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MATERIALS
CONDUCTORS
SEMICONDUCTORS
INSULATORS
According to their
conductivity that allows
electricity to pass through
them all the materials are
divided into:



Conductors (Проводники)
Insulators (Диэлектрики)
Semiconductors (Полупроводники)
Conductors
Conductors have free electrons — these electrons
are weakly connected with the nucleus and can
move from one nucleus surface to another
nucleus surface under the influence of electric
field. These free electrons have broken away from
their atoms.
Conductors are materials having a very high
conductivity.
The most common
conductors






Copper (Медь)
Aluminum (Алюминий)
Steel (Сталь)
Electrolyte (Электролит)
Carbon (Углерод)
Nichrome (Нихром)
Insulators
Insulators are materials having property to
polarised in the electric field. They have less free
electrons and a very low conductivity. Under the
influence of electric field connected charges
moved to the side of acting forces.
Thus they have a very high dielectric strength and
high resistivity.
The most common
insulators








Air (Воздух)
Nitrogen (Азот)
Polishes (Лаки)
Ceramics (Керамика)
Polythene (Полиэтилен)
Oils (Масла)
Resin (Смола)
Pocelain (Фарфор)
Semiconductors
Half-conductors.
Their conductivity ranges between that of
conductors and non-conductors or insulators. The
conductivity of such metals increases sharply
with heating and falls with cooling.
Besides reacting to the light, semi-conductors
react to all kinds of radiations.
The most common
semi-conductors





Boron (Бор)
Saint (Мышьяк)
Selicon (Кремний)
Germanium (Германий)
Phosphorus (Фосфор)
TEST
Соотнесите:
Conductor
 Insulator
 Semiconductor
 Resistivity
 Property
полупроводник
 Charge
поверхность
 Surface

изолятор
свойство
заряд
сопротивление
проводник








Pass through
проходить
Divide
Connect
двигаться
Move
делиться
Influence
React
Range
Соотнесите:
увеличиваться
реагировать
варьироваться

Вставьте английский эквивалент слову в
скобках:
Conductors (имеют) … free electrons.
 These electrons are weakly (связаны) … with the
nucleus.
 Under the influence of (электронного поля) …
connected charges moved to the side of acting
forces.
 The conductivity of such metals increases sharply
with (нагреванием) ... and falls with
(охлаждением) … .





Дайте определения следующим
понятиям (назовите основные признаки):
Conductors are … . They can …
Insulators are … . They can … .
Semiconductors are … . They can … .
Список литературы:

И.П. Куклина. Energy is the source of life:
Пособие по английскому языку для
студентов техникумов, колледжей.- СПетербург: КАРО, 2002г - 508 с.


http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/esta
tics/Lesson-1/Conductors-and-Insulators
Автор
profobrazovanie
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