro_in_
Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Emblem-important.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Emblem-important.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: The Tango! Desktop Project ????????: The people from the Tango! project
? ????:EscudoMiranda.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/EscudoMiranda.jpg ????????: CC-BYSA-3.0 ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????: ???????? ?? ??????
??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Andr閟 Urdaneta (??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????).
? ????:Escudo_Estado_Tachira.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Escudo_Estado_Tachira.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Unukalhai
? ????:Escudo_Guarico.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Escudo_Guarico.png ????????: CC
BY 2.5 ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????: ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Jolle~commonswiki (??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????
?????).
? ????:Falcon_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Falcon_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Federal_Dependencies_in_Venezuela_(special_marker).svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Federal_Dependencies_in_Venezuela_%28special_marker%29.svg
????????:
CC
BYSA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Federal_dependencies_of_Venezuela?s_Flag.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Federal_
dependencies_of_Venezuela%27s_Flag.svg ????????: CC BY 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Vexilio
? ????:Flag_of_Afghanistan_(1987).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Flag_of_Afghanistan_
%281987%E2%80%931992%29.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ??????. ????????: Orange Tuesday.
? ????:Flag_of_Albania_1946.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Flag_of_Albania_
%281946-1992%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/images/a/al-1946.gif ????????:
Jaume Oll�
? ????:Flag_of_Amazonas_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Flag_of_Amazonas_State.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Anzo醫egui_State.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Flag_of_Anzo%C3%
A1tegui_State.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: own work, loosely based on Image:Escudoanzoa.png ????????: Vmars
(heraldry) ; bayo (SVG conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_Apure_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Apure_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: own work, loosely based on Image:Escudo apure.gif ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Aragua_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Flag_of_Aragua_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: own work, loosely based on image off the web ????????: bayo
16
19
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Flag_of_Argentina.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Here, based on: http://manuelbelgrano.gov.ar/bandera/creacion-de-la-bandera-nacional/ ????????:
Government of Argentina
? ????:Flag_of_Barinas_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Flag_of_Barinas_State.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image:Barinasvlag.png, and own work ????????: Domie (Image:Barinasvlag.png) ; bayo (SVG
conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_Bolivia_(state).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Flag_of_Bolivia_%28state%29.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Brazil.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: SVG implementation of law n. 5700/1971. Similar file available at Portal of the Brazilian Government (accessed in
November 4, 2011) ????????: Governo do Brasil
? ????:Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1948-1967).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Flag_of_Bulgaria_
%281948-1967%29.svg ????????: GFDL ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Scroch
? ????:Flag_of_Carabobo_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Flag_of_Carabobo_State.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Chile.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Cojedes_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Flag_of_Cojedes_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Eudhen
? ????:Flag_of_Colombia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Drawn by User:SKopp ????????: SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Cuba.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Flag_of_Cuba.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Drawn by User:Madden ????????: see below
? ????:Flag_of_Czechoslovakia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????:
? -xfi-'s file
? -xfi-'s code
? Zirland?s codes of colors
????????:
(of code): SVG version by cs:-xfi-.
? ????:Flag_of_Delta_Amacuro_State.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_Delta_
Amacuro_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_East_Germany.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Flag_of_East_Germany.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ??????
? Gesetz zur 膎derung des Gesetzes 黚er das Staatswappen und die Staatsflagge der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Vom 1.
Oktober 1959
? Verordnung 黚er Flaggen, Fahnen und Dienstwimpel der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. ? Flaggenverordnung ? Vom 3.
Januar 1973
? Verordnung 黚er Flaggen, Fahnen und Dienstwimpel der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. ? Flaggenverordnung ? Vom 12.
Juli 1979
????????:
? diese Datei: Jwnabd
? ????:Flag_of_Ecuador.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Flag_of_Ecuador.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://www.presidencia.gob.ec/pdf/Simbolos-Patrios.pdf ????????: President of the Republic of Ecuador,
Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Falc髇.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Flag_of_Falc%C3%B3n.svg ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????:
? Flag_of_Falcon_State.png ????????: Flag_of_Falcon_State.png: Ninane
? ????:Flag_of_Hungary_1949-1956.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Flag_of_Hungary_
%281949-1956%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????:
? Flags of the World ? Hungary - Historical Flags (1946-1989) ????????: Thommy
? ????:Flag_of_Laos.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Flag_of_Laos.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Drawn by User:SKopp ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Lara_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Flag_of_Lara_State.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Mercosur.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Flag_of_Mercosur.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: SVG implementation of Mercosul-Mercosur/CMC/DEC N� 17/02 ????????: Converted to SVG by
Fvasconcellos (?????????? � ?????)
? ????:Flag_of_Mexico.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Inkscape. ????????: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006
19.2
???????????
17
? ????:Flag_of_Miranda_state.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_Miranda_state.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????:
? Banderamiranda.jpg ????????: Banderamiranda.jpg: Pp-tony
? ????:Flag_of_Monagas_State.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Flag_of_Monagas_State.png
????????: Public domain ??????: Zelf gemaakt door te kijken naar de diverse afbeeldingen op 1 en 2. Originally from nl.wikipedia;
description page is/was here. ????????: Original uploader was Ninane at nl.wikipedia
? ????:Flag_of_Mongolia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Flag_of_Mongolia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Current version is SVG implementation of the Mongolian flag as described by Mongolian National Standard
MNS 6262:2011 (Mongolian State Flag. General requirements [1]
????????: User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Mozambique.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Flag_of_Mozambique.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: From the Open Clip Art website. ????????: User:Nightstallion
? ????:Flag_of_M閞ida.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Flag_of_M%C3%A9rida.svg ????????:
CC BY-SA 2.5 ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://www.mch.govt.nz/files/NZ%20Flag%20-%20proportions.JPG ????????: Zscout370, Hugh Jass
and many others
? ????:Flag_of_North_Korea.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Flag_of_North_Korea.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Nueva_Esparta.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Flag_of_Nueva_Esparta.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 2.5 ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Paraguay.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Flag_of_Paraguay.svg ????????:
CC0 ??????: ???? ???? ???? ?? Open Clip Art Library, ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? Creative Commons. ????????: Republica del Paraguay
? ????:Flag_of_Peru_(state).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Flag_of_Peru_%28state%29.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: National Emblems of Peru - National Flag (State) ????????: Republic of Peru - Republica del
Peru
? ????:Flag_of_Poland.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Flag_of_Poland.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Own work, modified color values by text substitution in the existing file ????????: Mareklug, Wanted
? ????:Flag_of_Portuguesa.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Flag_of_Portuguesa.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Guilherme Paula
? ????:Flag_of_Romania_(1948-1952).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Flag_of_Romania_
%281948-1952%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Alex:D
? ????:Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Flag designed by ?or?e Andrejevi?-Kun[3]
? ????:Flag_of_Sucre_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Flag_of_Sucre_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Ninane, bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Trujillo_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Flag_of_Trujillo_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_T醕hira.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Flag_of_T%C3%A1chira.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Sparkve
? ????:Flag_of_UNASUR.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_UNASUR.svg ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Own work, based on official emblem provided by UNASUR. ????????: Oficina de Coordinaci髇 UNASUR
? ????:Flag_of_Uruguay.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Flag_of_Uruguay.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: design of the sun copied from URL [1], which was copied by Francisco Gregoric, 5 Jul 2004 from URL [2]
????????: User:Reisio (original author)
? ????:Flag_of_Vargas_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_Vargas_State.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image:VARGAS.JPG, and own work ????????: Ramjar (Image:VARGAS.JPG) ; bayo (SVG
conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_Venezuela_(state).svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Flag_of_Venezuela_
%28state%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: User:Denelson83
? ????:Flag_of_Vietnam.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn/law/vi/1951_to_1960/1955/195511/195511300001 http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/
Lists/Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=820 ????????: L?u Ly v? l?i theo ngu?n tr阯
? ????:Flag_of_Yaracuy_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Flag_of_Yaracuy_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Zulia_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Flag_of_Zulia_State.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Image:Bandezulia.gif, and own work ????????: Afrox (Image:Bandezulia.gif) ; bayo (SVG conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_China.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_
the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ??????, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/
eng/n_flag/design.html ????????: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_Congo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_
the_People%27s_Republic_of_Congo.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Own work, based on Flags of the World - People?s Republic
of Congo, 1970 - 1992
????????: Thommy
18
19
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_Kampuchea.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Flag_
of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_Kampuchea.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 2.5 ??????: Based from Cambodian Flag History ????????:
Zach Harden
? ????:Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://pravo.levonevsky.org/ ????????: ????
? ????:Guarico_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Guarico_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Kukenan_Roraima_GS.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Kukenan_Roraima_GS.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Paolo Costa Baldi
? ????:Laguna_El_Suero,_Sierra_Nevada,_Merida,_Venezuela.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/
9c/Laguna_El_Suero%2C_Sierra_Nevada%2C_Merida%2C_Venezuela.jpg ????????: CC0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????:
The Photographer
? ????:Lara_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Lara_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Medanos-_Coro.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Medanos-_Coro.jpg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Pablo Canache
? ????:Merida_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Merida_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Miranda_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Miranda_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Monagas_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Monagas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Nueva_Esparta_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Nueva_Esparta_in_
Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Portuguesa_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Portuguesa_in_Venezuela.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Salto_Angel_Dry_Season.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Salto_Angel_Dry_Season.jpg
????????: GFDL ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Berrucomons
? ????:Searchtool.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Searchtool.svg ????????: LGPL ??????: http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz ????????: David Vignoni,
Ysangkok
? ????:Sim_bolivar.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Sim_bolivar.jpg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0
??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Manuel-venezuela
? ????:Sucre_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Sucre_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Tachira_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Tachira_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Trujillo_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Trujillo_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Vargas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Vargas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Ve_Anzoategui.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Ve_Anzoategui.png ????????: CC BY
2.5 ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????: ???????? ?? ??????
??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Jolle~commonswiki (??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????).
? ????:Ve_bolivar-escut.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Ve_bolivar-escut.png ????????: CC
BY 2.5 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Jaume Oll�
? ????:Venezuela_(orthographic_projection).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Venezuela_
%28orthographic_projection%29.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Connormah
? ????:Venezuela_Division_Politica_Territorial.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Venezuela_
Division_Politica_Territorial.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: self work, Image:Venezuela politica copy.png based ????????:
The Photographer
? ????:Vladimir_Putin_with_Hugo_Chavez_26_November_2004-5.jpg
????????:
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commons/b/b9/Vladimir_Putin_with_Hugo_Chavez_26_November_2004-5.jpg ????????: CC BY 4.0 ??????: http:
//archive.kremlin.ru/eng/text/images/80257.shtml ????????: Presidential Press and Information Office
19.3
????????
19
? ????:Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. ????????: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006
(UTC) Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally
uploaded by Simon.
? ????:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: AleXXw
? ????:Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Russian Wiktionary ????????: One half 3544, VPliousnine
? ????:Yaracuy_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Yaracuy_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Zulia_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Zulia_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
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? ????:???._?????_?????????.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/f/f0/%D0%A4%D0%B8%D0%B7._%
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D1%8B.png ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Venezuela_Topography.png ????????: Sadalmelik
(??????? ???????: ????? ?. ?.)
19.3. ????????
? Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
???.
9.5. ??????
????????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ? 2007
???? ?? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????,
????????????????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ?
2008 ???????????????? ???????????, ????????????
????? ? ??????. ? ???? 2008 ????? ????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ????? �????????? 21-?? ????�.
12. ????????
?
XVI ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????
???????? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????
?????, ????? ????, ? ???????? XX ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ????
?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????.
9.6. ?????? 2015 ????
????????? ????????? ????????? �??????� ? ?????? ?????? (??????), ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ? 2014-2016 ?? ?????- ????? ?????. ??????? ????????????? ??????????
?? ? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ????- ???????? ???????, ?? ?????, ????? ? ???????.
????????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ????????? ?? ?????
12.1. ??????
??????[24] .
??????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ??????,
?????????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????, ??10. ??????????? ????
??? ? ???????????????? ????. ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????- ?? ? ?????? (????????, ????????? ?? ??????????
?????? ???????? 129 ????? ?????????????? ? ???- ?????), ????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ??????
??????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
??????????? ??:
?????????? ???? ??????? (??????? ??????); ???????,
?????????? ?????? ? 63 ??????;
????????????? ??????????? ??????; ???????, ?????
??????-??????? ???? ? 18 ????? (??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????????????????
??????? ?????? ? 8 ?????);
?????????; ? �??????�, ????????????? ????????????
11
?????. ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???- ?? ?????? ?????-?-????? (1828?1902), ?????????????? ????? (??????) ? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??- ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????.
???? ??????. ?????? ????????-???????? XIX ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ????? ??, ?????? ???????? (1873?1898), ????? ???????
??? ??????????? ????? �?????�, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????.
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??- ?? ?????????? 20 ?. ???????? ???????? ???? ?????
????. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????- (1889?1974). ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???? �????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????
???????? ?????. ????????????? ?????????? ??????????�, ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? (1887?1974). ???? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? (?.
1908). ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
???????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????.
????????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????. ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ???????, ?
????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????. ? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ????????????. ???? ????? ???????? ??12.2. ??????????
??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ? ????????.
? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?
?????? ????????. ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???? (1807?
1865) ? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? (1846? 13. ???????
1892). ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (1865?1917), ????? ?????? �??- ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?
???� (1890). ???????? ??????????????????? ?????- ??????-???????????? ??????, ? ?????? ??????? ?
????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????(1868?1927) ? ?????? ?????? ??????? (1974? ??, ?? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ????1944). ? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???- ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? (1891?1936), ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????. ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ????- ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? XX ???? ??? ???- ???????? ? ?????????. ? ????? ?? ????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? (1884?1969), ???????- ??? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????:
????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ????- �?? ??? ??? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????; ??? ????? �???? ???????� ?????- ??? ????? ? ???????????. ???????? ?? ????, ????????
??? ????????????? ?????????. ??????? ????? ??- ?????????!籟25]
??? (1901?1965), ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ???
????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????. ????? ? 2006 ???? ????????? �?????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????? 20 ?. ?????????? ???????- ?????????? ??????? ?????????�. ?? ????????????
?? ?????? ???? ?????? (1897?1955). ? ????? ?????- ???????? ???????, ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????
?????? ????? ?????? (1908?1985), ????? ???? ??- ?????????. ?????? ? ??? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????????? ?????? �??? ?? ??????, ????? ???- ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????� (1979); ? ?????? ????? ?????? (1906?2001), ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???
????? ?????? ? ??????????
????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ??????- ???????, ???????????
[26]
????????????
.
???????
?? ??????? ?? ????? ??????; ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????
?????????????
????????,
?? ??????? ??????
??? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????
?????????????????,
?????????
??????.
????????????
�??? ?????� (1931).
???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?? ????????? ???????
12.3. ???????? ? ???????????
??????, ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????2008) ??????? ??
?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????- ????????? ?????. ??????? (?? ????[27][28]
?????
.
????
????????
?
?????????
??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? (1724?1787),
???????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????
??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????
? ??? ??????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? ????????. ? XIX ???? ????????- ???????????
????????????
??????
?
12
?????????????. ?????????? ?????????????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????
???? ? 410 ???. ????????[29] . ?????????????????
???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????????
?????????, ??????? ????, ?????????? ???????
??????? ??????? ? ??. ?????????? ??????????? ?
????? ????? 197 ???. ????????[30] . ????????????
??????????? ????????? ?????????? 550 ??????? ?
45 ???. ????????[31] , ?????????? ?????? ? 23 ???.,
???????? ? 7 ???., ??????? ?????????? ? 5 ???.
16 ??????????
15. ??. ?????
? ??? ?????
? ?????? ??????? ?????????
? ?????-???????
16. ??????????
??????????
14. ??????
[1] ????? ????, ? 2015 ???? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ??
??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????? (玍enezuela: a nation in a state�).
? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????. ??????? ?? ??- ??????
??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ????, ??? ??- [1] Maduro appoints Arist骲ulo Ist鷕iz as new Vice????? ????? ?????? ??????: ???? ??? ???????President
?? ? ????????? �??? ?????????�, ????? �???
????�, ????? �??? ??????????� ? ?????? [2] Census.gov. Country Rank. Countries and Areas Ranked
by Population: 2013. U.S. Department of Commerce
�??? ?????�.
? ? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? (9357) ?????????[32] .
14.1. ?????????????? ??????? ????
19 ??????? 2007 ????????? ?????, ???????? ? ?????
????????????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????????. ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?? ?????
????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? 2007
????, ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????
??????? ????????? (? UTC-4 ?? UTC-4:30), ????????
? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ????????????
?? ???????? ???? ? �?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ????????????籟33] .
??????? ???? UTC-4:30 ??? ????????????? ? ????????? ? 1912 ?? 1964 ????[34] .
(2013). ????????? 9 ??? 2013. ???????????? ?? ?????????????? 9 ??? 2013.
[3] Human
Development
Report
2013
(????.).
United Nations Development Programme (2013).
???????????? ?? ?????????????? 13 ??????? 2013.
[4]
[5] �????? ?????????� ? ?????????????? ?????? ????? �?? ? ?????????? ?????� > <META
NAME="description? CONTENT="???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ???????
[6] BBC Russian.com // ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????,3 ??????? 2007 ????
[7] ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? // ??? ???????,14 ??? 2009
[8] ??? ???????//????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????,14 ??? 2009
[9] ???????//????? ????????????, ??????? 2009
??????????????? ?? 24 ???????? 2007 ???? ???????
??????? ??? ??????? ??-?? �?????????????? ???- [10] ?????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ? ??????? ????????
????????? ? ???????? ??????? // ???????????????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????�. ?????? ???????????? ????????. ? 2014. ? ?. 14. ? ?
??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??14. ? ?. 224
???? 2008 ????[35] .
26 ?????? 2007 ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ? 9 ???????
2007 ????[36] .
[11] ?????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ? ??????? ????????
????????? ? ???????? ??????? // ?????????????????? ???????????? ????????. ? 2014. ? ?. 14. ? ?
14. ? ?. 224?225
???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????[12] Venezuela Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation,
?? ????? ?????? ? 2007 ???? ???????? ???????????Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption
????, ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ? �???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? [13] Lenta.ru: ?????????: ????????????: ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
????????????? ???????籟37] .
13
[14] Lenta.ru: ?????????: ????????????: ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ????
[15] 玍enezuela: a nation in a state�, The Economist,
16.02.2016
17. ??????????
? ????????? // ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? : ? 86 ?. (82 ?. ? 4 ???.). ? ???.,
1890?1907.
[16] �????????: ?????? ?? ????? ?????� ??-??-??,
19.05.2015
[17] ???????? ? ?????????: 7 ????????, ????? 130 ?????????. ??????? ?????? ??-??-?? (16 ?????? 2013).
????????? 23 ??? 2016.
[18] ?????? ??????????. ? ????????? ??????? ???? ? ????? ???????. �?????� (17 ??????? 2014). ?????????
23 ??? 2016.
[19] ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????.
�?????� (27 ??????? 2014). ????????? 23 ??? 2016.
[20] CIA ? The World Factbook
[21] ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????????
???????
[22] Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia: Tasa de
homicidios aumenta en Venezuela | Solidaridad.Net
[23] ??????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????
XXI ????: ???????? ??????????? // ??????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? 25: ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????. - 2012. - ? 1. - ?. 107
[24] 玏hat has gone wrong in Venezuela?�, BBC, 19.05.2016
[25] Chavez: 獴isch鰂e sind H鰄lenmenschen� (???.)
[26] ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? �???????????� | ?????? | ???????????? ???????, ???????
???????, ?????????, ?????? ?????? ????
[27] ?????? �???� ? ??? ???????????????? ???? ???
?????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????
18. ??????
? Gobierno en L韓ea ? ??????????? ???? ????????????? (???.)
? Presidencia de la Rep鷅lica de Venezuela ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? (???.)
? Asamblea Nacional ? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? (???.)
? ABN ? Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias ? ??????????? ????????? ????????
? ABN ? ENGLISH VERSION ? ??? ??, ???????????? ??????.
? - MinCI ? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??
???????????? ? ??????????.
? - Venezolana de Televisi髇
? - teleSURtv ????????? �??????� (??????
????????? ????? ????????? ???????).
? ViVe televisora informativa, cultural y educativa
? Radio Nacional de Venezuela ? ????????????
????? ?????????.
? Venezuela?s News Channel
? One of Venezuela?s Radio Network
[28] ???????? ??????? | ??????????????? ????????????
??????? ?????????
? One of Red Youth Radio in Venezuela
[29] ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????
? Venezuela?s Electronic News
[30] Adventist Atlas ? Venezuela
? Venezuela?s Major Newspaper
[31] BWA ? Statistic
? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????
?????? ? ??????? ????????? ????? ?. ?? ???????
[32] ???? ?????? JPL ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????????
??????? (9357) (????.)
[33] ??????????.ru // ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????
???? ??????, 24 ??????? 2007
[34] Time and Date.com // Venezuela: Clocks to be set back
30 minutes on December 9, 2007 (????.)
[35] ??????????.ru // ????????? ???????? ????? ????????
?????, 24 ???????? 2007
[36] Gaceta Oficial de la Rep鷅lica Bolivariana de Venezuela
#38.819 // ?.2 (???.), 27 ?????? 2007
[37] ???????????-?????? ? 38 (742) // ?? ??????????, ??????? ??????, 1 ??????? 2007
? ?????? ? ?????????: ??? ???? ?????????? ?
? ????? ??????????? ?????????: ??? ???????, ???
?????????
? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????. ????????? ?? ?????????
? ?????? ? ??????? �????? ?????�
? ?????? ? ???????? ?. ??????
? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
14
19
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19. ????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
19.1. ?????
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BB%D0%B0?oldid=78545982 ??????: Suisui, Maximaximax, Dana~ruwiki, Torin, Wulfson, Dodonov, Paul Pogonyshev, HedgeBot,
Kaganer, Maqs, Obersachse, Mitrius, YurikBot, A.I., Jannikol, ????? ????????, Roboto de Ajvol, APTEM, Zwobot, Eugrus,
OckhamTheFox, Winterheart, Volkov, JaroslavleffBot, Yuriy75, Anton n, Zimin.V.G., Gpvos, ??????? ??, Koryakov Yuri, LJay,
VanHelsing.16, Alghenius, Kaaa, Lite, Dmitri Lytov, Pauk, Vow, MoonGod, Nekromancer, Nejron, Rodion 4000+, Golddim,
J110, Escarbot, Azh7, ZsergheiBot, Carn, ???? ?? ?????, ????????, Thijs!bot, ??????????, JAnDbot, Alex Spade, V.A.KeRneL,
CommonsDelinker, ZAILTECH, Alex Smotrov, ?????????? ????, Rei-bot, Rave, Nickst, VolkovBot, Latitude, Victoria, Glossologist,
Idioma-bot, Johnny Rotten, TXiKiBoT, Art-top, Orel, Holop, Synthebot, SieBot, YonaBot, Vladimir Nosov, UncleMartin, Loveless,
Viejo~ruwiki, BotMultichill, ?????????? ?. ?., Divine Moments Of Truth, AlleborgoBot, Nickpo, NRozina, Bortorix, Zyz, Alex717,
Kwasura, Mr.BECK, DragonBot, Dkonst, Savinsasha, Jeka3000, ?????? ?????, RoadTrain, OKBot, Volk59, ????????? ????????,
LatitudeBot, Repovesi, Tat1642, SilvonenBot, Vong, Ds02006, Artemka373, MelancholieBot, Longbowman, ??????????? ???????,
Hamelia, Anton vk, AlnoktaBOT, Finnrind, Zorrobot, Louperibot, HerculeBot, Jsg08, AmphBot, LaaknorBot, Amirobot, Lainer
RZD, Luckas-bot, Cherttod, Dim?, Artefact, Lyovchik, Rubinbot, Homoatrox, WindEwriX, Nut1917, Obersachsebot, Kroschka Ru,
ArthurBot, MindfulOfTheGoal, ?????????, Shockzort, Dewaere, Umclidet, Xqbot, GhalyBot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, S.
Korotkiy, DenisKrivosheev, ?????? ?????, The Photographer, Valerytembi4, MastiBot, Rufus Total, Overandaway, Dh?rmikatva,
Boodjoom85, Pericluss, Vity OKM, Central Intelligence Agency, Xws, Kaiyr, Jim Fitzgerald, Kobac, Magnys, VAP+VYK, TobeBot,
Tpyvvikky, KamikazeBot, S Mikhalkov, Antemister, Smiga big, TjBot, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, Adavyd, Kalendar, Sentinel R,
HarDNox, Anna Krav4enko, Gerard, ?????? ???????, Z閞oBot, HRoestBot, Helgi-S, ARumyantseva, ?????07, Centurion198,
Esultanza, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, LarBot, ???????????????, ChuispastonBot, H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, Mjbmrbot, Sparkve,
Movses-bot, Scorpi174, KrBot, Vestnik-64, AZAZET, Paulaner-2011, Bogdanovich Anna, WebCite Archiver, Philip J.1987qazwsx,
SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, ????? ???????, Deus Amadeus, Autumn Leaves, MBHbot, Lerkach, Lasithiotakis, ?????? ?????????, AvicBot,
AvocatoBot, Draa kul, HiW-Bot, Virkato5V, Dutcman, Flomru, Mister-blondin, FoxBot, ?????? ???????, Konstantin Yufa, Inctructor,
?????? ??????, Nikifor5m, ?????????, LioN vlad, Spider197, El Presedente, Stas1995, Shadowxfox, ?????????, ???? ?????????,
RotlinkBot, TheVovaNik, Yurd124, Slivkov vitali, Androsat, ??????? ???????, Pavel Senatorov, DimaBot, ??????? ????????, Citing
Bot, AndreyRussia, ???? ? ????, Avocado is ada, ???? ????????, MaksOttoVonStirlitz, Jallej, Maxoperator, Oranserb 1 ? ??????:
166
19.2. ???????????
? ????:Amazonas_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Amazonas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Anzoategui_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Anzoategui_in_Venezuela.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Apure_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Apure_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Aragua_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Aragua_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Bandera_de_Caracas.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Bandera_de_Caracas.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ISO_639_Icon_es.svg' class='image' title='espa駉l'><img
alt='espa駉l' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/ISO_639_Icon_es.svg/30px-ISO_639_Icon_es.svg.png'
width='30'
height='14'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/ISO_639_Icon_es.svg/45px-ISO_
639_Icon_es.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/ISO_639_Icon_es.svg/60px-ISO_639_
Icon_es.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='400' data-file-height='180' /></a> File:Flag of Caracas-2.png ????????: ??? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????????: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:
Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg' class='image'><img alt='Coat of arms of Caracas.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/thumb/6/61/Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg/20px-Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg.png' width='20' height='20' srcset='https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg/30px-Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg/40px-Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg.png
2x' data-file-width='1213' data-file-height='1202' /></a> Coat of arms of Caracas.svg (?????: Heralder).
? ????:Barinas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Barinas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Bolivar_State_flag.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Bolivar_State_flag.png ????????:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image drawn in w:Macromedia Fireworks by User:Jecowa with the exception of the coat of arms which is
licensed under the GFDL on the commons. Image was flattened and compressed in w:GraphicConveter. ????????: ?
? ????:Bolivar_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Bolivar_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Capital_District_in_Venezuela_(special_marker).svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
????????:
CC
BY-SA
wikipedia/commons/8/83/Capital_District_in_Venezuela_%28special_marker%29.svg
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???????????
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Adobe
Illustrator.
????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
19.2
???????????
15
? ????:Carabobo_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Carabobo_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Cayo_de_Agua,_Archipi閘ago_de_Los_Roques,_Venezuela.jpg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/7/7f/Cayo_de_Agua%2C_Archipi%C3%A9lago_de_Los_Roques%2C_Venezuela.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 2.0 ??????:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/capiotti/6995517673/sizes/o/in/set-72157627378840726/ ????????: Paulo Capiotti
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Aragua.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Coat_of_arms_of_Aragua.
png ????????: CC BY 2.5 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Jolle
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Coat_of_arms_of_Caracas.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????:
? Coat of arms from File:Coat of Arms of Caracas.svg ????????: The Photographer
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_M閞ida_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Coat_of_arms_of_
M%C3%A9rida_State.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????:
? Condor from File:Coat_of_arms_of_Colombia.svg ????????: The Photographer
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Sucre_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Coat_of_arms_of_
Sucre_State.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: ??????????? ??????, derivate work from 1 ????????: The Photographer
? ????:Coat_of_arms_of_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Coat_of_arms_of_
Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 4.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Incendiary Iconoclasm
? ????:Cojedes_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Cojedes_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Commons-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions used to
be slightly warped.) ????????: SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier PNG version,
created by Reidab.
? ????:Delta_Amacuro_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Delta_Amacuro_in_
Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Emblem-important.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Emblem-important.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: The Tango! Desktop Project ????????: The people from the Tango! project
? ????:EscudoMiranda.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/EscudoMiranda.jpg ????????: CC-BYSA-3.0 ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????: ???????? ?? ??????
??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Andr閟 Urdaneta (??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????).
? ????:Escudo_Estado_Tachira.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Escudo_Estado_Tachira.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Unukalhai
? ????:Escudo_Guarico.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Escudo_Guarico.png ????????: CC
BY 2.5 ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????: ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Jolle~commonswiki (??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????
?????).
? ????:Falcon_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Falcon_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Federal_Dependencies_in_Venezuela_(special_marker).svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Federal_Dependencies_in_Venezuela_%28special_marker%29.svg
????????:
CC
BYSA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Federal_dependencies_of_Venezuela?s_Flag.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Federal_
dependencies_of_Venezuela%27s_Flag.svg ????????: CC BY 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Vexilio
? ????:Flag_of_Afghanistan_(1987).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Flag_of_Afghanistan_
%281987%E2%80%931992%29.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ??????. ????????: Orange Tuesday.
? ????:Flag_of_Albania_1946.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Flag_of_Albania_
%281946-1992%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/images/a/al-1946.gif ????????:
Jaume Oll�
? ????:Flag_of_Amazonas_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Flag_of_Amazonas_State.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Anzo醫egui_State.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Flag_of_Anzo%C3%
A1tegui_State.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: own work, loosely based on Image:Escudoanzoa.png ????????: Vmars
(heraldry) ; bayo (SVG conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_Apure_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Apure_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: own work, loosely based on Image:Escudo apure.gif ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Aragua_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Flag_of_Aragua_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: own work, loosely based on image off the web ????????: bayo
16
19
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Flag_of_Argentina.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Here, based on: http://manuelbelgrano.gov.ar/bandera/creacion-de-la-bandera-nacional/ ????????:
Government of Argentina
? ????:Flag_of_Barinas_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Flag_of_Barinas_State.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image:Barinasvlag.png, and own work ????????: Domie (Image:Barinasvlag.png) ; bayo (SVG
conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_Bolivia_(state).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Flag_of_Bolivia_%28state%29.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Brazil.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: SVG implementation of law n. 5700/1971. Similar file available at Portal of the Brazilian Government (accessed in
November 4, 2011) ????????: Governo do Brasil
? ????:Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1948-1967).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Flag_of_Bulgaria_
%281948-1967%29.svg ????????: GFDL ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Scroch
? ????:Flag_of_Carabobo_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Flag_of_Carabobo_State.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Chile.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Cojedes_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Flag_of_Cojedes_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Eudhen
? ????:Flag_of_Colombia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Drawn by User:SKopp ????????: SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_Cuba.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Flag_of_Cuba.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Drawn by User:Madden ????????: see below
? ????:Flag_of_Czechoslovakia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????:
? -xfi-'s file
? -xfi-'s code
? Zirland?s codes of colors
????????:
(of code): SVG version by cs:-xfi-.
? ????:Flag_of_Delta_Amacuro_State.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_Delta_
Amacuro_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_East_Germany.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Flag_of_East_Germany.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ??????
? Gesetz zur 膎derung des Gesetzes 黚er das Staatswappen und die Staatsflagge der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Vom 1.
Oktober 1959
? Verordnung 黚er Flaggen, Fahnen und Dienstwimpel der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. ? Flaggenverordnung ? Vom 3.
Januar 1973
? Verordnung 黚er Flaggen, Fahnen und Dienstwimpel der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. ? Flaggenverordnung ? Vom 12.
Juli 1979
????????:
? diese Datei: Jwnabd
? ????:Flag_of_Ecuador.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Flag_of_Ecuador.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://www.presidencia.gob.ec/pdf/Simbolos-Patrios.pdf ????????: President of the Republic of Ecuador,
Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Falc髇.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Flag_of_Falc%C3%B3n.svg ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????:
? Flag_of_Falcon_State.png ????????: Flag_of_Falcon_State.png: Ninane
? ????:Flag_of_Hungary_1949-1956.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Flag_of_Hungary_
%281949-1956%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????:
? Flags of the World ? Hungary - Historical Flags (1946-1989) ????????: Thommy
? ????:Flag_of_Laos.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Flag_of_Laos.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Drawn by User:SKopp ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Lara_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Flag_of_Lara_State.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Mercosur.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Flag_of_Mercosur.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: SVG implementation of Mercosul-Mercosur/CMC/DEC N� 17/02 ????????: Converted to SVG by
Fvasconcellos (?????????? � ?????)
? ????:Flag_of_Mexico.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Inkscape. ????????: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006
19.2
???????????
17
? ????:Flag_of_Miranda_state.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_Miranda_state.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????:
? Banderamiranda.jpg ????????: Banderamiranda.jpg: Pp-tony
? ????:Flag_of_Monagas_State.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Flag_of_Monagas_State.png
????????: Public domain ??????: Zelf gemaakt door te kijken naar de diverse afbeeldingen op 1 en 2. Originally from nl.wikipedia;
description page is/was here. ????????: Original uploader was Ninane at nl.wikipedia
? ????:Flag_of_Mongolia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Flag_of_Mongolia.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Current version is SVG implementation of the Mongolian flag as described by Mongolian National Standard
MNS 6262:2011 (Mongolian State Flag. General requirements [1]
????????: User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Mozambique.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Flag_of_Mozambique.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: From the Open Clip Art website. ????????: User:Nightstallion
? ????:Flag_of_M閞ida.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Flag_of_M%C3%A9rida.svg ????????:
CC BY-SA 2.5 ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://www.mch.govt.nz/files/NZ%20Flag%20-%20proportions.JPG ????????: Zscout370, Hugh Jass
and many others
? ????:Flag_of_North_Korea.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Flag_of_North_Korea.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_Nueva_Esparta.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Flag_of_Nueva_Esparta.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 2.5 ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Flag_of_Paraguay.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Flag_of_Paraguay.svg ????????:
CC0 ??????: ???? ???? ???? ?? Open Clip Art Library, ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? Creative Commons. ????????: Republica del Paraguay
? ????:Flag_of_Peru_(state).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Flag_of_Peru_%28state%29.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: National Emblems of Peru - National Flag (State) ????????: Republic of Peru - Republica del
Peru
? ????:Flag_of_Poland.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Flag_of_Poland.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: Own work, modified color values by text substitution in the existing file ????????: Mareklug, Wanted
? ????:Flag_of_Portuguesa.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Flag_of_Portuguesa.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Guilherme Paula
? ????:Flag_of_Romania_(1948-1952).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Flag_of_Romania_
%281948-1952%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Alex:D
? ????:Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg
????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Flag designed by ?or?e Andrejevi?-Kun[3]
? ????:Flag_of_Sucre_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Flag_of_Sucre_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Ninane, bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Trujillo_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Flag_of_Trujillo_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_T醕hira.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Flag_of_T%C3%A1chira.svg ????????: CC0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Sparkve
? ????:Flag_of_UNASUR.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_UNASUR.svg ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Own work, based on official emblem provided by UNASUR. ????????: Oficina de Coordinaci髇 UNASUR
? ????:Flag_of_Uruguay.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Flag_of_Uruguay.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: design of the sun copied from URL [1], which was copied by Francisco Gregoric, 5 Jul 2004 from URL [2]
????????: User:Reisio (original author)
? ????:Flag_of_Vargas_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_Vargas_State.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Image:VARGAS.JPG, and own work ????????: Ramjar (Image:VARGAS.JPG) ; bayo (SVG
conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_Venezuela_(state).svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Flag_of_Venezuela_
%28state%29.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: User:Denelson83
? ????:Flag_of_Vietnam.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn/law/vi/1951_to_1960/1955/195511/195511300001 http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/
Lists/Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=820 ????????: L?u Ly v? l?i theo ngu?n tr阯
? ????:Flag_of_Yaracuy_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Flag_of_Yaracuy_State.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: bayo
? ????:Flag_of_Zulia_State.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Flag_of_Zulia_State.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: Image:Bandezulia.gif, and own work ????????: Afrox (Image:Bandezulia.gif) ; bayo (SVG conversion)
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_China.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_
the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ??????, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/
eng/n_flag/design.html ????????: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_Congo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_
the_People%27s_Republic_of_Congo.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: Own work, based on Flags of the World - People?s Republic
of Congo, 1970 - 1992
????????: Thommy
18
19
????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
? ????:Flag_of_the_People?s_Republic_of_Kampuchea.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Flag_
of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_Kampuchea.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 2.5 ??????: Based from Cambodian Flag History ????????:
Zach Harden
? ????:Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.
svg ????????: Public domain ??????: http://pravo.levonevsky.org/ ????????: ????
? ????:Guarico_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Guarico_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Kukenan_Roraima_GS.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Kukenan_Roraima_GS.jpg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Paolo Costa Baldi
? ????:Laguna_El_Suero,_Sierra_Nevada,_Merida,_Venezuela.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/
9c/Laguna_El_Suero%2C_Sierra_Nevada%2C_Merida%2C_Venezuela.jpg ????????: CC0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????:
The Photographer
? ????:Lara_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Lara_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Medanos-_Coro.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Medanos-_Coro.jpg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Pablo Canache
? ????:Merida_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Merida_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Miranda_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Miranda_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Monagas_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Monagas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Nueva_Esparta_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Nueva_Esparta_in_
Venezuela.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Portuguesa_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Portuguesa_in_Venezuela.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Salto_Angel_Dry_Season.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Salto_Angel_Dry_Season.jpg
????????: GFDL ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Berrucomons
? ????:Searchtool.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Searchtool.svg ????????: LGPL ??????: http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz ????????: David Vignoni,
Ysangkok
? ????:Sim_bolivar.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Sim_bolivar.jpg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0
??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Manuel-venezuela
? ????:Sucre_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Sucre_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Tachira_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Tachira_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Trujillo_in_Venezuela.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Trujillo_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Vargas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Vargas_in_Venezuela.svg
????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? Adobe Illustrator. ????????:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email
? ????:Ve_Anzoategui.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Ve_Anzoategui.png ????????: CC BY
2.5 ??????: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ????????: ???????? ?? ??????
??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???????????????? Jolle~commonswiki (??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????).
? ????:Ve_bolivar-escut.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Ve_bolivar-escut.png ????????: CC
BY 2.5 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Jaume Oll�
? ????:Venezuela_(orthographic_projection).svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Venezuela_
%28orthographic_projection%29.svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: Connormah
? ????:Venezuela_Division_Politica_Territorial.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Venezuela_
Division_Politica_Territorial.svg ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: self work, Image:Venezuela politica copy.png based ????????:
The Photographer
? ????:Vladimir_Putin_with_Hugo_Chavez_26_November_2004-5.jpg
????????:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/b/b9/Vladimir_Putin_with_Hugo_Chavez_26_November_2004-5.jpg ????????: CC BY 4.0 ??????: http:
//archive.kremlin.ru/eng/text/images/80257.shtml ????????: Presidential Press and Information Office
19.3
????????
19
? ????:Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg ????????: CC BYSA 3.0 ??????: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. ????????: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006
(UTC) Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally
uploaded by Simon.
? ????:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: AleXXw
? ????:Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Wiktionary-logo-ru.png ????????:
CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: Russian Wiktionary ????????: One half 3544, VPliou
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