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МОЙ ДРУГ КОМПЬЮТЕР 11 2016

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--~
MaccHB He3aBHCHMbiX AHCKOB c ABYMH He3aBHCHMbiMH pacnpeAeneHHbiMH cxeMaMH 'leTHOCTH
11 MeHbWaSl 1136biT04HOCTb. npe11MyW,eCTBa
MToro
TaKOBbl: CKOpOCTb 4TeHI1Sl 11 3ani1C11 AaHHbiX BbiCOKa, a AilS!
C03AaHI1Sl MaCCI1Ba Tpe6yeTCSl COBCeM HeMHOro A11CKOB, BCero
HaAeiOCb, C Bbi60pOM Tl1na MaCCI1Ba Bbl y>Ke cnpaBI11111Cb.
Tpl1. Ho MaCCI1B 3TOrO Tl1na xopow TOilbKO AilS! OAH03aAa4-
V1Mei1Te B B11Ay: eCTb CMbiC11 06beA11HSITb B MaCCI1Bbl T011bKO
HOH pa6oTbl c 60ilbWI1MI1 <jlai11laM11, TaK KaK Ha61l10Aa10TCR
A11CKI1 OAI1HaKosoro o6beMa, np114eM 11y4we OAHOH MOAe1111.
np061leMbl CO CKOpOCTbiO np11 4aCTbiX 3anpocax AaHHbiX
( A11CKaMI1 pa3HOrO 06beMa MO>KeT OTKa3aTbCSl pa60TaTb
He6ollbworo o6beMa.
RA/0-4
KOHTpOilllep, 11, CKOpee BCero, Bbl CMO>KeTe 3aAeHCTBOBaTb
noxo>K Ha RAID-3, HO OTill14aeTCR OT Hero TeM,
1111Wb 4aCTb 60ilbWOrO A11CKa, paBHYIO no 06beMy MeHbWeMy
4TO AaHHbte pa3611BaiOTCR Ha 611oK11, a He Ha 6ai1Tbl. TaKI1M
113 A11CKOB. KpoMe TOrD,Aa>Ke CKOpOCTb stripe-MaCCI1Ba 6yAeT
o6pa30M, YAa110Cb «no6eAI1Tb» np0611eMy H113KOH CKOpOCTI1
onpeAe11SlTbCSl CKOpOCTbiO CaMOrO MeA11eHHOrO 113 A11CKOB.
nepeAa411 AaHHbiX He6011bworo o6beMa. 3ani1Cb >Ke npo113BOAI1TCR MeA11eHHO 113·3a TOro, 4TO 4eTHOCTb A11Sl 6110Ka
reHepl1pyeTCSl np11 3ani1CI1 11 3ani1CbiBaeTCSl Ha eA11HCTBeHHbiH
A11CK. Vlcno11b3YIOTCR Macci1Bbl TaKoro Tl1na 04eHb peAKO.
RAID-6-
3TO TOT >Ke caMbiH
RAID-S, HO Tenepb Ha
Ka>KAOM
113 AI1CKOB Macc11sa xpaHRTCR ABa 6110Ka 4eTHOCTI1. TaKI1M o6pa30M, np11 BbiXOAe ABYX A11CKOB 113 crpoR 11H<jlopMai..\11R see
ew,e MO>KeT 6b1Tb BOCCTaHOB11eHa. Pa3yMeeTCSl, nOBbiWeHI1e
HaAe>KHOCTI1 np11se11o K yMeHbWeHI110 no11e3Horo o6beMa
AI1CKOB 11 K yse11114eHI110 MI1HI1Ma11bHOrO 11X KOill14eCTsa:
Tenepb np11 Ha111141111 n A11CKOB B MaCCI1Be 06W,11H 06beM,
AOCrynHbiH A11Sl 3an11c11 AaHHbiX, 6yAeT paBeH 06beMy OAHOro
A11CKa, yMHO>KeHHOMY Ha n-2 . Heo6XOA11MOCTb Bbi411C11eHI1R
Cpa3y ABYX KOHTp011bHbiX CYMM onpeAellSleT BTOpOH HeAOCTaTOK, yHaCJleAOBaHHbiH RAID-6 OT RAID-S,- HI13KYIO CKopocTb
3an11c11 AaHHbiX.
RAID-7.
CTpyKrypa Macc11sa TaKosa : Ha n-1 A11CKax xpa-
HRTCR AaHHble, OA11H A11CK 11Cn011b3yeTCR A11R CK11aA11POBaHI1R 611oKoB 4eTHOCTI1. Ho Ao6as11nocb HeCK011bKO sa>KHbiX
AeTa11eH, np113BaHHbiX 1111KB11A11pOBaTb r11aBHbiH HeAOCTaTOK
MaCCI1BOB TaKOro Tl1na: K3W AaHHbiX 11 6biCTpb1H KOHTp011nep, 3aBeAYIOW.11H o6pa60TKOH 3anpocos . 3TO no3B01111110
V1 MOM saM coseT: He nbtTai1Tecb CAe11aTb RAID-MaCCI1B 3arpy3o4HbiM. 3TO B03MO>KHO, HO B C11y4ae B03HI1KHOBeHI1Sl
KaKI1X-111160 C60eB B CI1CTeMe BaM np11AeTCSl He11erKO, TaK
KaK BOCCTaHOB11eHI1e pa60TOCnOC06HOCTI1 6yAeT Cl111bHO
3aTPYAHeHo. KpoMe Toro, onacHo pa3Mew,aTb HeCK011bKO
CI1CTeM Ha TaKOM.ny4We Bbi6paTb 11HYIO CXeMy: OA11H AI1CK3arpy3o4HbiH (Haw Bbt6op - SSD) .
noMHI1Te T011bKO o TOM , 4To RAID He naHal..\eR. OH cnaceT
sac oT noTepl1 AaHHbiX np11 r116e1111 BI1H4ecrepa 11 MI1HI1MI1311pyeT noC11eACTBI1SI TaKoro 11CXOAa, HO He cnaceT OT CKa4KOB HanpR>KeHI1R s ceTI1 11 c6oes HeKaYecrseHHoro 611oKa
ni1TaHI1SI, KOTOpbiH y611saeT o6a A11CKa cpa3y, 6e3 Or11SIAK11 Ha
11X «MaCCI1BHOCTb». npeHe6pe>KI1TellbHOe OTHOWeHI1e K Ka4eCTBeHHOMY ni1TaHI110 11 TeMneparypHOMy pe>KI1MY A11CKOB
MO>KeT cyw,ecrseHHO coKpaTI1Tb cpoK >KI13HI1 HDD. 6btBaeT,
BCe A11CKI1 MaCCI1Ba BbiXOASlT 113 CTpOSI, a BCe AaHHble OKa3biBaiOTCSl 6e3B03BpaTHO noTepSIHHbiMI1. n11TaH11e >KeCTK11X
A11CKOB, paBHO KaK 11 BCeX OCTa11bHbiX KOMn11eK'fYIOW,I1X, OT
BToporo 611oKa ni1TaHI1SI, Ha nepBbiH B3r11RA, pean113yeTCS1
npOCTO, HO B TaKOH CXeMe ni1TaHI1Sl HeMa110 nOABOAHbiX
KaMHeH, 11 HY>KHO CTO pa3 noAyMaTb, npe>KAe 4eM peWI1TbCSI
CHI1311Tb K011114eCTBO o6paw,eHI1H K A11CKaM A11Sl Bbi411C11eHI1R
Ha TaKoi:i war. C oxna>KAeHI1eM see npow,e: Heo6XOA11MO
KOHTp011bHOH cyMMbl AaHHbiX. B pe3y11bTaTe yAa110Cb 3Ha411-
1111Wb o6ecne411Tb o6AYB scex BI1H4ecrepos, n1110c He crasbTe
Te11bHO nOBbiCI1Tb CKOpOCTb o6pa60TKI1 AaHHbiX (KOe·rAe B
11X Bn110THYIO Apyr K Apyry. npoCTble npas1111a, HO, K CO>Ka-
nRTb 11 6011ee pa3). np116aBI11111Cb 11 HOBble HeAOCTaTKI1: 04eHb
11eHI110, co61110Aa10T 11x He see. V1 c11y4a11, KOrAa o6a A11CKa
BbiCOKaR CTOI1MOCTb pealll13al..\1111 TaKOro MaCCI1Ba, C110>KHOCTb
s Macc11se yM11pa10T OAHOBpeMeHHO, HepeAKI1. Bnpo4eM,
ero 06C11Y>KI1BaHI1Sl, He06XOA11MOCTb B 6ecnepe60HHI1Ke AilS!
A11SI peweHI1Sl BCeX 3TI1X 3aAa4 Ml1pOBaSI npOMbiWileHHOCTb
npeAOTBpaw,eH11Sl nOTep11 AaHHbiX B K3W-naMSITI1 np11 nepe-
AaBHO Ha11aA111la BbtnycK NAS, TaK 4TO see BbtwecKa3aHHOe
60RX ni1TaHI1R . Macc11s TaKoro Tl1na Bbl BPRA 1111 scrpeTI1Te,
a ec1111 BApyr rAe YB11A11Te ero, ni1WI1Te HaM, Mbl TO>Ke C YAOBOilbCTBI1eM Ha Hero nOCMOTp11M.
6a3e OCHOBHOH MaWI1Hbl.
B OCHOBHOM 11MeeT OTHOWeHI1e K MaCCI1BaM, C06paHHbiM Ha
http://upweek.ru
20
MOVl ,QPYr KOMnbtOTEP. MAVl, 201 6
nK B BOnPOCAX VI OTBET AX
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8 KOMnbJOmepHbtx npozpaMMax u Windows 8poae 6bt cman
pa36upambCR Hennoxo. Ho ao cux nop He 3HGJO HG3HGI.feHue
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nymaJOCb. HaeepHOe, ayMG/0, 6btl10 6bt Hennoxo, eCIIU 8 8GWeM
Jl(ypHGJie 8bl 6bt KpamKO paCCKG3GIIU 0 HUX.
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B KOMnbiO
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pa3beM TPYAHO (eCllH soo6w,e HeB03MO>KHo) noAKlliOYHTb HenpaBHllbHO. Pa3se TOllbKO c noMOW,biO MOllOTKa.
USB
Pa3beMiil Universal
Serial Bus'{USB) npeAHa3HaYeHw All51 nOA KlliOYeHI-151 K KOMnbiOTepy TaKHX BHeWHHX nepH<f>epHHHbiX ycrpOHCTB,
KaK MbiWb, KJlaBHarypa,
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(Skype) Hlll-1 npHHTep.
TeopeTHYOCKH K OAHOMY host-KOHTponnepy USB MO>KHO noAKlliOYHTb AO 127 ycrpOHCTB.
Bcero cyw,ecrayJOT TPH nma USB-pa3beMoa:
- pa3biJ'1 «THn A» : 06bi"'HO npHCYTCTByeT y nK;
- pa3'l:CM «THn B»: o6biYHO HaXOAHTC51 Ha caMoM USBycrpoHCTB~ (eCllH Ka6eJlb CbeMHbiH};
- pa3beM MHHH-USB: 06bi"'HO HCnOJlb3yeTC51 LIH<f>pOBbiMH
BHAeOKaMepaMH, BHeWHHMH >KeCTKHMH AHCKaMH 1-1 T. A.
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noA o¢H1..1HaJlbHbiM Ha3BaHHeM IEEE-1394 CKpb1BaeTC51 noCJleAOBaTeJlbHbiH HHTep<f>eHC, nosceMeCTHO HcnOJlb3YIOW,HHC51
Afl51 LIH<f>pOBbiX BHAeOKaMep, BHeWHHX >KeCTKHX AHCKOB 1-1
pa3llHYHbiX cereBbiX ycrpoHCTB. Era raK>Ke Ha3biBaiOT FireWire
(or Apple) 1-1 i.Link (or Sony). Ha AaHHbiH MOMeHT 400 M6HT/c
craHAapr IEEE-1394 cMeH51eTC51 800 M6Hr/c IEEE-1394b
(raK>Ke H3BeCTHbiM KaK FireWire-800). 06biYHO ycrpoj';jcrsa
FireWire nOAKlliOYaiOTC51 Yepe3 6-KOHTaKTHYIO BHllKy, KOTOpa51
o6ecneYHBaeT mnaHHe. Y 4-KOHTaKTHOH BHJlKH nHTaHHe He
noABOAHTC51. YcrpoHCTBa FireWire-800, c APYrOH cropoHbl,
HcnOJlb3YIOT 9-KOHTaKTHble Ka6eJlH 11 pa3beMbl.
«TIOnbnAH» (CINCH/RCA): KOMn03HTHbllil BH,IJ,EO,
AY.O.HO, HDTV
Pa3beMbl «TIOllbnaH» HcnOJlb3YIOTC51 B nape c KoaKcHallbHbiMH Ka6ell51MH All51 MHOfHX 3JleKTpOHHbiX CHrHallOB.
PS/2
Ha3BaHHble s YeCTb
«crapywKH» IBM PS/2, 3TH
pa3beMbl cerOAH51 WHpOKO
HcnOJlb3YIOTC51 B KaYeCTBe
CTaHAapTHbiX HHTep<f>eHCOB
Afl51 KJlaBHaTypbl 1-1 MbiWH,
HO OHH nocreneHHO ycrynaiOT Mecro USB.
KpOMe TOro, cerOAH51 BeCbMa YaCTO MO>KHO BCTpeTHTb
rHe3Aa PS/2 HeHrpallbHoro LIBera, KaK Afl51 MbiWH, raK 1-1 Afl51
KJlaBHaTypbl. nepenYTaTb pa3beMbl Afl51 KJlaBHaTypbl 1-1 MbiWH
Ha MaTepHHCKOH nnaTe BnOllHe B03MO>KHO, HO HHKaKOro BpeAa
3TO He npHHecer. ECJlH Bbl raK CAenaere, ro 6biCTpo o6Hapy>KHTe OWH6Ky: He 6yAeT pa60TaTb HH KllaBHaTypa, HH MbiWb.
MHOrHe nK Aa>Ke He 3arpy351TC51, eCJlH MbiWb 1-1 KJlaBHarypa
noAKlliOYeHbl HenpaBHllbHO. HcnpasHTb ow116Ky 04eHb npocro:
noMeH51HTe MeCTaMH BHllKH, 1-1 see 3apa6oraer!
HHTEP«PEHC VGA ,o.nSI MOHHTOPA
nK AOCTaTOYHO AaBHO HCnOJlb3yeT 15-KOHTaKTHbiH HHTep<f>eHC Mini-0-Sub Afl51 nOAKlliOYeHH51 MOHHTopa (HD15). C noMOW,biO npaBHJlbHOfO
nepeXOAHHKa MO>KHO :::=:::::::=::::=====
nOAKlliOYHTb TaKOH
MOHHTOp 1-1 K BbiXOAY
DVI-1 (DVI-integrated)
rpa<f>HYeCKOH KapTbl.
11Hrep¢eik VGA nepeAaer CHrHallbl KpacHoro, 3elleHoro 1-1 CHHero LIBeros, a raK>Ke HH¢opMal.IHIO o
ropH30HTallbHOH (H-Sync) H sepTHKallbHOH (V-Sync) CHHXpOHH3al.IH51X.
VGA =VIDEO GRAPHICS ARRAY
HHTEP«PEHC DVI,IlnSI MOHHTOPA
DVI 51Bll51eTc51 HHTep¢eHcoM MOHHTopa, pa3pa6oraHHbiM,
rllaBHbiM o6pa30M, Afl51 LIH<f>pOBbiX CHrHaJlOB, YT06bl He
Tpe6oBaJlOCb nepeBOAHTb LIH<f>pOBble CHrHaJlbl rpa<f>HYeCKOH
KapTbl s aHanoroBble, a 3areM BblnOllH51Tb o6paTHoe npeo6pa3oBaHHe s AHcnnee.
WHpoKo pacnpocrpaHeHHbiH HHTep<f>ej;ic DVH no3BOJ151eT
OAHOBpeMeHHO HcnOJlb30BaTb KaK 1..111<f>pOBOe, TaK 1-1 aHaJlOfOBOe nOAKJliOYeHHe.
DVI =DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE
RJ45 ,O.nSI LAN H ISDN
B cer51x Yall.le scero Hcnollb3YIOTC51 pa3beMbl Afl51 BHTOH
napbl. Ha AaHHbiH MOMeHT 100 M6Hr/c Ethernet ycrynaer
MeCTO rHra6HTHOMY Ethernet (OH pa6oraeT Ha CKOpOCT51X AO
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Ethernet MO>KHO pa3Ae1111Tb Ha ABa B11Aa :
- K11aCCI14eCKI1H naT4 -Ka6e11b, KOTOpbiH 11Cn011b3yeTCSl A11Sl
nOAK11104eHI1Sl KOMnbtOTepa K KOH~eHTpaTOpy 111111 KOMMyTaTopy;
- Ka6e11b C nepeKpeCTHOH 06>K11MKOH, KOTOpbiH 11Cn011b3yeTCSl AJlSl COeA11HeHI1Sl Me>KAY co6oH ABYX KOMnbtOTepoB.
S·VIDEO (HOSIDEN, Y/C)
4-KOHTaKTHast BI111Ka Hosiden 11cn011b3yeT pa3Hble 1111HI111
AJlst stpKOCTI1 \(, stpKOCTb 11 CI1HXpOH113a~l1st AaHHbiX) 11 ~BeTa
(C, ~BeT) . Pa3Ae11eHI1e cl1rHanos stpKOCTI1 11 ~BeTa no3B011steT
AOCTI14b 11Y4wero Ka4ecrsa KapTI1HKI1 no cpasHeHI1tO c KOMno311THbiM 11HTep¢leHCOM B11Aeo (FBAS). Ho B Ml1pe aHa11oroBbiX
nOAK1lt04eHI1H Ha nepBOM Mecre no Ka4eCTBy HaXOA11TCst see >Ke
KOMnoHeHTHbiH 11HTep¢leHc HDTV,3a KOTOpbiM cneAyeTS-Video.
T011bKO ~11¢lpoBble Cl1rHa11bl BPOAe DVI (TDMS) 111111 HDMI
(TOMS) o6ecne411BatOT 6onee BbiCOKOe Ka4eCTBO KapT11HKI1.
SCART
SCART stB11steTcst
KOM611 Hl1pOBaH HbiM
11HTep<fleHCOM, W11p0KO pacnpocTpaHeHHbiM B Espone 11 A31111.
3TOT 11HTep<fleHC C04eTaeT c11rHallbl S-Video,
RGB 11 aHa11orosoro
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YcrCb He nOAAep>t<I1BatOTCst.
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nepeA HaMI1 ~11¢1pOBOH MY11bT11MeA11HHbiH 11HTep¢leHc
A11st Hec>KaTbiX HDTVCI1rHa110B c pa3peweHI1eM AO 1920x1080
(111111 1080i), CO BCTpOeHHbiM MeXaHI13MOM
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npas Digital Rights
Management (DRM) .
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HDMI =HIGH DEFINITION MULTIMEDIA INTERFACE
SERIAL ATA (SATA)
SATA stB11steTcst noCJleAOBaTenbHbiM 11HTep¢leHCOM AJlSl noAKllt04eHI1st HaKOni1Te11eH (B OCHOBHOM
>KeCTKI1e AI1CK11) 11
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CTaHAapT Serial ATA
nepsoro noKoneHI1st
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MaKC11ManbHast A1111Ha Ka6enst cocrasnsteT 1 MeTp. SATA 11Cnonb3yeT nOAK11t04eHI1e «T04Ka-T04Ka», KOrAa OA11H KOHe~
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BTOpOH - K >KeCTKOMy A11CKy. ,D,on01lHI1TellbHble ycrpOHCTBa K
3TOMY Ka6entO He nOAK1lt04atOTCSl, B OT1111411e OT napall11eJlbHOrO
ATA, KOrAa Ha Ka>KAbiH Ka6enb MO>KHO «sewarb» ABa npi1BOAa.
TaK 4TO HaKon11ren11 «master» 11 «slave» yXOAstT B npow11oe.
ATA/133 (PARALLEL ATA, ULTRADMA/133 HnH E·IDE)
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HaKOni1TeneH (CD
11 DVD) 11 o6parHO. 0Ha 113BeCTHa
KaK napanne11bHast
ATA (Parallel ATA)
11 cerOAHst ycrynaeT Mecro noC11eAosarellbHOH
ATA (Serial ATA).
nocneAHstst sepCI1st 11cnonb3yer
40-KOHTa KTH bl H
npOBOA C 80 >K11JlaMI1 (nonoBI1Ha Ha «3eMntO»). Ka>t<AbiH raKoH Ka6enb no3BOnsteT nOAK1lt04aTb MaKCI1MYM ABa HaKOni1Tellst, KOrAa OA11H
pa6oraer B pe>t<I1Me «master», a sropoH - B «slave». 06bi4HO
pe>t<I1M nepeKntOYaercst c noMOUJ,btO He6onbWOH nepeMbi4KI1
Ha HaKon11rene.
ATA =ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ATTACHMENT
AGP- ACCELERATED GRAPHICS PORT
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ner AeCstTb
Ha3aA 6onbWI1HCTBO rpa¢l114eCKI1X KapT
s nollb30BarenbCKI1X nK
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np11MeHstercst 11HTep¢leHc PCI. Bnpo4eM, Ha 3aMeHy o6o11M
11HTep¢leHcaM AaBHO np11wen PCI Express (PCie).
PCI EXPRESS: nocnE.D.OBATEnbHASI WHHA
PCI Express (PCie) stB11stercst cospeMeHHbiM 11HTeplf>eHCOM
Allst rpa¢1114eCK11X Kapr.
PCI H PC I-X: nAPAnnEnbHbiE WHHbl
PCI stBnstncst craHAapTHOH WI1HOH AJlst nOAK1lt04eHI1st nepl1¢lep11HHbiX ycrpOHCTB. (peA11 HI1X MO>KHO OTMeTI1Tb CeTeBble
KapTbl, MOAeMbl, 3BYKOBble KapTbl 11 nnaTbl 3aXBaTa B11AeO.
PCI =PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONN
http://www.thg.ru
- 22
;_
MDIII APYr KOMnbtoTEP, MAVl, 2016
/ nK B BOnPOCAX VI OTBE;TAX
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nepewii: cpnewKa Sandisk Extreme usb 3.0 16 GB. Pa6o-
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Aeno He'IHC!t). PblllCSI B HHeTe, pe3yllbTaToe HeT 1-1111-1 ecTb, HO
A/lSI MeHSI HeT. Ba3MO>KHO, 'ITO-TO CBSI3aHO C KOHTpOilllepOM,
KaK 6bl npoeepHTb, y3HaTb. 4To nocoeeTYeTe?
Bmopoii: rapHHTypa ArcticP614 BT, naAKflJO'IeHHe K
caTOBbiM HAeT Ha ypa. Ho HY>KHO noAu.enHTb K HOYTY. ConpSI>KeHHe J.1AeT HOpMa/lbHO, BHAHa B naHe/11-1 ynpaBfleHHSI.
Ho He BHAHa B ycrpoi:1creax eocnpaH3BeAeHHSI (Bb16paTb
no yMOil'laHHIO He'lero, KpaMe craHAapTHbiX AHHaMHKae),
COOTBeTCTBeHHO, HeT 3ByKa OT nneepa J.1 npoHrpbiBaTeflSI.
CraBHil npory Bluesoleil, 3apa6oTano, Ho xoTenocb 6bl
o6oi:1TJ.1Cb cpeACTBaMH Windows 1-1111-1 MeHee TSI>KenoeecHoi:1
nporpaMMbl - B HeH MHOrO cpyHKLJ,J.1(:1, KOTOpble He HY>KHbl.
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http://chajnikam.ru
WWW.nOnE3HARKHVIr A.PCD
•••
31
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pa60Tbl npoueccopa. noAp06HyiO HH<j>OpMaUHIO 0 Hei1
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http://pcpro 1 OO.info
32
MDVI APYr KOMnbiOTEP. MAt/!. 2016
••••
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33
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HaSI sepci1SI spoAe Dr. Web Cure It! 111111 Kaspersky Virus
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Removal Tool (a nyYwe- YTO-To HanoA0611e Rescue Disc
speMSI Ae!laeT CKp11HWOTbll1 ompaBJISieT 11X 3liOYMbiWJieHHI1KY.
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