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??????????: 12�?00? ?. ?. 61�?00? ?. ?. / Fury�). ?????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ???????12.11667� ?. ?. 61.66667� ?. ?.
??, ????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ? ????????????? ?? ????. ???????????????????? ?? (????. Grenada [?r??ne?d?]) ? ?????????
??????????? ?? ???-??????? ?????????? ????, ????- ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????
??????? ????????.
???? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ? 120 ?? ? 1984 ???? ????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ???????
? ?????? ?? ?????????.
????????????? ??????? ?????. ? ???????????? ????? ? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????
????????????? (NNP ? ???????? ??????? ?????, ???
?????, ??? ???????) ? ????????? (NDC ? ??????1. ???????
?? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????, ?????? ??????). ????? ??????? 1983 ???? ?? ??????? ??? ? ??
?????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ? 1498 ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ???????. ???- ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????-????????. ?????? ????- ???????? ???????. ???????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????- ?? ??? ????????????? ??????.
????, ????? ?????????? ? ???????????.
??????? ?????? ?????? ? 1650 ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????????. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? 1655 ????. ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ??????, ?????
?????????? ? ????????? ????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????.
2. ????????
2.1. ??????????????? ??????????
??????????????? ???????? (???????????), ????????
? ?????? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? II. ??????????? 1763 ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??????- ?? ???????-????????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ? 1779 ????. ???????????? ?????? ???- ?????? ????????????? (?? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ? 1783 ???? ?? ???????????? ????????. ???, ?????????? ?? ???????).
? 1967 ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????????? ????- ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????. ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? (13 ??????, 10 ??????????? ???????-????????????, 3 ? ??????????)
??????????? ???? ???????? ? 1974 ????.
? ?????? ?????????????? (15 ?????????, ??????????
? 1970-? ????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????- ?????????? ?? 5-?????? ????).
???? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????
?? ????? ? ?????? ?????. ????? ???????? ???????- ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????.
????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????- ???????????? ??????:
?????. ? 1979 ???? ????????? ????? ??????????
????, ? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????? (NNP) ? ??????????? ??? ? ???????????????? ??????????, ?????????
???????????; ?? ??????? 2013 ???? ???????? ???
???????-????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????15 ???? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ??????????
?? ????????????? ?? ????? ? ????? ?????????.
?????? ???????? ? ???? ? ?????. ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ???????????-??????????????? ???????? (NDC)
????? ??????????????? ???, ???????????, ??? ????? ??????????-????????????, ????? ????? ????.
???? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????.
? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????
? ??????? 1983 ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????(GULP) ? ????????????????.
??? ??????, ? ????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????????. ?? ???? ?????????????, ????????? ? ??????? ? GULP, ?????
?????? ???????????? ????????? (???????? 玌rgent
1
2
5
?????????
??????? ???????.
2.2. ????????????? ?????????
3. ???????????????? ???????
??????? ??????? ?? 6 ??????? ? ???? ????????? ??????????:
????? ???????
4. ?????????
??????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????.
?????????? ????? ? ???????????. ??????????
????? ??????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????????. ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????
840 ? (???? ????-???????). ??? ?? ??????? ????, ??
????? ?????? ? ??????????.
?????? ???????????, ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??? ?? ???????. ??????? ? ????? 1500 ?? ?
???. ? ???? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ????????. ???????
???????? ??????????? ????? 26�.
???????????????? ??????? ???????
??????:
1. ????-?????
2. ????-?????
3. ????-??????
?? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????.
???????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ???????? ????????. ????????
??? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????
?????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ? ??????????.
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????????, ? ?????????? ????????
???????.
4. ????-????
5. ????-????
5. ?????????
6. ????-??????
???????? ??????????? ????????? ? 88,2 ???.
(1937)[2] ; 103 ???. (1968 ???)[3] ; 100 ???. (1977 ???)[4] ;
????????? ?????????? (??. ???????? ? ???- 107,8 ???. (?????? ?? ???? 2010).
?????????):
??????? ??????? ????????? ? 0,56 % (??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????).
1. ???????
???????????? ? 2,2 ???????? ?? ???????.
2. ???-?????????
???????????? ?????????? ? 11,8 ?? 1000 ???????-
3
??????.
7. ??????????? ????
??????? ????????????????? ????? ? 73 ???? (70 ?
? ??????, 76 ? ? ??????).
? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? 15 ??? ? 26 %; ?? 15 ?? 65 ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???, ??? 65 %; ?????? 65 ??? ? 9 %.
??????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ??
???? ??????????????[7] .
??????? ??????? ? 28,2 ???.
????-??????? ??????:????????????? ?????????? ???? 82 %, ?????? 13 %, ????? ? ??????? 5 %,
? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?
??????????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???? ??????? (???????? ????????????? ?????) ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????
1979 ????, ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????
? 1983 ???? ??????????? ???? ???? ??????????????.
? ???????? ?????? 1985 ???? ??? ???????????? ???
???????: ?????????? (53 %), ???????????? (14 %) ? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????????????????? ????????? (33 %). ?????????? ????- ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????????
????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? 2011 ??? ? 1,68 %.
????????? ? 30 ???????? 1985 ????[8] . ? 1985 ????
??????????? ???? ? ??????????[5] . ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ??
????? ????? ? ????-??????? ??????? ???????????? ????-?????[9] .
?????.
?? ????????? ?? ?????? 1998 ????, ???????????????
??????????? ? 96 % (?????? 2003).
??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????
???????? ?? ??????? (500 ???????)[10] . ? 2010?2011
???? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? (500 ???????) ? ????????????? ????????? ?????? (60 ???????, 4 ?????????? ??????).[11][12]
6. ?????????
?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????,
? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????. ????? ????, ??? ?
1996 ???? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????-???????? ??????????, ????????????
????????? ?????????? ???????????? (The Offshore
Banking Act, The Companies Act ? ??.), ? 1997 ????
???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????
?????. ?? ????????? ?? ????? 2001 ????, ???? ??????
????????? ??????????? 1,2% ???????? ???????????
???????? ?????? (????????? ??????????? ? ??????
????????? 7,4 ???. ????????)[6] .
8. ???????? ? ???????????
8.1. ???????????
? 1853 ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??????????.
? 1976 ???? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?
? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????, ???????????.
????????? ????, ??????????, ???????, ??????????, ?? ????????? ?? 1976?1977 ??????? ???, ?? ????????????? ????????, ????????, ?????.
?? ??????????? 63 ????????? ????? (? ??? ?????, 16
???????????????) ? 12 ??????? ????, ? ????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????.
???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????.
??????? (? 2006 ????) ? 38 ??? ????. ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????, ?????, ????????? ????.
??????? ? ???????? ?? 6 ?? 14 ???. ? 1998 ???? 97,5 %
???????? ?????????? ? ????-????? 16,4 %, ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ???????? ??
11,3 %, ?????????????? 11,3 % (? 2008).
??????? ??????? ????????, ????????, ?????? ??????????? (? 2006 ????) ? 343 ??? ????. ???????????- ??? ?????????, ? ????? ????????????? ???????????
?? ??????????????, ???????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????????
? ????.
??????? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ?????? 43,1 %, ???? ?????? ??????? ? 1990 ???? ??????????? ??????? 24,5 %, ???????? 3,6 % (? 2008).
??? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????,
? ????? ????????[13]
?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ???.
4
10
8.2. ???????? ???????? ??????????
? ? 1915 ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????
(玊he West Indian�, ????? 1,5 ???. ???.);
? ? 1947 ???? ? ????-????????? ???? ??????? ???????????????;
? ? 1955 ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????? (?
????????? ????? ? ??????????? 獹renada
Broadcasting Network�) ? ???????? ??????? ?????? �???????� (玊orchlight�, ????? 2,5 ???.
???.);
? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????????????????? ??????? �?????� (玊he Farmer�).
? ? 1985 ???? ???????? ?????? 玊he Informer� (????? 1,5 ???. ???.)
? ? 1986 ???? ???? ??????? ?????????????
???????[14]
??????
[9] ??????? // ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????, 1986 (???. 30). ?., "????????? ????????????",
1988. ???.239-240
[10] ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? // "??????????
??????? ?????????", ? 1 (610), 1998. ???.46
[11] ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? // ??????????
??????? ?????????, ? 7 (760), 2010. ?. 74
[12] ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? // ??????????
??????? ?????????, ? 7 (772), 2011. ?. 74
[13] Grenada. 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child
Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S.
Department of Labor (2002)
[14] ?????? ????: ??????? ????????-?????????????
??????????. ?., "??????????", 1993. ???.115-117
10. ??????
?
9. ??????????
[1] Human
Development
Report
2013
(????.).
United Nations Development Programme (2013).
???????????? ?? ?????????????? 13 ??????? 2013.
[2] ??????? ????????? ????????????. / ???????., ??. ???.
?. ?. ??????????. 2-? ???. ?.12. ?., ???????????????
??????? ???????????? �?????? ????????? ????????????�, 1952. ???.502
[3] ??????? ????????? ????????????. / ??? ???. ?. ?.
?????????. 3-? ???. ?.7. ?., �???????? ????????????�, 1972. ???.280
[4] ????????? ???????. ????????????????? ??????????
(? 2-? ??.) / ???????, ??.???. ?. ?. ????????. ??? I. ?.,
�???????? ????????????�, 1979. ???.474-476
[5] ?????????????? ????????????: ???????. ?????????
29 ???????? 2012. ???????????? ?? ??????????????
14 ??????? 2012.
[6] Chandima Mendis, Esther C. Suss, Oral H. Williams.
Caribbean Offshore Financial Centers: past, present and
possibilities for the Future. International Monetary Fund
Working Paper. May, 2002. ???.31
[7] ????????? ??????? ????????????. / ???. ?.?. ???????.
??? 3. ?., ?????????, 1977. ???.37
[8] ?The department noted that Prime Minister Herbert
Blaize, elected by a landslide last Dec. 3, had reconfirmed
his government?s wish that the Caribbean and U.S. forces
remain ?until the Grenadian police force was completely
trained?. ?The Grenadian police force will attain full
strength by mid-April, and all its contingents will have
completed training by Sept. 30,""
U.S. Troops to Leave Grenada by September // ?Los
Angeles Times? ?? 7 ??????? 1985
? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? Open Directory
Project (dmoz).
5
11. ????????? ??????? ? ???????????, ?????? ? ????????
11.1. ?????
? ???????
????????:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%B0?oldid=
78652013 ??????: Drbug, Romanm, Robbot, Fleminra, Maximaximax, Evgeny Zim, Yegorm, HedgeBot, Asp, Ustas, YurikBot,
Zwobot, Lt-wiki-bot~ruwiki, Volkov, Cheops, Gpvos, Vald, ??????? ??, LJay, KR, Alghenius, Sasha Krotov, Doomych, DR, Infovarius,
Nejron, Naive rm, Escarbot, ZsergheiBot, ????????, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, ?????? ?????????, Xyctka, CommonsDelinker, Rave,
Nickst, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Deerhunter, Idioma-bot, DeerChum, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, Samvlamix, Synthebot, VVVBot-temp,
SieBot, Vladimir Nosov, Loveless, AlleborgoBot, Nickpo, Klimenok, Bortorix, Czarkoff, CrazyRepublican, Dimitris, DragonBot,
OKBot, ?????? ??????, Alexbot, BOTarate, Volk59, AlanNova, Tat1642, Vong, MelancholieBot, Zorrobot, Jfblanc, LaaknorBot,
Amirobot, AVB, Wanka89, Luckas-bot, Dim?, MstrBot, Rubinbot, Prokurator11, Alexander von Reichstadt, Obersachsebot, Kroschka
Ru, ArthurBot, Almabot, Xqbot, GhalyBot, LucienBOT, Valerytembi4, Makslwow, Rufus Total, Dmitriy01, Anzgar, Pericluss,
Galanthus, VAP+VYK, RedBot, TobeBot, ?????? ?. ??????, ??????? ?????, TjBot, EmausBot, Gerard, Z閞oBot, Basilius von
Poljakow, CocuBot, Ed veg, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, Shadowcaster, ?????, WitcherGeralt, Khvmty, Konstantin Yufa,
Stas1995, Justincheng12345-bot, Cathry, Vqchko, Iich1960, TheVovaNik, Lusine Gr, Stef65, Citing Bot, Maxim182015 ? ??????: 29
11.2. ???????????
? ????:Commons-logo.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg ????????: Public
domain ??????: This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions used to
be slightly warped.) ????????: SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier PNG version,
created by Reidab.
? ????:Flag_of_France.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/de/frankreich_3/frankreich-entdecken_244/
portrat-frankreichs_247/die-symbole-der-franzosischen-republik_260/trikolore-die-nationalfahne_114.html ????????: This graphic
was drawn by SKopp.
? ????:Flag_of_Grenada.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Flag_of_Grenada.svg ????????:
Public domain ??????: SKopp ????????: Drawn by User:SKopp
? ????:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_
Kingdom.svg ????????: Public domain ??????: ??????????? ?????? per data at http://flagspot.net/flags/gb.html ????????: Original
flag by Acts of Union 1800
? ????:Grenada-CIA_WFB_Map.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Grenada-CIA_WFB_Map.
png ????????: Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Grenada_Coat_of_Arms.jpg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/f/f5/Grenada_Coat_of_Arms.jpg ????????: ?????????????? ????????????? ??????: en:File:Grenada Coat of Arms.jpg ????????: ???????
? ????:Grenada_parishes_named.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Grenada_parishes_named.
png ????????: CC-BY-SA-3.0 ??????: Self-made, traced from public domain UN or CIA maps. ????????: User:Golbez
? ????:LocationGrenada.png ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/LocationGrenada.png ????????:
Public domain ??????: ? ????????: ?
? ????:Searchtool.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Searchtool.svg ????????: LGPL ??????: http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz ????????: David Vignoni,
Ysangkok
? ????:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg ????????: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.
svg ????????: CC BY-SA 3.0 ??????: ??????????? ?????? ????????: AleXXw
11.3. ????????
? Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
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