close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

81.Практикум по решению задач на практических занятиях по дисциплине Основы проектирования энергооборудования часть 2

код для вставкиСкачать
.·/ ':
,-
i :- .
MHHHCTepCTBO CeJ1bCKOrO X03l1HCTBa H npOJIOBOSlbCTBHll
Pecnyfinaxa
6enapYCb '
Ylfpe)l(,lleHHe 06pa30BaHHlI
" I>EJIOPYCCKHH rOCY,llAPCTBEHHhIH ArpAPHbII1 TEXHH4ECKHH
YHI1BEPCHTET"
Arp03HepreTHQeCKHA
+aKYJlLTeT
3J1eKTpoo60PYJloB~UtHJl
CeJ1bCKOX03JdiCTBeHHbIX npennpaarait
KatlJeJlpa
nPAKTHKYM
no peweHHIO laJUlQ
H8 np8KTHQetKHll laHIITHRX
no llHCUHnJJHHe
« O eH ORbi npOCKTHpOBBHHIl :m ep r o ooOPYJlOBa HHII»
JlSlll CnellHaJlbHOCTH
1-7406 05
«3uepreTHlleCkoe
06ecnelfeHHe CeJ1bCKOX0311HCTBeHHOrO npoH3BOJlCTBa))
QaCTb
MHHCK
2
2004
~
PaJpa60TaJlH
A.K. 3aH6cpOB, .llOUCHf,
E.H:. JhtUKCBH'I, CT. npenonasarens.
flpaKTHK}'M "8JUleTC" nO.llC06HblM MarepHa..'10M nns npalITH'IeCKHX 3a""TH H
no
.llHCUHnnHHe
«OCHOBbi
npoCICTHpOB3HH"
eueproooopynoaanns»,
.llllll
C3MOCTOllTcnbHOh nO.llrOTOBKH npH H3}"1CHHH ornensasrx sonpocos .llHCWlnmtHbl,
3 T3hC .llll" HCnOnh30BaHHlI npa KypcOBOM H .llHWlOMHOM npoCKTHpOBaHHH.
B
'I3CTH
peweHHlI 33.ll3'1
2
np3KTHKYM3 .ll3Hbl Hco6xo.llHMble Cnp3BO'lHbiC MaTCpH3Jlbl .llllll
N!! 1,2,3,4,5,6
npaKTH'IecKHM 33JUlTH}lM»
Ilpuaenenu cnocofiu,
H
7
(B COOTBeTCTBHH co «C60pHHKOM 33,ll.3'1 K
no HaJBaHHOH .llHClI,HnnHHC
npHeMbI, nocnenoearensuocrs
(IirATY,
2002r.) .
peureaas 3THX sana«,
nOKa33Hbi oraensusre KOHKpeTHbiC npHMcpbl .
flpalITHKyM paccaorpea aa 33CC.llaHHH COBCT3 arpoaaeprerasecxoro
<PaK}'nbTeTa &rA TY H peKOMeH,llOBaH K yTBep>KAcHHlO H H3J{aHHIO
(nporoson N!! 11
OT
28 anpena 2003 r.).
3anatIa N2 1
Haxana no paJpa60TKe npOeKTOB CHJ10BOrO
)JleKTpoo6opy~oBaHHR.
1. 06IUHe nOJlO)l{eHHJI
6
2. nOCJJeJlOaaTe1lbHOCTb peWeHHJI
2.1.npHHl.\UnUaJIbHllJI 3JleKlpU'leCKWI cxeaa ynpaanenas
6
2.2.Hane)I{HOCTh 3J1eKlpOCHa6)1(eHHJl. Y CJJOBHJl oKpy)l{3IOlUeH cpenu 7
2.3.Bblno.1JHeHHe nnana pacnOJlO>KeHHJI
.
8
2.4 Bsmormeaae axcoaoaerpasecsoro xepresca 'lp3CCbl
3J1eKlponpOBOJlKH. Crpyxrypaas cxeua 3J1eK1pH'leCKOH cern
13
2.5.BbIn01lHeHHe cxeMbI nOJlK1JIO'IeHHH
14
2.6.BbI6op anexrpoofopynoeaaas
16
- J:f. ITOJlClJeT nO'lpe6HOCTH B xarepaanex Jl]IJI 3J1eK1:pOnpOBO,ll.OK
16
2.8.MapKHpoBKa 'lepTe)l{eH CHJIOBOrO 3JleK1:pOo60pYJloBaHuJI
16
3ana'la N2
2 CYMMHpoo8HHe 3JJeMeHTapHhlJ. rpa4lHKoo 3J1eKTpHliecKHJ.
HarpYloK
3ana'la N2 3 Pac'Ie-r 3JIeKTpH'IecKHX HarpyJOK MeTO,/{OM
TeXHOJIOm'lecKoro rpa4tHKa
1. 06IUHe nOJlO)l(eHHJI
2. Ilpeasaperensaue pa60Tb1 nepea nocrpcenaex r3H
3. ITOPJlJlOK nOCTpOeHHJI r3H
.
4. Onpeneneaae OCHOBHblX noxaaarenea rj>aqIHKa
5. Onpeneneaae nexoropux npyrax nOK33areJ1eH rpacpHKa
6. Ilpauep pacsera nOK3J3Te.neH no rpa$HK}'
7. l1>0PMaJJH30BaHHblH cnocofi nOC'lpoeHHJI rpa4>HKa
18
20
20
21
22
24
26
29
3anatIa N2 4
Pac'Ih 3JIeKTpH'IecKHJ. Harpy30K MeTO,/{OM
3cM»eKTHBHOrO 'IHCJJa 3JIelITponpHeMHHKOB
(MeTO,aOM ynOpR,I{O'leHHblx ~HarpaMM) '
1.06UlHe nOJlOlKeHHJI
2.IToCJle.llOBaTe1lbHOCTb pacsera
2.1. Ilonrorcearensasre patiora
2.2. Bunonneaae paC'IeTOB
2.3. Onpeneneaae paC'IeTHOH MOUlHOCTH JJlaHHJI (uexa)
2.4. Pacseruarpyaox nO.llCTaHUHH
Pacxeraue K034>$Hl.\HeHThJ KM H cos ljl / tq ljl
3Ha'leHHJI K p Jl]IJl nHT3lOIUHX CereH
KpHBble.llJ1Jl onpenenenas Kp
3HatIeHHJI Kp aa WHHax HH rpaacdopaaropoe
3Ha'leHHJI
ua WHHax 10 (6) KB PIT H JTITI
06p33el.\ BblnOJlHeHHJl pacsera
x,
3
30
32
32
33
39
40
42
46
47
48
48
49
3lUla'la
N2 5 Pacser
:UIeh.,.p H'lIeCK HX narpysox
aHaJlltTH'lIeCKHM
50
METOjlOM
3lUlalJa
N2 6
Pacser JJleKTpHlIeCKHx uarpyaose MeToJ\oM
51
K03c1Jlj)HQHeHTa cnpoca
3lUla'la
N!! 7 Onpeaeneaae pacxeraon
MOUlHOCTH H
c os <p
anexrpo-
YCT8HOBKH no nOK8J8HHHM H)MepHTe.rJbHblX npH60poB '
52
55
JIHTepaTYpa
Ilpanoxeuae A .
YCJlOBHble rpa!f>lilJeCKlie 0603Ha'leHliH OCHOBHblX JJleMeHTOB
B npliHlllinliaJJbHblX :m eKTPH'IeCIOl X cxesrax ynpaanenas
• YCTpoHCTBa KOMMYTallHoHlIble If KOHT3KTHble coenaneuus
-
56
Y CJlOBHble 0603Ha'leHIDI BocnplfHHMaromHx '1aCTeH
:m eKTPOMeXa HH'leCKliX yCTpOHCTB
61
- 0603Ha'leHHlI npasonoa H CBH3eH OCHOBHblX HeJ JleKTPH'IeCKHX
,naT'lHKOB TeXHOJlOrH'IeCKHX napaMeTpoB, npHMeHHeMbix .
B JJleKTPH'IeCIOlX cxeuax
Ilpanoxeaae Ii
62
YCJlOBHbJe rpa!f>H'IeCKHe H306palKeHHH
JJleKTPOO60py,noBaHHlI H npOBO,nOK na nnaaax
TIpHJlOlKeHHe
B Cnocofiu
Ilpanoxeaae
r
MOHTalKa anexrponpoaonox
64
72
Hcxonasre .llaHHble .llJljl pacxera :m eKTPII 'IeCKHX
HarpY30K lKHJlblX ,nOMOBIi o6melKHTHH
80
82
ArIa enpam
Conepxaaae l-il '1aCTI1 'I1KYMa
I . CHCTeMaTlI3aUI1JI 3J1elCTpoTeXHI1'1eCKOH nponYKI1HIOBHblC napaaerpu
3neKTPoo60pynoBaHHJI
2. KJlaccH!j>HlCaUHJI BHeWHHX YC.qOBHii ripa 3Kcnnya13nelCTpoo6opynollBHHJI
3. KnHMaTH'IecKoe acnonaeaae 3neKTpOO60pYJlooaHlTeropHH pll3MellleHHJI
4. CTeneHH3Bl.\lHTbI3neKTpOo60pynoBaHHlI, o6ecne-.tble o60no'iKaMH
5. McnonHeHHJI 3neKTpOO60pYJlOBBHHlI no cnoco6y /.lIC8
6. Knaccll!j>HKallHlI3J1elCTpoyCTaHOBOK, nOMellleHHii;.soonCTO
7. Hexoropue peKOMeHlIal1HH no Bbl60py 3neKTpOoooaHHJI no KOHCTpYICTHOHblM
4
6
10
14
17
20
napauerpass B CeJJbCKOX03lliiCTOeHHbIX 3J1elCTp0YBK3X
25
8.BooAHo-paCnpeAeJlHTeJJbHble yCTplNiCTBa (BPY)
28
8. J 06Il1He nonOlKeHHJI
28
8.2 OCIIOBHble THnbl BPY. HCIlOJIble B 3neKTp0YCTaHOBKlIX
29
8.3 Kparxas xapaxrepacraea HaH6IaCTo npHMeHlIeMbixycrpcacre . 30
BP~
JlPJ
JUBI
un
~
35
lIP
38
rIP ;
42
.,4)
Jlareparypa
TIpHnolKeHHe A BNoop HCnOJlHeHHii 3neKTpOTexHHX H3AeJJH" no ycnoBHlIM
oKpylKalOllleii cpenbl npa 3KCnJI}'lI Ha o6beKTax ATIK
TIpHJJOlKeHMe 6 Crenena 3aUlHTbI annaparoe H YCTB, 06ecne'lHBaeMble
o6ono'lKaMH. Mll 3JIeKTpoYCTaHOinpJlll<eHHeM JlO 1000 B
TIpHJlOlKeHHe B TepMHHbI H onpeAeJJeHHJI
An$aBHTHbIH YKll3aTeJJb TepMHHC
5
30
32
33
34
44'
46
, 54
62
Ha~ana
nOpaJpa60TKe npOeKTOB CnnOBOrO 3neKTpoo6oPYAOBaHHH
1. 06mHe
Ilpennaraeaas aanasa saasercs
nOJIO>KeHH1I
nO.lJ.rOTOBHTeJIbHOH K nOCJIe.lJ.)'IOUleMy
BbIDOJIHeHHIO
3nel<TpOTeXHHlfeCKHX
'lep-re)!(eH
pasnena
CHJ10BOro
:m eJcrP0060pY.lJ.OBaHHJI 3.lJ.aHHH H coopy)!(eHKH B KYPCOBblX H AHruIOMHblX
npoexrax, a TalOKe B peansnoa npakTHlfeCKOH pafiore.
3a.na'la sxmosaer:
- noaropesae paaee npoaneuaoro MaTepHana (4-" KYPc) no BbmOJIHeHHIO
npHHllHnHanbHblx anexrpavecxax cxea ynpaaneaaa ;
- saspennenne nonyxeaasrx JHaHH" no TeMe «KOHCTpYKTHBHble napauerpu
3nel<TpOo60pYAOBaHRlI» (KJIHMaTHlfeCKOe HCnOJIHeHHe, xareropna paaaemenas,
erenenn 3aUlHThI, o6eCnelfHBaeMble 06oJIo'lKllMH, cnocofi MOHTa)!(a), no THnaM
06oPY.lJ.OBaHH" .
Kposee Toro, B aanase paCCMaTpHBalOTCJI He H3y'laeMble paaee aonpocsr
TeopHH npoeKTHpOOaHHlI
canosoro
3neK1poo60PY.lJ.OBaHHlI 3,llaHHH
H
coopyxeuaa. ,llalOTCli nepsasuue nOHlITHlI 0 nnaaax npOJ1300ACTBeHHbIX 3AaHHM
H nJIaHaX pacnonoxeuas B 3,naHH}1X 3JIeJcrPoTeXHH'leCKHX YCTpOHCTB, annaparoa,
npH60poo, H3,lleJIHH H npyrax OH,llOB 3JIeK1poo60pY.llOBaHHJI, acnomayeuux npa
paspaforxe
npaauanaansaux cxea ynpaanenas, a TalOKe aonpocu
3J1eKTpOCHa6lKeHH}1 3J1eKrponpHeMHHKOB H ynpaBJIeHHJI HMH (cxeuaue pemeaaa
H OCHOObl BblnonHeHHlI lUIaHOO 3JleKrpOnpOBO.lJ.OK).
OAHOH H3 OCHOBHblX UeJIeH .lJ.aHHOii 3Ma'lH }1BJljJeTClI npaotiperenae
HaOblKOO lfTeHH}1, a TalOKe HaBblKOB BblnOnHeHH}I lfepTelKeii no canoaoay
3J1eKrpoo60pYAOBaHHIO. 3TH HaBbllCH
0 3HatfHTeJ1bHOii CTeneHH 6Y.llYT
oOCTpe600aHbl npa peuieaaa HH)!(eHepHhlX BonpOCOB, xoropue 0 nanbHeihlleM
BC1pCTlITCli npa KypCOBOM H ,nHruIOMHOM npoesraposaaaa, a raiose 0 peansuoa
npaKTHlfeCKOii ,nellTeJJbHOCTH aa npOH3BO,llCTBe - no BblnonHeHHIO cxea, no
paspafiorxe MaHOO pasaeuienaa :meICTpO060PYAOBaHHlI H 3JleJcrPH'leCKHX ceren
H
.lJ.P.
2. nOCJle.lJ.OBaTeJIbHOCTb peureuaa
06beM sonpocoe, nonnexanmx paCCMO-rpeHHIO npa peuresau sanasa,
onpenenea nepelfHCJleHHblMH B ycnoaaa (CM. «C60pHHK sanas...») nYHKTaMH
nonpasnena «rpefiyercs».
Peuieuae He06xo,nHMO
BbinOJIHJITb B yKaJaHHoH nOCJIe,nOBaTeJIbHOCTH no
nYHKTaM C npOCTaHOBKOH HOMepoB 3THX nYHKTOB (3THM KOHKpeTH3HpyeTc1I
06beM OTBeTOB aa aonpocst saaasa, ofinerxaerca caaonposepsa H CTOpOHH1I1I
npoaepxa).
6
2.1. TIpHHl.\HnHaJlbHalI anecrpasecsaa exeaa ynpa811eHHJI
BHa~aJIe Bbl~epttHBaeTCJI
npuH~UnU8J1bHaH
:)JIeKTp U'IeCIC8H
cxessa
ynpaBJIeHHH 311eKTpOnpHeMHHKoM B pe)\(HMe pafioru, onpezreneanoa yC.'lOBHeM
sanasa:
Cxesra 8bl~ep'lHBaeTCJI B COOTBeTCTBHH C -rpe60BaHHJlMH, H3JIOlKeHHblMH 8
«MeTO.D.H'leCKHX YKa3aHHJlX
K KypCOBOMy
npoexry» . no
J.\HCUHnJlHHC
«TIpOeKTHpOB8HHC 311CKTpo060p Y.llOBaHHJI» (4-H xypc), nATY, 2000 r.
TIPH paapafiorxe cxeasi cneayer:
- cxeay BbJnOllHHTb nonaok (noxaasrsaerca H CHJlOBalI '1aCTb cxeuu, H L1enH
ynpasnesas);
-
-
npasecru Hco6xoJlHMble Ta611HUbI nOJlCHJlIOWHX Ha.nnHceH (nna uenea
ynpaBJ1eHHJI H npn He06xo.llHMOCTH AllJl CHJlOllOH '1aCTH cxeuu);
«Ilepeseas 3.'leMCHTOll CXeMbI» (CM. npanoxeaae ,[l) BblnOllHHTb . B
ynpouieaaoa BHJle (ynpouienae TOllbKO AllJl ]l3HHOH sanasa), a HMeHHO:
n03Hl.\HOHHOC 0603Ha'lCHHe annaparos,
HaHMCHOllaHHe annaparoa (6e3
neranasauaa TeXHHtteCKHX naaaux), KOllHtteCTBO. Ilepesens BblnOJlHHTb C
nonpaanenaua,
yKa3b1BaIOWHMH
anpeca
pa3MemeHHJI
annaparos:
«ycranaenasaerca ua wKalllY» H «no Mecry»;
BbInOJlHHTb MapKHpoBKY l.\eneH(Y31loB) KaK CKJlOBOH ~aCTH cxeau, TaK H
nenea ynpaeneuas.
C uermo OTpa60TKH HaBbIKOB cxexy peeoueaayerca aunonuars «OT pyxn»,
T.C. fie3 npHMCHCHHJI '1cpre>KHblxHHcTpyMeHTOB (aKK)'PaTHO, 'IeTKO).
2.2 . Ha.nC)\(HOCTb 311eKTpOCHa6lKeHHlI .
Onacuocrs :meKTponOpa)\(CHHJI.
YClIOBHH OKpy)l(aIOmeH cpenu
TIo Ha3Ha'leHHIO 06'bCKTa onpenenars xareropmo no CTeneHH 06ecne'leuHH
Halle*HOCTH :)JIeKTpocHa6*eHHH.
Onpenenars, K KaKHM nOMeUieHHJlM OTHOCHTCJI npoexrapyeaoe 3JlaHHe .no
onaCHOCTH aneserponopaseeuas.
Orrpenenars KJIaccHlIlHKal.\HOHHYIO xareropmo nOMeweHHH no YCJ10BHSlM
oKpy*alOmeii CpeJJ.bI (no BlI3)1(HOCTH, no reaneparype, no cOJ.\ep)l(aHHIO nblJlH H
arpeCCHBHbIX cpen), 06paTHTb ocofioe BHHMaHHe, He OTHOCHTCli lIH 06'bCKT K
noxapo- KJlH aapuaoonacaux (eClIH «na» - onpenemrn, xareropmo).
TIPH 3TOM HCIIonb3YlOTCli MaTepHaJlbl neKl.\HH H npaKTHqeCKHX 3aHlITHH no
lIHCUHnJlHHe
«OCHOBbi
npoexrapoaauas
sneproooopynoeanaa»
(CM.
«ITpaKTHKyM.. . , xacrs I.), a TaK*e MoryT 6blTb npasnesenu npyrue HCTO'lHKKI1
(nanpavep, TeXHH'IeCKalI rnrreparypa, crannapru, MaTepHaJlbI no .nI1Cl.\Hll1IHHe
«3JleKTpOCHa6lKeHHe CeJIbCKOrO X03'1HCTBa»).
TIPH onpeneneaua KaTeropHH Ka)l(lIYIO H3 HHX 060CHOBaTh CCblJIKOH na
llCTO'lHHK.
2.3 . BblnOJIHeHHe nnaua pacnOJIO:lKeHHSI
2 .3.1 . 06mHe 1pe60BaHHJI K no.nOCHOBe 'lepTelKa.
nonocaoson
paspafiarsraaeracro
nnaua
paCnOJIOlKeHH.lI .
3JIeK1poo6opY.AOBaHIDI H 3JIeK1pOnpoBO.ilOK nOHHMaIOT '1epTe:lK nJI8HHpoBKH
3~aHHSI, BKJIlOlJIDOmHH erpoarensaue peWeHHJI (c nOKa30M CTeH, .ABepHbIX H
OKOHHblX npoeaoa H zrp.). Ha nOllOCHOBe nOKalblBIDOT TaK:lKe TeXHOnOrH'leCKOe,
CaHTeXHHlJecKoe H npyroe 060PYllOBaHHe HHlKeHepHoro ofiecneseana, na 6ale
KOTOpblX paapafiarsrsaerca :meK1pOTeXHH'leCKaJI tIaCTb npoesra.
DPH pemesaa 3al1atIH Heo6xollHMO BbmOJIHHTb nonocsosy nnaaa 3,llaHIDI no
3CKH3Y, npaseneuaovy B sapaaare 3MaHIDI. TIollOCHOBY BbmOJIHHTb TOHKHMH
JIHHIDIMH (:meK1pOTeXHHLJeCKHe peureans BbfnoJIHJlTb ooJIee TOJICTblMH JIHHHRMH).
Ilon
TIPH 3TOM:
BbllJePTHTb
8 xacurratie, noxasars BHy1peHHHe crena
nJIaH 3,ll3HHJI
(neperopoaxa), .nBepHble H OKOHHble npoeasr ;
- noxasars KOOP,llHH3llHOHHbJe OCH 3,llaHHJI (UHcPPOBble H 6yKBeHHble) ;
- npOCTaBHTb pa3Mepbl 3,llaHHJI - ra63pHTHbJe H Me>KOCeBble;
- nOKa33Tb TOHKHMH nHHHJlMH KOHTypbJ TeXHOnOrnqeCKOrO H nposero
060py.nOB3HHll (B nepsyio oxepens, 3JIeK1pHcPHUHpoBaHHoro 060PYllOBaHHJI, a
He3JleK1pHcPHUHpoBaHHOro 060py.noB3HHJI - no Heo6xoJlHMOCTH).
2 .3.2.
Paauemeaae 3neK1po06opY,llOB3HHJI H3 nnaae
A). CH3Qana na nOllrOTOBJIeHHOH nOllOCHOBe nOKa3b1BaIOT 3JIeKT}'>onpHeMHHKH (3D) H npaeonsr HX 06111He X3p3KTepHCTHKH: cPYHJ<UHOHaJIbHOe uaanaseaae
(3TOT napaxerp npaKTHtIeCKH acerna 'lHTaeTC" no yCJlOBHOMy rpacPH'leCKoMy
0603Ha'leHHIO), HOMep no nJI3HY H MOmHOCTb. BblnOJIHJIJOT l TO nYTeM
rpacPH'IeCKHX H306palKeHHH H 6YKBeHHo-uHcPPOBbiX 0603Ha'leHHii.
Ha TeXHOJIOrH'IeCKOM ofiopynoeaaax
nOKa3blBIDOT
pacnOJIO>KeHHe
3JIeK1pOnpHeMHHKa npH6nH3HTeJlbHO B peansnou eroaecre pacnOnO>KeHIDI.
ComaCHO
fOCTy 21.614-88
«l-b 0 6p a>KeHH" ycnosusre rpacPH'leCKHe
3JIeK1poo60pYllOIlllHH" H DpoBO.nOK aa nnaaax» (CM. npHJJOlKeHHe 6) OCHOBHble
3JIeKTpOTeXUHLJeCKHe ycrponcrsa nOKa3bJBaIOTCJI aa nnaae Clle.uyJOmHMH
.
ycnOBHl>IM rpa!pHLJecKHM 0OO3HaQeHIDIMH (YrO):
o
31leKTpOllBHr3TeJTh
3JIeK1poHarpeBaTe1lbHOe yC1pOHCTBO -
rrm
(JlHaMe1p
5...6 MM )
Ilocne naaeceaaa rpacPH'leCKOrO H306palKeHHJI
:m eK1po np HeMHHKY
npHCBaHBaeTCJI HOMep H YKa3blBaeTCJI ero MOmHOCTb. TIPH 3TOM pexoueaayerca
HCnOJIb30BaTb HOMepa, npaaeneaaue B 33,llaHHH - UH!ppoBble (1, 2, 2 .1, 2 .2 II
T.A.) Hl1H 6YKBeHHo-UH!ppoBble (aanpnuep, «Bl», «B2», «TIl» H T.n.). Haanacs
BbmOJIHJleTCli B BH.ne .np06H, B 'IHCJIIITeJIe KOTOpOH npOCTaBJI.lIeTCJI HOMep no
nnany, a B 3HaMeHaTe1le - MOmHOCTb B KBT. 3Ta aanacs p33MemaeTCJI aa nOJIe
8
seprexa
PAAOM C rpa!jJH'IecKHM H306paJKeHHeM
anexrponpaeauaxa
TaK, 'IT06b1
0,lUf03HallHO 'IHTaJIaCh 06IIJ.M XapaKTepHCTHKa 3TI.
I
TIpHMeph1 :
03:0
E). Ha nnaae pa3MeIIJ.aJOT annaparsr, YCTaHaBJIHBaeMble «B poccum,», TO
ecrs
He
aa
IIJ.HT3X.
npHHUHnHaJIhHhlX
aa nnane
meM
3To nYCKllTeJJH, KHonKH. nocrsi ynp3BJ1eHH1f - 1J)I1f npocTbIX
cxeu (06b1'1HO no cxeau C MeCTHblM peJKHMOM ynpaaneuns).
p33MeIIJ.aJOT
IIJ.HTbI ynpaBJIeHHJI :m eKipo npHeMHHKaM H HJIH
rpynnaaa 3JIeKTpOnpHeMHHKOB (1fIIJ.HKH. WXa4>bI, nyJIhTbl) C YeTaHOBJIeHHblMH aa
HHX armaparaaa (nYCXaTe1llIM¥. XHonxaMH, nepexmosarensan, CHrHaJIbHblMH
JIaMnaMH H T. A.)
-
Ilpnssexauae.
1J)IR 60nee CJlOllCHbiX
cxex.
mHm ynpaBJIeHHR (RIIJ.HXH, WKa!jJbI,
TOIJXH 3peHHR HX KOMnJIeKTaUHH
nynsrsi,
nonpasaeneor na
eTaHUHH) C
WJe,nYIOIIJ.He
BHAbI :
- nOCTIlBJIJleMbie KOMnJIeKTHO C TeXHOJIOrH'IeCKHM o60py,noBaHHeM ;
- H3rOTaBJIHBaeMble no HIUUfBH,lJ.YaJIbHblM 3aK83aM
aa
3JIeKTpOTeXHH'IeCXOH npOMblUlJIeHHOCTH. (lJepreJKH
33BO.llaX
aa
06IIJ.He
BH,nbl UIHTOB BblnOJIIDIlOTCR O./lHOBpeMeHHO C pa3pa60TKOH
OCHOBHoro KOMnJIeKTa lJeprelKeA
OCTaJIbHble lIepreJKH -
npoexrapyessoro
3,naHHJI,
no OTAeJIhHOMY 33X33Y);
- cepHHHO BblnycxaeMble 3JIeXTponpoMblwneHHoCThIO H
npHMeHJIeMble B
npoexrax
.nJIR ynpaBJIeHHR 3neKTpOnpHeMHHxaMH
6e3 xaKHx-nH60 CYIIJ.eCTBeHHblx nepepatioros.
OpH pa3MeIIJ.eHHH 3JIeKTpo060pY./loBaHHR
33Aaqe
aa nnaae pacnOJIOlKeHHR B AauHOH
nsyx PpHaHTOB H3 MHOllCeCTB8
He06xoAHMO paCCMOTpeTh He MeHee
803MO)lQfblx
(nosasars 2
XOHxypHpylOIIJ.HX
aapaaera).
OCHOBHOH H3 3THX BapHaHTOB (OllTHMaJIbHblH, no MHeHHIO HCDOnHHTeJIR)
BbillOJIHHTb
.ycnoamsx
B
H306p8)KeHHJlx
armaparos
H
anexrponposonox
no
craanapry,
00 BTOpoMY
eapaaary noxaaars
(:meKTPOnpo80AXH
He
TOJIbKO p33MeIIJ.eHHe :m eKTpo060p YAo BaHHR
fu06paJKeHWI
3TOfO
060py,nOBaHHR
BbinOJIHHTh ynpoIIJ.eHHO - TaK, IJT06b1 IJHTaJICJI 3aMblceJI
asropa
no pa3MemeHHIO
3JIeKTpOO60pYAoBaHHR B
nOXa3b1BaTb).
xoaxypapyiomea eapaaare, HanpHMep, TOlIKOH H Pll./lOM
C HeA 6yxBeHHo-UH!f>poBoe o6ooHalleHHe.
TeXCTOM
aa
CBo6o,nuoM nOJIe lIepreJKa nORCHHTb OCHOBHble peWeHHJI no
BTOpoMY BapHaHT)'.
OOKa33Tb
ua nnaae
Meem YCTaHOBKH BPY H PTI (no HCXO./lHblM ./laHHblM
3lUI.a'lH).
armaparu, YCTaHaBJIHBaeMble aa crenax, BbllleplJHBaIOT aa
2...3 MM OT JIHHHH CTeHbI, '1T06b1 MO>KHO 6b1JIO B npoMeJKYTKe
nosasan, rpaccy anexrponpoaonsn (npaxep - ua pacynxax 1.1 a H 6 ).
mHThI
H
paCCTOllHHH
9
:' ;
..
,Anll aCHOBHora BapHaHT3 ycnoanue 0603H3lJeHHJI OCHOBHblX annaparoa aa
nnanax
B COOTBeTCTBHII
npHnOlKCHHC
C
rOCT 21.614-88
cnCJlYlOmHC (OCT3J1bHbIC -
CM.
Ii):
illY
Cd
llIHT
ynp3BJlcHHJI (IlIKa¢, JlIlIHK, nynsr, CTaHQHJI H T.Jl.) C annaparasm
illY, .}lY, flY, CY H T.A.
BY, BPY, PI1) ;
(6yKBCHHbIC 0603Ha'lCHHll nns HHX -
HJlH JlJjJl
IlIIIT0B p3cnpeACJlCHHJI 3JlCKTP03HcprHH I1pHMC'IaHHC.
Ilonyceaerca JlJjll ycnoaaoro
rpaqlH'IecKoro 0603Ha'lcHHJI
IlIHTOB ynpaBJIcHHJI H pacnpenenarensaux IlIHTOB npHMCHJlTb
HMCIOIlICCCJI
B
craanapre
ofiutee
'0 6 0 3Ha'lCHHC
0
3JleKTP0TeXHH'leCKHX yCTpOHCTB, a HMeHHO
~QF2
nns
(QF);
aBTOMaTH'leCKHH BblKJIlOqaTeJlb
KM1
!ZI
(KM);
:m eKTpoM ar HHTHbl H nYCK3TeJlb
SBI
lDJ
nOCT KHonO'IHblH AByx3JleMeHlliblH
(SB).
PeKOMeHAaUHH no 6yKBeHHoMy 0603Ha'iCHHIO lUIITOB ynp3BJleHHJI .
HCnOJlHHTCJlb anpase npHMeHHTb mo60e H3 ofinrenpaaarux 0603H3lfeHHii
IlIHTOB H CTaHUHH ynpaBJIeHHJI. Onnaxo B nensx CAHHo06pa:ulJI H otinersenas
lJTeHHJI
cxea
6yKBeHHoMy
H
nnaaoe
0603Ha'iCHHIO
pacnonoxeaas,
xorna
MOlKHO onpenenars
yJKC
TOJlbKO
no
OL\HOMY
OCHOBHblC ¢YHKUHOH3J1bHbIC
Ka'lCCTBa WHTa, 3 3H3lJHT H nOHlITb 3aMbICCn HCnOJlHHTeJIJI,
pCKOMeH.o.yCTClI
YCJlOBHO ll(lITbl 0603H3Q3Tb cne.o.ylOllIHM 06pa30M :
LUY -
IlIKacPbl ynpaBJICHHJI . 3T0 ll(HTbI ynpaBJlCIIHJI, KOTOPbIC, KaK npasano,
H3rOTa8JIHB3IOT
no
HHAHBHJlY3J1bHbIM
33K333M
(B
npOCKTe
aa
3TH
ll(HTbl
eunonuaerca 33JlaHHe 3aBOAY-H3roTOBIITeJIIO);
SlY-
JlIlIHKH ynpaBJICHHlI. 3T0 llIHThI ynpaBJlCHHJI, nOCT3BJ1J1CMblC
KOMnnCKTHO C TCXHOJlOrH'ICCKHM 060PYAOBallHCM H YCTaHa8JIHBaeMblC 86n8311
TCXHOnOrH'ICCKOrO 060PYA0B3HHJI (ua nony, Ha creaax, H3 CTOHKax H T .n .);
SI -
JlIlIHKH ynp3BJleHHJI . 3To IlIHThI ynpaBJICHHJI, H3rOTa8JIHBaCMblC CCPHHHO,
H3npHMCp, JlUlHKH THna
.}l5000. LlnJl
TaKHX IlIHTOB ynpaaneaaa 33JlaHHJI 3300AaM-
H3rOTOBHTCJlJlM B rrpoexrax He BblnOnHJlCTCJI;
ny -
nynbTbI ynpasneuaa . ftO IlIHTbI ynpa8JICHHJI, nOCTa8JIlieMbIC
KOMnnCKTIIO C TCXHOJIOrH'IeCKHM 060pYAOBallHCM H YCTaH3BnHB3eMble 8 MHorHX
cnyuasx Ha caMOM TeXHOJIOrH'ICCKOM 060pYJlOBamm ;
CY -
lUcy
CTaHUHH ynpa8JICHHlI. AHaJIOrHlfHO
UlHT
CTaHUHH
illY
ynpaBnCHIIJI .
H
.}lY;
06bl'lHO
CCpHHHblMH 6nOKaMH H (H J1H) nauenauu y n p a sne n a s .
10
OHH
KOMnneKTYIOTCll
2.3.3.
Bunonneaae anexrponpoaonox
rIpOKJ1a.nKy anesrporrposonox
B .;:laHHOH aanaxe
BbInOnHHTb TOJ1llUlli
OCHOBHo r o B3pHaHTa pCWCHHlI .
Buseprnn, rpaccu anexrponpoeonox KO scea
H npoeonxa
ueneti yrrp3BJ1CHIUI.
esre
Tpaccu BbInOJJ B
OllHOJlHHeHHOM ucnonaenaa. KOJJHlfeCTBo Ka6eneH, nponoscennux Ha~OM
ysacrxe Tpaccbl, nOK33b1BaCTCR aa BblHOCHOH nHHHH C nonxoa (nome H3
KOTOPOH (KOTOpbIX) 33rrHCblBalOT
aouepa Ka6eneH. Bunocaueaaa
pexoxeanyerca BbllTOJIHRTb non OCTpblM yrnoM (aunonueuaue noa yr90°
3n. nOK333Tb H .
npOBO./lKH,
33lfaCl-yK> 3aTpy./lHRIOT lfTeHHe
flHHHH
xepreaca).
3JleKTponpOBO./lOK
.
aa nnaae asmonaart,
TOJUUHHOH B
60nbwcH TOJIUlH Hbl,
lJCM TOJlUlHHa JlHHHH no,nOCHOBbI (TO
«)J(HpHOH»
Ananoru-mo
annaparu
nHHHcH).
BbllfCplJHBaTb
H
see
ecrs
3)333
BbllJ6aTb
3neKTpOTCXf.KHC
H YCTpOHCTBa.
flHHHH 3J1CKTpOrrpOBo,nOK
BbllTOJJHRTb B COOTBCTCTBHH CO CTaH,n.IMH
0603Ha1JeHHJlMH (CM . npHJ10)J(CHHC B).
rpacca
ECJlH
npoxonar no CTeHe , TO OHa iaue
aa paccrosaau 1,5 .. .2 MM OT JlHHH:Hbl.
Ka6enbHoH .ilHHHH (mlHHH)
1l305pa)J(aCTC.lI J1HHHCH, npOBc,nCHHOH
npoxnanse rcpaaoaransaux Tpacc 3ncKTponpOBO./lOK BblCOTa HX OlBHlI
nona 06bllfHO npHHHMaCTcli pasaoa 2,5" .3 M (uHOr./la - 60nee 3-x MCTpI
Ilpa aeprnxansaoti Tpaccc ):10 BbI ~OTbl 2 M OT nona (.AlIli npoaasonorsrx
rIPH
3./l3HHH)
Ka6enb
.aOJl)J(CH
6b1Tb
3alUHlUCH
OT
MCXaHHlfCCKHX
xopofie, 3amHw aCTCSI YTonKoM H T .n.)
TIpHMepbr o503HalfcHHSI rpecc nOK33aHbl H3 pHCyHK3X 1.1 a),
pacynxax 1.2 H 1.3.
nOBpHHH
(npOKJ1a.nbIBaCTCli B Tpy6c, B
+
+
I3HI
~
aa
5), a
e aa
6eJl.lI
nponoxeiu xa(IHI,3HI,7H2), nanee no .rpacoens
7H2
OTBCTBJlJICTCJl Ii naer no
./laHHOM Y'I3CTKe Tpaccbl
npyrok ce
IHI
7H2
~
PHCyHOK
3neKTpOnpOBO!lKa K )J1eKTpOnpHeMHHKy,
B rpyfie,
1.1.
nposnansreaeuaa
nOK33bIBaCTClI OOlUH M H306pa)J(eHHeM
(co 3HalfKOM
0
-
na ysacmony
CITJlOWHOH roncroiureii
nan J1IlHHeH). KaK npaBHJ10, cnycx anexrponposon 3TI
ocymecTBJI.lIeTCJI B MeCTe, rne rpacca B nony no snexrponpneuanyner
II
KpaTttaHUJeH (nepneanaxynsp K nHHHH CTeHbI).
Heo6xo.llHMOCTH,
aanpasrep, npn
06opY.llOBaHHe MH npH
ofixone
B
OT.lleJIbHbIX cnysasx rrpa
o6xo.n:e <PYH.n:aMeHTa
non
TeXHOnOnf'leCKOe
060PY.llOB3HHl1, He HMelOwero <pYH.ll3MeHTa, HO
aa nony H npensrcrsysomero npOXO)K)J.eHHIO anexrponposonxa,
aunonamor He non npl1MblM yrnou, 3 IUlaBHblM 06XOAOM npelUlTCTBHl1 .
yCTaHOBJIeHHoro
Tpaccy
3neKTpOnpoBO.llKy K nepeABHlKHblM 3TI (HeCTIllViOHapHblM).
HMelOTCl1 B yMOBHH 33,U3lJH,
0603Ha'leHHjIX no
rpefiyerca
ecna
TaKOBble
ycnoanux rpa<pH'IecKHX
Ha pacynse 1.2 6 npasenen
nOK333Th B
craanapry, T.e . BonHHCTOH
nHHHeH.
npaaep TaKoro H306palKeHHjI (noK33aH <pparMem). TIPH 3TOM nano YK3JaTb H
peureaae snexrporrposonsa - na CneUHaJIbHblX JlOTKax. ua
aa CneUHaJIbHOM .nepeBl1HHOM lK~06e, H3rOTaBJlHBaeMOM CTpoHTeJJl1MH
KOHCTpyK'rHBHoe
rpoce
M~
no 3a.ll3HHIO
Ilpa
anexrpaxoa.
Bep1'HKaJIbHbIX
anexrponpoeonxax - nepexone npoaonxa
aa npyryio , uanpauep, xepea nepexpsrras,
OTMeTKH
npOBO,llOK HMelOT
cneuaansaoe rparpauecxoe 0603Ha'leHHe Ha OTM.
3.000
C O.nHOH
nepexonu rpacc
CM. npHJJOlKeHHe Ii.
3TH
no cTeHe
na nOTICe 6e3 xpennesaa
Ha JIOTKe
B 3allIHTHOU Tp}'fie
.n.mrna rp> 0,2 M
B nony Ha oTM .~O .lOO M
(s rpy
-
B eosnyxe •
M
0,8 M
B MeTaJJJJ0pYK3Be -
0,3 M)
a)
fH6KHM Ka6eJIeM
B,lle eBjlHHOM lKeno6e
6)
PHCyHOK
1.2.
TIpHMepbl H306palKeHHjI anesrpootiopynosanaa H
3JIeKTponpOBO,llOK aa nnaaax
12
2.4.
BbInOJIHeHHe asccaouerpasecxoro
xepreaa
TPaCCM3JIeKTponpOBO~KH
AKCOHOMerpHIO BblllOJIHlITb ~1I HQu60Jlee npomsoceuuoa JIHHHH 3JIeKlpO-
nposonxa. lJepTe>K BbInOJIIDIeTCli
no o6paJuy,
npaeenennoay na pacyaxe 1.3.
\U<:
O.JOO (1l~0 K 1)
II fi.ll3cnl3CCOBoii T
0'01. -
PHCyHOK
1.3. Ilpaaep BbInOJIHeHHlI axconoaerpaa TPaCCbl
npoexuas CeTH, BbInOJIHeHHalI ~11
nerxo H HarnMHO n03BOJIlIeT nepeara K
CTPYJrrypHalI cxeaa anesrpasecxoa CeTH.
AKCOHOMerpHlleCKalI
3Il,
HaH60JIee
CTPYKTYPH3S cxeM3 lJ1eKTpH'leCKOH cera -
Ka6eJIbHOH JIHHHH
KaKOro-JIH60
onaoro
HOBOMy nOHJITHIO -
3TO rpaqlH'lecKoe H306pa>KeHHe
(cxeua) :m eKTp H'leCKOH CeTH 3JIeKTponpHeMHHKa HJIH rpyrmu 3Il, naiouree
oouree npencraaneaae 0 KOHqmrypaUHH (COCTaoe H CB1I31JUtMeiK,lly OT.nenbHblMH
3JIeMeHTaMH) anexrpasecxon CeTH .
CTpYKlYPHalI cxeaa onpenenser OCHOBHble <PYHKUHOHaJIbHble 'laCTH cera H
HX B3aHMOCB1I3H.
BbInOJIHlIlOT CTPYKTypHble
cxexsr c
1I0MOll.{bIO
oomenpaasrux rpadnorecxax
0603Ha'lemdi.
Ilpaaep CTPYKTYPHOH cxeMbl cern
Ilonpotiaee 0 crpyxrypaux cxeuax -
2.
nocnenyioumx sanasax.
npaeenea Ha pacyaxe
B
13
1
5T
PHCyHOK 2. CtpYKTYPH311
2.5. Bsmonaeaae cxeMbi
cxeaa
311eKrpH liecKoH cern
3DI
nO.zu<JlIO'IeHHH
Ha cxeuax nOJlKlllOlfeHIDI ncsaausaxrr see BHeWHHe 311eKTPH'IeCKHe call3H
UlHTOB ynpaeneaas C 311eKTPoo60Py.noBaHHeM, ycraaoanenasns BHe LUHTa, a
TaKlKe coeAHHeHHlI sroro o60pYAOBaHH'i MelK,llY co60H.
Flpa BblnOllHemm cxeM I1CnOllb3Y1OT MOHTIDKHble CHMBOllbl annaparos H
H3.nenHH (CM. MeTo.nH'IeCKHe YKaJaHH'i K xypcOBOMy npoeKTY no .nHC~HnnHHe
«Ilpoexrapoaauae 311eKTPo060Py.nOBaHHlI» 4-H xypc).
CHMBOnl>l HaH601lee 'IaCTO ynOTpe61111eMbiX armaparos npnseneuu H3
pHcYHKe 1.4.
~QQQ§
l~ ~
000
nYCK3Tenb
311eKTpOM3rHHTHMH
Bsnonosarens
3BTOM3THlfeCKHH
Doer ynpaaneaas
(KHonK3ynp3BneHHR)
PHCyHOK 1.4.
MOH13JKHbie CHMBOllbl ornensnux armaparos
npHMepbl asmonnenux cxeu nOJlKJllO'IeHHlI rtpaseneasr H3 pacyaxax
I~
1.5 H 1.6
OT
Pfll - - - ,
8H2
ABBr 5x2,5
8H3
ABBr 5:<2,5
o
o
o
8
3,0
PHCyHOK
1.5.
8K4
AKBBr
3 5:<2,5 ·
7
SB8
TIpHMep BLlnOJlHeHHJl cxeMLl nO.lllCJ]lOqeHHJl)JJUI cnyqall
yCTaHoBKH annaparos ynpaarreaas no MecTY (6e3 unrra ynpaaneaaa)
XT
KM
2H3
ABBr4X651
3m
PHCyt\OK 1.6.
PE
TIpHMep BblnOJlHeHIDI
cxeasr
nO.l1KJ11OqeHIDI )JJUIcnyuaa
yCTaHoBKH annaparos ynpaaneaas B lUHTe ynpaBJIeHHJI
15
Ha CXeMe B yCJIOBHOM xoarype mara ynpaaneaas nOKa3bIBaIOTCJI TOJIbKO
KJleMMHHKH (pll.llbI Ha60pHblX 3a)l(HMOB) H nycxarena,
Ka6eJIH OT 3)l, K3K
npaBHJIO, nonsmosaiorcs HenOCpeACTBeHHO K nycxarensx, MHHyliK.rleMMHHKH.
IIpHMep peansaoa CXeMbI nOAKJllOlJeHHlI npasenea H3 pacyaxe 1.7.
2.6: Bsifiop :m eKTP0060pY.lloBaHHJI
3neKTpO.!lBHfaTenH, armaparsi
H ycrpoacrea B .naHHoH sanase Bbl6paTb
TOJlbKO no KOHCTPYKTHBHblM .napaseer pass (Bbl60p 3JIeK1poo60pYAoBaHHlI no
::lneKTporeXHHlJeCKHM napaseerpaa He lIsnJleTCJI uenuo .naHHOH 3a.nalJH H 6Y.lleT
paCCMOTpeH npa pemeaaa ztpyrax aanas). •
Bufiop no KOHCTpYKTHBHblM napasserpaa 3aKJlIO'IaeTCJI B onpeneneaau :
- KJlHMaTH'IeCKOfO HCnOJIHeHHJI;
- KareropHHpaJMemeHHlI;
- creneHH 3amHTbl, 06eCne'lHBaeMOH 060nOlJKOH;
- cnocofia MOHTa)l(a (,WIll 3J1eKTpH'IeCKHX MawHH).
..pe6YeTCJI YKa3aTh cepmo
HllH THn npausrux
KpoMe rofO,
anexrponaararenen H annaparos.
2.7. Iloncxer norpetiaocra B MaTepHanaX,WIlI 3JIeKTponpOBOAOK
Ilporsxeaaocrs anexrponposonox onpenenserca 3aMepaMH scex Y'laCTKOB
TpaCC no lIeprelKY nnaaa pacncnosceuas C Y'JeTOM npausroro MaClUTa63 (B
HCXO.nHblX AaHHblX npHBeAeHbI paaaepu Me)l(J:ty OClIMH 3AaHHlI).
Ilpa JroM He06xoAHMO Y'lHTblBaTb cnycxa-nonseau KaOOneH, yKJllUlKY HX B
nenonayio HaTJI)I(KY no Tpacce, 06XO.!lbl crpoarensaux KonOHH H T.n. B o6meii
norpe6HOH ,WIHHe Ka6enll cneziyer YlJeCTb orrpeaeneaaoe KOnH'IeCTBO ,WIll
JaBO.!lKH Ka6enll B uurr ynpaenenus, a TaK)I(e nOTpe6HOCTb onpeneneaaoa ./l..lJHHbJ
aa asmonaeaae pasnenox Ka6enJl aa o60Hx era KOHuaX.
YKaJaTb MapKH npansrux CHllOBblX H KOHTpOJIbHblX Ka6eneii H '1HCJIO )l(HJI .
Cesenae )l(HJI YKa3aTb ,WIll KOHTpOJIbHblX Ka6eJIeii (,WIll CHJIOBblX Ka6eneH - B
.llaHHOH aaaase YX33b1BaT1> cenenae He Tpe6yeTClI).
AHanOrHlJHO nO.!lC'IHTbIBaIOT nOTpe6HOCTb CTaJIbHblX H nnaCTMaCCOBblX Tpy6,
ecna OHH npe.nyCMaTpHBaIOTCJI (rtpa peuremra 3a.naliH nars 06OCHOBaHHe na
npaueneaae cmam-uux Tpy6) .
lIOTpe6HOCTb MeTaJIJIOKOHCTpyKUHH - JIOTKOB, CToeK, nonox, np0KaTIiOfO
MeTaJIJIa H T.n. - B .naHHoH 3a.na'le npHBeCTH OueHO'lHO (nars ofiuryto ,WIHHY, sec
HJlH KOJIH'IeCTBO 003 .neT3JJbHOfO nonpasneneana aa KOHKpeTHble rsnu).
2.8. Mapxaposxa '1epre)l(eH canosoro 3JIeKTpoo60pY.llOSaHHlI
qeprelKY npHc~~H~ Mitf~·ii·~ooj~e;c~~H~ ~~~Ili>A.TY
nyHKT 3.5.4. na 19~H C$lHHue'CTaH.na\')Ta).
. .
,
t
i ...
~ t"· _~."'· ' . '
.»,......
~,
· "·
~
. ....-:
... .
.
':. .: .."
_
_. .
~ -
--_. "._
-. ~
01.11-98
(CM.
IIIKa<jJ
n aSneH lllI
J],a'NHk
onycxaHHJI
KOHC'!-
Pacnpeaenosopora J\Ieren.
M CXllHH3M
WswpJlJ\lca
Jle6e.zI-
Hwli
kll
awJCJDO'IllTCII.
3 nclrrpO3BOHOk
mlGl4J
3&-50
Poeerxe
MecntOr~
ocsemeHHJI
B pe llCHMe«sarpyaxa» pa6oTaJoT MexaH H3MbI 2 H 4.
B pelKHMe « SblrpY3K1l>I - 2"3.
Mexa HH3M I lla60Taer B noBTOIlHO-KJ)&TKOBpeMeHHOM oeJI(HMt;:
PHCyHOK 1.7. Cxeaa n~KJlIDtu~liIDI pacnve.!len~pa:mIlV3qHKa
ctliiluKa T\mh ·pre~:50-6 · :~ra
11
CyMMHpoBaHHC 3JICMCHTapHblX rpaljlHKoB 3JICKTpH'ICCKHX narpysox
Peuienae 3TOH He60nbwoH 3a;J.a'!lt asrnonuaerca nepen TeMOH npaxraxecxax
3aHlITHH «Onpenenesae pacxerusix 3JleKTpI1'leCKltX uarpysox MeTOJJ.OM
TeXHOnOrH'leCKOrO rpadmxa».
Ka)l(Jl.OMY CTYJl.eHTY BblJJ.aL'TClI I1HJJ.HBHJl.YaJIbHbIH BapHaHT 3a;J.a'!H. Ha
peureuae OTBOJJ.ItTCli 20 ... 25 MHHYT.
YcnOBHe
aan ax a
Ja.n.8HO: JJ.Ba aneaearapanx rparpaxa 3H (.llJI1I 2-x 3neKTponpHeMHHKoB).
Tpe6ye..-CH:
I . Ilpocyuuapoaars rpaljlltKH npn cnenyiourax ycnoaasx:
to= 0 (3neKTpOnpHeMHHKH BKJIIO'IaJOTCli OJl.HOBpeMeHHo)
to=
1/2 p[12 BKJlIO'IaeTCli n03)1(e 3[11 sa nonoaany eJJ.HHHUbi
BpeMeHH)
t o = 1/2 PllI BKJlIO'laeTCli n03)1(e 3TI2 na nonosany eJJ.HHHUbi
BpeMeHH)
t,,= I (W"'I 1,5 - B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT B3PH3HT3), 3[12 OTCTIleT OT ~nl
t, = I (ana 1,5 - B JaBItCHMOCTH OT BapHaHTIl), 3m OTCTIleT OT 3 fl2.
2. Onpenenurs nna Ka)I(JJ.oro H3 nocrpoeaaux nJlTH rpynnosux rpaet>HKOB
BeJlH'lHHY p.. H .llJIHTe.1JbHOCTb ee Jl.eHCTBHJI.
COOTBeTCTBYlOlllHe rpaqlltKH.
Pe3YJlbTIlTbI JaHeCTH sa
3. Ilposecru auarma rpynnossrx rpaet>ItKOB H nars npennozceune no YMeHbweHHIO
BCnH'IHHbl p.. (a 3H3'lHT H Pp) npa COBMeCTHOH paoore 3neKTponpHeMHHKoB. Ilpa
3TOM BapHaHT nocnenoaarensuoa pa60Tbi 3TI He paCCMaTPHBaTb.
4. Ilononrrars anesrponorpetineaae no Ka)I(JJ.OMY H3nJITK nocrpoennsrx
rpynnoaux rpatpaxoa. 06bJlCHHTb peaynsrar pacxera,
Pemeaae:
- Ilepesepnrn, 8 xoncnexr aneuearapasre rpaet>HKH no saaaaaoay sapuanry.
- 3arOTOBHTb nJITb oceH xoopztaaar ()I(enarenbHO aa OJJ.HOH CTPaHHue KOHcneKT3,
'lT06bl ofecnemrn, narnanuocrs rrpa aH3JIH3e KOHet>HrypaUUH rpynnosux
rpaet>HKOB).
- llpoCyMMHpOBaTb 3JJeMeHTIlpHble rpaet>ltKIt. TIPH )TOM pexoueanyerca JJ.JlJl
Y.llo6CTBa'lTeHHlI (H .BbI~on.HeHHlI) rparpax Ka)I(JJ.Oro::tn H rpynnosoa rpaet>HK
8bI'lep'!H8aTb Pa3JlH'II:lbIMH BHJl.aMH nHHHH, aanpaxep,' 3[11 - TOHKOH
cnnoumoa, 3112 - ~.q,HXOBOH, rpyrmoaoa - )J(HpHOH cnnouraoa nHHHlIMH.
- Ilpoaecra aHanH3 rpynnoBbix rpaet>HKOB.
18
TIPH aH3JlH3e rpynnoesrx rpa$HKOB 06paTHTb BHHM3HHe, 'ITO:
- KOH!llHrypa1.lIDI BCeX rpynnossrx rparpaxoe pa3J1H'IHa,
- BeJIWlHHbl p.. Pa3J1H'lHbI,
- J1,J1HTeJIbHOCTH JleRCTBHlI
p.. T'dlOKe pa3J1H'lHbl.
- HaRJleHHble 3H3'leHIDI p.. OThieTIitLH3 rpa!llHKax
aa BblHOCHblX
JIHHHlIX,
p .. = 5 (t p = Y2).
- 3a.n.aTbc$I BeJIH'lHHOH t B Mimyrax (nanpauep, OJlHa eJlHHHUa BpeMeHK pasaa
20 MKH) K onpenenars pacserayio MOIl.lHOCTh.
aanacsraaa, aanpaxep, TaK:
- PaCC'lHTaTb anesrponorpedneaae, TIOJlC'lHTblBall reoaerpaxecxyio I1JlOIUMb
!llHrypbl, orp3HK'leHHYIO rpynnosua rpa!llHKoM H OCllMH KOOPJlKHaT,
onpenenaeu W.
TIPH BblllonHeHHH noR pa60TbI nonssoaarscs MaTepHanaMH lIeKUHH, 3
TaKJKe 06bllCHeHHJlMH npenonaaarena aa npaKTH'leCKHX 3aHJlTHliX.
PeKOMeH,llaUHR: paooran, fie3 npHMeHeHHllllHHeHKH (6YllYll.leMY HHJKeHepy
Heo6xoJlHMO npaofiperars HaBbiK Bbl'lep'lHBaHK$I HecnOJKHblX'lepTeJKeH, a TaKJKe
cxex, rpa!llHKoB H r .n. «OT PYKH») .
19
3AAAtIA
Kg3
Pacser JJleKTpH'IeCICHX aarpyaus MeTOJJ.OM TeXHOJlOrH'IeCICOrO rpall>HlCa
1. 06IUHe nOJIO)l(eHIDI
UeJIblO nocrpoeaaa rpaq,HKa
:meK1pHqeCKHX aarpyaox JlBJ1JleTCJI
onpeneneaae OCHOBHblX IJOKaJaTCJIeH, xapaKTepH3Y1OlUHX lJIeKTPOYCTaHOBKY paC'IeTHYIO :}J)elCTp H'IecKYIO MOmHOCTb lJJ.aHHSI HJIH, 'ITO TO )I(e, MOIUHOCTb ua
BBO)l.e 3)1.aHHJI P p
H
paCqeTHblH TOR I p , a T8K)1(e onpenenenae npyrnx
Heo6xo.nHMblX nOKaJaTeJIeH. KaK-TO: anexrponorperinesne, cpenuas MOIUHOCTb,
cpenuesaanparavaaa MOIUHOCTb H np.
1.1.
PaCC'lHTaHHble 3Ha'leHHJI BenH'IHH P p • Jp
HCnOJIb3YJOT B .llaJIbUeHWeM npn
Bbl60pe KOMMYTaUHOHHblX H 3alUHTHbiX annaparoa , npn Bbl60pe Ka6eneH lUIJi
nHTaHHlI BY H PIl, a TaK)l(e B npyrax pacserax.
1.2. Peuienae .naHHoH 3lI,!I.a'Ut cnenyer Ha'laTb C OTBeTa aa nepsaa sonpoc 060CHOBaTb npHHJlTblHMeTO.ll lUIJi onpeaeneaas pacsernoa MOIUHOCTH 06beKTa .
Ilo HaJBaHHIO caaoro paccaarpasaeaoro 3.naHHJI Hero HaJHaqeHHJI
onpenenserca npauannexnocrs naauoro 06beKTa K TOH HJIH HHOH OTpaCJIH
CeJJbCKOX03J1HCTBeHHoro
npOH3BO.llCTBa,
aHaJIH3HpyeTcR
TeXHOJIOrH'leCKHH
npouecc H JJIeKTPOnpHeMHHIGI. HCnOJIblYJl MaTepHaJIbI .rreKUHH, .n.eJIaeTCJI.
38KJIJO'IeHHe, nosexy H36paH HMeHHO nOT MeTO.ll pacsera.
CTpOJITCJI rpaq,HK 3J1eK1pH'IeCKHX aarpysox (f3H) 06beKTa. Ilo rpaipnxy
onpeneneorcs He06xo.llHMble napaaerpu .
1.3. fpaq,HK 3J1eKTpH'leCIGIX aarpysox CTpOHTCJI HJJH sa cueay, MH 38 CYTKH .
TIPH 3TOM HCXO.lVlT H3 KOHKpeTHOrO 3a,ll3HHJI.
1.4. 3a paC'Ii!'THYJO npHHHMaJOT narpyssy aa HaH60Jlee larp)1ICeHHYIO cMeHy (HJIH
CYTKH). Il03TOMy JTy BenH'IHHY anorna HaJblBaJOT TaK)I(e MaKCHMaJIbHOH
paCqiITHOH MOIUHOCTblO.
2. Ilpenaaparensnsre pa60TbI nepezt nOCTpoeHHeM f3H
2.1. IlpOaHaJIH3HpOBaTb TeXHOJIOm'leCKHe onepauaa, yxasaasue B ycnosua
3lI,!I.a'lH. AlIaJIH3, B '1aCTHOCTll, COCTOHT B cnenyrouiea .
2.1.1 Bbl.neJIJllOTcJI IJ,J1HTeJJbHO pa60Ta1OlUHe lJ1eKTpOnpHeMHHKH PIl). K HliM
MOryT OTHOCHTbCJI. aanpauep, .ne)l(ypHoe lJJeKTpOOCBelUeHHe, CHCTeMbl H!I1i
ornensnae MexaHlilMbl, pa6oTaJOIUHe B aBTOMaTH'IeCKOM pexaxe (npHHHMaeMble
npa nocrpoeana f3H, KaK pa6oTaJOIUHe nocToHHHO), a TaK)I(e npyrne
MexaHHlMbI no 3lI,!I.aHHlO TeXHOJIOrOB;
2.1.2. Onpenenmorca apeueua BKJIIO'IeHHlI H OTKJIIO'IeHHJI 3JIeKTPOnp HeMHHKoB,
pa60TaJ0IUHX nepHO.llH'IeCKH;
2.1.3. BblllBJIlIJOTCli lJIeKTPOnpHeMHIiKH. pa60TaJOIUHe He BO see CMeHbl, H npa
HX HaJIH'lHH onpenenaior BJIHJlHHe HX BKJIIO'IeHHH na cPOpMHpOBaHHe MaKCHMYMa
aarpysxa. Hanpaxep, MOe'lHbie MaWHHbl lUIJl npOBe.ueHHJI caH06pa6oTKH
nOMelUeHHM. OHM, KaK npaBHJIO. BKJIIO'IaIOTcH. xorna B nOMeU{eHHlIX OTCYTCTBYIOT
)I(HBOTHble. a snasar, B lTO BpeMli He pa60TaIOT YCTaHOBKH xopaopasnasu ,
20
HaBo30YAaJIeHHR H T. A. DaMflTYR, tJ.TO r3H CTpOHTCR ,llJ1R HaH60nee 3arpy)l(eHHOH
CMeHbI, TaKHe 3D npa nOCTPQeHHH He }"JHTblBaIOTCSI;
2.1.4. Ecna B ycnoena 3aAalJH 3aAaHbI X03Q>cPHI..\HeHTbI sarpysxa .(x,)
:meK1J:>0.llBHraTeIleH, TO He06xoJ.lHMO paCCtJ.HTaTb nOTPe6nSIeMYIO MOlI.\HOCTb Pn H
rpaQ>HX CTPOHTb no Be.nlf'lHHliM -3TO~· MOlI.\HOcTH. BenH riapaMe-rp - ·K] -M il
3IleKTpOJ.lBHraTeneH B TeXHOIIOrHlJeCKOM 3a.naHHH He YKaJaH, TO ,llJ1SI nOCTPOeHHSI
cnenyer acnonssoears HOMHHaJlbHble BeIIHlJHHbI - PH'
2.2. Ilonofipars MaCUlTa6b1 «P» H «t»,I.lIlSI nocrpoeaaa r3H, HCXO.lVl H3pasuepa
nHCTa, na XOTOpoM HaMeqaeTC'I CTpOHTb rpaQ>Hx . 3To AeHCTBHe ynpOCTHTCR, eCIlH
npenaaparensao noac-nrrars ycraaoeneaayio MOlI.\HOCTb 06'beKTa Py H BbUIBHTb
3D, xoropae He 6yJ.lYT }"JaCTBOBaTb B cPopMHpoBaHHH O)l(H,llaeMoro MaKCHMyMa
aarpysox. OrnRB BeIlHqHHbl HX MOlI.\HOCTeH OT 3HaqeHHH Py, MO)I(HO JaJ.laTbCR
MacIDTa60M 0PJ.lHHaTbI «P».
"'MacUlTa6 no OCH a6cUHcc ,I.lIlSI «t» onpenenaior,
npHMB peureaae, KaKOH rpacPHK CTpOHTb - CYTOIJHbIH HJIH cMeHHblH.
3. TIOPllJ.lOK nOCTPOOHHJl r3H
3. I. rpaQ>Hx CTpOliT B KOOp.ll.HHaTaX «P» (XBT) H «ts (saca).
3.2. rpacPHK MO)l(eT CTPOHTbC'I HecKOII.bIOIMH cnoc06aMH.
DepBblH -- KnaCCHlJecKHH cnocoti,
BTOpOH - Q>oPMaJIH30BaHHblH.cnoco6.
TpCTHH - CnpHMeHeHHeM cOOTBeTCTBYJOlI.\HX nporpaMMHblX cpeacrs.
KnacCHQecKHif
cnoco6
nQCTPOOHHR
rpaQ>HKa
33KJ1lO'IlleTClI
B
nocne.ll.OBaTeIlbHOM CYMMHpoBaHHH 3IleKTplf'leCKHX Harpy30x noonepaunoHHo B
COOTBeTCTBHH C TeXHOJlOrnqeCKHM npoueccoa o6'beKTa. )tmI TeX, Y xoro
B03HHK8IOT 3aTpY.ll.HeHH'I Cpa3Y CTPOHTb CYMMapHblH rpaQ>HIC, .J,lOnyCKaeTClI
BHalJaJIe H3 OCH a6cUHCC H306pa3HTb TOHKHMH nHHHlIMH xacraae rpa$HKH
(scnoxorarensasre ,I.lIlSI nOCTpOeHHJl) Ka)l(.lJ.OH TeXHOJlOfHlJecXOH onepauaa, a
3aTeM npoH3BO.nHTb RXcnO)l(eHHe.
CryJ,leHTY aa npaKTHlJecKHx 3aHlITHJlX cnenyer ·OCBOHTb.npelKJ,le scero,
.naHHblH cnoco6 nOCTPQeHHlI r3H. <I>oPMaJIH30BaHHblH cnocof MO:lKHO npHMeHHTh
B xasecrse nposepossoro BO BpeMlI C3MOnOJ.lrOTOBxH. Tpendi cnocof - npa
HaJIlf'llUf XOMnblOTepHoro xnacca.
3.2. KnacCHlJeCKHH cnoco6 nocTPQeHHlI rpaQ>Hxa
B 06lI.\eM CJJy'Iae nocrpoenae rpa$HKa MO)l(HO HalJHHaTb C mo60H
TeXHOnorulJeCKOH onepauaa. O.ll.HaKO B UeIIlIX ynpomenas nOCTpOeHHlI rpaQ>HKa
pexoaeanyerca HalJHHaTh nocrpoeaae C nOCTOlIHHO H1IH ,llJ1HTenbHO
.l\eHCTBYJOlI.\HX narpysox,
Ha OCR 0PJ.lHHaT orxnanuaaerca Benlf'lHHa MOlI.\HOCTH onepauaa, npHHlITOH
nepsoa ,I.lJI1I nocrpoeaas. Tax KaK 3T3 HarpY3K3 ,llJ1HTenbHO .neHCTBytolI.\alI
(noCTOlIHH8lI B reveaae scex CyrOK HIlH Bceii CMeHhI), TO ee rpaQ>HKOM 6YJleT
npsaas, napannensaaa OCR afcuacc. DPOBO.ll.HTClI npauaa nHHHjj B npenenax OT
«0» no «24» no OCR «t», Ha none rparpaxa 3TOrO 3nenponpHeMHHKa
aanacsraaerca HOMep TeXHOnOrlf'leCKOH onepauaa - B XPY)I(Ke He60nblUoro
.l\HaMeTPa, aanpaaep 7, CM. pacyuox 1.
21
K
ysce
H306pa)l(cHHoMY
npH6aBJIlilOT rpa<pHK
rpa<pHKy
cnenyioutea
nepsoa
TeXHOJIOrH'IecKoH
TeXHOJlOrH'~eCKOH
onepamm
onepauaa
( Cy MMHPYtOT
nse
onepauaa). BenH'IHI/Y MOll.\HOCTH BTOPOH onepauaa, aanpawep , P3 npafiaanmor K
BeJlH'IHHe MOll.\HOCTH npenblJlYll.\eH onepauaa (P7). Ha rpadmse orxnaaueaior
P7+P3 H npoBO.LlJIT nllHHIO
onepauan no OCH «t» .
rpadiaxa
cyMMapHoro
cy::~::7{ {~- ----r
H
(7+3)
.j
npenenax
or
MOlQHOCTb one-
onepaUU
B
rpaHHIlbl ,QeHCTBIDI
onepaUHH
.L-.~
24
PHCYHOK
aarpysxa
N!! 3
0
L--
o
ECJlH
.lleHCTBH.II BTOPOH
t, 'lac
I . Ilpaxep nocrpoeaas f3H.
nei1CToyeT KaKoe-TO
onpenenenaoe
opel.UI, TO
aa rpadiase
nasana H KOHua neHCTBHlI H306pa)l(alOT BepTHKaJIbHblMH, TOHKHMH
nHHHlIMH (CM . ua pacyaxe 1 JIHHHH Jl}IlI onepauna 3). 0603H3'131OT BTOpylO
rpaHHUbl
onepamno -
uH<ppa
3 B ICp)')ICKe.
)laJIee aHaJIOrH'IHO npHBeneHHOMY CTpOHTCli
narpyaox. Bepxasx rpaaaua
rpa<pHKoB OTneJIbHblX
TonCToH·JlHHHeH. 3To H 6yneT HCKOMblH
IlpIIMelJaHHe
].
MHOr.ll3
sees
3TI
rpa<pHK ')JJeKTpH1.IeCKHX
HJ1H rpynn 3Il 06BonHTCli
DH.
MOlKeT
OK33aTJ,CJI
nonesasru,
nOCTpOHll,
narrpasiep, CYT0'lHblH rpa<pHK, TOT Y'!aCTOK rpa<pHKa, rae q,opMHpyeTCli
M3KCHMyM
H3rpY3KH,
H306p33HTb
Pi
rparpaxa
06ner'fHT ,IlaJIbHeHWHe nO,llc'flhDl
06p33eu nOClpOeHHJI H 3HaJIII33
II
H
yBeJJH'IeHHoM
M3cwTa6e .
3To
t [,
3JJeKlpHlfecKHx H3rpY30K
npaseneu
aa pacynxe 2 (CM. crp. 28).
4. Onpeaeneuae OCHOBHblX nOKa3aTeJJeH rparpaxa
4.J. p.. -
MaKCHMaJIbHlUI MOlQHOCTb
Bnauane no rpa<PHK)I onpenensercs M3KCHM3JIbH3JI nHKOBaJI MOll.\HOCTb
3neKTpOYCTaHoBKH .
Pexcaennyercs
yK333Tb
3m
BeJJHlfHHa O'leBH,/lH3 113 caMOH KOH<pHrypaUUH
YK33aTb'
BeJIHlfHHY
ee
nYTeM BblHOCHOH JIHHHH C nOJIKOH,
M3KCHMaJIbHOH HarpY3KH
H
Jl}IHTeJIbHOCTb
H3
ee
rparpaxa.
KOTOpOH
,QeHCTBHlI .
Hanpauep: P" = 48,5 (t = 2S MHH).
Ha rpa<\>HKe MorYT 6bITb HeCKOJIbKO Y'!acTKoB, rne BenH'IHJl1>1
22
PM
onHHaKOB1>1.
4.2. P p - pacseruas MOUlHOCTb
onpeneneaas BenH'lHHbI paC'Ie-moH MOlUHOCTH Pp BblJlBnJlJOT
,lJJlHreJ1bHOCTb .ueitCTBHJI PM' TIPH )TOM B03MOlKHbI nsa BapH3HTa:
a) PM A/lHTCli fianee 0,5 xaca;
6) P" nnarcs MeMee 0,5 '13ca
TIpH sapaaure a) OCHOBblBaJlCb H3 TOM, 'ITOaa pacserayro npHHHM3eTCJI nepexeuuas HarpY3K3 aa aarepaan ocpenueuas 0,5 saca (onpenenenae nonysacoaoro
M3KCHMYM3), HMeeM Pl'= POI' JanHCbB peuieaaa 3a.lI.a'lH BblnDnHJlJOTTaK:
)1,.11'1
Pp = PM
= ... KBT.
rIPH BapH3HTe 6) B <popMHPOsaHHH MaKcHMyMa Harpy3KH Y'laCTBYIOT i
(aecsonsxo) aarpyaos. Ha rp3<pHKe OHH OTJ>ll>KeHbI CTYneHlIMH B npenenax 30-H
MHHyTHOro Y'laCTKa rpa<pHKa.
.
30-H MHHymblR ysacrox rP3<pHKa He scerna O'leBH.neH . Ero H3,lI,0 onpenenars,
aHanH3HpY"30Hbl rPa<llHK3, rne OlKH,lI,3eTCli M3KCHMyM uarpyaxa. )lnJl 06nef'leHHJl
nOHCKa yq3CTK8, rne HaxO,llHTCli O)f(H,llaeM3JI BeIlH'IHHa Pp , MOlKHO rrpeanosorn;
uanpaaep, TaKOR cnoc06 . Ilo rpadnncy nepeaemaercs npo3pa'lHblR Tp~ C
HaHeceHHblMH aa HeM .nByMlI BepTHKanbHblMH OTpe3KaMH C HHTepBaJlOM 30 MHHyT
B npHHJlTOM npa nOCTpOeHHH GH MaClliT36e BpeMeHH.
B03AeHCTBHe narpysos,
AeHCTBYJOUlHX
B npenenax
nonysacoaoro
npoaexynca BpeMeHH, aa cers pa8H03Ha'IHO (3KBHBaJleHTHo) TaKOH O./lHOK
narpyaxe, KOTOpal! ofiycnaanaaaer TaXoe · lKe npeasnneaae TeMnepaTypbl
:m eMeHTOB cera HnH rasoe lKe TeMOBOe 803AeiiCTBHe aa H301llIUHIO
npoBo.nHHKOB, KaK H HecKDnbKO P33J1H'lHbIX no aeJlH'IHHe aarpysox,
3KBHBaJleHTHaJI
aarpyaxa
(MOUlHOCTb)
paCC'IHTbIBaeTCli
KaK
cpeAHeKBa.np3TH'lHaJI BenH'IHHa MOW,HOCTeH
Pi
38 paCCMaTpHBaeMblH
npowe)lC)'TOK (0,5 saca) H onpenenseres no <PoPWYJle:
:tP,2
·1,
-'-rne n - '1HWIO C1)'neHeH rpa<pHKa, BXO.lllllUHX B paCC'lHTbIBaeMJ.JH 30-m
MHHymblii ysacrox BpeMeHH r3H;
Pi - MOlUHOCTb COOTBeTCTByJOIU3Jl i -H crynena;
t; - ,lI,JIHTCJlbHOCTb IleHCTBHlI Pi .
06pamaeM BHHMaHHe, 'ITO B 3HaMeHarene <PoPMyJlbl cyMMa t i scerna 6YAeT
paBH8 30 MHH . ('ITO ecreCTBeHHO. TaX JCaK ,lI,JIJI pacsera BLI6HpaeTCJI 30-H
MHHyTHblH Y'IaCTOK fP3<pHKa).
liMe.ll saaseaae BCJlH'IHHbI P'D, nenaior 33KJ1IO'IeHHe: paC'IeTHaJI MOIUHOCTb
meKTpoyCTaHOBKH 3.naHIDI npHHHMaeTcli paRHOM 3KBHBaJleHTHOK MOUlHOCTH.
Torna
P p = P"", = ... Jdh.
.
rIPH aaanase rpa<llIlKa H BbI60pe yxacrxa JI,l1JI nOAC'IeTa P,.. MOlKeT OK33aTbClI,
'ITO na rpa<pHKe HMeeTCJl He O.nHH. a ABa HnH HeCKOJlbKO ysacreoa, na KOTOPblX
MOlKeT HaxOAHTbCJl O)KH.lI.aeM3Jl «P,», B 3TOM cnysae paCC'IHTblBaIOT P'1Ql ,lI,JI1i
acex eeposmux YlJaCTKOB. Cpena HUX onpenensercs HaH60nbmaJI BenH'IHHa,
xoropas H npHHHMaeTC.lI sa pacsernyio.
B TeKCTe peruenas 33,l1,a'lH npoH3Bo.nHTCJI sanncs P, = P,"" = .. . KBT.
23
5.
uexoropux npyrnx uosasarenea rpadnrxa
OnpCJlCnCHHe
S.I . A 6 con
m '
10 T H bl C
a 3 ar
no K
e
nH
5. I. I. Py - YCTaHOBnCHHM MOUUlOCTb
onpeaensercs npoersne
CyMMHpoBaHHCM
BeJUNHHa
BCJlHqHH
HOMHHaJ1bHblX MOI.UHOCreH BCCX :m eKTp o n p HeMHHKOB.
TIpHMeqaHHe
6C3
2.
CJIe.AyeT CKa3aTb, 'ITO
HCnOJIb30BaHHlI
rpaQ>HKa,
XapaKTepHCTHK :m eKTpOYCTaHOBKH,
5.1.2. W 3JIeKIpon<rrpe6JICHKC
3JIcKTponoTpC6JICHHe
JII060H
CCTb
W = P. t
npOH3BC,lJ,CHKC
1013
ee
Hnorna BMCCTO
(ld3T·tj).
npHMCH~
«3JIcKTPQnOTPc6JICHHC»
<q>acxo.ll»
O,llHOH
sa CMCH)' (CYTKH)
3J1eKTpOYCTaHoBKH
Q>H3HqCCKOMYCMblCJIY TCpMHH -
nO.llC'lHTbIBaCTClI
lIBJIHeTCJI
noroxy 101 npHBO.llHTCR snecs.
MOlUHoCTKHa' apCMlI nOTpC6nCHHJI, TO CCTb
repMHHa
aenaxaaa P,
O,llHaKO
MCHee
tjeTKHH
no
anexrposuepraa .
PaccM3TpHBM rp3Q>HK 3JICKTpHQCCKHX H3rpY30K, BH.llHM, 'lTO r~oMcTPHtjCCKH
nJIOIulUJ.b Q>Hrypbl, orpaHHtjcHHOH OCRMH KOOp,lJ,HHaT, caMHM rpaQ>HKoM H JIHHHCH
rpliHHUbI KOHua CMCHbi (cyrox), MOX<HO H3MCPHTb, HaH,lllI npoasaeneaue « p. t
A 3TD ossasaer, 'ITO W COOTBeTCTBYeT (pasaa) nnoutazm Q>Hrypbl rpaQ>HK3 .
TIpHMC'IaHHe
. 3JIckTpOnpKeMHHKoB,
npHH.IITblX
npa
3.
TIPH
paoorasourax
nOCTpOeHHH
f3H,
B
OnpC.nCJICHHH
W
OT
xapaxrepa 3TI)
J1,IUI
.
P<p.-
cpenasa MOIUHOCTb aa CMCHy
.
(CYTKK)
PaCC'IKTblBaeTCR no Q>OpMyJIC:
'5.1.4.
P<p.IQ1 .CM.(cyT) -
Cpe.llHCKBClJ{panl'IHM MOUlHOCTh
aa CMCuy (eyrxa)
rne
n : -. '{HCJIO crynenea rpadiaxa sa CMCuy (CYTKH),
"" Pj
:"':MOUlHOCTb cryneaa;
ti -
AJIHTCJIbHOCTb .nCHCTBHJI Pi.
0,4 ....0,8
(B
ysera HX Q>aKTH'IeCKOrO He
nenpepuaaoro, a nCpKO.All'lCCKorO .nCHCTBHJI.
5.1.3.
101
nOCTOllHHO AeHCTBYIOUlllx,
He06xoJlHMo npHHHMaTb C KO:Mj)cI»H~HCIITOM paBHblM
JaBHCHMOCTH
Hai-pY3KH
aBTOM3TIfllecKOM peX<HMC
KaK
».
OrMeTHM, 'ITO HHAeKC «CM» HJIH «cym» B !jlopMyJle Pep.... eM (eYT) 03Ha'laCT
nepaon ocpcAHeHHJ'I. sa KOTOPblH
paCC'IHTblB3eTCJ'I cpenxexeaaparavaaa
BeJIHlJHua. Iloaroxy npa peureaaa AaHHOH 3aAalJH He cneayer nyrars pasnsre
BeJIHlJHHhl P cp.ICD•30 H Pep.lCD.eMeryr) .
Pasee
(n . 4.2.) llH3JIOrHlJHO xepea cpeJJ.HeKsa.apaTHlJHYJO BemI'IHHy y)l(e
orrpenenanacs BeJIWUlHa Pp • OrJIH'IHe B .wurreJIbHOCTH nepaona .lleHCTBHJI
lIarpY30K.
BeJIHlJHHa MOlUHOCTH
Pcp.1CD aa npHH.lITblH nepaon ocpenneuua scerna
60JIbllIe BeJIH'fHHbl Pcp 33 TOT )l(e nepaon,
L{JIJI cnysaa, xorna cpena scex 3JIeKTpOnpHl!MHHKOB 06DeKTa HMelOTC.lI 3n,
pa60TI110lUHe B aBTOMa'tHlJecKoM pe)I(HMe, H HX MOIUHOCTH npHHJIThI npa
nocrpoenaa r3H KaK )lJIHT~bHble, TO npa noncxere BeJIH'IHHbl
Pcp.lCDeM
He06xo.llHMO aa TaKHe HarpY3KH BBeCTH nOHH)I(aJOIUHH Ko3<f><llHUHeHT,
DTp3)i(aJOlUHH nepHOt\H'IHOCTb HX ,neHCTBH.lI. BeJIHlJHHy ororo K03$$HUHeHTa
CJIeAyeT npHHHMaTb paBHoH 0,4 ... 0,8 B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT xapaxrepa 3TI,
parioraioumx B aBTOMaTH'IeCKOM pe)i(HMe (TOtIHO BeJIH'!:HHY sroro K03tP<PHuHeHTa
onpenenars HeB03MO)l(HO). TIPH noncsere Pcp Jal.Clf no f3H MOUVJOCTH 3TI,
npaasrux K3K pa60TaJOlUHe nOCTOJlHHO, Bbl,neJIJIIOTCJI OT,neJIbHblM CJIaraeMblM C
nOHHlKalOlUHM Ko3<f>ljlHUHeHToM, a Beml'lHHbl OCTaJIbHblX onpenensiorca
no,nKopeHHblM Bblp3)i(eHHeM $OpMyJIbI (CM. npaxep pemeaas).
5.2.0THOCHTeJIblIblC
5.2 .1. Cos
cp -
' n O K a 3 a T e JI H
K031P<llHuHelfT MOlUHOc-rn 3JIeKTpOYCTaHoBKH 3.naHH.lI
3TOT Ko3$cPHuHeHT onpenensercs sa nepaon .neHCTBH.lI MaKCHMaJIbHOH
paC'IeTHOH MOlUHOCTH. BeJIH'IHHY coso
saxoasr KaK cpenaeaaaeuresaoe
3HalJeHHe K03!jl$HuHeHTOB MOIUHOCTH OT.neJIbHblX uarpysox, yqaCTBYlOlUHx B
!jlopMupoBaHHH Pp .
cos ljl =
CO.f
;=1
ljl cp.as•.
<iP')l + <ip. '/qrp)'
; =1
rne
; -=oj
Pi - HOMHHaJIbHM MOlUHOCTb 3TI, yqaCTBYJOlUHX B $opMHpOBaHHH
MaKcHMyMa HarpYJKH;
tgrp - K03$!jlHuHeHT peaKTHBHOH MOlUHOCTH 3TI, yqaCTBYJOlUHX B
n -
$OpMHpOBaHHH MaKCHMYMa HarpY3KH (onpeaenaercs sepes cos lp
no nacnoprastx .naHHblM 3n);
KOJIHlJeCTBO 3TI, yxacrsyioumx B rpopMHpOBaHHH MaKCHMyMa
narpysxa.
25
5.2.2. K,an -- K03<PcPHUHeHT aanonaenas
rparpaxa MeJcrPH'IeCKHX aarpyaox
Onpenensercs H3 Bblpa)l(eHHlI
rlle
KJlIIl = We..! Wm,
We.. - anesrponorpedneuae 3aCyrKH (CMeRY) - BeJ1H'IHHa onpelleJ1eHa
B n. 5.1.2.;
Wm - ycnoanoe
anexrponorpefinenae llJ1lI aneansaoro rpa$HKa
3neKlpH'IeCKHX H3rpyJOK 06beKTa, xorna 6&1 ynanocs TaK
orperynaposars rpa$HK aarpysox (3anOJIHHTb npOB3J1b1, «cpesars»
nHKH), 'ITO OH npencraenan 6b1 npllMYJO, Dap3J1J1eJ1bHYJO OCH a6cUHCC
C0P.llHHaTOH PI' = PM '
3Ha'leHHe Wm onpeaensercs no $opMyne: Wm = PI" te.e (HnH teyr)
6. fipHMep pacxera nosaaarenea no rpa$HKY
fipHMep BbinonHeHHlI paC'IeTOB no rpa$HKY npaeenea aa pacyaxe 2.
1. Baseneaae nOK33aTeJIeH rpacllHKa Ii nocnenyiomae pacseru UeJ1eco06p33Ho
Ha'lHH3Tb C onpeneneaas MaKCHManbHOH HarpY3KH K3K H3H60nee .Il0CTynHOH OHa CP33Y BHllHa nocne nOCTpoeHHlI rpacllHKa.
Pw = 29,6 KBT
2. ,l{anee cnpenenaior BenH'IHHY paCqeTlJOH HarpyJKH PI' .
TaK KaK p.. .lUIHTCJI MeHee nonyxaca, TO PI' HaxOllHM xepea p,o. , HnH sepes
cpellHeKB3llpaTH"lHYIO 33TpHllUaTHMHHyrHblH npoMelK)'TOK BpeMeHH. Ha ynacrxe
nonynaccaoro M3KCHMYMa lleHCTBYJOT aae HarpyJKH (i =2) :
P.=29 KBT (t ,=20 MHH) H P2=29,6 KBT (h=10MHH)_
=
p
,
29' · 20 + 29.6 ' · \ 0 = 29 2
20+\0
•
3. YCTaHoBneHHYIO MOUlHOCTb onpenenoor CyMMHpoBaHHeM MOlUHOCTeH scex
3neKlponpHeMHHKOB, HMelOlUHXCli H306beKTe (CM. TaIOKe npHMe'l. K n .5.1.1).
P)"= 1,1+3 + 4,0 ' 2+1,5 ' 2 +2,2 ' 2 +0,37 ' 12 +0,16+1+1,2+0,6+1+4+8 = 39,9 KBT
4. 3neKlpOnOTpeMeHHe 33 cMeHy (CYTKH) onpenenmor Qepe3 reoxerpasecxyio
nnouians rpacllHKa:
W = SrI"
S rp, = SS+6+S7,II,13.+SI36+SI3.+S2+S3+S4+SlO+SS,9+SI
SrI' = 8,84 ' 24 ' 0,6 + 2,36 -24 + 4,8 ' \2 + 2 ' 9 + 3 -1 2 + 8 '1,06 ' 2+ 3 '1,08 '2 +
+ 0,6 0,25 4 + 2,2 ' 4 + 1,1 ' 0,5 ' 2 = 299,5
TaKHM 06p330M anesrponorpedneaae COCTaBHT Wcyr = 299,5 KBT.:.qaC
( 311eCb B nepaox cnaraeuoa .lUIJI 3BTOMaTHJHpOB3HHblX 3fi npHHlIT K = 0,6 ).
26
5.
ITo H3HJJ.eHHOMY 3Ha'leHlUO :m eK1po n OTpe6 Jle HHSI nOJl,C 'lHTbIB3eTCSI Cpe JJ.HSISI
MOIllHOCTb :m eICTJ>OYCTllHOBKH sa CYTKH ( CMeHY):
Pel' = Wit = 299,5/24 = 12,48 KRT
6. PaCC'IHTbIBaeTCSI BeJJH'IHHa P Cp .IOS err no H3BeCTHOH !PopMyne:
= (4,4+4,44). 0,6 + 2,36 +
P .
5,1' · 1,25 + 7,1' · 2,17+ 10,7' ' 0,25+ 10,1' ·0,83+ 15,1' · 0,17 +
1,25 +2,17 +0,25+0,83+0,17+
q ...,..
+ 18,1' ·0,75+ 18,7' ·0,25+ 7,7' ·0,25+ 9,3' · 2,25+ 9,9' ·0,25+ 10,4' ·0,5+ 12,9' ·0,25+ 12,1' ·0,75+
0.75+0,25+0,25+2,25+0,25+0,5+0,25+0,75+
13,1' ·0,17 + 16,1' · 0,83 + 9,2' . 0,58 + 6,2 ' ·0,5
0,17+0,83+0,58+0,5
7.
Onpeneasercs
aarpysox,
=7 66 + JI 379,1~ = 1838
•
cpenaeaaeeurensoe
12
•
3Ha'leHHe
Ko3$!f>HQHeHTa MOUlHOCTH
y'l3CTBYIOI.IlHX B «PoPMHPOB3HHH M3KCHMYM3
H3rpy3KH, KOTOP3J1
onpenenana BenH'IHHY
( TOM
snexrpax ecxon
PI') :
:LPi
cos Ijl
.,......
KOHKpeTHblX
MaKcHMYMa
-::::::;:=;.::::::;:::=:::::;=..J (:L Pi )1+(:LPi ·tg'!'l2
3Ha'leHHe BenH'UlHbI
J1JlJl
=
onpenensex xepea KaTaJIOlKHoe
tg cp
3neK1pOnpHeMHHKoB,
)"l.3CTBYIOIllHX
B
3Ha'leHHC
cos <p
«PoPMHpOBaHHH
aarpysxa
npHMe'laHHe 4. I1pH6mllKeHHoe 3Ha'leHHe cose cp.S'"
MOlKHO
paccsarars, ecna npausrs 3Ha'leHHe cos cp J1JlSl )l(HBOTHOBOll'lecKoro
311aHHSI paBHblM 0 ,75 (na eaaoa) HJlH 0 ,85 ,(Be'lepHHM). Ilocne ororo
HaXO)J.SIT COOTBeTCTBYIOUlHe eMY saaseaae tg cp = 0,88 (HnH 0 ,62) H
onpenensior HCKOMblH Ko3!M>HuHeHT MOIllHOCTH.
B
,llaHHOM
)"l.aCTBYIOT
BeJJH'IHHY
ace
npauepe,
HarpY3KH
Y'IHTbI BaSI, 'ITO B «PoPMHpoBaHHH MaKcHMyMa H3 rpy3KH
o6OCKTa,
33 HCKJIIOQeHHeM
(1)
H
(2),
(8) nOJl,C'lHTbIBaeM
L Pi :
L P i = P, - 1.1 - 3 - 4,1 = 39,1 Torna
8. Onpenenenae
COS'P q .u
=
30,9
~30,9 ' + (30,9 .0,68)'
8 ,2
= 30,9
= 0,83
BeJJHl.{HHbl Ko3$PHuHeHTll 3a n on HeHHSI rpal!lHKa:
K",,,.
=
wew /
Wm =
299,5/29,2' 24
Peurenne 33)J.3'1H J3KOH'IeHO.
27
=
0,43
ao
-
--
--
---
~-
28
L
'li
i'
j
~il-Q.~IJ
rl)
20
--
18
-
-------
-
I-
(I)
I
r-
30.1'11~fT'Hblji
ft~
Mo1!:r.lU:\~"'i
I /
--
-
-
i--
\'1
10
II
8
II
II
I
I
I
I
-
to
Flpusrep nOCTpOCIH1H
10
cyrouuoro
'@
'---
(!;
@
!!
Iii
®
--
-® -
1I
--t'
,
F'cpu"=IS,,
0' r-.
@
0
I
~
--
--
r-~
--
re-
I--
~1-
Pcp,=12 !18
\r
~);)
Jl
J
4
U!. 1 ..
I
----
eQj
u.
I
~ W-
I
PHC, ,
--
I
! I
III
;'
-I--
r-
---,
[
1~
I)
r--
II
I,
16
12
~ -- -- -- -- --
I I
22
N
00
~llllii
ilf' -,
I I
2E
2~
--g-=- - -
I
<!!
I
®
-,~---~
<.!l
11
rpaqJllK3
,
1~
l
I [I
13
I
!
II
/I
/I
I
,II
'I
1~
15
-
III
\\\
:1
16
"
18
is
'JnCKrpll'ICCKI1X aarpyso« fl)IH iKI1BOTiiOBOil'IccKoro
20
2~
noueuieuus
7. ¢OPMaJlH30BaHHbIH cnoco6 nocrpoeuna rpaqmxa
.naHHbIH cnoco6 n03BOJIHeT 3HalJUTeJIbHO coxparnrs BpeMJI nOC1'pOeHHlI
rpadiaxa 3J1eK"I'pHlJeCKHX narpysox H ofiecneuaaaer xopouryso caaonposepxy npH
noc-rpoeHHH f3H.
.
Ilepen nocrpoeaaex rpaljJHKa BbIn01JHJleTCJI acnoaorarensaaa Ta6JlHua c
TpeMH rpa<paMH:
- -- --- --- ---- -_.._- 1) TeXHOJlOrHlfeCK<UI onepauaa ;
2) MOLUHOCTb 3D, 3a,neHCTBoBaHHbIx B onepauaa;
3) .a.nHTeJJbHOCTb ,neHCTBHlI onepauaa.
Paaaepu rpaljJ 1 H 2 no U1HPRHe - npOR3BOJIbHbJe, paaaep rpaljJbJ 3 .nOJllKeH
6b1Th paBHblM pasaepy OCH aficuacc (<<I») crposmerocs rpaljJHKa. Ha HHlKHeH
cropoae 3-J.i rpaljJbI Ta61JHUbi pOKa3bIBaJOT «p336HBKY» aHaJlOr R'I HO MacUJTa6y
OCH «t».
113 aananas B rpadiy I 3anRChlB3IOT ace TeXHOJlOfH'IeCKHe onepauaa o6'belCTa
(MOlKHO sanacars TOJIbKO HX nouepa) H B rparpy 2
MOlUHOCTH
::meK"I'pOnpHeMHRKOB, o,nHOBpeMeHHO paooraiounsx B KalK)lOH onepauaa.
B "Jl'CTI>eH rpade orpesxaaa OTMelfaeTCH .a.nRTeJlbHOCTL .neHCTBHlI· onepaunn.
tIepe:3 aasana R KOHUhI nux O1'pe3KOB npOBO,lVI"I"CH sepraxanenue nHHRR no
nepecexeaaa C HRlKHeH H sepxaea cropoaaxa 3-H rpaljJbI. KOJlH'IeCTBO
nOJlytlRBWRXCH cexropoe (nonesao HX nponyaepoears) paBHO xacny cryneaen
6y.nYlUero r3H, a umpana KalK,noro cexropa - .a.nHTeJlbHOCTb CTYneHH rpaljJHKa.
BHR3Y 3-H rpaljJbI orsepsaearor crpoxy .a.nji 3anRCH no.nC'IHThIBaeMOH CYMMbI
aarpysox. CKlJa,nblBaJOT Bce uarpysxa, yqacTBYIOlUHe B KalK)lOM cexrope. 3To H
6y,neT Be1JHlJHHa Pi KalK)lOH cryneua f3H.
C-rpOHTCli rpaljJHK. BcnoMOraTe1JbHYIO Ta61JHUY pa3Me'leHHOH lfaCTbIO 3-H
rpa<j>bl npHKlJa,nbIBaJOT K OCR a6cUHCC H nepesocsr .naHHble. Ilocne aecnoseroro
oljJopMJleHHH
n01JyqaJOT
'1HCTbIH
rpaljJRK,
He
33TpOMOlKJleHHbIH
BCnOMOraTeJJbHbIMIf 1JHHHHMR, xoropsre HMe1JR 6bI Mecro rrpa nOCTpoeHHR
rpa<j>HKa K1JaCCHlfeCKHM cnocoooa.
I TeXH01JOfHlJeCKaJl
onepaIUiH
I
BcnOMOraTeJILHaH TaOOHua
MOIUHOCTL
,l.{nHTeJIbHOCTL ,neHCTBHH onepanaa
3
2
2
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
- - ----- ---
1,5
1,1
8
4
3
5
6
7
........, -
22
IU
Jl
-
---,
3,0
36,S
:\9.5 41 H .I 46
I
I
29
12 13 14 15 16
- - :....-,--
3,0
13
4
8 9
~5
39
I
·B
I
~6
311
--
47 ~HS 39.1
I
I
~9:;6 .J
3A}J.AllA M! 4
PaC'IeT 'JJ1eKTpH'IecKHx Harpy30K MeTO.llOIlf l$$eKTHBHOrO 'IHCJ18
lJJeKTpOnpUeMHHKoB (MeTO,IW1lf ynop~olfeHHblx .lluarpallfM)
I. 06UlHe nonosceaax
MeTOJl J<!><peKTHBHOrO xacna JJ1eKTponpHeMHHKoB
(npyroe uaseanae MeTO.ll ynopanoseaaux JlHarpaMM) JlBJIJleTCJI O,llHHM H3 HaH60nee TO'IHblX
H
WHpOKO npHMeHJleMblX MeTO.llOB onpeneneaas
pacxeraux JJ1eKTpH'lecKHx
aarpysox3,ll3HHii.
3ToT
Mero.ll
npHMeHJleTCH. ,llnJl
06'bCKTOB,
rae
H3BecTHbi
nanaue
0
MOUlHOCTJlX scex e.llHHH'IHblX 3JJeKTpOnpHeMHHKoB (3I1), HO He npeACTaBJIJleTCJI
B01MO)f(HbiM YCTaHOBHTb 'IeTKHH no BpeMeHH UHKn pafioru TeXHOnOrH'lecKoro
o6oPY.llOBaHHH,
TO
ecrs
aa
T3JOIX
06beKTaX,
rne
aasano
pa60TbI
JneKTp<mpHeMHHKoB H npononsorrensuocrs HX BKnIO'IeHHJI HOCHT en)"laHHblH
xapaxrep (He PHTMH'lHoe no BpeMeHH npoH3BOACTBO).
K TaKHM 06bCKTaM OTHOCJlTCli 60m.WHHCTBO npoasnuneaasrx npC.llI1pHHTHH.
B cenbCKOX03J1HCTBeHHOM npOH3BOJlCTBe -
3TO TaJ< HalbiBaeMbie 06bCKTbI npo-
MbllWleHHoro THna (sorensaue, uacocaue CTaHUHH, MexaHH'IeCKHe MaCTepCKHe,
.llepeB006pa6aTblBaJOUlHe MacTepcKHe, uexa H 3aBOAbI no nepepaforxe censxos npo.nyKUHH H T.n.) .
.
Pacser JJ1eKTpH'IeCKHX aarpyaos
no MCTO.ny ~<peKTHBHoro '1HCna
:)JJeKTpOnpHeMHHKoB BeJleTCH na OCHOBaHHH PYKoBOAJIUlerO TeXHH'Ieexoro
»
PTM 36.18.32.4-92, BBeJleHHOrOB .lleHCTBHe C 01 .01.1993 r.
B Jl3HHOM MeTO.lle acnonssyerc» nOHJlTHe «3$<IleKTHBHoe
M3TepHana «YKa33HHlI no paC'IeTY JJ1eKTpH'IecKHx aarpysox
3neKTpOnpHeMHHKOBl>
-
n,.
3To
ycnoaaoe
(peansao
'IHCJ10
necymecraysouiee,
BHPTY3nbHoe) xacno, TepMHH «3<P$eKTHBHOe '1HCnO 3nelCTpOnpHeMHHKOB»
npHMeHHM, eCTeCTBeHHO, K KaKoii-nH60 rpynne P3J!lH'IHblX no xapaxrepy H
pe)f(HMy pa60Tbl 3neKTpOnpHeMHHKoB, a He K OJJ.HOIlfY 3I1. ):VIH onsoro
nOHlITHe « J$cIleKTHBHoe 'IHCJ1O» repser <pH3H'IecKHH CMbIC1J.
Onpeaeneaae BBeJlCHHOro HOBOro nOHJlTHH cnenyiouiee .
3I1
CaMO
3cIMIIeKTHBHblM lfHCJ10M :)J)eKT p On p UCM HUK OB Ha3bIBaeTCH rasoe "Heno
OJlHOPOAHblX no pe:lKHMy pa60TbI 3JleKTponpHeMHHKOB OJlHHaKOBOH MOll\HOCTH,
KOTOpoe 06yenaBJIHBaCT TO lite aaasenae paC'ICTHOH aarpysxa, 'ITO rpynna
P33JJH'IHblX no MOIUHOcm peansnax 1nelCJlX>npHeMHHKOB.
3qxIleKTHBHoe 'IHenO 3JleKTponpHeMHHKOB onpenenoor no $opMyne:
(2: P.>'
n3=~'
L."'p.
rne
P,,- rpynnoaas
YCT3HOBJIetiHaH (HOMHH3nbtlaH) MOUlHOCTb, KBT ;
PII- YCT3HOBneHHaH (HOMHH3nbHaH) MOlllHOCTb onsoro 3I1, KBT;
n - "Keno 311.
<1>opMynoH (I) MO)f(HO nonssoearscs JlJIH mofioro "Hcna :m eKTpo npHeMHHKOB.
30
(I)
Onpeneneaue
3Ha'leHHH
pacxeraux
aarpyaos
(Pp,
Qp,
s,
Ii')
npoexrapyesroro 06beKf3 B OCHOBHOM CBOAHTCII K H8XOlKlleHHIO 'fHCJl3 fl., .
110 H3BecTHOH
BeJIK'IHHe D, C HCnOnb30BaHHeM Ta6nHUbi 3aBHCHMOCTH
Kp = f (n, K.,) HaxOA!IT BeJIH'IHHY Ko3$lJHuHeHTa paC'IeTHOH HarpY3KH Kp
Ilanee,
.
npKMeHRR H3BeCTHble 4>oPMynbl,
onpenenaior HCKOMble BeJIH'IHHb!.
m
~=~~~~
j ",1
=1,1~K.p.tg9'
(lInli
n < 10)
(3)
Qp =LI(.P.tgqJ
(lInli
n > 10)
(4)
Qp
s, =~P: +Q~
I
(5)
S
,
=--'.[i .U.
(6)
,l],ruI3Ha'lHTenLHOTO 'lHcna 3neKrpOnpReMHHKoB
pacxersr nonyxaiorcs
(aecxonsxo
AeclITKoB), KOTAa
norosry 3aTpYAHHrenbHblMH
ynponteaayio 4>oPMyJly .!1JllI pacsera '1HCna n, (sxecro <PoPMynLI 1):
rpoM03}J.l(HMH, a
npHMeHlIIOT
2L:P.
n,=-- ,
P.rne
P
11 ....t
-
(7)
HaH60nLw3lI MOmHOCTb 3IJeKrpOnpHeMHHKa rpynnbl .
npa pacsere no ynpoiuenaoa cPopMyne 7 MOX<eT osasarsca n,
B 3TOM cnysae cnenyer npHHHMaTh n, = n .
.[{Jul cnysaa, xorna lInli 3neKrpORpHeMHHKoB 3J1eKrpOYCTaHoBKH OTHOWeHHe
p " "",".I p """" ~ 3,
TO TaKX<e RpHHHMaJOT
n, = n,
3l\eCh P H MlIJCt , PH"""'. - HOMHHaJILHble MOWHOCTH COOTBeTCTBeHHO HaHfiMee
npH 3TOM
60nbwe n.
MOllUloro H HaHMeHbwero no MOmHOCTH :m eKrpOn p HeMHHKOB paCC'lHTblsaeMoH
rpynnu 311.
I1pH
peureaaa
AaHHOH 33)13'1H
UeJIecoo6p33HO npHMeHHl'b TOJIbKO
( CM. TalOKe n .
ynpoinenayio
4>oPMyJly "PH He06xOAHMOCTH
npa pacsere
HarpYJOK no 3Jl3HKIO B lleJIOM
2.2.14.).
I1pH pacsere HarpYJOK lInll OnHOrQ PI1 RpHMeHlITb ynpouieanyio <PoPMyny
aenenecoofipaaao, YaK KaK K PI1 nO.l/,JCJlJO'I3eTCJI, K3K np3BMO, HefiMbwoe
KOJIR'leCTBO
311.
31
2. llOCIIeAOBaTeIlbHOCTb pacsera
2. J. nO,L\I'OToBHTeJIbHhle pa60ThI
Ilepea
BblnOIlHeHHeM
paCtIeTOB
nonroroaarensaue pa60Tb1 -
OCHORaHHH TeXHOJlOrHtIeCKOrO
HHlKeHepHOrO
npeABapHTeIJbHO
BhInOIlWUOT
asyseaae H aHMH3 3I1eKTPonpHeMHHKoB.
3a,LJ.8HHlI,
06eCnetIeHHH
8
TaJOKe
(OTOnJleHIDI ,
apXHTeKTypHO-CTPOHTeJlbHble
pemenaa
H
np.)
38,n8HHU
npyrxx
Ha
CJJy)l(6
BeHTHIIlII\HH,
BO.nOnpOBO.na,
H3ytlaJOT
aHaIJH3HpyIQT
II
3J1eKTPQnpHeMHHKH, 3 HMeHHO:
- onpenenaior MeCTa paCnOJlOlKeHHlI 3ll;
- BbhlBJUIJOT MOIl.(HOCTb KalK,lJ.OrO 3J1eKTPQnpHeMHHKa;
- BLUICHJIlOT pe)I(HMbl pa60Tb1 3D;
- onpenenoor npanannexnocrs 3J1eKTPonpHeMHHKoB K TeM HJ1H HHbIM
TeXHOIlOrntIeCKHM JlHHIDIM, eCJJH TaKOBble HMelOTClI;
- onpeAeJIHJOT HaJIH'lHe pesepaaoro ofopynoaaaas, HX KOIlHtteCTBO H pe)l(HM
BKJlJOtIeHIDI
(YCTaHOBJ1eHbl I1H OHH B3aMeH MIIH B .D.OnOJ1HeHHe K patioraroum«
MexaHH3MaM,
arperarax);
- BbI.neJ\llJOT H3 o61l.(ero '{HCJla e,nHHHU 060pY.D.OBaHHlI peMOHTHoe o60PY.D.OBaHHe ,
aanpaxep, caaposaae
csapoxaue
TPaHcQ>opMaTopbl . DPH nOM He cnenyer CMemHB8Tb
TpaHccPopMaTopbl,
sanarae
npenaaaaaseaaue }.\,illI peMOtITHbiX
B
TeXH0J10fH'IecKOM
IIHKJle,
H
uenetl;
- BbIJIBmlJOT KpaTKOBpeMeHHO pa60TaJOIUHe 3D (38ll.BH)I(KH, BeHTHJlH,
anesrponpaeonsr JaCiiOHOK H T.n .) ;
- onpe.D.eJ1lIJOT H8IlHtIHe aa 06"beKTe noacapaux HaCOCOB H HX pe)I(HM pa60ThI;
- BblRBmlJOT Oll.Ho$a3Hble 3J1eKTPonpHeMHHKH H cnocofia HX nO.llKIlJOlIeHHlI KeeTH
(HMeeTCJI B BHny, sro, B OCHOBHOM, 3J1eKTP0llpHeMHHKH Ha
OCHOBaHHH H3yqeHHlI
peureaae
06
Y3J1aX
H
nHTaHIDI
aH8IlH3a
rpe xo aaa ere).
3J1eKTPonpHeMHHKOB
nHX
3J1eKTPOnpHeMHHKOB,
IlpHHHMaeTCH '
TO
ecrs
0
pacnpenemrrensaux nyaxrax (PD), HX KOJlWleCTBe, MeCTaX yCTaHOBKH , a TaK)I(e
o BBOlJ.ROM yCTpOHCTBe
(BY)
H Mecre ero yCTaHOBKH.,
llOCJle npHHlITHJI pemeHHlI 06 OTHeCeHHH
HHOMy PD
cfJaKTH'{ecKH
3J1eKTPonpHeMHHKoB K TOMy HJIH
OKa3b1BaJOTCli CcfJOpMHpoBaHHblMH
rpynnu
3J1eKTponpHeMHHKoB, xoropue nO.llKJ\JOtJeHbI K paccaarpasaexoay
3J1tKTponpHeMHHKH
BHyq>H
xapaxrepasm xareropasx BeJ1H'{HHe
MOII\HOCTH
O.lUlHaK080H
-
MOIUHOCTH.
rpynnu
nOApa3AeJlllJOT
CXO,nHbIM (onaoponnaa)
npa KJlaCcHcfJHK3UHH
K
OlJ.ROH
no
TaK
H3 rex
Pfl .
3TH
Ha3bIBaeMbIM
pelKHMaM pa60TbJ H .n o
BbJ.neJ1l1JOT 3J1eKTPOnpHeMHHKH
XapaKTepHOH
xareropaa
OTIIOCXT
3D,
HMelOIUHe OAHHaKOBOe rexaonorasecxoe aaanaseaae H O.lUlHaKOBbJe BepXHHe
rpauauu
B03MO)I(HblX
3HaqeHHH
K03lPqIHUHeHTOB
KO~HIIHeHToB peaKTHBHOH MOIUHOCTH
Ilapannensno
HCn0J1b30BaHHlI
H
tg <p •
C 3THM BblI10IlIDIJOT
CTpYKTYPHYIO cxessy 3I1eKTPWlecKOH
CeTH 3AaHHlI .
npHMe'laHHe 2. Bee 3TH nepesncneaaue pa60TbI asmornouor npH K)'!K0BOM H
/lHnJlOMHOM npoeerapoaaaua. Flpa peureaa a /lannON 3MB'!H
o6beM Ha3BaHHbIX pa50T coxpaiuaerca, TaK KaK
yCJlOBlIlO Bee
3n y)({e orneceasr K COOTBeTCTBYlOlllllM Pfl, TO ecrs B YCJ10Bflll
38J\a'! " y*e clj>opMHpoBaHbl rpyn nu 3neKTpor:pll eMHI1KOB.
no
32
2.2. BbIl101JHeHHe paC'IeTOB
2.2.1. Pacser :meKTpHlJeCKHX narpysox no npoesrapyeaoxy o6'beKTY
Be,1leTCH, KaK Y)l(e OTMe'la1JOCb, ,1l]]lI K3)l(,1l0rO Y31Ja nHTaHHlI WlH Y31Ja,
06'beAHHlIIOUlero onpeAeneHHYIO rpynny 3TI (pacnpenemrrensaan nYHKT, wKa$
ynpaaneaaa, mHT cTaHUHM ynpaB1JeHHH, uraaonpoeozt H T.n.), a TaIOKe no uexy
H1JH no 3,1laHHIO B uenOM. TIOPH,lJ;OK pacsera nOK33aH B npaaepe 1.
TIpHMep 1.
Tpe6yeTc:llI onpenennrs pacsermae HarpY1Kli rpynnsi anexrponpaeaaaxos,
nO,lJ;KJDOlJeHHblX K PTI, CTpyKTypHaH cxessa xorcporo noxasana aa pacynse 1.
~~.n~Q$
BY
1FU
'\
FU5
2,2
L
2.2
.l-!. ---1- ~ 2-
0.550,550.550.550.55
PHCyHOK 1
8
11.0
..2- 10
11
3.0
4,0
1,5
CTPyKTypHaH cxexa )1JeK'ipH'IeCKOH CeTH
Pemeaae,
,lJ,n1l aaaaanux 3JIeJ<TP0npHeMHHKOB onpenenaeu pacverasre napauerpu - K"
H
COS cp. 3Ha'leHH.lI BenH'IHH npHHHMaeM no Ta6mu.\e 2. no HaHlleHHblM
3Ha'leHHjlM cos cp HaxOllHM BellH'IHHbl tq cp.
,lJ,n1l o6Jler'leHHJI nOCJleJ.\YIOII.lHX paC'IeTOB npe1lCTaBHM naaasre B HarJIjlllHOH
<popMe.
3n
cos q>
KK
1,2
3,4,5,6,7
8
9,10
11
0,5
0,6
0,25
0,3
0,55
tq q>
0,8
0,8
0,65
0,65
0,8
0,75
0,75
1,17
1,17
0,75
3<P<PeKTHBHoe '1HCJIO :meJ<TPOnpHeMHHKOB nOllC'IHTblBaeM no BblpIDKeHHlo
1:
(LPj
tJ, = ~ .
L.tJPy
Onpenenaex
BellH'IHHY
L:PH .
L p. =2,2 + 2,2 + 0,55·5 + 11 + 3 + 1,5 + 4 = 26,65
(OTMeTHM, 'ITO 3,UeCb
nonyseaaax BeJIH'IHHa ecrs YCTaHOBJIeHHlUl MO\.llHOCTb
paCCMayPHBaeMOH rpynnu 3n -
n, =
Torna
Py) .
26,65'
= 710,22 = 445
2 ·2,2'+5·0,55'+11'+1,5'+4' 159,44
' .
3Ha'leHHe n, oKpYrJIJleM 110 6JIH)/(aHlI.lerO MeHbUIero uenoro '1HCJIa -
n, =
4.
Cpenneeaaeureauoe saaxenae K03Ql<pHUHeHTa HCnOJIb30BaHHjI:
L ·P. 2 · 0,5 ·2.2 + 5·0,6 ·0,55+ 0,25 ·11 + 0.3 ·3 + 0,3·1,5 + 0.55 · 4 = -10,15- = 0 38 .
. L- P.-=
26,65
26,65
' ,
K =-
1:.
01lHOBpeMeHHO
onpenenax cpeaseaseemenaoe 3Ha'leHHe BeJIH'lHHbl tqe :
LK"P.tqtp
tq(f'., ...
= '"
~~~
=
2,2 '0,75 + 1.65·0.75 + 2,75 ·1,17+ 0.9 · 1,17 +0,45 ·1,17+ 2,2 ·0.75
. 1015
.
'
= 9,34 =092
10,15
'
no Ta611Hue
K03<p<pHUHeHTa
TO
.IlJ\1I
3 .IlJ\jI n, = 4 H KK = 0,38 onpenenaeu BeJIWIHHY pacserxoro
Kp . TaK KaK 3Ha'leHHe Kp Hax01lHTCJI B anrepaane «1,47 .. . 1,25»,
TO'lHOrO
onpeneneaaa
HCKOMOH
BeJIH'IHHbl
nOJIb3yeMCjI
MeTOJlO~1
JlHHeHHOH HHTepnOJIlIUHH, KOTOpblH 3aKJIIO'IaeTCJl B cnenyiomeu .
3Ha'leHHe <PYHKUIUI Y.IlJ\J1
x,
U
Xl
,
KOTOpblM
COOTHOWeHHJl
apryxerrra x, naxonaurerocs
COOTBeTCTBYIOT
Beml4HHbi
Yl
U
Me)/(,Uy 3Ha'leHHjlMH
Y, o n p en en a ercs
If)
Y2- Y,
X2 -X,
oTKyJJ.a
nOJJ.CTaBHB3Ha4eHH~,nOnY4HM
038+03
K p := y := 1,47 + - ' -- ' (1,25+ 1,47):= 1,29
0,4+0,3
PaC4eTHlllJ axraenaa narpysxa - no <t>oPMYJle 2:
PaC4eTHlllJ peasruaaas uarpysxa - no <t>oPMyJle 3, TaK KaK
n < 10:
Q = 1,1' LKHPII tqrp = 1,1 ' 9,34 = 10,27 xaap
Ilonuaa MOl.l{HOCTb paC4eTHOH aarpysxn - no lPOpMyJle 5:
s, = -l13,l1 + 10,271 = 16,64 KBA
PaC4eTHblH TOK B JlKHH"OT BY K Pfl - no lPOpMyne 6:
Ip = 16,64 I
"3
PaC4eT HarpY30K 3aKOH4eH.
35
0,38 = 25,3 A
Ta6JIU'IHblU cnoco6 pacsema
2.2.2. B paccxorpenaox B n. 2.2.1 npaxepe pacxer :meKTpHtIeCKHX aarpysox
BblllOJIHeH B npOH3BOJIbHOii TeKcToBoH Q>opMe. Taxyio ¢OPMY pacsera
lIeJIecoo6p33HO npHMeIDITb ,llJVI He6oJIbWOrO 'mCJIa anesrponpaeaaaxos,
aanpaxep, ,!UUI 3TI, nomcnoseaasrx K KaKoMy-JIH60 mary ynpaBJIeHHJI, HJlH MJI
3JIeKTponpHeMHuK3 C MHOrO,llBHraTeJIbHblM npHBO,llOM (06b1tIHO tIHCJlO npHBO,llOB
COCTaBJlj1eT 3... 5 3.lJ;) H T.n .
.lJ;JIJI 3Ha'lHreJIbHOrO qHCJIa 3JIeKTpOnpHeMHHKoB sa ofisexre, rne HMelOTClI
.QeCRTKH 3TI, 06'be,llHH!HHbIX B rpyrmsi no HeCKOJlbKHM ysnaa nHTaHHlI
(pacnpenenarensasra nYHKTaM), OK33b1BlJeTCJI 60nee y.Q06HblM BblnOJIHJITb
pacseru B T86JlH'IHOii 4lopMe.
<I>opMa Ta6nHlIbI peKoMeH.QOBaHa pyxoBo,nJImHMH «YK333HMMH no pacsery
anexrpasecxax aarpysox » PTM 36.18.32.4-92. 3Ta Q>opMa npaseneaa B ,naHHOM
«TIpaKTHKYMe... » - CM. Ta6nHlIY 1.
Ta6JJHlIa pa36RT3 aa 15 rpaQ>. .lJ;JJJI y,n06CTB3 nOJJb30BaHHj1 B COOTBeTCTBYIOmax rparpax Ta6JJHlIbI noaemeua Heo6xo,nHMble pacsenrae !PoPMyJIbl.
Pacser pexoaennyerca BblllOJIHlITb aa npe.D;BapHTeJIbHO H3rOTOBJleHHOM
6JIaHKe-33fOTOBKe.
BHatI3JJe B rpadie 1 Ta6JIHlIbI
B KatIeCTBe 1l0marOJIOBKa 33JlHCblB3IOT
HaHMeHOBaHHe
ysna
nHTaHIDI,
aarrpaxep,
«PTIb)
(l-ll
rpynna
3JIeKTpOnpHeMHHKoB). 3areM
nOCTpOqHO 3aI1HC1>IB3IOT no xapaxrepasns
KarerOpIDIM ece 3TI, OTHOCJI:ll\HeClI K paccaarpasaeaoay PTI. Orseceaae K TOH
HJlH HHoK xapasrepaos xareropaa npoH3BO.D;JIT cornacuo CUpaBOtIHblM ,naHHhlM,
npHBe.QeHHblM B Ta6JIHlIe 2. Hcxonnsre ,llaHHble, sssrsre H3 33,llaHHj1, 33nHChlBllJOT
B rpa!phI 1-4, a cnpasosnue .naHHble - BeJlHtIHHY K03!p!pHlIHeHTaHCnOJIb30BaHHJI
K" H 3HatIeHHe cos <p - B rpa!phI 5 H 6. TIo KaT3JlO)J(flOH BeJIHtIHHe cos <p
paCC'lHTblB3lOT 3H3tIeHHe tg <p (B Ta6JJHlIe 2 31'01' pacser y)((e npoasaenen), ero
BeJIHlfHHY 33JlHCbIBlllOT TaK)((e B rpade 6 non qep1'oK.
2.2.3. Peaepeasse 3TI, pexoarnae csaposnue TPaHc!p0pMaTOpbl, npyrae
peMOHTHLIe MeXaHH3MLI, a TaK)((e 3n, pa60TlIIO~He ICP8TICoBpeMeHHo
(3l1JlBH)((KH, BeHTHJlH, nO)((apHble HaCOChl H T.n.),
npa noncxere paCqeTHOH
MOIl\HOCTH He Y'lHTbIB8IOT (sa HCKJllO'IeHHeM CJIytIaeB, xorna MOIl\HOCnl
nO)((apHLIX HaCOCOB Ollpe.QeJJj(IOT Bbl60p :meMeHTOB cera),
B rpa4lax 2 H 4 yx33b1BaIOT TOJJbKO pa60'lHe 3TI.
2.2.4 . .lJ;JIJI MHOrO.D;BHraTe,1bHblX npasonos ytIHTLlBllJOTCJI ece onsoapexeaso
paforaionme anesrponsararena nannoro npasona. ECJlH B '1RCJle 3TRX
.D;BHf3TeJJeif HMCIOTCJI O;J:HoBpeMeHHo BKJlIOlJaeMhle (c R,aeHTR'IHblM pe)((HMOM
pa601:bI), TO OHR ytIRTblBalOTCJI B pacsere KaK O,llHH 3TI HOMHH3JlbHOH
MOIl\HOCTblO, pasnoa CYMMe HOMHHaJIbHblX MOIllHOCTeH OAHOBpeMeHHO
paforaiouurx neararenea..
2.2.5. .lJ;JIx 3.lJ; C nOBTOpHo-KpaTKoBpeMeHHbIM pe)((RMOM patiorsr HX
HOMHH3JJbHall MOIllHOCTb He npHBO,nHTCJI K MHTeJlbHOMY pe)((HMy (TIB=100%).
36
o HaZpJ!3KUX OOHOrjJa311blX3J1eKmpOnpUeMHUK06
2.2.6.
MOIl\HOCTH
O.llHa<Pa3Hblx
3D
(caapouaue rpaacdopaarope,
anexrpoaarpeaareaa, -3J1e.K'fJW06n ysaren bHble:yC'IpOKc-ma-U
T.Jl. )..-llpuBO,l.tJITCJI...K
ycnoanoa TpeX<pa3HOH MOIl\HOCTH.
DPH BKJ1IO'leHHH O.l\Ha<Pa3HOrO 3D H3 cIla3Hoe aanpazceuae OH y'HlThlB3eTCli
B rparpe 2 KaK 3KBHBancHTHblH Tpex$a3HblH 3D CHOMHHanbHOH MOIl\HOCTblO
PH = 3PH.O.
rne
PH.O. , q Ito .
qH = 3qH.O' .
3K11fBH3lI H PCllKTHBH3lI MOIl\HOCTH O.llHo$a3HOrO 3D.
-
DPH
BKJ1IO'leHHH O.llHa<Pa3HOrO 3D aa JJHHmHOe Hanpll)l(eHHe OH
yqHThlBaeTCJI K'dK 3KBHB3JlCHTHblH O.llHO<jlaJHblH 3D HOMHH3JlbHOH MOIl\HOCTbIO
•
Pu=.[3 Puo.
DPH H3JlH'lHH
OJlHo$a3HblX
3D,
nO,llKJ1lOlJeHHblX
KO
ecea
$a3aM C
nepaenoxepaocrsso .lIO 15%, OHH yqHTblBaIOTCJlKaK Tpex4>aJHble 3TI C TOM )l(e
MOlUHOCTblO. B cnysae 60JIbweM HepaBHoMepHOCTH B pacser 6epeTCx yTpOCHH3lI
BeJJH'lHHa MOIl\HOCTH HaH60JIee 33rpyJKeHHOH $a3bl.
DpHMCp 2. K CeTH nO.llKJIlO'ICHbi OJlH0<pa3Hble caaposaae TpaHC$opMaropbl.
KOJIH'leCTBO - 3. HOMHHa"lbHoe HanpJlJKCHHC - 380 B (nosxmovasorcs na $a3Hoe
aanposeaae),
.
Ilapaaerpu:
Tl - Sn.cn = 20 KBA, 00=0,5, cos q> =0,57
T2 - Snacn = 5 KBA, 00=0,65, cos q> =0,6
T3 - Sn.cn = 1,6 KBA,OO=O,7, cos q> =0,63
HaXO.llHM MOIl\HOCTH TpaHc$opMaropoB 110 BblpaJKeHHIO:
P. = s""",,fjjjj . COS'P""",
P. I = 20.J0,5 ·0,57 = 8,06(KBm)
P. l =
5..j0,6S.?,6 = 2,42(KBm)
P o) =1,6..[0,7 . 0.63 = 0,84 .
PLJ = ( PLl,2 + PLI•3) / 2 = (8,06 + 2,42) = 5,24 KBT
PI.2 =( PI.2,2 + PLd / 2 = (8,06 +0,84) = 4,35 KBT
Pu =( PL3,2 + PL2,3) / 2 = (2,42 + 0,84) = 1,63KBT
HaH60JIee 3arpy*eHHoH $a30H lIBJIXeTCli <pa3a L1.
Toraa yCJlOBH3lI rpexrpaaaaa MOll\llOCTb pasna : PHY= 3 ' 5,24 = 15,72 KBT
3Ty BeJlH'lHHY MOIl\HOCTH H cnenyer npHMeHHTb B pacxere .1lJ1J1 Ha3BaHHblX rpex
onaorpaanux 3JIcKTponpHeMHHKoB.
37
o naepysxax :}J/eKmpOOC8eUf,ellUJ/
2.2.7. HarpY3KH anexrpoocaeiuenns, no,nKJIIO'leHHble K pacc-nrrueaexoxy Pfl,
IIa nepaon CT3,llHU pacsera B Tll6mu.\y He 33nHCbIB3IOT. Hx BKJllOQ31OT B pacser
nocne I.fTOrOBOH CTpOKH no CHJ10BbIM HarpY3KaM naaaoro Pfl (CM. n. 2.2.13).
06 J'Ieme lIa?pYJOK 110 xouneucauuu peaemueuoii sunuuocmu
2.2.8. Ilpa HaJJH'lH" aa o6'beKTe YCTaHoBoK no KOMneHC3[(HH peaKTHBHOH
MOmHOCTH nocneaaae Y'lHThIBaIOTCli B pacsere aHaJJOfWlHO aarpysxaa
3neKTpOoCBemeHHlI, TO ecrs nocne HTOfOBOH CTpOKH no CHnOBbIM HarpY3KaM
paCCMaTPHBaeMofO Y3JIanHTaIlHlI (PII).
Pacsernue .lleHCTBHlI
2.2.9. Ilocne aanonneuaa rpa<\> 1-6 aaxonsr pacsernae BenWlHHbI KH'PH
Ii
K.PII"tglp, xoropue 3aHOCliT B rpaq,hI 7 H 8. B nOH lICe crpoxe onpenenaior
2
3Ha'leHHe BeJ1If'lIfHbI n'P1I H saaocsr B rparpy 9.
Aaarrorasasre .lI.eHCTBHlI npOBOJlJlT AJll1 scex xapasrepaux rpynn ,WIll
paccssrrueaevoro PTI.
I1TaK, aanonaeau rpa$b1 OT ] .lI.O 9 no BceM CTPOKaM. Ilocne sroro
npoaaeonsr CYMMnpoBaHlfe. B uTorOBOH CTpOKe 3anOJIHJlIOT rpaQlbI:
(<2» - onpenenaercs KOJIH'leCTBO 3n, nO.ll.KJIIO'leHHbIX K Pl'I,
«4» - onpenenaercs YCTaHOBneHHaJi MOIUHOCTb scex 3n, Y4aCTBYIOIUliX B
pac'leTe
«7», «(8», «9» - onpeneJ1J1IOTClI cyMMapHble (aroroeue) pacseraue BenH'lHHbl.
Anll sanonaeaus rpa$bI 5 B "TOrOBOH CTpOKe
Onpe/leJ1l1IOT rpynnoson
K03Ql<\>HuHeHT KH.
06p8THTb BHHM8HHe!
KH onpenenserca He KaK npocras CyMMa nOCTP04HblX KH,
a KaK Cpe/lHeB3BeWeHH8JI BenWlHHa naHHhIX K"..
Cpenueaseeureauuti K03QlQlliUHeHT Hcnonb30BaHHlI onpenensior
no
BblpalKeHHIO
KII = - - - - -
{
HTOrOBall rpa$3
7 }
HTOrOBal! rpaQl3
4
(8)
Haanenaoe no QlopMYJle 8 3H3'leHMe KH 33HOCliT B rpadiy 5 "TOrOBO"
CTPOKH.
AnJi 33nonHeHHlI rpa<\>bI 6 HTOroBOH CTPOKH naxonsr cpenaesaaeureuaoe
311a'leHHe BeJlH'lHHbJ tqlpcp.·jo", KaK 4acTlloe OT neneaaa L K."PlI"tgGJ aa L K.P"
(rp3Ql3 7 / rpadia 6 j.
HaMneHHoMY 3Ha4eHllIO tqlpcp.• 3ll
H3XO.ll.llT npJ1
no
lIeo6xoJIHMOCTH 3Ha'leHMe cos lp cp , ",B '
38
2.2.10.
Onepapys
3Ha'leHH"
oKpyrruuOT.II.O 6nH)lCaHWerO
II)
onpenensior
.ll.aHHblMH HTorOBOH CTpOKH,
'lHCJIO 3JIeKTponpHeMHHKOB no OCHOBHOK cIlopMYJIe
3c1l$eKTHBHOe
(I). BeJJH'lHHY HaHJIeHHOrO
MeHbwero uenoro
'lHcna H
3aIlHChIB8IOT B rpa$Y 16 HTOr080H CTpOKH.
2 .2.11. Do nOJlY'!eHHoMY 3Ha'leHHIO n,
KII
rpyrmosoro Ko3<l>1IlHuHeHTa
H
pasee
onpeJJ.eJJeHHoMY 3Ha'leHHIO
no cnpaeosnoa TaMHue
3 HJJH
no KpHBblM (CM.
HaXOMT 3Ha'leHHe K03c1lcl>HUHeHTa paClfeTHOH HarpylKH
pHCyHOK)
3anHChIBaJOT B rpaclly 11 . DPH 3TOM .lI.JJ" 3Ha'leHHH
II , ~
K,
H
4 pexoaesnyerca
nOJIb30BaThC" KpHBhlMH .
2 .2 .12.
DpHMeHlUI
aaaseuae BeJJH'IHHhI Kp, no H3BeCTHLIM
pacsernsre MOUlHOCTH aKTHBHOii P p H peaKTHBHOM
HaHJJ.eHHoe
cIlopMynaM (2,3,4) HaxOJIjIT
Qp
HarPY30K.
B cnysae, eCJJH pacseraas sarpysxa OlCIDKeTC" MeHhwe HOMHHaJIhHOH
HaH60JIee MOUlHOro 3JJeKTpOnpHeMHHKa, TO npHHHMaJOT P p . = P II JWIl5.
3Ha'leHHJI BenH'lHH P p H Qp 3aHOCllT B rpacllLl 12 H
Ecna
2.2.13 .
K
paccxarpaeaevoay
13 HTOroBOii CTpOKH.
pacnpennyaxry
nOJJ.KJJIO'IeHhI
OCBeTHTeJJhHble HarpY3KH o6"beKTa, TO nOCJJe HTOTOBOH CTpOKH 8 rpa$e
Ta6nHubl 33fiHChiBaJOT: «3neKTpOOCBeUleHHe»), npocTa8JJ1I1i
P, .e, H Q p.o.
B rpacllLl
4,
12 H
13.
B HOBOK HTOr080" CTpOKe npOH380,lVlT CYMMHpoBaHHe, onpeaenas P CIl1I
Qc"" + QOCB;
COOTBeTCTBeHHO,
1
3Ha'leHHlI BeJUI'lHH
no H3iiAeHHhlM CYMM3pHhlM 3Ha'leHHlIM
+ P oca H,
P, H Qp
onpeJJ.eJJlIIOT nOIlHyIO pacsernyso MOUlHOCTb no cIlopMYIIe 5.
Onpeneaoor 3Ha'leHHe TOKOBOH pac'leTHOH Harpy:t1CH no 4>oPMyIle 6.
,llaHHhle paC'IeTOB 3anHCbl8aJOT B COOTBeTCTBYIOUlHe rpalllhi HTOroBoH CTpOKH.
)lJJ1I paccxarpnsaeuoro
PD
aa
)TOM
pacxer
3aKOH'IeH .
AHaJIOrH'IHO
paCC'IHThIBaJOT3JIeKTpH'IeCKHe aarpysxa no OCTa1IbHLlM PD.
2.3 .
Orrpeneneaae paC'IeTHOH MOUlHOCTH 3JlaHHlI (uexa)
2 .3 .1. PaC'IeTHU MOIUHOCTb npoH3BoJJ.CTBeHHoro 3.11.aHHjI HJJH, 'ITO TO )ICe,
pacsemas
:meKTpH'IeCKU MOUlHOCTb H3 880JJ.e
B 3.l1.aHHe (uex), onpenensercs
aHaJIOrHtlHO BhlwenpHBeJJ.eHHhlM pacseraa JJ.JJR OT.II.eJJbHoro Y3JJ3 nHTaHHlI (PD).
DPH )TOM acnonsayior Y)lCe paCC'IHTaHHhle .lI.JJlI PD .ll.aHHhle (HTOrOBLIe 3H3'1eHHlI) .
DOKa3aTenH rpacll4,
7, 8, 9
HTorOBhlX CTpOK JJ.JJR scex PD CYMMHPYIOT, HaXOJJ.jlT
cpenaeaaeememrue 3Ha'leHHlI
KH
H tq <p,
3JIeKTponpHeMHHKoB II) no cIloPMyne
paCC'IHTblB3.lOT 3c1lclleKTHBHOe '1HenO
I.
OnpeJJ.eJJHB saaseuae D J , HaXO,lVlT BeJJH'IHHY
HarpY30K 3JlaHHlI
no
radnaue 4
HCKOMble BeJIH'lHHhI P p , Qp,
(HJJH
S,
H
H
i,
Kp
JJ.JJ1I 3neKTpH'IeCKHX
no lTHM napaaerpaa
paCC'IHTbIBaIOT
COOTseTCTBeHHO no cIloPMynaM
4), 5 H 6.
39
2, 3
2.3.2 . B .Il.aHHOH aanase WIll COnOCTaBJIeHHlI pacserustx noxaaarenea BeJIH'IHHY n,
pexoaeaayerca onpenenars TIlKlKe H no ynpoineaaon cPoPMyne 7, a HMeHHO:
2LP
(CM. nOllCHeHHlI B paaaene 1).
P.,.M4«
ITpHMep 3anOJIHeHIDI Ta6nHUbI «Pacser 3JIeK"lpH'IecKHx narpysox» nOK33aH
aa Ta6nHl\e 6.
n, = - - "
2.4.
PaC'IeT aarpysox no,nCTaHl\HH
Ecaa . B npoesrapyexoa
3,/l.aHHH
npeAycMaTpHBlUOTClI
scrpoenasre HJIM
npacrpoeaaue TpaHetPoPMaTOpHble nO.ll.CTaHUHH, TO pacser 3neKTPH'IecKHX
narpysox nux no,nCTaHUHH .TIUOKe senerca MeTO.Il.OM 3<lxPeKTHBHOrO 'IHCJIa
31IeICrpOnpHeNHHKOB au3JIOI"H'lHO onpenenemno pac'IeTHoii MOIUHOCTH 311aHIDI.
B Ta6mutc 5 npHBe,nCHJ,I 3Ha'lCHHlI K03rPcPHUHCHTa O.lUfOBpeMeHHOCTH Kp .nJIlI
pacseros 31IcKlpH'IeCKHX aarpysox na WHHax 10 KB nOACTaHuHH.
!I!
ITOBTOPHM I'JlaBHylO lleJJb paellaa 3JleKTpHlleclCHI. HarpylolC.
HaHAcHHble npa pacxerax 3Ha'leHHlI BenH1JHH Pp , Qp, Ip
Hcnonb3YJOT B
aan.HcHweM npa Bbl60pe KOMMYTaUHOHHblX H 38lUHTHbiX annaparoa , npn
Bbl60pe nHT3IOIUcro PIT Ka6eJul H pacsere ce'leHHlI ero TOKoBe,nymHx )l(Hn, a
TllIOKe B npyrax p3C'IeTaX (nanpaaep, rrpa pacsere KOMneHC3UHH peaKTH8HOH
MOIUHOC11f).
3Ha'leHHe BenH1JHHbI Sp acnonssyercs .nJIlI Bbl60pa MOIUHOCTH
mmuomero TpaHetPoPMaTOpa.
40
HArpY30K
Ta6nnua I
lfcxoJl.Hl>le mumble
no 3I.I\llHHlO
no Cnp&BO'IHHJ<Y
HOMlIHlIJIhHall
IC-BO MOIllHOCTb,
HlIHMeHOBllHHe
3nelCIpOnpHeMHHJCOB
a
lDT
I
xBT
3n
2
kO*!>.
KOOljlcll.
ncnonsso-
MOIllHO-
IIllHHll
CTH
Ilio
H
(B
MaWR
Pac'lernble BeIIH'IHHbI
ic"P• ......,t&. up.'
Pac'leTl'.we
'3c1*xnllluoo:
'lUCJIO
'3n
• RIOrOIIOii CI'Ill)l<C;
pearr.
onsoro
3n
maa
p"
P,Fllp"
3
06-
.
IITOI'OBOH
CTpOKe ; cOS<jl/tgljl
0,=
:E !<op. u.P.tg<p
1)1 Po'
.illai..
1: n Po'
K. qt=
IrlCoI'm.
5
6
7
8
9
10
K~ .
peaxrns-
Hall
Hall
xBAp
Jl3C'ICT
xBT
Hoi
Halll)'3
P p=
I<H
KpD<J'
14 .
•
•.
11
MOWHOCnl
3UJlB-
nonaas
xBA
Q-I,IK.P.
tlVP
npM
1lo<1O
~K.P.tgql
5,=
,
J =
S,
~
= -;::'-
14
15
..[3lJ.
RpM
n,>lO
12
13
:
:
.
KWil
1'01<,
A
,
.
Pac:oteT-
Tatinaua
Pacseraae IC03"Hu.HeHTbI HCnOJlbJOUaHHH
M KO~Mu.HeHTLI 1lI0"-,HOCTH 3JIeKTPM'IeCI<J.IX H3rpYJOK
2
xapasrepaux rpynn :meKTPonpHeMHHKoB
,----------------------,-----,.--.,--3neKTPOnpHeMHHKH
Ku coscp tgcp
t. METAJUlOOJ>PAJ>OTKA
1.1
Merannopexymae CTllHKM C nerKHM PC)KHMOM pa6oThl:
0,1
0,5
1,73
0,13
0,65
1,17
0,15
0,65
1,17
0,15
0,65
LI7
0,17
0,65
1,17
0,2
0,65
1,17
0,7
1,02
caep1lHJ1bHhle, MenKHe rosapasie, iPpeJepHble, cTJX>raJJbHble, Jlon€X!)ftHhle, TO'IHJ1bHble, KapyccnbHble H T.n.
1.2. To lKC, C TlIlKl!nblM pelKHMOMp360Th1:
CTllHKH Jy60iPpe3epHhle, 06.1lHPO'lHhle, peaonsaepasre, 3 TllKlKe
xpyrnnae TOKapH&le, crporensnae, iPpe3epHble, pacrosuae;
CTllHKM aBTOMaThi H nonyaeroxaru, npeccsi MexaHHlfecKMe,
pe3b60Hape3Hble CTllHKH, orpesaae CTllHKH
I .3. To )fte, c oco6o TII)ftl!nblM pelKHMOMpa6oTbl:
MonOThI, MaWHHbI rHOOotHble H npaBHJ1bHble, KOBO'lHble
M3WHHbI, npeccu rHJlpaBJIH'IecKHe H rH60'lHfr-illT3MnoBo'lHble, nocrpoesnue MeX8IIH3MbI, a TlUOKe oco6o JCPynHble
TOKaPHWe,CTjjOrarn;HbIe,~epHble, pacrosaue,
KaPYCeJJbHble H T.n. CTllHKH
1.4. MHorownHHJleJJbHble 8BTOMaTbI ArJJI HlrOTOBJIeHlUI .u.eraneH
HJ npyrsoa (OOnroB, WnHJJeK, raex, CTeplKHeH, illaH6 H T.n.)
1.5. AaTOMaTW H nonY8BTOMaThi JlJI.lI XonO.llHOH illT3MIlOBKH,
aaTOM8Th1 pe3b60H8ICaTHhie I( rop.ll'leWTllMnOSO'lHble
1.6. nOTO'IHWe JlHHHHMex8Hoo6pa6OTKH
1.7. nOTO'lHo-MeX8IIH3HpOBaHHble JlMHBM XOnO)1HOH WTllMnOBKH
1.8. Ilorosaue nKHMM KyJHe'lHO-npecCOBoro npoHlBoACTB3.
0,35
0,38
0,7
1,02
1.9. ABTOMaTH'IeCICKe JlHHHHMex8Hoo6p800TKH.
0,3
0,65
1,17
1.10. ABTOMaTH'IeCKHenHHHB XonOJlHOH WT8MnOBKH.
0,4
0,7
1,02
1.11. ABTOM8TH'IecKHe JlHHHHKyJHe'lHO-npeCCOBbie.
0,43
0,7
1,02
0,12
0,5
1,02
0,23
0,16
0,65
1,17
0,50
0,25
0,65
1,02
1,17
0,08
0,50 \'1,73
1.12. HO)ftHMUbI JlHCTOBble, coprosue, ilJacoHHble,
HT.n.
I. 13.AaTOMaTH'IecKHe nHHHH JlJIli
pe3101
MeTaJJJJH'IecKOro nacra
1.14. <;TaHKH WJIH4JoB8JIbHble
ABTOMaTI.J WJIHiPosanbHo-nonMpoBO'lHble
MeJJKoMOTOpHble
CTaHKM,
1.16.PaJJIH'lHbIe
npM60pbl na60paropHH
apssarypaae
pynoaaoro
r.i f
42
MexaHH3Mbl,
II
,-TIp0,lJ.OmKeHHe 1 Tll6nHUbI 2
3neKlpOnpHeMHHKH
._ - - - - - - . - - ._ , - - , ---..,
K. eose tgcp
2. JJ.EPEBOOf>PA60TKA
2.l.CTaHkH ,lJ.n1l paanemos ,lJ.peBeCHHbI (nHJIOpaMLI, nHnbl
lUlpKYJUJPHble, o6pe3Hble, 6anaHcHpHble, neKrO'IHble H
. T.n.)
0,2
2.2.CTaHKK nna 06pa60TKK nanoaarepaanoe (crporaasaue,
Q>pe3epHble, TOKlIpHble, .ll.On~lKHble, caepnnnsaue HT.n.)
0,15
2.3. CTllHKH IIJJIHQ>OBaJlbHble, nonapoeansaue, HlI)J(Jlll'lHble
0,2
2.4.060PYAOBaHHe JaTO'IHOe H no yxony sa
lleOCBoo6pa6aTblB8lOII.\HM HHCTP~eHTOM
0,12
0,65
1,17
0,6
0,65
1,33
1,17
0,65
1,17
0,55
0,5
0,8
0,8
0,75
0,6
0,8
0,75
0,55
0,6
0,65
0,8
0,8
Q.8
0,75
0,75
0,5
0,8
0,75
0,6
0,8
0,75
3. OJill\EnPOMLlWJIEHHOE 060PYJJ.OBAHlfE
3.1. BeHTHnllTOpbI H HaCOCbI TeXHOJIOrH'IeCKHe,
KOMnpeccopbl, ueHTPHQ>yrH, neararens-reaeparopu,
B03~OAYBKK
3.2. BeHTHnllTOpbI caarexuasecsae (BbiTlIlKH3lI BeHTHnllUHlI)
3.3.' BeHTHJlJITOpw c ~~PH~P~H~ ~~.:mHUHoHepbi· 'c -. ~- .~ , .
nacocaaa, OTOnHTenbHble arperaru (npllTO'IH3lI
BeHTHJIJIUHlI)
3.4. Tenaoeue 33BeCbI
3.5. Haeocu BO.ll.OCHa6)!(eHHlI (l-ro H 2-ro nonsexa)
3.6. Hacocu o60poTHoH CHCTeMbI BOllocHa611CeHHlI
3.7. Hacocu npoMCTOKoB H 6b1TOBOH KaHanH3aUHH
3.8. )J.b1MOC?Cbl, seirransropu H HaCOCbl npoH3BoACTBeHHblX
..'
KOTenbHblX
3.9. KpaHbI MOCTOBble, K03nOBLle, rpeHAepHble; Kpau-6amat,
TeJU>$ePbI, anexrporana, nH$rbI .
npa IlB=25%
3.10. To lI<e npa 00=40%
3.11. Tpancnoprepa, KOHBeitepbl, anesaropu, HOpHH, WHeKK,
ne6eAKH Hec6nOKHpOBaHHble
3.12. To lI<e, c6noKHpoBaHHble
3.B . llo.zn,(!MHLle CTOJI.LI, pcnsraara, TOJIKaTCJlH, cBapO'IHble
CTOnLl, NaHHnynllTOpbl MeXaHH'IecKHe, apautarena, :
KOnOHKH, renesoar, nnauw8.H6w
3.14. 3J1eKTpOHHCTpYMeHT nepeaocaoa
3.15. MeJJbHHUbI, ,zq>o6HnKH, BH6pauHoHHble MaWHHbI,
cenaparopu
3.16. Pll3rnV3'1HKK
43
0!75 .
0,75
0,1
0,45
1,98
0,15
0,5
1,73
0,3
0,65
1,17
0,4
0,7
1,02
0,06 ·
0,5
1,73
0,06
0,45
1,98
0,15
0,65
1,17
0,3
0,65
1,17
nioononx eaae 2
fa 6JJHUbl
2
I
3JJeKTPOnPHeMHHKH
Ku I COSlp
t gip
0,5
0,95
0,33
0,8
0,96
0,29
0,4
0,95
0,33
4. 3JJEKTPOTEPMHtJECKOE OIiOPY~08AHHE
4.1. 3J1el\"TpH'leCKHe
Hble
Ii T .n.) ,
ne'lH conpoTHBJleHIUI (KaMep Kble, W3XT- ,
uarpeaarensaue annaparu,
CYWHJlbHble
wKa<pbl , 03HHbl H T.n . nepaonasecsoro .ll.eHCTOHJI
4.2. To lKe, nenpepsranoro JleHCTBIUI
4.3. Harpeaarensuue npH60pbl H annapara
( n elfH
COnpoTH8JleHHll) 0 3.11.MHHHCTp3ll1BH0-6b1TOBbiX
nOMelUeHHJlX H MeJlHKO-caJUITaPHblX
cnyllC6ax
4.4. ABTOMa TH'IecKHe H n onyaBTOM31lI'IeCKHe J1HHHH
Tq)Moo6p36oTKH H3JleJJHH, .lIeT3JJeH, HHCTpYMeHTa
4.5. Jlafoparopaue uarpeearensasre npafiop»,
aOTOKJl3Obl,
CYWHJlbHble "IUHKH H T.n.
4.6. MeJ1KHe
0,9
0,65
I
I
I
0,48
0,3
0,95
0,25
0,95
0,33
0,6
0,55
0,8
0,75
0,75 I
0,88
0,6
0,8
~,75
0,6
0,85
0,62 I
!
I
f
3J1eKTpoBYJ1KaJlH33TOpbl H T .n .)
4.7. 3J1eKTpH'ICCKHe nelfH HH]lyKUHOHHble
4.8. YCTBHOBKH BbiCOKOH lf3CTDTbI
4.9. Feueparopu nooblweHHoH '13CTOTb1 M3WHHHble H
nonynpoBO.II.HHKOBbie
4.10. AoTOMaTbI
I
!
0,33
aarpeaarensasre npi!60pw B npo"3BOJlCTBeHHbIX
uexax ( OJIIITKH, pedmexropu, KJIeeoapKII,
I,
H nonyaarcaaru Jl)UI33K3JlKH TBlI
Ii
i
I
!
5. YCTAHOBKH OIiPAIiOTKH nOBEPxHOCTEA, OKPACOl.fHo-
J
I
CYUJHJlbHhIE ICAMEPbI
i
5.1. 3neKTpoo6opY.ll.ooaHH.e mlllHH MeranJJlI'lecKHX H
HeMeTa1lJlH'IeCKHX nOKpbllllH H3.l1eJJHH (uaasoaauae,
xpoaapoaaaae, 3HO.ll.Hpoo3HHe, HHKeJJHpoBaJlHe H T.n.
5.2. 3neKTpO.ll.BHraTeJlH BCTpoeHHOro o6opytlOBaHHll
YCTaHOOOKranbBaHOnOI\~b1ll1H
5.3. KaMepbl
nOKp3cKH (M CTOJlOM pacmsnenaa , 06J1HBa)
0,8
OA
0,75
I
0,88
0,7
1,02
!
I
5.4. ABTOM31lI'IecKHe JlHHHH nasospaco-max nOKpblndi
5.5. 060PY.ll.OBaHHe KpacKoH3rOTOBlIeHHJI (Kp3CK<ITepKH ,
0,6
I
0,8
0,75
Kp3CKOnpo6HJ1KH, xpac xoaeuianx«, CMeCHTeJ1H .)
0,25
I 0,65
1,17
0,5
I1 0,8
5.6. KaMepbl OXJl3)KJ1eHHJI H311eJJHH nocne nospacxa
5.7. BblnpJlMHTeJlbHble yCTpOKCTB3 r 3JIboa HH'I eCKHX ueXOB
-
i
0,5
0,55
0,75
!
I
I 0,7
0,55
I
1,02
0,75
TInOJlOJl>KeHlle 3 TIl 6JlHUbI
2
3JleKTPOnpHeMHHKH
Ku
cosq>
tgip
0,2
0,35
2,68
0,3
0,65
1,17
0,3
0,4
2,29
0,35
0,55
1,52
0,45
0,55
1,52
0,2
0,25
0,1
0,65
0,65
0,5
1,17
1,17
1,73
0;4
0,7
1,02
0,35
0,7
1,02
6.CBAPOqHOE060PYAOBAHHE
16.1.
CBapO'iHbIe,TPaHc4x>PMaropbI PY'lHOH Jl,YrOBOH
I6.2. Caapoxasre nsararem-reaeparopu
CBapKM
6.3. Caaposaue nOJlynpoBOJlHHICOBbie
npeoopasoaarena Jl]JJI PY'iHoA JlyroBOH csapxa
6.4. Ceaposaae MalllHHbllllOBHble, CTblKOBbIe,
TO'Ie'lHble
6.5. ABToMaTHIJecKHe JlHHHH JlyroBOH H roIJe4HOH
caanxa
7. npOQEE OIiOPYAOBAHHE
7.1 . Hcnsrrarensaae creanu MeJJKOMOTopHble
7.2. Hcmrrarensaae CTeHJlLl KpynHoMoropHble ·
7.3. Hcnsrrarenssne na60paropHble YCTaHOBKH
f7 .4. Ilpeotipaaoaarensaue arperana 3aPllJlHblX
CTaHUHH
7.5. 3neKTDO<!JHnbmbl, MexaHH3MLI
nblJley60PKH
45
3HaqeHHfl K03~Hu.HeHTOB paCqeTHOH HarpY3KH
)VIflnHTIllOllI)IX ceTeii HanplilKeHHeM AO 1000 B
Kp
Ta6nKu.a 3
KOO<jl<jlHUIleHT HCnOnb30BaHHll
n,
0,1
I
8
I 0,15 I· 0,2 I
0,3
I
0.4
I
0,5
KM
I
0,6
I
0,7
1,60
1,33
2,45
2
1,98
1,60
1,33
1,24
1, 14
1,74
1,45
1,41
,25
1,34
1,21
1,22
1,12
1,14
1,06
5,33
4,33
4
2,67
3,39
2,31
1,91 .
2
6,22
3
4
4,05
3,24
2,89
5
2.84
2,09
1.72
1,.35
1.0&- . J.03
2,64
1,96
1,62
1,28
- J ,JO
1,14
+.~
6
1,13
1,06
1,01
7
2,49
2,37
1,86
1,78
154
1,48
1,23
1,19
1,12
1,10
1,10
1,08
1,04
1,02
I
I
1,43. .
1,39
1,16
1,13
1,09
1,07
1,05
1,01
I
1
1,07
8
2,35
9
10
2 ,27
1,71
2,18
11
2,11
1,65
1,61
1,35
1,1
1,06
2,04
1,56
1,32
1,08
1,05
1,04
1,03
I
12
13
1,99
1,52
1,29
1,06
1,04
1,01
I
14
1,94
1,49
1,27
1,05
1,02
1
IS
t6
1,46
1,43
1,25
1,23
1,03
1,02
1
1
1,21
1,19
1
I
I
17
1,89
1,85
1,81
18
1,78
. ) ,4 1
1,39
19
20
1,75
1,36
1,72
1,35
1,17
1,16
21
22
1,69
1,67
1,33
1,15
1,31
1,13
23
24
1,64
1,3
1,12
1,62
1,28
I,ll
25
1,6
1,27
1,1
30
1,51
1,21
1,05
35
40
1,44
1,4
1,16
1,13
1
I
I
45
1,35
1,1
50
1,3
1,07
I
60
1,25
1,03
I
70
1,2
I
80
1,16
I
90
1,13
I
100
1,1
1
I
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I 0,8
\
,
.. S 6 7
Z J
!11CYHOK
2.
(J
9 10
20
JO
+0
SO 11,
KpHBbJe K03qxpHUHeHTa paC'IeTlfbl~aarpysox
WIll Pa3JlHQHblX K03<p41HuHeHToB
HCnOJlb30BaUHJI K
. (ami nOCTOJlHHOH BpeMeHH narpesa
47
H
Kp
B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT 0,
T0= 10 MHH)
3Ha'IellHe Ko3<jlqlHIlHeIlTOB paC'leTHOH HarpY3KH
Kp
na IlIHHaX
HH uexossrx
1 KB
TPaHC<tx>PMaTOpOB H lUlll MarHCTPaJlbHblX lUHHOnpoBOJ/.OB Hanp">KeHHeM 11.0
Ta6JJHlla
4
K03epcj>HuHeHT IICnOJlb300aHIUI
K.
03
0,7
0,1
II
60nee
8
5,33
4
2,67
2
1,60
1,33
2
5,01
3,44
2,69
1,9
1,52
1,24
1,11
3
2,994
2,17
1,8
1,42
1,23
1,14
1,08
4
2,28
1,73
1,46
1,19
1,06
1,04
5
1,31
1,12 ... . 1,02 ···.0·. ) . _ _.Jl.28- -_ .--0;96._.._ .0~ 94
6-8
1,2
9-10
1,1
10-25
1,14
0,97
0,93
0,96
O,95 ~
0,94
0,93
0,92
0,91
0,97
0,91
0,9
0,9
0,9
0,9
0,9
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,85
0,85
0,85
0,9
0,9
25-50
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,85
Bonee SO
0,65
0,65
0,65
0,7
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,8
K. JJ.J111 onpeneneaaa
KB PTI H rnn
3Ha'leHHe K03<f>cPHllUeHTOB OJJ.HoBpeMeHHOCTH
paC'leTHOH HarpY3KH H3 IlIHHax 10 (6)
Ta6IJH1l3S
1.JHCJlO n pllcoeJlHHeHHH
CpeJlHe83 8eweHHblH
10 (6) rill
umaax
m, rnn
5-8
I
ua c60PHbIX
K03cj>epHuHeHT
HCnOJlb300aHHR
KH
0,3 s
0,5 s
< 0,3
< 0,5
KH
KH
s 0,8
KH
> 0,8
2-4
I
0,9
0,95
48
9-25
I
Bonee 25
0,8
0,9
0,75
0,85
0,7
0,8
0,95
0,9
0,85
0,95
0,9
./
PAClfET
Tafinaua 6
3JIEKTPHlfECKHX
HAfPY30K
aWZQJlKoM.
c."'PYJ1UO__.__.__
Pe.llOHIIIHClJl siacmeoceo» ,:Ix mexnuku PIll" PIll
6Ql}/lUHI1I
Hcxo.zun,lc aaaaue
Pa:qe
ITo 3aAaHHlO
-llWil
HOMHH&nLH8J1
KO)lj>.
MOIIlHOCTh,
jHcnonh'O
KBy
H8HMCHOBlIHHC
3nekTpOnpHeMHHKOB
n
rot.
A
1,=
UHliR
Sp
CUllom
-fo.
3n
jQ=IK,J'MtS'l
npn n..>IO
p"
11
12
13
1~
15
6
1.62
15.67
13,51
20.69
31,47
2
2.23
69,13
3.2
36,83
78,33 J 19,1
+...(ecnn
72,33
65.89
36,83
50,27
2
pm
5,0
1,5
2.2
9
I'horo:
12.32
343,18
3.94
2.93
56.25
33.38
2708,7
18
3nenpOOCBellleHIIe
eCTL)
Hroro :
Bcero no 'JIaHllJO .
0.2
0,68 { 1,08
0.66 ( 1.12
31
40,67
33,38
45,7
2708,7
3052
2
2.23
6
1,62
81.17
8287
123,5
126,1
Pacser lJleKTpH'feCKHX uarpysosc aHaJlHTH'feCKHM
B
CJIY'lae,
KOf,Aa
MeTOilOM
naunsre 06 YCTaHoBJIeHHblx MO~HOCTJlX
ausaecrea pe)KHM paforu 3TI, ',A}i>J
HMelOTCll
:mel\fPOnpHe~4HHKOBo6'bcm, HX 38rPY3Ke
onpeaenenas paC'IeTHOH
MO~HOCTH MO>KeT OblTb npaxeaea
aHaJIHTHlJeCKHH
MeTOJl.
B OCHoBe MeTOJla 3aJIO>KeHa Heo6xo,AHMOCTb neransaoro aHaJIH3a TeXHOJIOfH'lecxoro npouecca, Ha OCHOBaHHH sroro aaanasa OpHeHTHpoBO'lHO onpenenmorcs:
- BpeMll (nepaon) aeacrsaa O>KH.llaeMoro MaKcHMyMa,
- 3D, pa60Ta10~He B 3TOT nepaon,
- MHTeJIbHOCTb paforsr lTHX 30,
113 paccaarpnaaeaoro nepaona O>KHJlaeMOrO MaKcHMyMa BblOHpaeTCll nonysacoBOH HHTepBan, npHHHMBIOTCll JlaHHhle
nns pacxera.
aarpyxeuayto cMeH y .
na BBOJle) onpenensror
DPH )TOM paCCMaTPHBalOT MaKCHMaJIbHO
BeJIH'IHHY paC'IeTHOH
MO~HOCTH (HarpY3KH
no
<p0pMYJIe:
~ PyK, ~ P; K,'",
P, = £.J--+ £ . J - - '
1
YCT3HOBJIeHH8JI MO~HOCTb
rne Py -
P;-
'I,
I
0,511..
30, pafiorarormrx oonee 0,5
BpeMll O>KHJJ.aeMorO MaKcHMYMa (HX KOJIH'IeCTBO
MOIllHOCTb
3D,
pa60TBIO~HX MeHee
MaKcHMyMa (HX KOJIH'IeCTBO
rpynnsr
0,5 xaca BO BpeMll O>KHJJ.aeMoro
m);
1m - ilJIHTeJILHOCTb paOOTbl Ka>K.llOrO H3
H3
m ,melClJ>0npHeMHHKOB
P; ;
K0:xP<PHUHeHT 3arpY3KH 3JIe lClJ>0 n p HeMHHKOB
K, -
qaca BO
n);
(npanavaerca
no
cnpasO'lHHKaM);
'1"
n; - KTI)J; anexrponpaeunaxos
(npauauaercs no
fIpHMeHeHHe
npouecca H
Meron
MO>KeT
naaaoro
COOTBe1;CTBeHHo 113
rpynn P;
H
P:.
CnpaBO'lHHKaM).
MeTOJla
rpeoyer xopoinero
3HaHHll TeXHOJIOfH'IeCKOrO
HH<PoPMJiIlHH 0 sarpyaxe ofiopynosaaaa .
Pp . D03TOMY
(npenaapsrrensaux)
naer 3Ha'lHTeJILHylO norpeuraocn, B onpeneneaax
6LJTL
peKOMeHJlOBaH
TOJILKO
paC'IeTOB.
50
MR
OueHO'lHLIX
Pacser :}J]eKTp Uq ecKHX narpysox MeTMOM KOJeJlcllullHeHTa cnpoca
)lml 03HllKOMJIeHHn C MeTOJ\OM onpeneneaas paC'IeTHOH MOlll,HOCTH o6'beKTa no
KOJ<MIHUHeHTy cnpoca B paCCMaTpMBaeMOH saaaxe B xaxecrae npaaepa
npasenenu aaaasre )lJIn pacsera narpysox >KHJJblX no MOB H 06l1l,e)KHTHH.
):{JIll npyrax o6'beKTOB, K KOTOPblM npHMeHHM J\aHHbIH MeTO,l( onpeneneaas
paC'IeTHOH MOlll,HOCTH, npHeMbi H cnocoda paC'IeTOB aHaJIOrH'IHbI.
A)KHJIbie J\OMa
PaC'IeTH3n aarpysxa aa BBO.lle B )KHJIOH .u.OM H aa WHHax PY-0,4 KB
JJIeKTpOnpHeMHJlKOB KBapTMP (J>K') onpenensercx no <PoPMYJIC
p p.x
rne PK•.y,'J
.iJ.
= P"" + O,9Pc ;
PKB= PK•.yi!. • n;
P;
=
P; . K,
m
OT
,
y.neJIbH3n paC'IeTH3n 3neKTpH'IeCK3n aarpysxa xsaprapsr
(npHHHMaJOTCn no TaruIHue 1 npHJIO)l(eHHn f);
n - ' KOJIHlIeCTBO KBapTHp, npacoennaeaaax K JIMHHH;
P; - pacseraas narpysxa CHJIOBblX 3neKTponpHeMHHKoB;
P; - YCTaHOBJIeHH3n MOlll,HOCTb canoasrx 3D; .
K c -- KOJ$qll-IUHeHT cnpoca CHJIOBblX yCTaHOBOK (npHHHMaeTCn no
Ta6nHue 2 npHJIO)KeHHlI f).
-
E. 0 6 ui e )KH T H 11 K 0 P H J\0 P H 0 rOT H n a
06l1l,3n pacseraaa aarpyssa 06l1l,e)KHTHj!
cxnanueaercs H3 pacsernux
aarpysox ofimero ocseuieaas (POCfJ), pacxernsrx aarpysox 3D, nOJJ.KJlIO'laeMbiX K
P03eTKaM (Pp.p .), aarpysxa 3JIeKTpHlleCKHX IL'IHT (Pp .,vr.),jlarpY3KH nHeJlroB (Pp .J1.)
Pp
=
Pp .oc• . + pp .P. + p p 1lfl. + pp .fI •
Onpeneneaae cnaraeaux BbInOJIHlIeTCli no JJ.aHHbIM Ta6JIHI\ 3, 4, 5 M 6
npHJIO)l(eHHn f .
51
Onpeneneuae paC'IeTHOH
MOIllHOCTH H
COSf/J
no nOKalaHHHM
H1MepHTeJ1LHblX npHfiopOB
B
YCJlOBHJlX
3KCIUlYaTa.U.HH
npa
He06xoJlHMOCTH
paCtIeTHYIO
aarpyssy
norpefiarens onpenensior no nOKaJaHHlIM asmepaerpoa. BeJlH4HH3 J (B asmepax)
- no H CCTb narpysxa B ,llaHHblH MOMeHT.
PaC'IeTHaH HarpylKa no TOKy -
cpennas
BeJlH4HHa 33 30-H MHHyTHblH
H3H60J1ce 33rpYlKeHHblH npoMelKYTQK BpeMeHH.
OtlHaKO
BO
cnyxasx npa
MHorHX
upoeKTHpOBaHHH
H
CTpoHTeJlbCTBe
aanepverpsa H3 aeone He YCTaHaBJIHBaJOTCJI .
Coepeveuaue MHor0tPYHKlUIOHaJIbHble C4eAHKH 3J1eKTpH4eCKOH 3HcprHH,
H3rOTIlBJIHBaeMbie
npoasnnneanocruo H oceaaeaeasie npOH3BOtlCTBOM,
n03BOJlJllOT KpoMe H3MepeHHJI OCHOBHblX napasserpoa 3J1eKTponcrrpe6J1eHHJI TaKlKC
peraerpapoaars rp3tPHKH 3J1eKTpHtleCKHX H3rpY30K, a 3H34HT; H onpenensrs B
sanauaue nepaonu pa60TbI 3J1eKlpOYCTaHOBKH ee pacsernsre Harp)'3KH.
06beKTOB
TaKHe
C4eTtIHKH
B
a6COJ1lOTHOM
60JlblllHHCTBe
CeJILCKOX03llHCTBeHHbix
Enie npoaonacrrensnoe BpeMJJ
3.nCCb 6y.nyT
YCTaHOBJIeHHble panee 3neKTpHQeCKHe C'IeTtIHKH
OJlH0tPYHKUHOHaJIbHOrO HCnOJlHCHHX. TIonoMY nanee B HaCTOXIItCH sanaxe
nOKaJblBaIOTCli npHeMbl H cnocofiu onpeneneaas paCtICT"b1X MOIItHOCTeH H
nexoropux npyrux nosasarenea no Tpll.llHUHOHHblM H3MepHTeJlbHblM npaoopaa.
MOlllHOCTb norpefiarens B tlaHHblH MOMeHT BpcMeHH MOlKHO onpenemrrs n o
nOKa33HHlIM C4eAHKOB aKTHBHOH saepraa (onpenenenae P) H C4eAHKOB
peaKTHBHOH 3HcprHH (onpenenenae Q).
3a npoaezeyrox BpeMeHH, npauepno, 30 . . . 60 C, OTC'lHTblBaJOT nOJlHOC 4HCJlO
o60pOToB ,llHCK3. TIo Ta6J1H4KC C4CTtJHK3 uaxoasr COOTHOIllCHHC 1 KBrn"" = n
nacrosuree
«pafiorars»
norpe6HTeJlci:i B
BpeMJI
OTCyTCTByIOT.
o60pOTaM tlHCKa.
MOIItHOCTb
onpenenator no BblpalKCHHIO
- -1/-'"
Prne N -
K 3600 N
OTC4HTaHHOC 4HCJlO
[KBrn]
ofiopcroa nncxa sa
BpeMJJ
t, c ;
K - nCpCC'ICTHbIH K03tPtPHUHCHT C'ICTtJHKa (no TOKy H HanpJllKeHHIO)
AHanorH4HO -
.lJ,JUI peaKTHBHOH MOIItHOCTH.
onpenenaior no IlOKaJaHHJlM C'ICTtIHKOB
sarpyscennyro cMeHy. OTC4CTbi nOKaJaHHH cservaxa np01l3BO,llJlT
onpeneneanue npoMClKYTKH BpeMCHH t, nanpauep, sepes KalK,llble 0,5 saca
P3C4CTHYlO MOIItHOCTb nOTpe5HTCJlJI
33 H3H60JlCC
4 epe3
KJUt 4CPC3 KalK,llblH "lac.
3JIcKTponoTpe6J1eHHC 33 A3HHblH npOMelKYToK
(Il 1, TI2 -
W = ill - ill (I<Bm.q)
IlOKaJaHHJI C'ICT'IHKa).
Bbl5HPaJOT HaH60JlblllylO BeJlHQHHY anexrponorperinenas sa CMeuy
PaC'ICTHaJI MOlUHOCTb
Pp
WU
=
r
[KBmj.
52
W", .
TIo
nOKa3aHHJlM
C'Ie'fltHKOB
MO)KHO onpencmrrs
H rexyuiee
3Ha'leHlIe
K03!\>!\>HUHeHTIl MOmHOCTH COSlp.
)J.nJl
sr oro
O.n.HOBpeMeHHO OTC'IHThIB3IOT 'IHCna 060pOTOB AHCKOB C'IeT'IHKa
aKTKBHOH saepraa
It:~ BpeMlI
Na
H
C'IeT'lHKa
peaKTHBHOH
suepraa Np sa
O.n.HO H TO
(30.. .60 c).
)J,JUI ClJeT'lHKOB, HMelO1UHX O,ll.HH H TOT)I{C
nepecneraua
K03!l>l\>HUHeHT,
BCJIHlJHHY K03!l>l\>HUHCHTa pCaKTHBHOH M01UHOCTIt MO)l{HO
orrpenenars
no. BbIpIDKeHHIO:
-,»,
Igrp=-- ,
npN.
rne na u np - 'IHenO o60poTOB .n.HCKa C'IeT'IHKa, COOTBeTCTBYlOll\ee
J sBm «
H
1 KBAp"'l.
TIPH OTCyrcrBIfH C'IeT'IlIKa peaKTIfBHOH suepraa 3Ha'leHHe costp MO)KHO
onpenenars no O.llHOMY TPex!\>a3HoMY (TPeXnpOBO.llHoMy) C'IeT'IHKY aKTHBHOH .
:m ep r HH.
..--...
)VIJI sroro He05xo.llllMO xparxoepeaeaao (ua
uens HanpJl)KeHHJI C'IeT'IHKa !\>a3bl
A
30 ... 60 c)
caasana OTKnIO'IHTb
(aanpuaep, BblHyrb npenoxpauurens) H
OTC'IHTaTb sa no BpeMJI 'IHCnO 060pOTOB .n.HCKa.
3aTeM BKnIO'IHTb uens !\>a3bl
)Ke
npoaexyrox
BpeMeHH
A,.
aHanOfH'IHO OTKnIO'IHTb !\>a3Y C H aa TaKoH
OTC'IHTaTb
'IHCnO
060pOTOB
.n.HCKa.
CxeMY
BOCCTaHOBHTb.
0603Ha'lHB 'Iepe3
n, -
MeHbmee 'IHCnO 060pOTOB nacxa, a 'Iepe3
n2 -
n,
fionsuiee
'IHCnO, onpenenmor costp no COOTHomeHHIO
npe.llCTaBJIeHHOH aa
rpa!\>HKe
(CM. pHCyHOK). ECJ1H
n; , nonsayacs KpHBOH,
npa
O.n.HOM
C'HIT'IHK 6y.n.eT apamarsca B otiparuyio CTOpoHy ('ITO fib/BaeT npa
C
orpauarensaua
OTHomeHHe
6epeTCJI
onpenenemm
coso .llOJIlKH3 6blTh
nOCTOJlHHOH.
53
"I
3HaKOM .( - -;;;).
H3MepeHHH
costp < 0.5), TO
Harpysxa
npa
-1 0 .() \I ·08 -07 .() 6
.-
-0'
., -0 4 -0.,1 -0 1
.()
I
0
(I
I
.- 0..1
0'
Q4
0 .-,
06
07
0 8 () \I 1 0
I-...
111 / 112
r-,
0.1
. ':'-1-...
..
"
..- - ...
-
..
-
..
..
..
0.2
r-,
03
r-,
0,4
~i'\
0.6
I"
I'.
0.7
I"
r-,
0.8
r-,
0.9
9-
g
I-...
-I-
-
PHCYHOK 1. KPHBaJI.ll./VI onpeneneaaa COSqJ no qHCny 060POTOB lI.HCKa
CqeT'lHKa aKTHBHOH :meprHH
54
11 areparypa
1. Ilpaaana YCTpOHCTBa 3JICKTPOYCTaHOBOK. MHH3HCPro PcI>.
6-oc H3,u. ,uonOJIHCHHOO CHCl1paBJICHI'UIMH. - M. : I'ocaaeproaansop
POCCMH, 2000. - 606c.
2. <<MeTOJ:{Jl'lecKHC)'K33aHIDl K KYPCOBOMY npoCKTY» 110 IJ.HCUHI1J1HHC
«Ilpoexrapoaanae 3JIcI<Tp0060py,uOBaHIDI», srxrv, 2000. -137c.
(COCTaBHTeJIb A.K. 3aH6cpoB, .IlOueHT).
3.
2.755-87 ECK~ 0603HattcHMlI YCJ10BHblC rpa$HttecKHe B
3J1eKTPHttecKHx CXCMax. - M.: 1988.
4. faCT 21.613-88 cn~c CKJlOBOC 3J1clCTpOO60PY.lloBaHHc. Pa60lfHc
"CprelKH.
5. fOCT 21.614-88 cn~c lliMpalKcHHlI ycnosaae rpa$H"ecKHe
3J1eKTpOO60PY.llOBaHIDI H npOBO,nOK na J1J1aHax.
6. CTn IiATY 01.11 - 88 CTBH,IJ.apT npenrrpaaras. ITpaBHJJa
O$OPMJ1CHHlI )]HJ1J10MHblX H ICYPCOBhIX npOCKTOB.
7. ill-2000 K CHHIT 2.08.01-89 3JlcKTPoycTaHoBKH )J(HJJblX H
o6UlecTBCHHbIX 3.1laHHIt - MH. Mauapxcrpoa Pli, 2001. -7Sc.
8. C60pHHK sanas K npaKnl'lecKHM 3aHlITHRM no )lHCUHJ1J1HHe
«ITpoeKTHpoBaHHc CHCTCM 3JleKTPo06ccnCttCHHlI»,
ATY, 2002.
- 135 C. (COCTlUIHTCJlb A.K. 3aH6epoB, .IlOUCHT)
9. EA. KaMHHcKHH, Ilpaxrasecxue npueuu ttreHHll CXCM
:mCKTpoYCTaHOBOK. - M .: 3HeproaToMH3.1laT, 1988. - 368 c.: HJI.
10. PyKOBO)l1IUlHC MarepHBJ1bI no I1poCKTHpOBaHHIO 3neKTPOCHa6emi1l
censcxoro X0311HCTBa. CeHTJl6pb, 1986. «MeTO)lHtteCKHC yKll3aHHll no
o6cCnettCHHIO npa npoeKTHpOBaHHH HOpMaTHBHbIX ypoBHeii HMClKHOCTH
3J1CKTpoCHa6lKCHHlI CCJlbCKOX0311HCTBCHHbIX n0Tpe6HTeJICH». - M .:
Cemoaepronpoexr, 1986.
11. PyKOBO)l1lUlHC MaTepHllJIbl no npOCKTHpoBaHHIO 3JICKTPOCHaGeHHlI
ceascxoro X0311HCTBa. H01l6pb, 1981. «MeTO.llHttCCKHI{YKaJaHHR no
pacsery 3JIeKTPHtteCKHX aarpysox B CCTRX 0,38 - 110 KB cenbCKOX03J1HCTBeHHOrO HaJHaqeHIDI. - M.: Censanepronpoexr, 1981.
12. PyKOBO)l1IlUHH reXHH'IecKHH MarepHaJI. YKaJaHHlI no pacsery
3JlCKTPHttecKHX aarpysox, PTM 36.18.32.4-92.
- M.: BHilllli TlIlKIIpoM3JleKTPOnpoeKT, 1993.
13. C.T. YCaTeHKO H np. BbInOJlHeHHe 31IeKTPH'IeCKHX CXCM
no ECK~ : CnpaBOttHHK. - M .: H3.1laTenbCTBo craaaapros, 1989. - 325c.
rocr
sr
55
YC-rpoHCTBa KOMMyraUHoHHhIe H KOHTaKTHble COCJ/,HHCHHH
I
(no
fOCT 2.755-87)
----T;~3Hat,eHH;--'
HaHMeHoBaHHe
-r-/__
KOHTaKT 3aMbiKaKlIUHH
KOHTaKT pa3MbiKalOIUHH
KOHTaKT nepeKlDOtlalQllUfH
KOHTIlKT nepexmoxaioutari C HeH-rpaJIbHhlM
-0--
ueH-rpaJIhHblM 1l0nOlKeHHeM
KBaJIH(!mUHpyiOIUHC cHMBonhI na KOHT8KT-l1eTaJIHX
lJ)IR
1l0HCHeHHR
YC-rpOHCTB
"pHHUHla pa60Tbi
KOMMyraUHoHHblX
(H306palKalOT npa Heo6xol1HMOCTH)
1
2
et>yHKUHH KOHTaKTOpa
o
l%>yHKUH" BblKJIlOl.JarenR
x
3
4
<I>yHKUHR passenaaarens
5
ABToMaTHlfecKoe Cpa6aTblBaHHe
6
l%>yHKUHlI
7
8
9
CaMOBo3BpaT
<I>yHKUHH BbIKJIlOlfaTenH-p331>CJ/,HHHTen"
nyresoro KnH xoauesoro asrxmo-rarens
OrcyTCTBHe
caxoaosspara
)lyroraweHHe
Ilpuvenaaue.
0603H3'1eHIIlI
5
II
6
nOMem31OT H3 nO,D,BIIJKHbIX
KOHT3KT-JleT3JIJIX. OCTaJlLHble - Hii HenO,D,BII)KHLIX
Paaaepu
(npaseneau
B
OCHOBHblX
MO.uyJlbHOii
cerxe
YrO:
Mil
COOTHoweHHH MelK.l\Y KOIIT3KT-,D,eTIlJlJIMH)
3aMblKaIOlUHH KOHTaKT
Pa3MblKaIOlUHH KOHTaKT
OepeKJIIO'IaIOIlfHH KOHTaKT
- -_._--- -
56
onpeneneaaa
Ilpauepu
._ - - -- - - -
nocrpoeHHH
YfO
HaHMeHOBaHHe
KOHTaKf KOMMyrallHoHHorO YCTpOHCTBa:
1) nepexmoxarouera 003 pa3MbIKaHHH
2) C ,!{BOHHbIM
3aMhlKaHHeM
3) C tJ,BOHHbIM
Pll3MblKaHHeM
~
uena
----c:c==
38MblK81OumH
KOHTaKT HMnYJIbCHblH
Pa3MbIK8IOUUfH
-../'-
1) npn cpatiaruaaaaa
2)
npa B03BpaTe
-../~
3)
npn Cpa6aTb1BaHHH H B03BpaTe
--/'"~
KOHTaKf
-<I
6e3
----r
~
~
cavoeoaapara
1) 3aMblKaIOIllHH
2) pll3MblKalOUI.HiI
K OHTaKT C caMoBo3BpaTOM
1) JaMblKaIOlUHH
2) Pa3MbIKaIOUI.HH
KOHTaKf
~UJIH~
nepeKJIlOlJalOIllHH
C
HeiiTpa1JbHblM
IleHTpa1JbHblM nOJlOlKeHHeM C caMOB03BpaTOM H3
nesoro
nOJl OlKeHHlI H
6e3
soaepara H3 npaaoro
nOJlOlKeHWI
KOHTaKT 3aMblKaIOIllHH BblKJIIOlJaTeJUI
1) OAHOnOJIIOCHblH
2) TpeXnOJIIOCHblH
K OHTaKf
TpexnOJIlOCHOrO
3aMbIKaIOUI.HH
C
BblKJlIOlJaTeJIli
aBTOMaTHlJeCKHM
cpatiarusa-
I>
HHeM MaKCHMa1JbHOrO TOKa
npIIMe'laHlle.
Ilpa
YKa3aHII~
He06X01\IIMOCTH
aeJIlI'lIlHbI, npa I13MeHeHlI1I KOTOpoH npolICXOAKT B03Bp8T,
HCnOJIb3YIOT 3H8KH :
I>
M8KCIIM8J1bHoro TOK8 MIIHHM8J1bHOro TOK8
-
I<
06p8THOro TOKa
-
I
+-
U>
M8KCIIM8J1bHOro H8nplilKellll1l
-
MIlHIlM8J1bHOro H8nplilKeHIIll
_. U
MaKc~IM811bHoi!
<
reaneparypu - TO >
57
~--
f-------+------~
HaHMeHOBaHHe
0603Ha'leHHe
KOHTaKT 3aMblKalOllI.HH C 3aMe)]JleHHeM,
1)
npa cpa6aTblBaHHH
~_ll.lll~_
2)
npa B03BpaTe
J--1lJll~_
3)
npH Cpa6aTbIBlI.HHH H aosspare
JleHCTBytOllI.HM :
J--1lnI~_
KOHTaKT P33MblKaIOllI.HH C 3aMe)]JleHHeM
JleHCTBytOllI.HM:
1)
npa cpa6aTblBaHHH
2)
npa B03BpaTe
3)
npa cpa6aTblBaHHH H eosapare
1)
3llMblKaIOllI.HH
2)
P33MbIK3lOllI.HH
KOHTaKT xoaueaoro BblKJIlOqaTCJUI
KOHTaKT qYBCTBHTeJ1bHblH K TeMnepaType
1)
2)
-./-
3aMblKaIOIU.HH
t"
p33MbllCaIOllI.HH
~
KOHTaKT 3aMblKalOllI.HH Ha)KHMHoro
KHOnoqHOrO BblKJIIOqaTeJIJI C P33MbIKaHHeM H
B03BpaTOM 3JIeMeHTa ynpaBJIeHHH:
.,.,
6e3caMoB03~aTll
J
..-Y_ [ ..-Yo-......
1)
aBTOMaTHqeCKH
2)
nOCpeJlCTBOM BTOpHqHOrO Ha)KaTHlI KHonKH
3)
nOCpeJlCTBOM BblTJlrHB3HHlIICHonKH
4)
nOCpeJlCTBOM ornensaoro npasona (npaxep
-y_
'T'
Ha)KaTIUI KHonKH-c6poc)
BLIKJIIOqareJ1l; pyqHOH 6e3 caseosoaapara
58
1/
--'(......
f=-
-
-+---------;
TIepeKJIlOqaTeJIb OJ,UlOnOnlOCHbIH
JlByxn03HIlHOHHLlH
II
MHoron03HIlHOHHLle KOMMyraI{HOHHLle
rt-
HnH
I 2
it
-
"""
I I
9
YCTpoHCTBa.
Ilepexmosarena co cnO)I(HOH KOMMyral{HeH
8306pa)l(lUOT aa cxexax OltHHM 83 cnenyioiuax
cnocooos :
Ilepexmosarens
cnoco6 nepBbIH
H306p3)l(alOT B BHtte CHMBOna B
KOHTYpe. a aa none
sepreaa cxeMbI nOMelIllUOT
Tll6nHllY 3aMblKaHIDJ KOHTllKTOB
cnoco6
BTOPOH
(peKOMeHttyeMbIH)
2
B 0603Ha'leHHII nepeKJIIO'laTeJlll no BTOpoM)' cnoco6y:
t
- BepTlIKanbHble urrpaxoasie JlIIHIIII 0603HBqBIOT
nonoseeuae pyKOllTJ(lI nepeKJIIO·tBTeJllI (B npaaepe llIecTb
nono)l(eHIIH)
-f
• UIltJ>pbl HaA llITPHXOBLIMII nHHIlJIMII • ycnoBHoe
UIftJ>poD<X: 0603HBQCHlle nonollCcHHH PYKOlITJ(H
nepescnosarens, COOTBeTCTllyIOII{ee nOliCHlIlOlI{lIM
Ha.a.nHCliM HIUlOCHMLlM HB H3AenHe, HanpllMep.
«l(HCT» , «ABT».
«MEeT».
UHtJ>poBOe 0603HB1fCHIIC AOJDKHO HMe'll>
COOTBeTC1BYlOlI{ee pB3"bl1CHeHHe
sepresca
ua CB060AIlOM none
cxeMbi.
BMCCTO ycnOBHblX UH<j>pOBbIX 0603Ha'iCHIIH nOJlO)I(CHIIH
PYKOlITKH H8JI llITJlHXOBblMH nHHIlJIMH MOllCHO npocraeners
CBMII OOJlCHlllOlI.\HC H8JlnIlCH
«MECT». «ABT»
H
r.n.
nonoxenae PYKOllTKII 0603HBQaTb B rpanycax
0·, + 45·, + 90· IIT.A .
HJJII
• UHtJ>pbl H8JI KpYlKKaMII HB cnnoumsrx ropasoaransaux
nHKIlJIX
(HanpHMep;
4) -
1
o603HaQeHHe BblBOAa
KOHTaKTOB nepeKJIIO'lBTCJIlI
- YTOJIlI.\eHII8JI nllHIlJI na UITpIlXOaoH nllHlI1I
03HB'IBeT nOOIlUll1O 3aMblKaHHlI COOTBeTCTBYlOlllllX
KOHTaKTOB
(snecs 311aKII «x» - CIIMBOn tJ>YHKUIIII BblKJlIO'IBTeJlll)
59
--I
-I
3
4
5
I I I I
~I I I
6
3
1-~-
1'1'-
I I I f-;;
--I I I I I ~-2
HaHMeHOBaHHe
;
KOHTaKrKOHTaKTOpa
I
I) 3aMblKaJOwHH
I
2) pa3MblKaJOWHH
3) 3aMblKaJOWHH
I
C aBTOMaTHttecKHM
cpa6aTblBaHHeM
!
I
!
0603HatteHHll KOHTaKTI1blX COe,ll.HHeHHH :
-7 (>- )."M=J(
1) passeaaoe coenaaeaae - urrsips (rnesno)
2) p1l360pHOC coenaaeaae
3)
Hepa360pHoc COC)lHHeHHe
npHMeqaHHe.
B
npBICTHke
B
.
--0--
npoeICTHO -KOHCTJlYJCTt)p<:kHX
I
OpraHlI3lILlHlIX npa BbJnonHeHHH npHHl\HnHanbHbIX cxea
ynp8BneHIm
0603HB~eHHe
pH360pHoro
COeaHHeHHlI
(BHtrrOBoe npacoenuueaae nposonoa) 38'1BCTyIO BBHJlY
HeY.lIo6cT8a
(ocofeuao
ycn08HO
8bmonHeHHlI
npa
kPYlkkB
8bl~ep'm8aHHH cxea
3BMeHlIIOT
HB
o600H8'1eHHe
6e3
»OT
~an H 8 kH
PYkH").
kPYlKKOM
C
3anH8koil (lkHplfOil TO~KOil). 'ITO AIlli npHHLlHnHanblfblX
cxea MOlKHO C'IHTBTb .lI0nYCTHMbIM.
4) COe)lHHeHHe KOHTaKTHoe pasfopaoe
OpHMettaHHe . 0603HatteHHJI HHblX :}JleMeHTOB -
60
CM.
I'Of'T 2.755-87
)-)
,
---0
,
--.
I
Ycrroaasre 0603HaqeHHH BOCnpHHHMalOUlI1X qaCTeH :m eKTPOMe Xa HHQeCKHX
r--- - - - - ·
ycrpOHCTB
(no
faCT 2.756-76*)
HaHMeHoBaHHe
0603Ha'iCIlHC
D=
1. Karyunca '}JJelITpOMeXaHHlJeCKOrO yClpOHCTBa.
06IUee 0603HaQeHHe
DpHMeqaHHe. BblBOAbI norrycxaercs H306palKaTb C
OAHOH cropouu npRMoyronbHIIKa
2. Karyurxa
:m eKTPo MexaHHlJe CKOr O yCTpOHCTBa C
O,llHOH 06MOTKOH
DpHMeqaHHe.3HaK \ BH}rrp1l1l306palKCHIIR KarywKH
nonycxaercs He nOKa.:JbIBaTb. ecna HeT
Heo6xOAHMOCTH nOA'lepKIfBaTb, 'f:TO
xaryurxaC OAHO" 06MOT1<:oii
3.
Ka1)'UlKa :m eJITPo M eXaHH QeCKOr O YCTPOHCTBa C .
YKa3aHHeM anna 06MOTICH
06MOTKa TOKa
06MOTKa MaKCHMaJIbHOrO TOKa
06MOTKa MHHHMaJIbHOrO HanpJllKeHHJI
4.
BocnpHHHMaIOIUaJlllaCTb :meKTP°TerJJIOBOro
1 Paaxepu
H306palKeHHH Ka1)'UleK
JJleKTPoMeXaHHQeCKHX yCTpOHCTB
I
pene
~
11
12
-J-._.
~
61
. ...J
0603Ha'leHHH npHBOAOB H CBH3eH OCHOBHblX He3JIeKTpH'IecKHX AaT'IHKOB
TeXUOJlOm'lecKHx napaMeTpOB, npHMeHHeMblX B 3JIeKTpH'IeCKHX CXeMaX
HaHMeHOBaHHe
1)
JlHHHJI MeXaHHQeCKOH CBg3H
lIJlH
(nps He60JlbWHX paCCTOllHHlIX MelK.llY 3J1eMeHTaMH H coC11l8HblMH '1aCTlIMH nonycxaerca WTpHX08YJO JlHHHIO, KOTOPYJO HCnOJlb30B8Tb Hey,llo6HO, 3aMeHllTb ,llBYMJI CnJlOWHblMH
napanneJIbHblMH nHHHlIMH)
2)
o6mee o603HaqeHHe !pHKcUPYlOmero
MexaHH3Ma (aanpaaep, 3alD.eJIKH)
TIPHBOAhI
[F= J
3) o6mee o60:3HaQeHHe (6e3 KOHKpeTH3au;HH)
npllMe'laHne. nOkll3aHHOe B cKo6Kax K IlO3HQHH
CM. noscaeaaa
1) nIDIHII Mex&HH'IecKOA
CBlOH
4) TIPHBOA pyqHOH, npHBoAHMblH B ,ABH>KeHHe:
&-- BbIT,lJrHBaHHeM
}---
- nOBopoTOM KHonKH
--I
J--
- HO>KHOH
TIPHBO,AhI KOHKpeTHhle
1) o6mee o603HaQeHHe
0---
2) MeM6paHHblH
3) CTpyHHblH (noTOK, npOTOK
--0
V--
>KH.AKOCTH)
c:J---
4) 3JleKTpOMarHHTHblH
[E}--
(0---
6) 3neKTpOMamHHHblH
7) nOlUIaBKOBbIH
62
61
npononaceuae
I
HaHMeHOBaHHe
(7--
8) KYJla'lKOBblH
9) l.\eHTp06e)J(HblH
~-
10) C nOMOUlbIO 6HMeTIlJIJIa
II ) npasoa JlHHeHKOH
(peHKOH)
12) npHBO,A MeXaHH'leCKOH
npHMepbl
YrO
~­
u..
@--
npy)ICHHoH
KOHTIlKTOB, COBMeUleHHblX
C npHBO,AOM
1)
BblKJlI04aTeJlb 3J1eKTPOMarHHTHbIH (pene)
2) Buxmoxerens KOHl.\eBOH C ,ABYMji
OTAeJlbHblMH l.\enjiMH
3) Buxmoxarens TepMH'leCKHH
caaoperynapyiouiajt
llpHMe'l.HHe. Cneayer lI.eJIaTL paana-me BH305palKeHiIH
KOHTaKTa H KOHTaKTa repuopene, H306palKlleMoro
cnell.YlOlI\llM 06pa30M
•
4) BblKJlI04aTeJlb HHepl.\HOHHbIH
5) nepeKJII04aTeJIb pryrasnl TPexKoHe4HblH
6) KOHTaKT
l.{eHTPo6e)ICHOrO ycrpoiicrea
63
'et
TIpHIlO)KeHHe
s
(cnpaeos aoe)
YCJJOBHble rpaepH'IecKHe H306paiKeHHH :lJIe KTp 0 0 6 o py.nOR8 H H R
H
Tafinaua I
npOBO~OK
Ha 0J18HaX
(B COOTBeTCTBHH C IOCT 21.614-88)
lho6p3)KeHHe aneerponpaeemasoa, :meKlpOTeXHH'IecKHx yCTjJOik TB
.
N2
J-ho6palKeHHe
HaHMCHOBaHHe
Pasxep,
I
MM
1
3nCKlpO,nBHrarenb
2
YC1pOHCTBO 3neKTjJOTeXHH'lecKoe.
Oouiee H306p3)KeHHe
3
4
5
0
0 5...6
CJ
MeXaHH3M (Maw HHa, arperar) CMHoro,nBHraTenbHLIM anesrponpasonoa
Y CTpOiicTBO sneerpoaarpeeerensaoe.
mJ
[ill]
Oomee H306p3)KeHHe
Tpaacdopaarop ManoA MOlllHOCTH
@
0 3...4
Kounnexrnoe TpaHC«PoPMaTOpHOe yCTpOHCTBO
6
-c O,AHHM TpaHeepopMaropoM
[I]
-c HecKOJIbKHMH TpaHeepopMaTOpaMH
I@@I
7
YCTaHOBKa KOH/leHCaTOpHllJI KOMfUleKTHali
I-H-I
8
YCT8HoBKa npeofipasoaarem.naa KOMnJlelITHllJI
I-~-l
9
Barapes aKKYMymlTopHllJI
H.-I
,
i
II
I
1
CHnOBOH TpaHc4IoPMarop
10
-MacnllHbIH, Cpacuraparensauu 6aKOM
p
II
-TO)KC, 003 pacumpsrensaoro 6aKa
0
I
I
64
Tafinnua 2
r:-
I-1306palKeHHe WKaQJOB, WHTOB, nYJlbTOB, lIUl.HKOB Cannaparypoa,
Ul.HTKOB
HaHMeHoBaHHe
I
I
1
\
Yho6palKeuHe
MM
IIlxacjl, nanens, Ul.HT, nynsr ,
Ul.HTOK O):(HoCTOpoHHeroo6cnylKHBaHHJI,
noer MecTHoro vnnaanenas
bI
IIlxacjl, rranensnsycr opoauero 06CJl}')KHSaHIDl
~
I
I2
I
!
3
IIlxacjl, Ul.HT, nynsr H3 HeCKOJlbKHX naneneri:
-onnocropoaaero o6cnylKHsaHHlI
TIpHMep. ~HT H3 rpex wKacjloB
-nsyxcr opoaaer o o6cnYlKHBaHHJI
TIpHMep. ~HT H3 xerupex wKacjloB
~~ Il.{HTOTKPblTblH
f-- .
i 4
r
~
I
I7
TIpHMep. Il.{HTH3 rpex naaenen
-
I1{HTOK MarHCTPaJILHblH pafioxero OCBemeHIDl
--
I1{HTOK rpyrmosoa paooserc OCBemeHHJI
TOK rpyrmosoa asapauaoro OCBeUl.eHHJI
9
Il.{HTOK Jla60paTopHblH
' 11
II
I
1
~
IT]]
g
-
-
- ,,-
0
13 Kopofixa, JllIlHK C3lllKHMaMH
0
65
- ,, -
B
12 Kopofixa rrporaxaas, JlUUlK npOTJllKHOH
L
St
-"
EP
Kopotixa BBO):(HaJI
Ctt
C8J
-r-
10 Kopo6Ka OCBeTHTe.nLHaJI
--
~
~
.SI\lUIK c armaparypoa
r~
!
Pasaep,
~
W
- ,, -
~--
Jiho6pa)l(eHHe annaparos ynpaarrenaa, K()HTpOJJJI, caraanaaauaa
Ta6mma3
.. .
.N2
Hl06p3)l(eHlle
HaHMeHOBaHHe
Pasaep,
MM
1
YCTpOiicTBO nycxosoe nna 3neKTPOJlBHr3TeJleii.
Ofintee H306p8)I(eHHe
r:::'J
2
3neKTPoMarHHTHblH nycxarens
( nyCKaTeJJL CICHonKOH 121 ,
nvcxarem, CKHODKOH H n3MDOH
lZ1
Ert
3
ABTOM3THl1ecICHH BblKJlIOlf3TeJJb
6
- ,,-
-
~ )
IIocT KHOnO'IHJ>IH:
4
4.1 H80.InfY KHOnxy
~
4.2 H3 JlDe KHonKH
@:2]
4.3 na TPH KHonKH
~
4.4 C ABYMJI CBenIJlUOIHClI KHOI1KBMH
I~~I
S
Jlepesmosareas ynpaanenas
Q
6
BblKJIIOlfaTeJJb DyTeBoA
d
Ert
l6=ft
12
r-r
1
r-r
W4
"riP
~at
Kossaanoannapar, KOM3HJlOKolfIPOnnep:
7
7.1
7.2
n-
CPY'IH!>IM npHBOJlOM
CHO)I(H!JIM npHBOJlOM
·8
TOpM03
9
3BOHOK
Pi
~fMi
l1J
W
?
~
~
[F
10 Capeaa, ryAOK,peayn
66
~
i .._......l.
nIpO)],O!JlKeHUe Ta6nHUbl
!NQ
HaHMeHOBaHHe
Iho6palKeHHe
Pasaep,
MM
r"
12
•
[!]
Ta6no CHfHaJIhHOe
O~
CBeTHJIhHHK C JIaMnOH HaKaJIRBaHHJI.
~
0
Oomee H306palKeHHe
;ij
13
CBeTHJlhHHK C moxaaecuearaaaa JIaMnaMH
c:=J
-
Ta6JIHua
4
Ih06palKeHHe BhIKJIIO'laTeneH, nepexmosarenea H
pOJeTOK
~
urrehcensasrx
I
NQ
HaHMe:IOBaHHe
l'h06palKeHHe
Passrep,
MM
I
j
BblKJIIO'IareJlh, o6xuee H306palKeHHe
BhlKJllO'IaTeJIh co creneasio
OT IP20 )],0
IP23
)J,JIJI OTKphITOH yCTaHOBKH
sauurrsr
I )J,JIJI CKpblTOH
yCTaHOBKH
2.1
2
~
o)],HonOJlIOCHblH
j/'IP
~/~
II
cf
2.2 onnonomocasnt c)],BoeHHhIH
2.3 o)],HOnOJlIOCHhlH crpoeuuun
r
2.4 )],ByxnonlOCHLIH
2.5 TpeXnOnIOCHblH
Bsrxmosarens co creneasro
Lf _Mm' 1
I'll
33lI.\HTbI
OT IP44 AO IP55
"mHO'"
I
O)J,HOnomocHblH .lUlyxnOmoCHblH TpexnOJlJOCHblH
67
/;/ 1/
~
nIPC.nOmlCeHHe 1'36JlHUbl
NQ
4
HaHMeHOBaHHe
Yh06pa}J(eHHe
P33Mep,
MM
Ilepesmoxarena
H8 .D.B8 HallpaBJIeHHJI
6e3
aynesoro nOJIO}J(eHHJI
Crenens
3lUI.Uf11>I OT 1P20 .D.O
4
1P23 / IP44 .D.O IP55
4.1 O./lHOnOJlIOCHblH
//~
;://
/f/
4.2.ltByxnOnJOCHblA
4.31pCxnOJDOCHblH
5
~MCTjl
~
--j
Ilfrencensnsre P03eTKH co creneasjo saunrrsa
IP20 no IP23
OT
JJ)lJI OTKpblTOH YC1'3HOBKH 1 .D.JJJI CKpblTOH
YCTaHOBKH
I
5.3 ./lByxnOJlJOCHlUI C 3alllHTHblM KOHTllKTOM
Co
8
6
5 .4 TpexnOJIIOCH3JI C 3all.\HTHblM KOH1'3KTOM
~
5.1.nByxnOJDOCHlUI
5 .2 .ltByxnOJIIOCHlUI CllBQeHH3JI
Illrencensaue p03eTKH co CTeneHLJO 38ll.\HTbl
OT IP44 no IP55
6
6.1 ./lByxnOJIIOCH3JI
6 .2 .nByxnOnJOCH3JI C 3all.\H11iblM KOH1'3KTOM
6.3 TpexnOJIIOCH3JI C 3all.\H11iblM KOHTllKTOM
68
1
!b
/ ~
1
/
.
•
~
zfs
ZIS
~
,
I
I
I
I
Ta6JIHua 5
l'ho6palKeHIDInOHoi{ 3nelITpODAOK 0 TOKonpoBoAoB
I
1](2
HaHMeHOBaHHe
fho6palKeHHe
Pasaep,
. MM
rrOJlllUlHa
JlHHHR nposonxn. 06mee H306paxce
1
IMM
IIpoKJIllJlKa npoaonoa H Ka6eneH
2.1 Onq>I,rrnJl npoKJI8JgC8 onaoro npOOOJl
2.2 0TIcpblT8J[ rrpoxnanxa HecKOJlbKHX
npoBOAHHKOB
+)+
~
if1
U
2.3 TIpoBOAK8 BJlOTKe
2
++
2.4 TIpoBOAKa B Kopo6e
TI
1
2.5 TIPOBOAKa nO,llIUIHHTYCOM
2.6 TIPOBO,l\K8 aa TPoce H ero xoauesoe
J=
KpelUIeHHe
013
2.7
•
KOHeunpoBOllKH K86enJ1
BepTHK8J1bH8JI npoBOJJ,K8
3.1 TIpoBoAKa YXO,llHT aa 60nee BblCOK}'I(J
OTMeTJ<Y HnHnpHXO,llHT C oonee BblCOKOH
OTMeTKH
3
3.2 Ilpcsonxa YXO,llHT H8 60nee HH3lC)'1O C'KY
HnHnpHXO,l\HT c oonee HH3KOH OTMeTKH
3.3 llpOBOJn(8 nepecexaer OTMeTJ<Y,
H306p8lKeHHyK> aa nnaae csepxy BHH3 HJII3)'
aaepx H He HMeeT rOpH30HTaJIbHblX ysacn
I •I
I ,.
I
I
I
!'
npenenax naaaoro nnaaa
4
Ilpoeonxa B rpyfiax. Oomee H306pa>KeHHe
0
4.1 Ilpoaonxa B TPy6e, npoKJIa,llblBaeMOH
_/JL/_
OTKpblTO
69
~
TIIpO,lJ.OJIlKeHHe 'fa 6JIHUbl
N'2
5
HaHMeHoBllHHe
yho6palKeHlfe
MM
--
oTKp,bITO
-I-~1-1-1-
4.3
....9r--
4.2 Ilpoaonxa B rpyoax, nposnanuaaeuax
TIpoBO,lJ.Ka B rpytie, npOKJIa,lJ.blBaeMOH non
nepeKpLITHeM
x.xxx
x.xxx
or-
4.4 TIpOBO,lU<a B TPy6e , npOKJI3,lJ.blBaeMOH CKpblTO
(B 6eToHe, B rpynre H T. n.) C YK33aHHeM OTMeTKH
3aJ10:llCeHWI
4.5
IIpoBO,lU<a B TPy6ax npoKJIa,ZJ.b1BaeMLlX
CKphlTO
4.6
TIpoBO,lJ.Ka B lpy6e, npoKJI3,lJ.blBaeMOH OT
OTMeTKH BBepX
)F
o
l~'!IQlIIII:l
0
0
4.8 KOHeu npOBO,lJ.KH B TPy6e
0
4.9 Ilposoznca B narpytise sepea CTeHy
4.10
4.11
To lKe, CKB03b nepespsrrae
~
..'T~1
0
4.7
TIpoBO,lJ.Ka B TPy6e, npOKJI3,lJ.blBaeMOH OT
OTMeTKH BHM3
4
Pasaep,
I
Ie
I
.-9--,
I
I
0
P33AeJIHTeJIbHOC yruIOTHCHHC B TPy6ax ,lJ.Jlg
B3pLlBoonaCHbiX nOMemeHHH
4 .12 TIpoBO,lJ.Ka rH6xM n MeTIlJIJlopyKase.
rH6KoM BBO,lJ.e
II
I
,
rvv
I
~
It-I.S .
TIpoKJIa,lU<a WHH H wHHOnpOBO,lJ.OB
~OJIUUIHa
5.1 Ootuee H306palKeHHe
5
2MM
5.2
0
lIIHHbI aa H30JIJITOpaX
70
e
~
I
~~)f(eHHe Ta6J1HUbi
r-
-
N2
5
HaHMeHoBaHHe
11Jo6pIDKeHHe
Paauep,
MM
5.3 llIHHbI H maaonpoaona H3 croa xax
5
-
5.4 Tponneitaaa JmHHJI
Ilpauesaaae . H306pIDKeHHJI HHblX :meMeHTOB
anexrponpoaonox -
CM.
rOCT 21.614-88
71
•
----
0_
~
RHr
O p HJIO>KCHHC
B
( CnpaB04HOC)
CnOC06bl MOHTalKa 3JleKTpOnpOBOJlOK
Ta6JIH u a
I ." Butioo 3JICKTIlOnDOBOJlKH
(no MaTcnHanaM [OCT
30331 .15-2001)
i
I
Cnoco6 MOHTa)Ka
C xenoOpOBOJla H Ka6cJIH
))1:3
cpen-
B
Ha
cneQ
Ha
norxax Ha
rpoce
HanbH
H HJOnll
6ax KOPO blX
(crpy6ax
KpOHW- Topax
He)
KOPO TeHHaX
6ax
CTBeH-
B'rpy
Kpenne HhlM
HHII xpenneHHeM
!
B
HCH30JIHP°BaHHblC
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
l-hOJIHpOBaHHbIC
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
0
YhOJIHp OBaH HbI "
C n posona B
Mac ro)KHnbHbIC
3aJ1lHTHOH
O /lHO-
060JI04KC H
)KHJlbHbIC
Ka6enH B
+
f--
0
+
+
+
+
+
0
+
o60JIolfKax
0603Ha4CHHlI :
«+» - paJpcwaCTCli
«-» - HC paJpewaCTClI
«0» - HC npHMCHlICTClI HnH
OpHMelfaHHC.
iI
!
06bllfHO B npaKTIlKC He HCnOJIb3YCTClI
Cneuaansasdt
xopof -
no xopof npsuoyrcnsacro
cClIeHHlI, npC/lHa3HallcHHblH JlJIlI npOKJIa/lKH npOBO,ll,OB H Ka6eneH, He HMClOlllHH
CbCMHblX HnH orspusaroumxcs KpblWCK.
72
I
I
Ta61111ua 2
Cnocofiu
MOHTalKa
anexrponpoaonox
8 3AaH HlIX
-Cnocof MOHTll)l(a
6e3
C
B
8
8
H8
Kpen-
aeno-
TPy68X
Ko-
cne-
JlOTK8X
p06ax
UR-
H
JlR-
ce
ans-
KpOHW-
TO-
(MH
reHH8X
pax PPy
He)
JleHRJI
MeCTO npoKJI8JlKH
cpe.llCT8eHHbIM
HbIX
xpen-
KOpo-
ne-
6ax
H8
Ha
H30- TpO-
HHeM
-Orxpsrraa npoxnaasa
no CTpoHTenbHbIM
KOHCTpYKUHJlM
-
II
3
31,
32
71,
4
.-
12... 16 18
72
B crpoarensnax
KOHCTpYKUHRX
B nycrorax
CTpoHTCJIbHhlX
KOHCTpYKIUlH
B K86enbHhlx KaHM8X
B soanyxe
B sexne
52,53
51
1,2,
5
33
24
0
-
.-
21 ,25
73, 74
0
22,
73
74
-
23
12...16
-
-
43
43
41,
42
31,
32
4,
23
12...16
-
-
-
-
0
34
-
12... 16 18
62,63
0
61
-
61
0
81
81
0
-
0
0
1---
B sone
L0603HatleHH$I:
.-
.:.;,~. '
.'
(-) - He p83pern8eTCJI
(0) -
. ,.
17
He npaaensercs MH 06b1t1HO 8 npoxnanxe He HCnOJIb3YeTC$I
Ilpaaesanae.
UHcPP8MH 8 TllQnHue
HJUllOCTp8QHH, npaseaeaanx B Tll6JIHQe
3.
73
2 0603H8QeHbI
cnpaaouasre uoxepa
n pHMepbl MOHT3)K3
snexr ponpoaonox B 3,!l3HWIX
Taomu.{a 3
l lp HM ep
~
~
~~
~~
~
Cnpaso-uura
OrIHC3HHe
-(~
I13omq>OB3HHWe
HOMep
nposona B rpyoax,
3a,nell3HHbIX B creaax
MHoro)lGtnbHhle 'Ka6eJrn B TPy6ax,
2
3a,nen3HHbIX 8 ereaax
H3OJIHpo83HHWe
nposona 8
I
OTKpblTO
nponoxeeuux rpytiax
I
I
3
I
O )UlO- HJJH MH OrOlKH1lbHblC Ka6enH B
OTKpIUO
nponosseanax TPy6ax
I
II
3A
~
.....
~
~~
a,.
4A
51
'~
Haonapoaaaaae nposoaa B
4
cneuaansaux xopoeax na creaax
Oano- HJIH MHOrOlKH1lbHble Ka6enH
cneuaansaux xopofiax aa creaax
1130!IHp083HHble
B
npoaona B TPy6ax B
xnaase
4A
5
..
Oznro-
HJIH MHOrOlKH1lbHbIe KaOenH 8
rpytiax 8 xnazuce
74
5A
~OJIlKCHHC Ta6mfUbi 3
C npaBO'lH blH
Onacanae
OpHMCp
HOMCP
fuOJIHpOBaHHble nposona B 3aWHTHOH
060JIO'lKC, K86enH B o6oJIo'lKe WHJ1H
6P OHHPOB8HHbie K86eJIH onno- HnH
MHOrOlKHJ1bHhle:
~~
~V
~
~
~
....: ::;....
11
- H8 CTeHe
:~
-H8 nOTOJIKe
ll A
- Ha aenepdopapoeaaaux JIOTKax
U
- Ha
neppopaposaaaux JlOTK8X
13
l'
9
I
f;)
e ·iJ
- Ha KpOHlI1TeHHaX, 3aKpenJIeHHblX
r OpH30HTaJIbHO HJIH BepTHKaJIbHO
14
15
- Ha "KJIUUax
.
- Ha JIOTKaX JlCCTHIfllHOrO TUna
16
1130JlUp06UHHble np06000 6 30UJumHofi
060JlO'lKe, K86eJ1H B o60Jlo'IKe O./lH<>-
HJ1H MHOrOlKHJlbHble, noneeureansre
17
na Tpoce (CTPYHe) HJ1H HMelOIIUle
HecymHH Tpoc (CTPYHY)
~
[;]
.. m
L
I'onue HJ1H H30JlHpOBllHHble nposona
aa H30JU1T0Pax
18
kisonupoeannue np06000 630UJumHoii
060JlO'lKe, K85eJIH B o5o]lo'IKe O./lHO-
HJ1HMHOrOlKHnbHble B nyCTOTaX
CTP0HTeJIbHblX KOHCTPYKUHH
75
21
n
.I10JllKeHHe Ta6J1Hll,LI 3
CnpaBO'lHLdi
Onacanae
OpHMep
Hsonapoaaaaue nposona
HOMe
B 'rpyfiax B
nycrorax CTpOHTeJIhHblX
22
KOHCTpyKwdl
Ka6enH OJlHQ- HJIH MHOrOlKHJIhHLle B
rpytiax
B nyCTOTaX ClpOHTeJILHLlX
22A
KOHCTpYKUHil
Haonapoeaaasre npOBOM B
cneuaammax xopotiax B nycrorax
23
ClpOHTeJILHLlX KOHcrpYKl.lHH
Ka6enH OJlH<>-HJlH MHOrOlKHJlhHble B
CneUHanLHLlX
xopotiax B nycrorax
23A
CTpOHTeJlhHLlX KOHcrpYKUHH
H3OJIHpOBaHHLle
nposona B
CUeUHaJILHLlX xopoeax B KJIll.llKe
Ka6enH OJlHQ- HJIH MHOrOlKHJlhHLle B
CneUHll1lbHLIX xopofiax B KJI8,llKe
Ka6enH O.l1HO- HJlH MHOrOlKHJlhHble B
24
24A
25
o60no'IKe:
- nponolltCHllhle B nycrorax noromca
- B .llBOHm.lX
nonax
1130/lUp060HHble npoeooa, Ka6eJIu
OJlHD- HJlH MHOrmKHJILHLle B KOpo6ax
aa creae:
- nponOlKeHHLIe roPH30Hf3JlhIlO
76
31,31A
IT O.ll.OJDKeHHe Ta6nHUbI
3
CnpaB01JHIoIH
Onacaaae
ITpHMep
HOMe
32,32 A
- npono)J(eHHble BepTHKanbHo
l/i;i~
l&/j~
H30nHpOBaHHLle nposona B xopotiax,
yrounenaux 3aIlOlUlHUO B CTeHLI HJIH
Ka6enH O,lJ,Ho- HnH MHOrO)J(HJIbHble B
xopooax, yronnenaax aanoanauo
B
33A
CTeHbl HnH nOnbl
Haonapoaaaaae nposona B
no.zusemeHHblX KopoGaX
Ka6enH O,IUIO- HnH MHOrOlKHJ1l>Hble B
noztseureaaax KOp06ax
34
33
nonbl
34
34A
34A
IQ ~
m:J
tuJ
H30nHpOBaHHble nposoaa B TPy6ax,
I1pOJ1.o)J(eHHLlx B rOpH30HTaJlbHhlX
HJIH BepTHKaJlbHblX 3aKpblTblX
41
Ka6enbHhlX xaaanax
Haonapoeaaaae npoaona B TPy6ax B
BeHTHJlHpyeMblx K36enbHblX xaaanax
B nonax
42
Ka6enH B 06ono'UCe O,IUIo- HJIH
MHoro)J(HJlbHble B ropasosransaax
HnH BepTHKaJIbHblX orxpsrrux HJJH
sesranapyeaux K36enbHblX xaaanax
77
43
II
nonxeaae Ta6nHUbi
3
. IIpHMep
Onacaaae
~
Hsonapoaarmae nposona B 38mHTHOH
Wf.
r,oll
L.
o60Jlo'JKe , Ka6eJIH B 060nO'IKe
. MHOrO X<HJIbHble, 3allenaHHbl e
CnpaBO'lHI>IH
HOMe
51
uenocpencrseaao B CTeHbI
Hsonapoeaassre nposona B saunrraoa
060JlO'lKe, Ka6eJlH B ofonovxe O,UHOlIDH MuormKHIlbUble, aanenaaa u e
HenocpeACTBeHH? B KJlllJlKY:
52
- 6e3 AOnOJlHHTeJlbHOH
MeXaHH'lecKoH 381llHTb1
- c AOnOJIHHTeJIbHOH MeXaHH'leCKOH
3amHTOH
53
~
~~~
~"',,-.. ~
~
Ka6enH B ofonosxe OllUD- HIlH
MHOrOlKHJIbHble B
rpytiax HIlH B
61
cneuaansaax xopotiax B 3eMJIe
Ka6enH B 06onOQKe OAHO- HIlH
MHOrO)KHIlbHble B 3eMJIe :
62
~
-,.
I ·.
~m
- 6e3 AOnOJIHHTeJlbHOH
MexaHH'lecKoR 38IllHTb1
~
- c ,UonOJIHHTenbHOH MeXaHH'leCKOH
3amHTOH
78
63
I
DpOJlOJI)I(eHHe Ta6nHIlbI
3
Ilpauep
r
~
Cnpasosasrn
Onacaaae
HOMep
Hsoaapoeaarrue nposoaa H Ka6enH B
KapHH3aX
71
....
~
l130.IJRpoBllHHble
*
~
nposona H Ka6enH
B
nnHHIYCHbiX KOpo6ax
l-
• Mecro ,llJIJI Ka6eneii CBJl3H H cere"
3BM
H30J1RpOBllHHble
.
nposcaa II rpyoax
73
HnH Ka6eJIH B 060nOQKe OJ{Ho- H
MHorOlKHnbHble,
tz
nponoxemnre:
if~
- B .naepHblX Kopo6KaX
73
~
- B OKOHHblX paMax
74
~
IIIf
Ilpassesanae.
Ka6eJIH B o6ono'UCe OJJ.HO- HJJK
MHOrO)I(HJJbHble,
nponoxennae B
81
BOJJ.e
HmuoCTpaUHH He
naior
TOlJHoe
MOJIT3 )K3, 3 p aCCMaTpHBaIOT cnoco6 MOJITa)Ka .
19
onacaaae
H3J{eJIHH HJJH npaKTHKH
r
Il p a n o x e u a e
(cnpaaosnoe)
IicxonHbIe naHHble nJUI pacsera 3JJeKTpH'IeCKHX uarpY30K )KWlLlX
nOMOB H 061lleaatTHH (no noc06HIO 02-2(00)
Taonaua 1 YnenbH31I pacsemas anesrpasecsas uarpyaxa xsaprup )K~blX
nOMOB
KOJlH'lCCTBO KBaDTHp
Florpefiarenn
:m eKTp03Hepr HH
Kaaprnpsi C
IUlHTaMIt:
- Ha npHpO,ll.HOM ra3e
- Ha C)KH)KeHHOM
raae (B T.'!. npa
1- 3.
6
9
12
15
18 '
24
40
6
3,7
3,1
2,7
2,4
2,2
1,9
1,6
3.1
2,8
2,5
2,2
1,8
4,3
3,9
3,7
3,1
2,6
rpynnosux
I
i
YCTllHOBKllX) It H8
rsepnov TOIUlHBe
- 3neKTpIt'leCKHMH
(no 8,5 KBT)
Taonaua 2
7,5
4,3
3,6
10
5,9
4,9
KoJ<W>HUHeilT cnpoca WUI pacsera CHllOBblX cereii Cyseroa
caHTeXHH'leCKOrO H XOnOJlHJlbHOrO o60py.nOBaHHR
\lHcnO
3neKTPQnOlteMHHKOB
K; npa y,ll.enbHOM sece
p,,,._.
I
= 50...74%
2
3
5
8
10
15
0,8
0,75
0,7
0,65
0,65
0,6
Pc <otIl1(
Tafinnua 3
Y CTllHOBneHHaR
MOXUHOCTb CBeHlnbHItKOB (Py) ,
KBT
Kc
-Ko:xtMPItUlteHT cnpoca Jl/1H 06xue)KItTItH KOpH,ll.OpHOrO rana
(o6xuee ocaeureane)
i
no 5
5 - 10
10 - 15
1
0,9
0,85
80
15 - 25 25 - 50
0,8
0,7
50 100
CBbllIIC
0,65
0,6
100
I
IJ
Tafinaua 4 K03¢cPHl.\HeHT onnoepevenuocra .lUll! P03eTOK .lUll! 06me>KHTHH
xopaaopuoro nma
II
I
!
QHcno
P03eTOK,
lllT
L
I
.lI.o 10
I
I
Ko p
10 - 20
20 - 51 50 - 100
100 - 200
0,9
0,8
0,6
0,7
--
-- - --- - -
Tafinuua 5 K03¢¢HIlHeHT cnpoca B 3aBHCHMOCTH rena npacoenaaeunux
nmrr .lUll! 06me>KHTIIH KOpH./lOpHOrO T
qllcno
npncoenaaeaasrx
1
f1JIHT
-
_..
K c.rot .
-- -
I
2
2(
100
200
0,9
0,.
0,2
0,15
Kc ,llJUI !B BblCOTOH
Casnue 12 3Ta>KeH
2 -3
4-5
6
JO
0,8
0,7
0,65
0,5
81
0,9
0,8
0,75
0,6
Op HJIO)K e HHe
.ll
( c n paBO'JHOC)
===:;;~~; IlpHBeAeKbl -!f>oPMa, pasaepu H HaHMeHOBaHIDI rpaljl TllMHUhI,lVllI
!!!!!lII1I!!!!~_"OBaHIDI IlPH paspaforxe npHHUHOHaJIbHblX 3JIeKTpH'l eCKHX cxe sr
=====HIDI (Heo6xo.IUIM3 ,lVll1 33A3<JH Nl! I)
Ilepeseas 3J1eMeijTOB cxeuu
Ie-
H3HMCHOBaHHC
110
KOJI
ITpHMC'JaHHC
45
18S
82
I
PeA8KTOp H.H. MapYlUKe6UII
Ilonroroaneno K H3.nllHHIO B Benopyccxoa rocynapcrsenaoa arpapHOM
reXHHqecKOM YHHBCpCHTeTC. JIB N2 412 OT 29.11.99.
nO.nnHCaHO B nesars 26.02.04. $OpMaT 6Ox84 1/ 16 •
Ycn. nex, n. 4,88. Yq.-H3J1. JI. 3,82. THplUK 300 3K3. 3aKlI3 220.
Ornexarano BTHnorpa4JHH fifATY. JIn N2 42 OT 03.10.02.
220023, r. MHHCK, np. $. CKOpHHbI, 99, K.2
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
23
Размер файла
19 149 Кб
Теги
практикум, дисциплины, решение, энергооборудования, практическая, часть, основы, проектирование, задачи, занятия
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа