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52.Английский для психологов

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
СМОЛЕНСКИЙ ГУМАНИТАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
ДЛЯ ПСИХОЛОГОВ
Учебное пособие
для студентов пcихологических
факультетов
Составитель: к.ф.н., доцент С.А.Сергутина
Смоленск
2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2
УДК 802.0
С 32
Составитель:
к.ф.н., доцент С.А. Сергутина
Печатается по решению
Редакционно-издательского совета
Смоленского гуманитарного университета
С 32
Английский для психологов. Учебное пособие / Сост. к.ф.н.,
доц. С.А. Сергутина. – Смоленск: Изд-во СГУ, 2014. – 62 с.
Учебное пособие представляет собой краткий курс английского языка для
студентов факультета психологии высших учебных заведений.
Цели и задачи пособия: 1) осветить некоторые вопросы теории и истории
психологии; 2) представить и закрепить базовый глоссарий по основным
категориям и понятиям психологической науки; 3) активизировать знания,
умения и навыки, полученные учащимися на ранних этапах изучения
английского языка за счет их тренировки в различных видах речевой
деятельности: чтение с целью поиска информации, диалогическая и
монологическая речь, устный и письменный перевод.
Пособие состоит из 9 уроков и приложения. Каждый урок содержит
учебные тексты по теме урока, вопросы по темам, глоссария и тренировочных
лексических упражнений. В Приложение представлены тесты и сводный
глоссарий по изученному материалу.
Данное пособие составлено на основе учебников “Introduction to
Psychology” by Rod Plotnik, 2nd edition, San Diego State University. Random
House. N.Y. 1989 и “Mastering Psychology” by Roger Davies & Peter Houghton,
2nd edition, Macmillan. 1995.
© Сергутина С.А., 2014
© Смоленский гуманитарный университет, 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Предисловие
Являясь наукой, изучающей людей и их поведение, психология сама служит
предметом изучения, особенно, если речь идет о ее предмете, методах и
явлениях в терминах английского языка. Способность разбираться в различных
теориях и подходах к предмету психологии зависит не только от понимания
этих теорий, но и от умения грамотно, точно, а, главное, адекватно
осуществлять перевод текстов как с английского на русский язык, так и с
русского на английский.
Данное пособие и служит этим целям. В нем освещены избранные вопросы
теории психологии, ее истории и практического применения психологических
знаний.
Текстовый материал подобран с учетом учебного плана по предмету «Общая
психология» и позволяет вводить новую лексику на английском языке с опорой
на имеющиеся теоретические знания по предмету.
Для закрепления изученного материала пособие снабжено тренировочными
лексическими упражнениями, глоссарием и вопросами с целью контроля
понимания и активизации устной речи. В Приложении к пособию представлены
тесты самопроверки и сводный глоссарий.
При изучении текстов пособия рекомендуется использовать «Англо-русский
словарь-минимум психологических терминов (с указателем русских
эквивалентов)» - «Путь», М. 1993.
UNIT 1.
DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY.
PSYCHOLOGY’S GOALS.
APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING
BEHAVIOUR.
Psychology is the formal science of studying people. As a scientific discipline it is
relatively new. It is at the stage where its knowledge is contained more in the pages
of research articles than in textbooks. Whereas many of the early theories in the
subject have already been presented, there is no comprehensive explanation for the
workings of the human mind or behaviour. As a science, psychology tries to set and
achieve its goals, formulate and verify its theories and approaches.
If you attend Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology class in Germany in 1879, you would
be told that psychology is the study of the conscious elements (sensations, images,
and feelings) of the normal human mind. Because Wundt and his followers were
interested in the structure of consciousness, they came to be called structuralists.
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Over the next 50 years, psychologists found that the structuralists’ definition of
psychology was too narrow.
If you attend Freud’s series of lectures at Clark University in 1909, you would be
told that psychology is the study of unconscious processes. Freud would discuss the
importance of analyzing dreams and free-flowing thoughts to find clues about
unconscious feelings and repressed wishes.
If you attend John Watson’s psychology class at Harvard University in the early
1940s, you would be told that psychology is the study of observable responses an
organism makes to environmental stimuli. Since they were interested only in how an
individual behaved, Watson’s followers were called behaviourists. Behaviourists
thought that the workings of the human mind could not be studied scientifically.
The present definition of psychology developed from the views of the
structuralists, psychoanalysts, and behaviourists. Psychology is a systematic,
scientific study of bahaviour, both animal and human. The term behaviour refers to
Observable actions, such as eating, speaking, and laughing, as well as to mental
activities, such as planning, thinking, and imagining.
Psychology’s goals include those of explaining, predicting and controlling behaviour.
Psychology wants to explain or understand, why an organism behaves in a certain
way and to predict how it will behave in the future. The third goal has both positive
and negative sides. On the one hand, we can learn how to control anger, depression,
overeating, smoking and other poor habits. On the other hand, certain of our
behaviours may be controlled without our knowledge or intention. Psychologists
have developed techniques for controlling behaviours, as well as recommendations so
that control is not misused.
The best illustration of different approaches to understanding behaviour is the
analysis of Alfred Einstein’s life.
He didn’t begin talking until he was almost three years old. During most of his
early schooling, his teachers said he seemed dull and uninteresting, had a poor
memory, and could not express himself clearly. He hardly passed his exams in
history, biology, and language. It was not until his middle teens that Einstein began
solving math problems that were difficult for most adults.
In college, Einstein made his math professors angry by asking questions that they
could not answer, and he surprised his friends by doing the whole math course in just
two weeks. Perhaps the best example of his genius is his theory of relativity,
represented by the famous equation E = mc². This equation laid the groundwork for
the atomic bomb. In 1921, at age 42, Einstein received the Nobel Prize for physics.
Which of the contradictions in Einstein’s life make you curious? Do you wonder
how people of average intelligence could be the parents of a genius? Or why Einstein
could formulate original theory of relativity but could not remember his children’s
birthdays? When psychologists examine Einstein’s genius, they emphasize different
factors, depending on their perspectives.
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The Biological Perspective
“Perhaps Einstein’s genetic instructions resulted in the unique development and
functions of his nervous system. These biological factors influenced his mood,
learning, and memory”. Psychologists who explain behaviour in this way have a
biological perspective and are called physiological psychologists.
In 1985 physiological psychologist Marian Diamond of the University of
California at Berkley examined Einstein’s brain, which had been preserved. Professor
Diamond reported that, compared to eleven other human brains, Einstein’s brain had
73% more cells in certain areas, including one area involved in processing
information. This difference may partially explain Einstein’s mathematical genius.
Through research physiological psychologists have answered many questions. For
example, they now know that healthy cells can be transplanted to help a damaged
brain, and that only one side of the brain is involved in producing speech.
The Cognitive Perspective
"Perhaps Einstein had a special ability to think in abstract symbols. If he did, he
might more easily process, remember, and solve complex mathematical problems".
Psychologists who explain behaviour in this way have a cognitive perspective. They
search for explanations in how we process, store, and use information and how this
information affects our perceptions and behaviours.
Interest in the cognitive perspective increased in the 1970s and continues into the
present. Cognitive psychologists study how we learn and remember, make decisions,
develop stereotypes, and experience emotions.
The Behavioural Perspective
"Perhaps Einstein learned to solve math problems because doing so resulted in so
much attention and praise". Psychologists who emphasize this possibility have a
behavioural perspective. Behaviourists would search for factors in Einstein's
environment that encouraged him to be good at mathematics and physics. For
example, as a teenager, Einstein had an adult friend who brought him mathematical
puzzles. As Einstein solved more difficult problems, his friend, parents, and teachers
rewarded him with attention and praise. Unknowingly, the people around Einstein
were using behavioural principles to encourage his interest in mathematics.
The principles of behavioural psychology are used in helping people to overcome
extreme fears, in teaching severely retarded people to feed and dress themselves, and
toilet training young children, in overcoming depression, or stopping smoking.
Originally, behavioural psychologists studied only what they could observe.
Today some behavioural psychologists also study internal behaviours, such as beliefs,
thoughts, and feelings. Behavioural principles could be used to modify both thought
processes and observable behaviours.
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
"Perhaps Einstein’s genius was the result of the repression of his unconscious
sexual desires". Those who emphasize this possibility are using the psychoanalytic
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perspective. According to this viewpoint, much of our motivation, behaviour, and
interests have a basis in hidden or unconscious feelings.
Sigmund Freud, a physician who began to practice in Vienna in the 1880s,
developed this perspective. He thought that we repress, or push into our unconscious,
those thoughts and feelings that make us feel fearful or guilty. Although we are not
aware of these unconscious thoughts, they may cause psychological problems. In
Freud's treatment approach, which he called psychoanalysis, he encouraged patients
to confront and work through their unconscious thoughts and feelings.
Freud might also have wondered whether Einstein's great progress was a case of
what he called sublimation, an unconscious effort to redirect forbidden impulses
toward socially acceptable goals.
Today there are relatively few traditional psychoanalysts who follow Freud's
original theories and methods of treatment. Contemporary psychotherapists adopt a
modified viewpoint called the psychodynamic perspective. Psychodynamic
psychologists place less stress on forbidden sexual desires than Freud did, and they
are also more interested in conscious motivations.
The Humanistic Perspective
"Perhaps Einstein was lonely and had so few friends because he was not able to
develop his full potential". Psychologists who emphasize this possibility are using
the humanistic perspective. They believe that each individual has personal freedom,
and the potential for self-fulfillment. Unlike behaviourists and psychoanalysts, who
believe that our behaviour is determined by our environment or unconscious needs,
humanists believe that we have control of our fate and are free to become whatever
we want to. The humanistic perspective emphasizes the positive side of human
nature. It stresses our creative and constructive tendencies.
Humanistic psychologists would praise Einstein's achievements in mathematics
and add that he reached his full potential in his professional life and career. However,
they would note that the demands of his professional life interfered with his personal
life, in which he couldn’t have a happy marriage, lasting friendships, and freedom
from loneliness.
In explaining complex behaviours such as Einstein's genius, loneliness, and
forgetfulness, psychologists must examine his life and work from several different
perspectives. This means examining his genetic makeup and how it affected his brain,
how he was rewarded and punished by his environment, whether he was driven by
unconscious motivations, how he processed information, and what prevented him
from finding fulfillment in his personal life.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
scientific discipline, theory, formulate, verify, approach, structuralist, psychoanalyst,
behaviourist, conscious, process, observable, severely retarded, environment(al),
explain, predict, technique, analysis, genius, intelligence, perspective, genetic,
nervous, perception, stereotype, experience, reward, praise, encourage, fear, sexual,
guilty, goal, psychotherapist, viewpoint, potential, emphasize, creative, person(al).
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Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
the formal science, comprehensive explanation, the workings of the human mind, to
set a goal, the conscious elements, followers, unconscious processes, free-flowing
thought, repressed wishes, an individual, mental activities, intention, to misuse, early
schooling, to express oneself clearly, to solve math problems, equation,
contradictions, to be involved in smth, healthy sells, to search for, forbidden
impulses, socially acceptable goals, to place stress on smth, to develop full potential,
self-fulfillment, achievements, to interfere with smth, forgetfulness, to prevent smb
from smth.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
люди со средними умственными способностями, одиночество, генетические
данные, переработка и хранение информации, частично, поврежденный мозг,
производство речи, воздействовать (влиять) на восприятие, принимать
решения, вырабатывать стереотипы, похвала, не зная того, преодолевать
сильные страхи, убеждения, сексуальные желания, вытеснять в
бессознательное, виноватый, усилие, современные психотерапевты,
реализовывать свой потенциал, самореализация, окружение, созидательные
тенденции,
потребности,
продолжительные
дружеские
отношения,
деятельность человеческого мозга, воображение.
GLOSSARY TERMS
an adult, biological perspective, mood, to process information, cognitive perspective,
behaviour, behavioural perspective, retarded people, psychoanalytic perspective,
(un)conscious, sublimation, treatment, psychodynamic perspective, humanistic
perspective, mind, brain, response & stimulus, psychology.
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1. If a psychologist follows _________ perspective, he works mainly in the
laboratory studying nerves and brain.
2. Classical conditioning, according to Pavlov, is the learning of a _______ to a
particular ________ .
3. Repression is a major defense mechanism, according to __________ perspective.
An individual pushes an unpleasant thought or experience into ___________ .
4. __________ has more life experience than a child.
5. Maslow is a chief proponent of the ________ perspective. His most popular
theory concerns the nature of man’s motivational structure.
6. As a science, one of the things that ________ is trying to establish is knowledge
structures.
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7. Your _________ is the organ inside your head that enables you to think or feel.
The ability to think is your ________ .
8. Medical _______ consists of all the things done to make a sick person well again.
9. Experimental psychologists use behavioural principles for teaching ________
people to feed and dress themselves.
Ex. 5. MAJOR CONCEPT
Match the terms and their definitions.
1. Biological perspective
a. Emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts
in motivating human thoughts and actions.
2. Cognitive perspective
b. Studies how genetic influences the structure and
function of the nervous system, affect learning,
emotions and memory.
3. Behavioural perspective
c. Emphasizes personal growth and freedom and a
person's striving for self-fulfillment.
4. Pshychoanalytic perspective d. Studies how behaviour is influenced by the
environment, especially by rewards and
punishments.
5. Humanistic perspective
e. Wants to understand how we process, store, and
use information and how this information affects
our perceptions and behaviours.
6. Psychology
f. Studies observable actions and mental activities.
Ex. 6. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. Which perspective studies how our environment influences our behaviour?
2. Which perspective doesn’t believe that our behaviour could be changed or
modified?
3. What psychologist would you consult if you want to overcome depression?
4. What was Freud’s treatment approach?
5. Why is it not possible to explain complex behaviours using one perspective?
6. What psychologists believe that a person can control his fate?
7. Behavioural psychologists are interested in the ways people develop stereotypes,
aren’t they?
8. What does psychology study?
9. What psychology’s goal has both posistive and negative sides?
10. Define mind and brain and point to the difference between them.
11. Name some observable actions and mental activities.
12. Point to the similarities and differences of the five psychological perspectives.
Ex. 7. COMPLETE REVIEW (for Unit 1 ).
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UNIT 2. A BRIEF EARLY HISTORY
OF PSYCHOLOGY.
Scientific ideas are rarely created anew from data; they are the products of many
minds over many generations. The philosophers of the early nineteenth century
linked psychology to the study of physics and began with empirical studies of the
responses of sensory systems to stimulation.
Hermann Lotze (1817-1881) believed that the mind was reducible to physiology,
specifically to the actions of the nervous system. He said that only a few concepts
could not be scientifically investigated, among them such ideas as “hope”.
Alexander Bain (1818-1903) believed that the philosophical method of
introspection should give way to scientific observation. Bain believed that the brain
was an essential area of study for psychology and that humans are active due to the
forces from within the nervous system. The energy for this driving force he thought
came from habits, emotions and attitudes. Behaviour becomes “shaped” from our
earliest movements. This shaping of behaviour throughout life he believed to be the
result of feelings of pleasure and pain that come from our activities, with those that
bring us pleasure being repeated, but not those that bring pain. This was termed “trial
and error”, which was later formulated by Thorndike into his law of effect.
Charles Bell (1774-1842) was a Scottish physicist who wrote about the “specific
energies of nerves” (1811). By this he meant that nerve pathways that mediate
between the brain and our environment each deal with specific aspects or notions of
that environment. The specific energy carried by a pathway will excite in the brain
only one experience (for example sound energy does not produce hearing when
applied to the skin, and light does not cause vision other than when applied to the
visual pathways). When the same stimulus is applied to a number of different sense
organs they will each deal with some different aspect of it: salt, for example, has
whiteness for vision, graininess for touch, and flavour on the tongue. These principles
were later formulated by the German physiologist Müller.
Pierre Fluorens (1794-1867) was the first researcher to investigate the
relationship between brain and behaviour in a scientific manner. Using animals he
developed the technique known as “ablation”. This method involves removing
regions of the brain in the living animal so as to see what changes are caused to its
behaviour. Fluorens' major discovery was that functions of the brain are localized
(that is, particular aspects of behaviour are controlled by particular brain regions).
Moreover, Fluorens found that when one area of the brain had been destroyed the
resulting loss of function was often only temporary, as the brain is self-regulating
system. By this he meant that other regions must take over the functions that are lost
when a part is destroyed. Fluorens discovered what neurophysiologists now refer to
as “plasticity” in the nervous system.
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Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) found that brain functions are not only localized
in different regions but they may also be “lateralized”. Lateralization is when one
particular function is situated in one cerebral hemisphere only. Broca discovered that
in the case of language there is an area in the left cerebral hemisphere that controls
speech production. He called this area circonvolution du langage (language area).
Eduard Hitzig (1838-1907) and Gustav Fritsch (1838-1927) jointly discovered in
1864 that body movements are controlled by the brain on the opposite side: a region
of the right cerebral cortex controls movements on the left side of the body, and vice
versa for the left side of the brain. This is called decussation of functions and is a
general principle of both motor (muscle control) and sensory systems. The discovery
that specific parts of the body can move independently by stimulating a brain region
seemed to contradict Fluorens' hypothesis that the brain works as an integrated
system. According to this new discovery the brain comprises a multitude of separate
control systems.
Ernst Weber (1795-1878) investigated tactile sensation (touch) and proposed that
three different sensations are felt: pressure, temperature and location. He conducted
an experiment and concluded that in some body regions there is a concentration of
touch receptors and in other regions the receptors are more widely spaced. From this
study he proposed the idea of measuring the “jnd” (the least separation between the
stimuli that the subject can perceive).
Johannes Müller (1801-1858) conducted work on the “specific energies of
nerves”. Apart from this Müller discovered a number of important facts about human
physiology. For example, he discovered that, in addition to the purely reflex
responsiveness found in the spinal cord, the brain is responsible for higher mental
activities such as memory and thought.
Gustav Fechner (1807-1887) believed that mental events are mathematically
related to the influx of energy from sense organs. He experimented in the field of
psychophysics to show how sensory and mental experiences coexist. His main work
The Elements of Psychophysics was published in 1860. In this book he outlined not
only theoretical principles but also new ways of investigating mental responses to
sensory events. Fechner's important theoretical contribution was his law, which
relates stimulus intensity to sensation. The sensation caused by a stimulus increases
logarithmically with its intensity. This means that a sensation increases tenfold in
intensity each time the stimulus energy is doubled.
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) made many discoveries in both
physiology and psychology. For instance, in 1850 he measured the speed of nerve
impulses. He invented the myograph, which is a device for recording the in vitro
contraction of muscle. In 1851 he invented the ophthalmoscope, which is a device for
looking into the eye of the conscious patient. He developed a theory of colour vision
and also wrote a doctrine on the “unconscious inference”. An unconscious inference
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is the set of assumptions we made while perceiving. It is the result of previous
experiences with the stimulus.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is sometimes called the first experimental
psychologist. He established psychology as a science and defined it as the study of
the elements (sensations, images, and feelings) of the conscious mind. Wundt's work
established the foundation for the cognitive perspective. He founded the first
psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879 and trained
the first generation of scientific psychologists. Although he taught the experimental
approach, Wundt did not himself believe that this was the only method psychologists
should use in their investigations of human nature. However, he stressed the
fundamental principle of using measurement and mathematical analysis.
William James (1890-), one of the first important American psychologists,
published his famous Principles of Psychology. Unlike Wundt, who thought that the
mind could be divided into distinct elements, James viewed thought as a continuous
flow that he termed stream of consciousness. James was interested in the usefulness
of our mental processes. His viewpoint was the historical basis for much of modern
American psychology.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of psychoanalysis.
He presented his revolutionary ideas on how sexual and other unconscious
motivations influence the development of personality and psychological problems.
John B. Watson (1878-1958) developed behaviourism as a powerful theory in
psychology. He rejected the structuralism of Wundt and said that psychology was an
objective, experimental science whose goal was the prediction and control of
behaviour. He rejected introspection as a psychological technique because it could
not be scientifically verified by other psychologists. Watson also proposed that
human behaviour arises through learning and is the connection of stimulus and
organism’s response. So organism modifies its behaviour towards each stimulus it
encounters.
Francis Galton (1822-1911) was the first psychometrician. Psychometrics is the
study of individual differences between people (the basis of the so-called idio-graphic
approach in psychology). To do this Galton invented two important statistical
methods that are used today in psychology. The first of them is the use of “normal
distribution” when describing how psychological characteristics may be dispersed in
a population. Second, he devised a technique of measuring the degree of association
between two variables, which is known as correlation. However, some of his theories
were unscientific as, for example, the theory of the inherited character of intelligence.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) introduced an important perspective into
behavioural science. Comparative psychology is the study of behaviour from an
evolutionary perspective. Comparisons between human and animal behaviour allow
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to discover the origins and function of particular behaviour patterns. In his book The
Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) Darwin said that humans share
many behaviours and even feelings with other species. Darwin can be called the
originator of the scientific debate on the nature-nurture problem (that is, how much a
behaviour or mental experience is hereditary and how much is the product of
learning).
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
generation, reducible, trial, pathway, mediate, specific, applied, cause, vision,
ablation, self-regulating, destroyed, neurophysiologists, plasticity, lateralization,
cerebral hemisphere, cortex, decussation of function, muscle, hypothesis, multitude,
tactile sensation, receptors, purely reflex responsiveness, spinal cord, influx of
energy, coexist, logarithmically, myograph, device, patient, inference, measurement,
psychometrician, distribution, association, variables, comparisons, origins, species,
nature-nurture.
Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
empirical studies, nerve pathways, mediate, excite, visual pathways, sense organs,
particular brain regions, self-regulating system, an integrated system, reflex
responsiveness, mental events, contribution, to relate stimulus intensity to sensation,
the speed of nerve impulses, contraction of muscle, a continuous flow, to encounter,
inherited.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
связывать, сводиться к чему-либо, исследовать, уступать (давать дорогу),
весьма важная сфера изучения, движущая сила, установка, доставлять
удовольствие, причинять боль, путь «проб и ошибок», касаться кожи, на
научной основе, главное открытие, потеря функции, временный, перекрест
функций, множество самостоятельных контролирующих систем, проводить
эксперимент, приток энергии, сфера (деятельности), в десять раз, в стекле (в
физиол. тестах, e.g. в пробирке), бессознательный вывод, человеческая
природа, поток сознания, инициатор.
GLOSSARY TERMS
hearing, (colour) vision, tactile sensation, the spinal cord, higher mental activities, a
device, measurement, psychometrics, behaviour pattern, species, plasticity of the
nervous system, hereditary (inherited).
Ex. 4. VOCABULARY DRILL
1. Spinal nerves belong to the peripheral nervous system. They arise as pairs at
regular intervals from the _________, branch and run to various parts of the body.
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2. Photoreceptors of the eye are called rods and cones. Rods are valuable for vision
in weak light and this is why such _________ is almost colourless.
3. Psychologists have a range of different methods and ________ with which they
investigate human behaviour: experiments, observations, _________ tests, etc.
4. There were observed blind people whose ________ was restored later through
surgery. These patients had learned their environment, known friends and relatives
through _________ sensation and ________ .
5. According to Darwin, the structure and behaviour of the _______ have evolved as
products of natural forces.
6. It’s useful to study differences as well as similarities of behaviour between
species. This helps us to understand the diversity and perhaps the origins of
particular _________ patterns in the natural world.
7. Behavioural genetics select species with a short lifespan to be able to follow the
_________ behaviour patterns of twenty generations.
Ex. 5. MAJOR CONCEPT
Match the scientists’ names and their ideas.
1. The mind can be reduced to physiology.
2. Functions of the brain are localized and it’s
a self-regulating system.
3. Three different sensations are felt: pressure,
temperature and location.
4. An unconscious inference is the set of
assumptions we made while perceiving.
5. Nerve pathways each deal with specific aspects
or notions of the environment.
6. The shaping of behaviour is the result of
“trial and error”.
7. Decussation of function is a general
principle of both motor (muscle control) and
sensory systems.
8. Brain functions may be “lateralized”
and circonvolution du langage controls
speech production
9. Brain is responsible for higher mental activities.
10.Behaviour could be measured with the help
of a technique known as correlation.
a. Johannes Müller
b. Hermann Lotze
c. Alexander Bain
d. Pierre Paul Broca
e. Pierre Fluorens
f. Charles Bell
g. Francis Galton
h. Eduard Hitzig
and Gustav Fritsch
i. Gustav Fechner
j. John Watson
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11.Human behaviour arises through learning and is
the connection of stimulus and organism’s response. k. Charles Darwin
12.The sensation caused by a stimulus increases
logarithmically with its intensity.
l. Wilhelm Wundt
13.Humans share many behaviours and even feelings
with other species.
m. Hermann von Helmholtz
14.Psychology is the study of the elements
(sensations, images, and feelings).
n. Sigmund Freud
15.Sexual and other unconscious motivations
influence the development of personality and
psychological problems.
o. Ernst Weber
Ex. 6. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What science did the 19th century psychologists link psychology to? What did it
result in?
2. Whose viewpoint was the historical basis for much of modern American
psychology?
3. What discovery made psychologists think of the brain as a multitude of separate
control systems?
4. Who investigated tactile sensations?
5. Who is the author of the book “The Elements of Psychophysics” and what
theoretical principles are outlined there?
6. Whose work established the foundation for the cognitive perspective?
7. Who is cosidered to be the father of comparative psychology?
8. Who established psychology as a science?
9. Give an example of some human behaviour that can’t be reduced to the actions of
nervous system.
10. Who proclaimed scientific observation a method of psychological research?
11. Who studied “the specific energies of nerves”?
12. What technique was developed by P.Fluorens?
13. What is an unconscious inference?
14. What is the main postulate of behaviourism?
15. Whose theory is considered to be one of the most unscientific and
unpscychological theories of all times though very well developed and popular?
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UNIT 3. CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY.
If psychology can be defined as the scientific study of behaviour, the applications
of such a discipline are limitless. Since psychology became a science in the last
century, psychologists have been working in different specialist areas.
A career in psychology usually requires four or five years of postgraduate study, a
Ph.D. degree and experience. Most psychology students become clinical
psychologists or councelors and some set their own private practices. Besides, works
for psychologists include colleges and schools, prisons and industry.
Physiological psychologists are interested in the structure and function of the
human brain and nervous system. They study how drugs affect learning and memory,
what deficits appear when the brain is damaged and how the body responds to stress.
Experimental psychologists study how we remember, think and process
information. In their research on sensation, perception, learning, motivation and
emotion experimental psychologists have discovered principles that form the basis
for teaching retarded children, developing weight-loss programs and helping people
to overcome phobias.
Developmental psychologists study how a person develops morally, personally,
intellectually and emotionally. They are interested in the entire developmental
process, beginning with fetal development in the womb and ending with old age.
Social and personality psychologists want to know how you interact with others,
how you explain your behaviours and how your personality is formed. They conduct
researches on stereotypes, aggression, helping, loneliness, assertiveness and
personality changes.
Clinical psychologists help people with behavioural and emotional problems.
These may range from mental illness (such as schizophrenia or depression) to
physical problems (such as assisting in the treatment of eating disorders). Clinical
psychologists may work in clinics or hospitals but, unlike psychiatrists, who are
physicians, they neither diagnose physical causes of mental problems, nor prescribe
drugs. They may also work in academic institutions carrying out research or lecturing
at universities or colleges.
Occupational or industrial psychologists are interested in problems people
encounter in their work environment. They may work as consultants to business,
industry or government, develop tests for personnel selection, study working
conditions to find ways to decrease accidents, increase production and improve
employer-employee relations. So occupational psychologists must know the structure
of organization and production process very well. Besides, they may also work in
universities and colleges carrying out research on different aspects of employment
and unemployment.
Educational psychologists study the ways in which people learn. So they
diagnose and treat problems with learning and education. If a child has behavioural
problems, the psychologists will observe him both in school and at home. They work
together with children’s parents and teachers and sometimes with social workers.
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They may also devise learning programmes, including those involving computers.
Educational psychologists are mainly employed by education authorities or may work
in assessment centres or children’s hospitals, as well as in colleges training future
teachers.
The psychology teacher works in universitites and polytechnics teaching
undergraduates and post-graduate students. They may also teach courses in which
psychological aspects are found, such as nursing and management qualifications.
Work in schools and colleges supposes teaching main theories and ideas of
psychology, together with an outline of basic experiments and major concepts.
Criminological psychologists study crime, criminals and penology. They may
work in remand centres and hospitals for high-security patients, in the branches of the
Home Office, in government agencies and at universities. But one of the main areas
is within the prison service where they work with both prisoners and prison officers.
They may train staff in interview techniques or how to cope with dangerous
situations; deal with psychological problems that prisoners face (such as depression
and institutionalization). Occasionally, criminological psychologists may help the
police with difficult cases, for instance, serial killers. They give information (about
habits and behaviours) that may help in catching the person.
Sport psychologists apply psychological principles to sporting activities. Two
main roles can be identified for them: practical consultant/adviser and researcher. The
first role supposes the use of techniques to help sportsmen with mental preparation
and goal-setting. It is accepted that mental attitude is as important as physical fitness,
so the psychologist can ensure that sportsmen or women are in peak psychological
condition before and during an important event. As a consultant, the sport
psychologist may work either with individuals or whole teams. In this case he
becomes actively involved in the athletes’ training schedule to achieve the best
results. As researchers, sport psychologists work at universities conducting laboratory
or field studies, both to the academic and athlete.
Health psychologists work in a new specialist field and suppose to apply
psychology to health, health problems and health care. There are three major objects
studied by health psychologists. The first of them is health itself. Here psychologists
may be interested in factors that influence our state of health and how lifestyle
influences it, as well as examining why people become addicted to smoking or
alcohol. The second one is illness. They focus on the state of being ill and look at
individuals’ perceptions of their state. The third object is health care, for ins tance,
when a person goes into hospital for surgery. Much of the work in this area uses a
variety of research methods.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
careers, specialist, counselor, weight-loss, phobia, womb, interact, aggression,
assertiveness, schizophrenia, psychiatrists, physician, diagnose, government,
personnel, accidents, employer, employee, unemployment, authorities, polytechnics,
nursing, qualifications, penology, prison, health, schedule, athlete, care, variety.
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Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
to set a private practice, affect, to range, disorder, personnel selection, employment,
to treat problems, assessment centres, to apply, goal-setting, physical fitness, to
achieve the best results, the academic, to influence, lifestyle, state of being ill, eating
disorders, surgery.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
разрабатывать учебные программы, методы ведения допроса, штат, справляться
с опасными ситуациями, сталкиваться с проблемами, практический
консультант/советник, общепринято, психологическая установка, график
тренировок, забота о здоровье, болезнь, состояние здоровья, пристраститься к
курению или спиртному.
GLOSSARY TERMS
to prescribe drugs, medicine (medication, drug), fetal development, interact with
people, assertiveness, to conduct a research, phobia, to respond to stress, mental
illness, psychiatrist, mental attitude, to become addicted to smth, physiological
psychologists, experimental psychologists, developmental psychologists, social and
personality psychologists, clinical psychologists, occupational or industrial
psychologists, educational psychologists, the psychology teacher, criminological
psychologists, sport psychologists, health psychologists.
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1. Aversion therapy supposes that alcoholics are given a _________ that makes them
ill if they have an alcoholic beverage.
2. Ivan Pavlov __________ a research which helped to discover the phenomena of
classical conditioning.
3. J.B.Watson expanded Pavlov’s work. He applied conditioning principles to
emotions, _________ illness, language and learning.
4. The anima helps a man compensate for his one-sided view of his _______ with
other people.
5. ___________ is an irrational fear of something.
6. ____________ is a substance that you drink or swallow, while _______ is
medicine that is used to cure an illness.
7. There are three stages in the general adaptation syndrome. The first stage is the
alarm reaction, which is the initial __________ to stress.
8. ________ training is a technique used in behavioural therapy.
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9. Mental _________ might help to predict certain behaviours if some rules are
strictly observed.
10. ________ psychologists study how the individual is affected by the group.
Sociologists, on the other hand, are interested in group behaviour.
11. ________ psychologists devise methods to help the player in improving his or her
game.
12. An ________ psychologists work to improve perfomance in the work place.
Ex. 5.
MAJOR CONCEPT
Match the psychologist and his job.
1. Experimental
2. Health
3. Developmental
4. Social
5. Clinical
6. Sport
7. Physiological
8. Criminological
9. Occupational
10. Educational
11. Psychology teacher
Ex. 6.
a. Studies people in their work environment.
b. Studies high mental activities, motivation
and emotion.
c. Studies personality and people interaction.
d. Studies the structure and function of the
human brain and nervous system.
e. Studies the ways in which people learn
and devise learning programmes.
f. Studies and determines the causes of
emotional problems.
g. Applies psychology to health, health
problems and health care.
h. Studies working conditions and develops
tests for personnel selection.
i. Studies the link between personality and
sport and helps with mental preparation
for sport events.
j. Studies crime, criminals and penology.
k. Introduces to the main theories and
concepts of psychology.
COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What are the requirements for a career in psychology?
2. What are specialist areas in which psychologists can work?
3. What psychologists work primarily as researchers?
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4. Do educational psychologists or the psychology teachers treat children's problems
with learning?
5. What courses are psychological aspects also found in?
6. How do clinical psychologists differ from psychiatrists?
7. What psychologists help to select and train personnel?
8. Where do criminological psychologists work?
9. How can criminological psychologists help the police with especially difficult
cases?
10. What are the two main jobs of sport psychologists?
11. What are the objects studied by health psychologists?
12.Name and define some phobias.
13.What psychologists use the cognitive perspective?
14. What psychologists use the biological perspective?
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UNIT 4. METHODS OF RESEARCH
IN PSYCHOLOGY.
Psychology is the scientific investigation of human behaviour but it does not give
the ultimate explanation of such behaviour. It offers the best possible explanations of
how humans act, think and feel, presenting knowledge as it exists at the time.
The measurements and the methods used by this science vary in their ability to
provide accurate and reliable information about bahaviour. So as a science
psychology tries to reach two goals:
(a) to collect facts to base psychological theory upon;
(b) to find ways of measuring and analysing behaviour.
To reach the first of these goals psychologists use different methods: surveys,
observations, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, psychometric tests, etc.
SURVEYS
One of the many techniques psychologists use to study behaviour is to question a
representative group of people. This technique, called a survey, tells us what people
believe, think or say they would do. Surveys often involve standard questionnaires in
which the respondent may answer “yes”, “no” or “don’t know” to each question or
choose other possible response. However, psychologists must know three potential
problems they may encounter while conducting a survey. First, people may fail to
answer a survey accurately as they may not remember their behaviours and feelings,
may wish to depict themselves in a more favourable light, and may not really know
how they would behave in a situation they have never encountered. A second
problem is that those who answer a survey may not represent the majority of people.
The group of the people surveyed may represent only a small percentage of the
population, so the results may be not accurate. A third problem is that many people
give the answers that are believed to be right. But opinions and beliefs change over
time and the majority isn’t always right or moral. For instance, in 1973 61% of
Americans answered “no” to the question, “Do you think that a patient suffering from
a terminal disease should be allowed to die?” In 1981 about 61% of Americans
answered “yes” to the same question. This survey tells us that values and feelings
change over time – not that what was “wrong” in the past is now “right”. Despite
these potential problems psychologists think that surveys are useful for finding out
what large numbers of people believe.
OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
Scientific research usually begins with observation. There are several ways in
which observational studies can be done: unstructured, systematic (structured) or
participant.
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Unstructured observations are descriptions of behaviour. The observer simply
takes notes, makes tape and video recordings and fills out different evaluation forms.
Participant observations mean that the observer takes part in the same activities as
the persons under study. The most important condition here is that the participants
wouldn’t know the observer.
Systematic or structured observation supposes that the observer records only a
small number of events or behaviours during certain intervals of time. The events and
the intervals must be worked out in advance, i.e. there must be some schedule. The
data form systematic observations may be mathematically analysed.
If the psychologist observes people in their own environment then it is a
naturalistic observation. It has positive and negative sides. The positive side of
naturalistic observation allows the researcher to see actual behaviour as it happens,
which is better than to ask people about their behaviour. Besides, people are observed
in their familiar environments, so their behaviour is not affected by reactions to
strange surroundings. The negative side is that observers are usually influenced by
their biases and preconceptions.
If the psychologist observes people in special settings, created to answer a specific
question then it is a laboratory observation. It can be conducted in a room with a few
toys for observing the play of children or in very well equipped laboratory. The
potential peoblems with such observation are that the settings may be so artificial that
people would behave in the ways they never do and the observer’s bias may influence
the results.
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
All sciences are based on experimentation. An experiment is usually conduc ted in
a laboratory. The experimenter controls all conditions that can alter the subject’s
behaviour. But there are two variables in all experiments.
The independent variable (IV) is that aspect of the experiment that the researcher
can vary, so as to examine any effects this has on the dependent variable (DV) which
is usually the behaviour he measures. For instance, if the researcher investigates the
effects of a drug on memory then the drug will be the IV, memory after giving a drug
will be the DV.
When the hypothesis of the experiment is known, the researcher must follow the
next steps.
Step 1. Define all terms, stating them in very concrete terms or operations. In the
above experiment it is “memory”. In this experiment it could be “the ability to recall
20 words after a two minutes interval from learning”. This makes it easier to test.
Step 2. Conduct the experiment by treating all the subjects alike except that one
group is given a treatment (e.g. drugs) and the other is not. The group of subjects that
is given the treatment is called the experimental group, the other one is called the
control group.
Step 3. Analyze the results of the experiment using a statistical test. Statistical
tests are procedures for calculating the likelihood that any result was only due to
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chance. If the calculations show that the differences are too great to be explained by
chance, then these results may be caused by the independent variable.
The problems with experiment are the same as with a survey or observation. The
first one is the bias in assignment to groups. It can be overcome through random
assignment where every subject has an equal chance of being placed in the
experimental or control group. It could be done by writing the subjects’ names on the
strips of paper and drawing them out of a hat. The second problem is the bias by the
experimenter and the subjects. The researcher’s expectations can affect the results
and the subjects may change their behaviour. One way to prevent them from
distorting a study’s results is to use a double-blind technique. It’s a procedure that
helps to withhold from both researchers and subjects all information about who is in
the experimental group and who is in the control group.
So if the experiment is well conducted then its results are considered to be true of
the population at large.
The results of an experiment can show the relationship between some events that
can be measured with the help of the correlation test.
A correlation means that a change in one event tends to be accompanied by a
proportional change in another. The degree to which two events change together is
indicated by a number called the correlation coefficient. A perfect positive
correlation is indicated by +1. A correlation coefficient less than +1 tells us that the
relationship is still positive (both events change in the same direction) but it’s no
longer perfect (change in the same direction doesn’t occur in every case). A perfect
negative correlation coefficient –1 shows that when one event rises the other falls,
and vice versa. So a correlation coefficient ranges from +1 to –1. Correlation should
not be confused with causation. Correlation is a mathematical technique for showing
the elements relations, while causation implies that one of the variables has a causal
effect on the other. Although correlations cannot identify causes, they often point
where to look for the cause.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
ultimate, accurate, reliable, survey, questionnaire, unstructured, depict, favourable,
majority, percentage, terminal, values, despite, evaluation, participant, naturalistic,
actual, familiar, surroundings, bias, preconceptions, equipped, artificial, alter,
variables, experiment, procedures, calculating, assignment, expectations, distort(ing),
relation(ship), coefficient, identify.
Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
to act, to provide information, field studies, a representative group of people, a
survey, fail to answer, a small percentage of the population, to suffer from a disease,
to fill out evaluation forms, participant, actual behaviour, bias, preconceptions,
variables, steps, ability, alike, a double-blind technique, to be accompanied by.
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Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
изображать себя в более выгодном свете, точный, отношения (связь),
моральные ценности, изменять поведение, промежутки времени, смертельная
болезнь, наблюдатель, заранее, незнакомое окружение, оборудованная
лаборатория, условия, обозначать точными терминами, воздействие,
вероятность, распределение по группам, искажать результаты, широкие слои
насления, обозначать(ся), причинно-следственная связь.
GLOSSARY TERMS
survey, respondent, naturalistic (laboratory) observation, experiment, independent
(dependent) variable, experimental (control) group, random assignment, double-blind
technique, bias, statistical test, correlation coefficient, causation.
Ex. 4. VOCABULARY DRILL
1. In a true ________, the sample should be chosen randomly and divided into
groups by ____ _____. It is necessary to have an ________ group and a ______
group to measure the effects of the treatment. The _____-_______ technique
assures that neither the experimenter nor the subject can affect the results.
2. Anthropologist Jane Goodall was one of the first to spend years on _______
observation, recording the chimpanzees’ behaviour in the wild.
3. _______ observations have been very useful to psychologists in studying sleep
and dreaming patterns.
4. If a researcher wants to study political attitudes of the population at large, the best
way is to use a ________.
5. The _______ ticks in the questionnaire the answer that best represents his views.
6. Psychology students usually study and use seven _______ tests in their researches.
7. To reduce the risk of personal _______ in observational research, data must be
carefully and systematically collected.
Ex. 5. MAJOR CONCEPT
Indicate positive and negative sides of each technique.
1. Survey
2. Naturalistic observation
a. Researchers can observe subjects’ behaviours in
their real-life environment.
b. A large number of people can be questioned about
what they believe or think, or how they act.
c. Researches create special situations or use special
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3. Laboratory observation
equipment to answer specific questions.
d. Respondents may not tell the truth, may try to
make themselves look good.
e. Subjects may behave differently than they
normally do because the setting is artificial.
f. Researchers’ biases and preconceptions may
distort the study’s results.
Match the term with its correct definition.
1. Independent variable
2. Dependent variable
3. Experimental group
4. Control group
5. Statistical tests
6. Double-blind technique
7. Random assignment
a. The group of subjects who do not receive a
treatment.
b. A technique that reduces the effects of
experimenter’s and subject’s expectations.
c. The subject’s behaviour in an experiment that is
measured.
d. A technique that reduces bias in forming
experimental and control groups.
e. The condition in an experiment that is varied.
f. A procedure to determine the likelihood that the
results of an experiment were due to chance.
g. The group of subjects who receive a treatment.
Ex. 6. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What are the two goals psychology tries to reach?
2. What do the methods used by psychology vary in?
3. What methods of research are used in psychology?
4. What is a survey?
5. What are the potential problems with a survey?
6. What are surveys useful for?
7. What is an observation?
8. What are the ways observational studies can be done?
9. What is the difference between naturalistic and laboratory observations?
10. What are the potential problems with observations?
11. Where is an experiment usually conducted?
12. What does the researcher vary in an experiment?
13. What is measured in an experiment?
14. How many steps must the researcher follow in an experiment? What are they?
15. Can there be any difference between the accepted definitions of the notions and
those used in the particular experiment? Why?
16. What is the experimental (control) group?
17. What are the potential problems with the experiment? How can the researcher
overcome them?
18. What is the correlation test used for?
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19. What does a perfect positive (negative) correlation coefficient indicate?
20. Does correlation point to causes of an event? What is it useful for?
Ex. 7. COMPLETE REVIEW (for Unit 4).
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UNIT 5. PERCEPTION.
In V B.C. the philosopher Heraclitus proposed that knowledge comes to us
“through the door of our senses”. That is, all we know about the world, about us is
what we can learn through our bodily sensations. A sensation is the experience
when some outside stimulus, such as light, sound, or physical pressure, reaches one
of sensory organs and then brain.
Psychologists of the early XIX century conducted many researches on the work
of human senses. They developed the classification of senses used nowadays.
Senses can be classified according to the source of the stimulus to which they
normally respond.
1. Distance receptors (exteroceptors) receive information from a distance:
energy travels from the stimulus through space before reaching our senses of
vision, hearing and olfaction (smell). Other exteroceptors are the skin
receptors which lie at or near the surface of the body and repond to direct
stimulus (touch, temperature, taste).
2. Deep receptors (enteroceptors) lie inside the structure of the body and repond
to changes in biological states (body temperature, level of blood sugar, etc.).
Sensory receptors may form a sensory organ (such as the eye, ear or tongue) and
interact. So sensations are only a small part of more complicated information
processing systems.
The brain organizes sensations and adds meaning. A rudimentary sensation turns
into a more complex understanding through repeated experiences that the individual
has with an object. So perception is the experience of organizing sensations into
some meaningful pattern. Strictly speaking, sensation is the process of receiving
information, whereas perception is the process of interpreting and understanding it.
Perception is an active process in which past experiences can influence and even
distort reality (illusion). Those experiences involve learning, memory, beliefs, and
motivational factors. An illusion is a bizaare interpretation of reality.
Form and pattern perception
These aspects were the basis for a serious debate between two groups of early
psychologists, the structuralists and the Gestalt psychologists. The structuralists
believed that perceptions could be dissected into many individual elements. By
studying the elements we could understand the perceptions. Gestalt psychologists
took the opposite view: perceptions could not be understood by dividing them into
individual elements, because perceptions are often more than the sum of the elements
that make them up. This something more is a meaningful pattern that the brain
actively constructs. In German the word for "pattern" or "whole form" is Gestalt,
which is how the Gestalt psychologists got their name.
Principles of perceptual organization
In a series of studies in the early 1900s, Gestalt psychologists discovered many of
the rules that govern organisation of elements into meaningful perceptions. One of
them is that we perceive the figure and the background. The other is the principle of
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simplicity: we tend to organize stimuli in the simplest way. One more principle is that
of similarity: we tend to group together elements that appear similar. The principle of
similarity is so powerful that sometimes it is almost impossible to see separate
fragments. The next principle is the principle of proximity: we tend to see as groups
those objects that are physically close together. The principle of continuity organizes
our perception in such a way that we tend to perceive a series of points or lines along
a smooth or continuous path. Finally, the principle of closure, the tendency to fill in
missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete.
General characteristics of perception
1. It is an active process. The senses are exploring the environment and we are
ready to interpret the information we may receive.
2. It is influenced by emotions and motivation. It is called the expectancy effect: a
person perceives an object because he is mentally prepared for it. E.g. a hungry
person tends to see and smell food.
3. Perception is independent of conscious will. When we perceive some unusual
objects, it is impossible to maintain one view of it. We are trying
unconsciously to find other possible explanations.
4. Perception is often creative. When we get only partial information about the
object, we try to restore the rest from our past experiences. e.g. when we see
the building, we usually see only its one or two sides but we fill in the missing
information about it: four walls, doors, rooms, stairs, etc.
5. Perception is influenced by context. E.g. you are showed a number of words
written in different colours and asked to remember the succession of colours,
not words. But you can’t help reading and remembering the words.
6. Our perception is stable and constant: we retain sizes, shapes and colours of
the objects we have ever encountered with, and interpret their perception
accurately despite the distance and other factors.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
pressure, exteroceptors, olfaction, surface, enteroceptors, lie, biological, blood,
tongue, rudimentary, illusion, basis, Gestalt, perceptual, meaningful pattern, series,
background, simplicity, similarity, proximity, continuity, smooth, closure, exploring,
expectancy, partial, etc., succession, bizaare.
Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
bodily sensations, outside stimulus, nowadays, the source of stimulus, distance
receptors, deep receptors, biological states, information processing systems, repeated
experiences, to dissect, background, to explore environment, to maintain, the
succession of colours.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
пространство, поверхность тела, прикосновение, располагаться, уровень сахара
в крови, язык, ухо, обоняние, значимые модели, строго говоря,
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противоположный взгляд, подобие, близость, закрытость, продолжение,
простота, предшествующий опыт, отдельные элементы, эффект ожидания, Вы
не можете не читать слова.
GLOSSARY TERMS
sensation, sensory organ, exteroceptors, interoceptors, olfaction, perception, a
meaningful patter, figure and ground, simplicity, similarity, proximity, continuity,
closure, illusion.
Ex. 4. VOCABULARY DRILL
1. Throughout the day, the brain organizes and gives meaning to the millions of
_________ that you receive and process.
2. One of the simplest kinds of perceptual organization: seeing objects in terms of
______and______. The figure tends to dominate or be the center of attention, and
the ground tends to recede into the background. You automatically differentiate
something with more detail into figure and something with less detail into
background. The ability to separate figure from ground is probably innate.
3. Can you see a Dalmatian dog in the picture? How can you form this
________from a series of black blotches? Using the principle of_________, you
group blotches together, such as those that form the dog's head and belly. Using
the principle of________, you group together the spots on the dog's body because
they are rounder than most of the others. Using the principle of_________, you
take the line that begins at the head and mentally extend it across the back and
down the right leg. Using the principle of_______, you fill in the missing parts,
such as the leg on the left.
4. Each sensory receptor, whether or not it forms part of a ______ ______, will
respond only to a particular energy form (e.g. red light).
Ex. 5. MAJOR CONCEPT
Match each principle of pattern organization with its description.
1. Figure and ground
2. Simplicity
3. Similarity
4. Proximity
5. Continuity
6. Closure
a. Grouping together elements that look alike.
b. Perceiving elements as smooth, continuous lines.
c. Organizing sensations in the easiest way possible.
d. Filling in details to complete a pattern.
e. Grouping together elements that are physically close.
f. Distinguishing objects from what surrounds them.
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Ex. 6. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What is sensation?
2. How can senses be classified?
3. What receptors can be called distance receptors?
4. What changes can occur in our biological states?
5. How do senses turn into perceptions?
6. What kind of process is perception? How does it differ from sensation?
7. How can past experiences distort reality?
8. What is perception?
9. What are the two opposite views on perception?
10. Name and comment on the principles of perceptual organization.
11. Characterize the perception process.
Ex. 7. COMPLETE REVIEW (for Unit 5).
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UNIT 6. EMOTIONS.
People experience a lot of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, such as hope, relief,
joy, surprise, love and happiness but also nervousness, fear, sadness and anger. There
were found six clusters called primary emotions. Three are pleasant – love, joy, and
surprise – and three are unpleasant – anger, sadness, and fear. The six primary
emotions can be subdivided into 24 other emotions. For example, love includes
affection, lust, and longing; joy – cheerfulness, pride, relief, optimism; surprise –
amazement; anger – rage, envy, disgust, irritation; sadness – shame, suffering,
neglect, disappointment, sympathy, fear – horror, nervousness. Such emotion
hierarchy represents an attempt to organize our emotional experiences. It illus trates
how we may think about, talk about, and identify our emotional experiences. There
was also described the most likely scenario for each of the six primary emotions. The
scenario includes (1) situations or thoughts that may result in an emotion and (2) the
most likely subjective, physiological, and behavioural responses that accompany that
emotion. For instance, a scenario for fear. The situation can be that of taking an
exam. It could cause a student to experience feelings of failure, loss, and personal
rejection. Fear can arise from the thoughts about the terrible things that might happen
in this situation, such as failing the course. The most likely behavioural responses are
darting eyes, trembling voice, being jumpy, running, or crying. The most likely
physiological responses are sweating, dry mouth, heart pounding, and quick, rapid
breathing. Of course, not all of these responses occur, and in the case of the exam
behavioural responses are limited by the classroom. So when a person feels fear, he
experiences three different components. First are his thoughts and personal or
subjective experiences, second are his physiological responses, and third are his
observed behaviours. We can define an emotion as an affective experience that
includes a cognitive, behavioural, and physiological component.
Emotional components and emotional theories
The three components of fear form the basis of the three major theories.
Supporters of the James/Lange theory emphasize the physiological component and
believe that discrete patterns of physiological arousal create emotions. Supporters of
the facial feedback hypothesis emphasize the behavioural component and believe that
facial expressions activate emotions. Supporters of the cognitive theory emphasize
the cognitive component and believe that thoughts or cues from the environment are
used to identify emotions. Researchers agree that all three components—
physiological arousal, facial expressions, and cognitions – are involved in an
emotional experience. But researchers disagree on the importance of each component
in this experience. To study an emotional experience, it is necessary to examine the
behavioural and cognitive components in more detail and the interaction of all the
three components.
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The behavioural component
Facial expressions (such as smiling, crying, etc.) are unlearned, innate responses.
Although smiling does not occur in babies until one to two months after birth, there is
evidence that it is an innate response. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1973) found that children who
were born blind and so could not imitate their parents' facial expressions began
smiling at about the same time as sighted children. So facial expressions function to
express feelings and serve as social signals. But not to misidentify the emotion it is
also necessary to know the situation.
The cognitive component
When describing a situation (for example that of taking exam) a student uses his
thoughts to interpret or appraise it. They are the cognitive component of emotions.
Smith and Ellsworth’s study (1987) showed that appraisals are closely associated
with emotions but they couldn’t determine cause and effect.
Separate emotions interact to produce a complete emotional experience. The first
step in an emotional experience involves making an appraisal of the situation (the
cognitive component). This is immediately followed by physiological and
behavioural responses. During any part of the emotional experience a person can
change the appraisal, show different behaviours, act differently, as well as distort the
truth or not show the real feelings. So a change in one component influences the other
two and such model is more objective in indicating the person’s emotions.
The major causes of emotions
1) If a student passes his exam successfully he may feel happy because of
sensations arising from the movement of the facial muscles and skin as he smiles and
laughs. His brain interprets these sensations and he experiences the subjective feeling
of happiness.
2) He may feel happy because he experiences specific physiological changes in
heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and secretion of hormones. His brain interprets
these specific physiological changes and the result is the feeling of happiness.
3) He may feel happy because of the way he has learned to interpret or think about
a given situation, in this case, getting a good mark. His cognitive interpretation
results in his subjective feeling of happiness.
Functions of emotions
General function of emotions is an adaptive one. However, in our complex, highly
structured environment, the same emotion may be adaptive in one situation and
maladaptive in another. For example, anger is adaptive if it helps us to defend
ourselves. But it is maladaptive if it motivates us to assault a professor if we disagree
on our exam marks. Fear is adaptive if it helps us to escape from a burning building.
Feeling fearful is maladaptive if it motivates us to escape from a classroom during an
exam. These examples demonstrate that in many present-day situations, personal,
societal, or cultural values dictate that we must not perform the "adaptive" responses
of the emotions. Emotions may have three other functions. Depending upon the
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situation, emotions may motivate ongoing behaviours, motivate new behaviours,
disrupt a particular action or help us focus attention on a specific problem.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
emotions, relief, nervousness, sadness, anger, clusters, subdivided, lust, longing,
cheerfulness, pride, envy, disgust, irritation, disappointment, sympathy, horror,
hierarchy, identify, scenario, failure, rejection, sweating, pounding, breathing, occur,
maladaptive, societal, facial, hormones, discrete, arousal, appraisal, innate, escape,
assualt, focus.
Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
primary emotions, affection, lust, longing, cheerfulness, relief, amazement, rage,
envy, disgust, irritation, shame, neglect, disappointment, sympathy, the most likely
response, personal rejection, cues, cultural values, appraise(al), trembling voice,
blind, adaptive function, maladaptive function, ongoing behaviours.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
аффективное переживание (опыт), нарушать процесс
протекания
определенного
действия,
частота
ударов сердца (сердцебиение),
физиологическая активация, зрячие дети, испытывать чувство (эмоцию), иметь
результатом, проигрыш (потеря), врожденные способности, не встречается у
младенцев, выражение лица.
GLOSSARY TERMS
emotion, an emotional experience, affection, lust, longing, cheerfulness, relief,
amazement, rage, envy, disgust, irritation, shame, neglect, disappointment, sympathy,
facial expression, physiological arousal, an innate response, adaptive function,
maladaptive function, ongoing behaviours.
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1. Sociologists trace the ______ functions of emotions.
2. The facial feedback hypothesis states that our emotions are dictated, in part, by
our
_______ expressions.
3. The James/Lange theory states that each emotion has a distinct physiological
________ that signals the emotion.
4. Sociologist E.O.Wilson developed many of his ideas on the ________ response
studying insect societies.
5. If something is not as good as you hoped it would be then you feel ___________.
6. ________ is strong, uncontrollable anger.
7. _________ is the feeling you have when you wish you had the same thing or
quality
that someone else has.
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8. The following feelings are positive: _______, ________, and __________ .
Ex. 5.
MAJOR CONCEPT
Match the theories of emotions with the statements.
the facial
the James/Lange
cognitive
feedback
hypothesis
theory
1. This theory focuses on the physiological
component of emotions.
2.When Linda tells George he would have a
more pleasant time with his in-laws if he
just tried smiling, she is using this theory.
3.When Ted tries to cure his sadness over breaking
up with Lynn by thinking about all the times she
was thoughtless and self-centered, he is acting
on this theory.
4. This theory focuses on the behavioural
component of emotions.
5.The person who suggests you can stop feeling
angry by closing your eyes and taking deep breaths
until your heart stops pounding is a believer in this theory.
Ex. 6 COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What are the primary emotions?
2. What does the emotion hierarchy represent and illustrate?
3. What are the most likely behavioural responses for fear?
4. What are the most likely physiological responses for fear?
5. What is emotion?
6. Name the three major emotional theories.
7. What components do emotions consist of?
8. Explain the James/Lange theory of emotion.
9. Explain the cognitive theory of emotion.
10.What evidence proves that smiling is an innate response?
12. What are the functions of facial expressions?
13. How can a person misidentify other person's emotions?
14. How do emotions interact to produce a complete emotional experience?
15. Name the major causes of emotions.
16. What are the functions of emotions?
Ex. 7. COMPLETE REVIEW (for Unit 6).
views
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UNIT 7. MEMORY.
The ability to process and retrieve information is known as memory.
Psychologists investigate three kinds of memory: sensory memory, short-term
memory, and long-term memory and the differences between them.
Sensory Memory
The sensory organs have a limited ability to store information about the
environment, so they “freeze” information momentarily for the nervous system to
“read off” data at any moment. Sensory memory is the momentary lingering of
sensory information after a stimulus has been removed. In this case, new images are
being registered before the old ones fade.
Researchers have established the existence of sensory memory for vision and
hearing, and called their respective systems “iconic” and “echoic” memory.
Iconic memory is the ability of the eye to retain visual information. It was
investigated by Sperling (1960), who found out that the “icon” or sensory memory
for the image lasts for about a quarter of a second.
Echoic memory is the ability of the ear to retain auditory information after it has
been presented. Studies by Massaro (1970) and Crowder (1982) showed that the
“echo” lasts approximately a quarter of a second – the same time as in the case with
the iconic memory. The researchers suggested that there may be two echoic
processes, one of them is a short-term version, but another version is processing
information for several seconds following its presentation.
The scientists suppose that sensory memory exists for the other senses as well.
Characteristics of sensory memory
We have no voluntary control over the information that enters sensory memory, and
its capacity is unlimited. Any stimulus processed by senses is held briefly in sensory
memory. But we do not attend to all the information that enters sensory memory and
it fades away in a second or so.
Despite its very brief duration, sensory memory makes our visual world smooth
and continuous. Whenever we blink, our vision is momentarily interrupted but we
don’t notice that due to sensory memory that maintains the visual images. Sensory
memory also gives us the moment or two that we need to decide if incoming data
should be processed further.
Short-Term Memory
It is the process of attending to information in sensory memory or attending to
conscious thoughts and perceptions at any given moment. A person has some
conscious control over what he holds in short-term memory: he can ignore the
information, or he can selectively attend to it and think about it.
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Characteristics of short-term memory
Researchers have found that short-term memory has two characteristics. First,
information that enters it is available for only a very limited time. Without some kind
of active mental effort information that enters short-term memory will fade in about
20 to 30 seconds.
Short-term memory also has a limited capacity. Most people can hold only about
seven bits in it at any one time. For instance, if we were given numbers to remember
and we came to the seventh one, we would be approaching the limits of our shortterm memory. We manage to process as much information as we do through a
process called chunking. By chunking individual letters into meaningful words, we
can keep this information active.
Forgetting from short-term memory
The experience of losing something from short-term memory because other
information interferes is called interference. It is the primary reason why information
is forgotten from short-term memory.
Long-Term Memory
It stores information with relative permanence and has an almost unlimited
capacity. Information is normally transferred into long-term memory through an
attention-related process. One such process is rehearsal, which itself can take several
forms. In maintenance rehearsal, we repeat information silently over and over,
without giving it any real thought. Maintenance rehearsal is usually not enough to
transfer information into long-term memory. Much more effective at getting
information into long-term memory are associations between aspects of the new information and things we already know.
How long-term and short-term memory work together
If we are to remember some list of things then we shall have the best recall for
things presented at the beginning of a list, which is known as the primacy effect, and
for things presented at the end, which is known as the recency effect. Psychologists
explain these effects by pointing to different functions of short-term and long-term
memory. On the one hand, we show good recall of things at the end of the list
because they are still in short-term memory. On the other hand, we also have good
recall of things at the beginning of the list because we have had more time to rehearse
them and transfer them into long-term memory. Our poorest recall would be for
things in the middle of the list. They were not yet placed in long-term memory, and at
the same time new things have displaced them from short-term memory.
Kinds of long-term memory
Procedural memory keeps knowledge that helps to perform skills. We can
perform a skill, even if we have not done something for many months or years.
Episodic memory keeps distinct episodes that we personally experienced in a type
of long-term memory.
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Semantic memory keeps knowledge, or facts, or relationships between things in a
type of long-term memory. When we take an exam, we recall information about
mental representations of objects, facts, and relationships from semantic memory.
We can transfer information from short-term memory into different kinds of longterm memory by using a number of attention-related processes. The general act of
attending to new information, perhaps using old information to analyse or manipulate
the new, and then placing the result in long-term memory, is called encoding.
Types of encoding
Most of the personal episodes in the life are encoded automatically in long-term
memory. When we store information very quickly and without effort, it is called
automatic encoding. The ability to recall events at the end of each day indicates that
recent memories that are automatically encoded are often very easy to recall. Other
information must be encoded through attentional processing: we make an effort to
put something into long-term memory. Efforts at attentional encoding may or may
not be successful. To encode information into long-term memory, it is necessary to
repeat the information in a way that will make new associations. Repeating and
making new associations is called elaborative rehearsal and will result in encoding
the information into long-term memory.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
retrieve, momentarily, lingering, icоnic, echoic, auditory, capacity, duration,
interrupted, ignore, chunking, interference, permanence, rehearsal, silently,
associations, primacy, recency, procedural, episodic, distinct, semantic, manipulate,
encoding, automatic, successful, elaborative.
Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
a limited ability, to «read off» data, to fade, the respective systems, approximately,
voluntary control, brief duration, to blink, smooth, incoming data, active mental
effort, to transfer information into long-term memory, meaningful words, to show
good recall of things, to perform skills, mental representations of objects, recent
memories, attentional processing.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
искать информацию, ограниченная емкость памяти, обращать внимание на
информацию, сохранять зрительные образы, информация доступна в течение
короткого промежутка времени, группировка информации (в блоки или
укрупненные единицы), относительное постоянство, повтор(ение), эффект
первичности, эффект новизны, эпизодическая память, семантическая память,
процедурная память, кодирование, сложный повтор.
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GLOSSARY TERMS
memory, sensory memory, iconic memory, echoic memory, short-term memory,
chunking, interference, long-term memory, rehearsal, association, the primacy effect,
the recency effect, recall, procedural memory, episodic memory, semantic memory,
to perform a skill, attention-related processes, encode(ing).
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1. The basis of ______-______ memory is acoustic, while ______-______ memory
functions on the basis of the meaning of the material stored in it.
2. When you see a film, you do not notice tha jumps between frames due to
________ memory which stores the previous images for long enough to give the
illusion of continuity.
3. The _______ is better for the first and last four items. These are the “______ _______” effects, which are also studied in the area of psychology that
investigates person perception.
4. If the information is given proper ________ (about 30 seconds) then it’s
transferred into long-term memory.
5. The pegword sysytem is a mnemonic technique, which is based on forming visual
or sound ________ with a number system.
6. You can answer the question, "How was your day?" by recalling this information
from _______memory.
7. Researchers on mood and memory tell us that a particular mood will influence
what events you notice, _________and recall and what events you will remember
later when you are in the same mood again.
8. The term ________ memory means how we encode meanings in our life.
Ex. 5.
MAJOR CONCEPT
Match the statements about three memory types with their descriptions.
Sensory
Memory
1. Stores information with relative
permanence, often over a lifetime.
2. The kind of memory we use when
repeat the number “2485” over
and over to ourselves.
3. Gives the second or so that is needed
to decide if incoming information
deserves further processing.
4. Involves attending to information in
sensory memory or attending to conscious
thoughts and perceptions.
Short-Term
Memory
Long-Term
Memory
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5. Has unlimited capacity.
6. Information can be placed in it by automatic
encoding or by attentional processing.
7. One way to hold things here for as long as you
want is to use rehearsal.
8. It is the repository of many episodic, semantic,
perceptual, and procedural memories.
9. It is responsible for the primary effect.
10. It is responsible for the recency effect.
11.One way to encode things here is to use
elaborative rehearsal.
Ex. 6 COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is memory?
What is the difference between the three types of memory?
What senses does sensory memory exist for?
What are the two sensory memory systems studied by psychologists in greater
depth than others?
5. What are the characteristics of sensory memory?
6. What is short-term memory?
7. What are its characteristics?
8. Why can people process much information though short-term memory has a
limited capacity?
9. Why is information forgotten from short-term memory?
10. How is information transferred into long-term memory?
11. What is long-term memory?
12. How do long-term and short-term memory work together?
13. What are the kinds of long-term memory?
14. What is encoding?
15. What type of encoding is the most effective one?
16. Give examples of procedural, episodic and semantic memory.
Ex. 7. COMPLETE REVIEW (for Unit 7).
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UNIT 8. INTELLIGENCE.
In everyday life the term intelligence means, first, the ability to solve problems
and then verbal ability (speaking clearly, having a good vocabulary). But
psychologists place these skills and abilities in a different order: verbal ability takes
the first place. To define intelligence, psychologists use two different approaches.
The psychometric approach
A number of cognitive abilities that are different with different people influence
their intellectual performance. The exact number of cognitive factors range from 2 to
120. These cognitive factors might include verbal comprehension, memory ability,
perceptual speed, and reasoning. Psychologists who take the psychometric approach
decide on a list of such factors and then develop tests to measure each of them. By
combining scores on the various tests, they determine IQ. According to the
psychometric approach, then, intelligence is defined as performance on intelligence
tests; it does not measure natural intelligence or explain intelligence. The major
advantage of this approach is that it measures individual differences in cognitive
abilities, and these differences are useful in predicting performance in school. The
major disadvantage is that the psychometric approach does not really explain what
differences in IQ scores mean.
The cognitive components approach
The solutions of any analogy problem involve breaking down each question into
smaller cognitive components. Psychologists who take a cognitive components
approach believe it is not the answer that is important, but the process a person uses
to arrive at the answer. According to this approach, differences in intelligence are
reflected in differences in the cognitive components involved in solving problems. A
person with high verbal ability, for example, would probably spend a lot of time
encoding and analyzing problems with words. A person with excellent visualperceptual ability would use mental imagery. In this way, the cognitive components
view can begin to explain how people differ in their thinking. However, no
standardized tests yet exist to identify various cognitive components. Until such tests
are developed, the cognitive components approach will not be widely used to
measure intelligence. That is why tests of intelligence are based on the psychometric
approach.
IQ tests
The pragmatic definition of intelligence is one that defines it as the thing that is
measured by an IQ test. The first test was developed by a French psychologist Alfred
Binet and a psychiatrist Theodore Simon (1905). They introduced the world’s first
standardized intelligence test. Binet believed that intelligence is a person’s ability to
perform certain cognitive tasks, such as understanding the meaning of the words or
following the directions. In 1911 Professor Lewis Terman and his assistants devised a
formula to calculate the famous Intelligence Quotient, or IQ. Terman’s formula for
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IQ uses the terms MA (mental age) and CA (chronological age). MA is determined
by the number of test items passed, CA is the child’s age in months and years.
The formula is:
MA/CA × 100 = IQ
An IQ of 100 is considered the average, that of 140 is high and below 40 is
considered a sign of severe mental retardation.
Binet saw the positive and negative sides of the test. On the one hand, it helped to
find out some aspects of intellectual development to predict future performance in
school. On the other hand, the test didn’t measure innate abilities and shouldn’t be
used to label people.
There are several IQ tests used nowadays. The Stanford-Binet IQ test was
developed by Terman from the original Binet test and has been revised several times.
It can be given to children and young adults (2 - 18 years old). It consists of a number
of test items, some verbal such as naming things and understanding instructions, and
some performance, such as completing a picture. The test items are arranged in order
of increasing difficulty.
Another test is the Wechsler scales. It consists of separate tests for preschool
children aged 4 to 6, school children from 6 to 16, and for adults 16 and older. This
test also consists of verbal and performans sections but each of them has some
subtests. The Wechsler scales is a reliable test as it produces reasonably consistent
results for any person. Psychologists have found that a person’s score on both verbal
and performance sections of IQ standardized tests tend to remain quite stable over
many years, even into old age.
One of the most important factors that can influence IQ performance is the
environment. Because of the differences between IQ scores and real intelligence,
Robert Sternberg (1985) concluded that intelligence consists of those mental
functions that we use intentionally when we adapt to or select the environment in
which we live and function. This definition goes beyond the traditional, psychometric
model.
So IQ score is a number that tells if you scored average, above average, or below.
Though it is considered to be a good predictor of success in school, some studies
show that only half of the success is due to the person’s cognitive abilities (measured
by IQ test). The other half is due to personality factors and motivation. If a person,
for example, can’t concentrate, or isn’t interested in schoolwork, his marks may be
very poor despite a high IQ. So a high IQ helps but is no quarantee against academic,
career, and mental health problems.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
intelligence, verbal, vocabulary, exact, comprehension, score, psychometric, solution,
analogy, imagery, standardized, IQ, Quotient, chronological, retardation, average,
revised, items, scales, beyond, concentrate, despite, quarantee.
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Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
to solve problems, the psychometric approach, the exact number, to develop a test, to
determine IQ, performance, (dis)advantage, to break down a question into
components, to perform cognitive tasks, severe mental retardation, preschool
children, a reliable test, reasonably consistent results, a person’s score, below
average.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
Вербальная (речевая) способность, располагать в другой последовательности,
ряд познавательных способностей, понимание речи, скорость восприятия,
фактор R (логического мышления), задача на подыскивание аналогий,
отражаться, умственные образы, умственный возраст, пункты (вопросы) теста,
в порядке возрастания трудности, до старости, намеренно, выходить за
пределы.
GLOSSARY TERMS
intelligence, verbal ability, cognitive abilities, intellectual performance, reasoning, IQ
scores, mental imagery, standardized intelligence test, Intelligence Quotient, a
reliable test, personality factors, mental age, chronological age.
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1. The test is ________ if it reproduces the same scores from the same individuals.
2. Cyril Burt was influenced by the ideas of Francis Galton and he difined
_________ as an innate _________ cognitive ability.
3. Thurstone labelled memory, _________ and four more factors the primary mental
abilities.
4. One of the important factors in determining IQ ______ is the attitude of the tested
person that changes with age.
5. The child’s ________ age is determined by his level of error-less performance on
the test compared with the age-related norm.
6. Items of Binet’s test were designed so that they would differentiate between the
intellectual ________ of children in different age groups.
7. Each IQ test measures cultural experience as well as intelligence but ______
factors
should be also taken into account.
Ex. 5.
MAJOR CONCEPT
Are the statements true (T) or false (F)?
1. IQ tests measure innate intelligence.
2. If a child receives a score of 65 on an IQ test, it definitely means that the child is
retarded.
3. IQ tests are good predictors of success in school.
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4. People with high IQs are guaranteed to earn a lot of money.
5. Many psychologists believe that almost all the IQ tests are to some extent
culturally
biased.
6. If an IQ test is reliable, it will provide reasonably consistent results for any person.
7. A person's scores on IQ tests usually change from one stage of life to another.
8. IQ can vary depending on the environment.
9. Most psychologists believe that the average difference in IQ scores between white
and black Americans is due to genetic differences.
Ex. 6 COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What approaches do psychologists use to define intelligence?
2. What influences a person’s intellectual performance according to the
psychometric approach?
3. Name some cognitive factors.
4. What is intelligence according to the psychometric approach?
5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach?
6. What do those psychologists, who take the cognitive components approach,
believe to be important?
7. What explains differences in intelligence according to this approach?
8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach?
9. Why is not the cognitive components approach used widely?
10. What cognitive tasks did the first standardized intelligence test include?
11. What can psychologists calculate with the help of Terman’s formula?
12. What IQ is considered the average, high and low?
13. Can IQ be improved?
14. Does IQ measure real intelligence?
15.Describe some widely used IQ tests.
16.Whose definition of intelligence goes beyond traditional psychometric model?
17.Explain how IQ scores are used and misused.
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UNIT 9. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR.
PART I. Medical and psychological models of abnormal behaviour.
The development of psychiatry in the nineteenth century marked the end of an
age of cruelty towards mentally disturbed people. The earliest scientific studies of
mental abnormality were medical in terms of their descriptions, classification and
treatment because some states of mental deterioration were known to be caused by
physical illness.
The present psychologists use various criteria to decide that the behaviour is
abnormal.
Statistical frequency
A behaviour may be defined as abnormal on the basis of statistical frequency, or
how often that behaviour occurs in the general population. A behaviour that occurs
infrequently is abnormal in a statistical sense. By this definition, extreme social
activity would be considered abnormal, but so would behaviours such as getting a
Ph.D. or raising orchids, since relatively few people do them. As these last examples
indicate, the statistical frequency definition of abnormality has limited usefulness.
Deviation from social norms
According to the second definition of abnormality, a behaviour is considered
abnormal if it deviates greatly from accepted social norms. However, definitions of
abnormality based only on deviations from social norms may encounter a problem
when social norms change with time.
Maladaptive behaviour
A behaviour may be defined as abnormal if it is maladaptive – that is, if it has
adverse consequences for the person or society. For example, hearing voices that
dictate dangerous acts, washing hands for hours on end, starving oneself to the death
would all be considered maladaptive and, in that sense, abnormal.
There is no absolute definition of abnormal behaviour. However, of the three
definitions given here, most mental health professionals would agree that the
maladaptive definition is probably the most useful.
Classification of abnormal behaviour
The first diagnostic system was that of Kraepelin (1896). It was based on disease
criteria. There were pointed to three types of diseases: infections (caused by becteria
or virus); systematic disorders (caused by organ malfunctions); traumas (caused by
injury or poisoning). This classification formed the basis of the 1959 Mental Health
Act. Nowadays British psychiatrists use the system called the International
Classification of Disorders (ICD). The only other major classification is the
American standard called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
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(DSM, 1987). DSM (a third edition) defines a mental disorder by assessing
symptoms on five different dimensions, such as the severity of the condition, the
presence of other health problems, and the amount of environmental stress. DSM Ш
lists very specific behavioural criteria for a diagnosis. (see TABLE 1.)
TABLE 1. Classification of Abnormal Behaviors According to the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manua! of Mental Disorders, revised third edition.
1. Disorders usually first evident in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Within this
broad category are a variety of intellectual, emotional, physical, and
developmental disorders. They include mental retardation, hyperactivity, eating
disorders (such as anorexia nervosa), and childhood anxieties.
2. Organic mental disorders. In organic mental disorders, the functioning of the
brain is known to be impaired, either permanently or temporarily. The primary
symptoms are delirium (wandering attention, incoherent stream of thought),
dementia (deterioration of intellectual capabilities and memory), and disturbed
emotions.
3. Psychoactive substance use disorders. In substance use disorders the ingestion of
various substances – alcohol, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and so on –
changes behaviour enough to impair social or occupational functioning.
4. Schizophrenic disorders. The major symptoms of this group of disorders include
delusions (such as believing that thoughts not your own have been placed in your
head), hallucinations (in particular, hearing voices that no one else hears), blunted
or inappropriate emotions, and loss of contact with the world and others.
5. Delusional (paranoid) disorders. The most obvious symptoms of people with
paranoid disorders are delusions of being persecuted.
6. Mood disorders. These disorders are disturbances of mood, which may include
extreme depression, marked elation (mania), or a cycle of depression and mania.
7. Anxiety disorders. In these disorders, some form of anxiety is the central
disturbance. Individuals who are phobic have an irrationally intense fear of some
object or situation. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorders have
uncontrollable recurrent thoughts (obsessions) that dominate their consciousness
and strong urges to perform rituals (compulsions) intended to ward off an anxietyarousing situation.
8. Somatoform disorders. Although the symptoms are physical, somatoform
disorders have no known physiological cause. The symptoms seem to serve a
psychological purpose. These disorders include hypochondriasis or the
misinterpretation of minor physical sensations as serious illness, and conversion
disorder, in which the person suddenly loses some motor or sensory function, such
as movement of a limb or the ability to see.
9. Dissociative disorders. Psychological dissociation is a sudden alteration in
consciousness that affects memory and identity. These disorders include amnesia,
or forgetting of one's past, and multiple personality, in which the individual
possesses two or more distinct personalities.
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10. Sexual disorders. Included in this category are problems with gender identity or
feeling uncomfortable with one's anatomical sex. Also included is a broad
classification of behaviours known as paraphilias: sexual patterns in which arousal
is caused by some unusual stimulus, such as animals or inanimate objects. These
patterns are considered abnormal if they occur persistently, are necessary for
sexual excitement, and interfere with the development of affectionate
relationships. Other sexual disorders involve forcing sexual behaviours on
children, or requiring pain or humiliation for sexual arousal. Psychosexual
disfunctions also include erectile, arousal, or orgasmic difficulties.
11. Personality disorders. These disorders involve inflexible and maladaptive
patterns of behaviour. Examples include persons who are aloof, have few friends,
and are indifferent to praise or criticism (schizoid personality); persons who have
an overblown sense of self-importance, require constant attention, and are likely
to exploit others (narcissistic personality); and persons who show chronic
irresponsibility, lack of concern for others, and no remorse after wrongdoing
(antisocial personality).
12. Conditions not attributable to a mental disorder. These include grief over the
death of a loved one, moderately antisocial behaviours, academic and
occupational problems, and problems among family members.
__________________________________________________________________
Several categories that are relatively rare have been omitted from this table.
(Adapted from American Psychiatric Association, 1987, Davison & Nealc, 1982)
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
abnormal, cruelty, disturbed, deterioration, criteria, frequency, deviates, adverse,
consequences, diagnostic, bacteria, virus, traumas, injury, poisoning, manual,
dimensions, infancy, adolescence, anorexia, anxieties, delirium, incoherent, dimetia,
ingestion, cocaine, opiates, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid, persecuted, elation,
obsessive-compulsive, urges, rituals, hypochondriasis, conversion, limb, dissociative,
paraphilias, humiliation, aloof, narcissistic, remorse, moderately.
Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
cruelty, statistical frequency, the general population, extreme social activity, limited
usefulness, to deviate from accepted social norms, mental health professionals,
systematic disorders, infancy, childhood, adolescence, delirium, delusions, blunted
emotions, obsessions.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
люди с нарушенной психикой, психическое расстройство, умственное
отклонение, неправильная адаптация, заболевание, ранение, отравление,
умственная отсталость, бессвязный поток мыслей, дименция; расстройства,
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связанные с тревогой; навязчивые состояния, конверсионные расстройства,
замкнутый человек.
GLOSSARY TERMS
abnormal behaviour, mentally disturbed people, mental deterioration, deviation,
maladaptive behaviour, infection, systematic disorder, trauma, mental disorder,
mental retardation, delirium, dementia, delusions, paranoid disorders, anxiety,
multiple personality, gender, sexual disorders, personality disorders.
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1. Psychologists define ________ behaviour as a _________ from the normal state.
2. Psychitrists classify mental _________ according to disease criteria.
3. In the case of simple schizophrenia wild _________ do not usually occur but the
patient may show autism.
4. When people experience stresses, they may accept that nothing can be done and
hence a state of _________ develops.
5. Thomas Szasz, in his book «Ideology and Insanity» pointed out to the fact that no
one scientist demonstrated that ________ behaviour is the result of neurological
damage or malfunction.
6. Allport stated that there are two components of behaviour, ________ and
expressive. The ________ component refers to the function of the act and the
expressive component accounts for the individuality of an act.
7. If someone is suffering from ________, they cannot think or speak in a rational
way.
8. A person's feelings with regard to their sexuality, known as __________ develops
through an interaction between physical make-up and various socializing factors.
9. ________ is a great stress and unhappiness.
10. Psychologists and sociologists have created the concept of __________ which
explains abnormality as an extreme form of behaviour on the dimension of
normality, and not illness.
Ex. 5.
MAJOR CONCEPT
Match each of the cases below with the definitions by which the person would be
classified abnormal.
Statistical
Deviation
from Social
Maladaptive
Infrequency
1. During the first few months at
a new school, a transfer student
feels lonely and becomes withdrawn.
2. A woman suddenly decides to give up
Norms
Behavior
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her high-paying job and live by herself in
a remote mountain cabin where she thinks
she can find peace of mind.
3. A man arrested for setting fire to a bookstore
that sells pornography tells police that voices
instructed him to rid the world of filth.
4. Most mental health professionals would say
that this definition of abnormality is probably
the most useful.
Ex. 6 COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What model of abnormal behaviour was applied to mentally disturbed people in
the XIX century?
2. What criteria do the present psychologists use to determine abnormal behaviour?
3. What does statistical frequency criterium indicate? What is its drawback?
4. What is the second definition of abnormality based on?
5. What criterium is the most useful in defining abnormal behaviour and why?
6. What classifications of mental disorders are used nowadays?
7. What diseases may cause mental abnormality according to Kraepelin’s diagnostic
system?
8. What criteria is DSM based on? What edition is used nowadays?
9. How many diagnostic categories are mentioned in DSM III?
10. How many classes can the disorders mentioned in DSM III be grouped into?
PART II. Mental disorders.
There are mental disorders that can be treated with some form of psychotherapy
and/or drug (such as phobias) and serious mental disorders when individuals have a
much poorer chance of recovery (for example, schizophrenia).
PHOBIA
Phobia is an intense and irrational fear of some object, event or situation. DSM III
divides phobias into three categories: simple, social, and agoraphobia.
Simple phobias are usually caused by common objects, situations, or animals,
such as a fear of heights or dogs. Social phobias are brought on by the presence of
other people. Someone with a social phobia may not be able to make public speeches
or eat in a restaurant. Agoraphobia is a fear of open or public places, such as a public
street or a shopping center; it is much more common in women than men. Persons
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who have phobias usually try to avoid the object or situation that causes the intense
fear.
Some phobias may be learned through classical conditioning. If a person was in a
car accident, he might associate cars with pain and develop an irrational fear of riding
in cars. Other phobias may be learned through operant conditioning. If a person tried
to give a speech but the result was ridicule, he might develop an intense fear of ever
giving a speech again. Still other phobias may be learned through observation or
modeling. When a child sees that his/her mother is afraid of a spider, the next time
he/she sees a spider, he/she models his/her mother's fearful reaction. Sometimes
people report that some frightening experience preceded the development of a
phobia. So these phobias are learned. In other cases, however, people cannot recall
any frightening situation preceding the phobia's development. In these cases, it is
more difficult to discover the phobia's origin.
After a phobia is established, it will continue for years unless treated. For
example, agoraphobics may avoid leaving their home for years. Their agoraphobia is
maintained by one of the principles of operant conditioning – negative reinforcement.
Negative reinforcement means that behaviour is reinforced by the removal or
avoidance of an aversive stimulus. The agoraphobic can avoid the aversive stimulus,
going out in public, by staying at home. One of the most effective treatments is
exposure to the feared stimulus.
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder. It is characterized by a cluster of primary
and secondary symptoms. Primary symptoms relate directly to the condition itself.
The secondary symptoms are dependent upon the primary states.
Symptoms of schizophrenia
Its primary symptoms include disorders of thought, attention, perception, motor
behaviour, and emotion. Thought disorders are characterized by incoherent patterns,
formation of new words (called neologisms), inability to stick to one topic , and
irrational beliefs or delusions. Problems of attention or concentration include
difficulty in focusing on a single chain of events. Many schizophrenics report that
they have a lot of different thoughts and sensations and have no control over them.
Disorders of perception include strange bodily sensations and hallucinations, such as
hearing voices. Motor symptoms may include making strange facial expressions,
being extremely active, or immobile for long periods of time. Emotional symptoms
may include little or no emotional responsiveness or inappropriate emotional
responses to the situation – for example, laughing when told of the death of a close
friend. According to DSM III, a person must have a certain number of these
symptoms for at least six months to be diagnosed a schizophrenic.
Schizophrenia is the most frequently diagnosed psychotic disorder both in women
and men. But psychiatrists encounter with some problems diagnosing schizophrenia.
The four symptoms most often mentioned are hallucinations, delusions, affective
disturbances, and thought disorders. But no combination of any three of these
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symptoms is used by the majority of the psychiatrists. The result is that patients may
be diagnosed as schizophrenic by one psychiatrist and not by another. Besides, some
medical problems can mimic schizophrenic symptoms. The DSM III diagnostic
system hopes to overcome these problems by specifying symptoms along five
different dimensions, including physical and behavioural ones.
Types of schizophrenia
DSM III lists several different types of schizophrenia: paranoid, catatonic, and
disorganized. The DSM system has recently dropped the “simple” category.
The most obvious symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia, which is a relatively
common type, are delusions. These delusions often involve thoughts of being
persecuted by others. For example, a paranoid schizophrenic may think that the
crowd of people waiting in line at a cinema is going to kidnap him. At the same time,
many paranoid schizophrenics have delusions of grandeur. They believe that they are
famous persons. All these delusions may be accompanied by perceptual
hallucinations. The symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia include bizarre ideas,
often about the body (bones melting), confused speech, very childish behaviour (giggling for no reason, making faces at people), great emotional swings (fits of laughing
or crying), and often extreme neglect of personal appearance and hygiene. Symptoms
of catatonic schizophrenia include periods of wild excitement and/or periods of
immobility, sometimes for hours. One reaction will usually predominate. For
unknown reasons, there has been a decrease in the number of cases of catatonic
schizophrenia between 1900 and 1979. It rarely occurs today.
Differentiating between types of schizophrenia can be very difficult as some
symptoms, such as disordered thought processes and delusions, are shared by all
types.
Causes of schizophrenia
Genetic Factor
If one member of a pair of identical twins has schizophrenia, there is about a 50
percent chance that the other twin will also develop schizophrenia. In comparison, if
one member of a pair of nonidentical twins has schizophrenia, there is only about a
10 percent chance that the other twin will develop the disorder. After reviewing many
twin studies, Stephen Faraone and Ming Tsuang (1985) concluded that genetic
factors play a greater role in developing schizophrenia than cultural factors. These
findings show that a person may inherit a predisposition for schizophrenia but
researchers have found no genetic or biological markers to differentiate schizophrenia
from other mental disorders.
Brain Factors
The majority of antipsychotic drugs work by decreasing the activity of the
dopamine system. The dopamine theory says that abnormalities in the dopamine
system may not cause schizophrenia but may be involved in the disease. Brain cells
get their fuel by taking glucose from the bloodstream. The more active certain parts
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of the brain are, the more glucose they take up and use. Dean Wong and his assistants
conducted a study (1986) and concluded that schizophrenia is associated with an
increase in the number of dopamine receptors. It explains why antipsychotic drugs
reduce schizophrenic symptoms: they block dopamine receptors.
Environmental factors
The environment plays also a very important role in developing the disorder.
Particularly important are certain environmental stressors. People who develop
schizophrenia often have hostile and critical parents who communicate in a highly
emotional way. Other life stressors include weak social contacts, loss of a parent,
difficulty in adjusting to school, and career or personal problems. So an inherited
predisposition for schizophrenia may be triggered by stressful family relationships
and other negative life experiences.
Treatment of schizophrenia
One of the effective drugs is Chlorpromazine that belongs to a family of drugs
called phenothiazines. As a group, these drugs are called antipsychotics because they
reduce the bizarre hallucinations and delusions. One of the primary actions of many
antipsychotic drugs is to reduce the level of dopamine in the brain. A person may
remain on antipsychotic drugs for a long period of time. Individuals with chronic
schizophrenia often remain on antipsychotics for much of their lives. However,
antipsychotic drugs have a number of side effects, such as depression and emotional
dulling. One of their most serious side effects involves motor function.
Studies of patients one to three years after treatment generally indicate the
following: about 25 percent of schizophrenics have recovered; about 50 percent
continue to suffer some behaviour impairment and have to be rehospitalized; and
about 25 percent do not recover at all (Tsuang, 1982). One of the reasons
psychiatrists and psychologists can’t find a “cure” for schizophrenia is that they do
not yet understand its causes.
Ex. 1. PRACTICE READING THE FOLLOWING WORDS
psychotherapy, phobia, recovery, schizophrenia, irrational, agoraphobia, ridicule,
frightening, reinforcement, avoidance, aversive, exposure, neologisms, immobile,
inappropriate, psychotic, mimic, catatonic, grandeur, confused, giggling, hygiene,
twins, nonidentical, predisposition, dopamine, fuel, glucose, hostile, adjusting,
triggered, phenothiazines.
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Ex. 2. SUPPLY THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS
recovery, irrational fear, common objects, pain, the phobia’s origin, aversive
stimulus, a cluster of primary and secondary symptoms, to mimic; paranoid,
catatonic, disorganized schizophrenia, to kidnap, bizarre ideas, identical twins,
biological markers, the bloodstream, side effects.
Ex. 3. SUPPLY THE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS
избегать определенной ситуации, классическое обусловливание, попадать в
автокатастрофу, оперативное научение, подражание, предшествовать развитию
фобии, отрицательное подкрепление, имплозивная терапия, придерживаться
одной темы, цепь событий, аффективные расстройства, очевидные симптомы,
мания величия, спутанная речь, приступы смеха, некоторые симптомы присущи
всем типам шизофрении, транквилизаторы.
GLOSSARY TERMS
phobia, agoraphobia, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, modeling, negative
reinforcement, an aversive stimulus, exposure, schizophrenia, thought disorders,
psychotic disorder, affective disturbances, catatonic schizophrenia, disorganized
schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenia, a predisposition for schizophrenia,
antipsychotics, a side effect.
Ex. 4.
VOCABULARY DRILL
1.
Some drugs may interact with other drugs the patient is on. This can lead to
serious _____ ______ and even death.
2. The hearing of voices in the head is a manifestation of the primary symptom of
schizophrenia – ________ disorder.
3. _________ conditioning is an association formed between two stimuli so that the
learner gives the same response to the new stimulus as he did to the old.
4. When a response is followed by reinforcement, it is a case of _______
conditioning.
5. In _________, an individual learns by observing and then imitating the behaviour
of others.
6. To rid the client of a dog phobia, the therapist uses ________, demonstrating to
him both live and filmed displays of people interacting fearlessly with dogs.
7. If a person dislikes or fears something, he tries to avoid it. The exact means by
which he does it is the _________ _________.
8. Zubin and Spring (1977) suggest that what is inherited is not schizophrenia itself
but a _________ for it.
9. To treat schizophrenia psychiatrists use _____________ drugs.
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Ex. 5.
MAJOR CONCEPT
Match each item with its correct description.
1. Acute schizophrenia
2. Chronic schizophrenia
3. Disorganized schizophrenia
4. Paranoid schizophrenia
5. Catatonic schizophrenia
6. Dopamine
7. Phenothiazines
a. A form of schizophrenia characterized by
marked disturbance in body movements,
sometimes alternating between complete
immobility and extreme agitation.
b. A form of schizophrenia characterized
by bizarre ideas, incoherent speech, and
very childish behavior.
c. What schizophrenia is labeled when a
person has a long history of the disorder.
d. What schizophrenia is labeled when the
disorder comes on suddenly and
previous behavior was relatively normal.
e. A form of schizophrenia characterized
by delusions of persecution and often
delusions of grandeur.
f. A group of drugs used widely in the
treatment of schizophrenia.
g. A neurotransniitter believed to be involved
in schizophrenic symptoms.
Ex. 6 COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
What is phobia?
What categories does DSM III divide phobias into?
What is a simple (social, agora-) phobia?
How can phobias be established? How are they maintained?
What is one of the most effective phobia treatments?
What is schizophrenia?
What are schizophrenia’s symptoms?
What problems do psychologists encounter with diagnosing schizophrenia?
What are the types of schizophrenia acoording to DSM III?
What causes schizophrenia?
What is the treatment of schizophrenia?
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GLOSSARY TERMS
аctivities, higher mental – высшая нервная деятельность
adaptive function – адаптивная функция
аdult – взрослый
affection – аффекция, сфера аффективных процессов, привязанность
amazement – удивление, изумление
anxiety – тревога
assertiveness – уверенность в себе
association – ассоциация
attention-related processes – процессы, связанные с вниманием
aversive stimulus – аверсивный стимул
become addicted to smth – пристраститься к чему-либо
behavio(u)r – поведение
behavioural perspective – бихевиористский подход
behaviour pattern – модель поведения
bias – предубеждение, искажение, артефакт
biological perspective – биологический подход
brain – мозг
causation – причинно-следственная связь
cheerfulness – веселость, бодрость
chronological age – хронологический возраст
chunking – группировка информации в блоки или укрупненные единицы
classical conditioning – классическое обусловливание
clinical psychologists – психологи-клиницисты
closure – принцип заполнения пробелов
cognitive abilities – познавательные способности
cognitive perspective – когнитивный подход
conduct a research – проводить исследование
(un)conscious – (не)сознательный, (не)сознаваемый, (не)осознанный
continuity – непрерывность, целостность
control group – контрольная группа
correlation coefficient – коэффициент корреляции
criminological psychologists – психологи-криминологи
dependent variable – зависимая переменная
developmental psychologists – специалисты по возрастной психологии
deviation – отклонение от нормы
device – прибор, способ, приспособление
disappointment – разочарование, досада
disgust – отвращение
double-blind technique – двойной слепой метод
drug – медикамент, лекарство, наркотик
echoic memory – эхоическая память
educational psychologists – педагогические психологи
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emotion – эмоция
emotional experience – эмоциональное переживание
encode(ing) – кодировать, кодирование информации в память
envy – зависть
episodic memory – эпизодическая память
experiment – эксперимент
experimental group – экспериментальная группа
experimental psychologists – экспериментальные психологи
exposure – предъявление
exteroceptors – экстероцепторы
facial expression – выражение лица
fetal development – эмбриональное развитие
figure and ground – фигура и фон
gender – род (биол.)
health psychologists – психологи здоровья
hearing – слух
hereditary - наследственный
humanistic perspective – гуманистический подход
iconic memory – иконическая память
illusion – иллюзия
independent variable – независимая переменная
innate response – врожденная реакция
intellectual performance – интеллектуальные характеристики
intelligence – интеллект, умственные способности, умственное развитие
interact with people – взаимодействовать с людьми, влиять, общаться
interference – интерференция
interoceptors – интероцепторы
Intelligence Quotient – коэффициент интеллектуальности
IQ scores – результаты, баллы тестирования на IQ
irritation - раздражение
laboratory observation – наблюдение в лабораторных условиях
longing – страстное желание, стремление
long-term memory – долговременная память
lust – страсть
maladaptive function – функция, не способствующая правильной адаптации
meaningful pattern – значимая модель
measurement – измерение
medication – лечение, лекарство
medicine – лекарство
memory – память
mental age – умственный возраст
mental attitude – психологическая установка
mental illness – психическое расстройство
mental imagery – умственные образы
mind – психика, сознание, ум, склад ума
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mood – настроение
naturalistic observation – наблюдение в естественных условиях
neglect – пренебрежение
occupational or industrial psychologists – индустриальные психологи, психологи
труда
olfaction – обоняние
ongoing behaviours – поведение, поступки, повадки, образ жизни
perception – восприятие
perform a skill – выполнять действие, ставшее навыком
personality factors – личностные факторы
phobia – фобия
physiological arousal -–физиологическая активация
physiological psychologists – психофизиологи
prescribe drugs – прописывать лекарства
procedural memory – процедурная память
process information – обрабатывать информацию
proximity – близость (принцип восприятия)
primacy effect – эффект первичности
psychiatrist – психиатр
psychoanalytic perspective – психоаналитический подход
psychodynamic perspective – психодинамический подход
psychology – психология
psychology teacher – учитель психологии
rage – ярость, гнев
random assignment – слепой метод
reasoning – логическое мышление
recall - припоминание
recency effect – эффект новизны
rehearsal – повторение
reliable test – надежный тест
relief – облегчение (боли, страдания), утешение
respond to stress – реагировать на стресс
respondent – отвечающий, респондент
response & stimulus – стимул-реакция
retarded people – люди с задержкой развития
semantic memory – семантическая память
sensation – ощущение
sensory memory – сенсорная память
sensory organ – орган чувств
shame – стыд
short-term memory – кратковременная память
side effect – побочный эффект
similarity – сходство, подобие
simplicity – упрощение
social and personality psychologists – социальные психологи
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sport psychologists – психологи спорта
standardized intelligence test – стандартизированный тест на интеллект
statistical test – статистический тест
sublimation – сублимация (средство защиты: трансформация вытесненного
материала в социально приемлемый)
survey – обследование
sympathy – сочувствие, сострадание, симпатия
systematic disorders – системные расстройства
traumas – травмы
treatment – лечение, обращение
verbal ability – вербальная способность
vision (colour) – зрение (цветное)
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REVIEW. Fill in the gaps with glossary terms.
Unit 1
Suppose psychologists want to know why certain people become alcoholics and
how alcohol affects their behaviour. Some psychologists would look for differences
in the structure and function of the alcoholic's brain and nervous system. These
researchers are taking the (1) ________ perspective. Other psychologists might seek
to discover how alcoholism influences a person's ability to process, store, and. recall
information. The approach that they are taking is called the (2) _______perspective.
A third group of psychologists would search for answers to the question how environmental factors, particularly rewards and punishments, control the alcoholic's
drinking. These psychologists are adopting the (3) _______ perspective. A fourth
group of psychologists would want to discover any unconscious motivations that
might be encouraging heavy drinking. These psychologists are taking the (4)
___________perspective. A fifth group would focus on events in an alcoholic's life
that somehow blocked the natural striving toward personal growth and selffulfillment. Their viewpoint is known as the (5) ___________ perspective.
When trying to understand a complex behavior like this one, psychologists find it
useful to combine insights from many approaches. In the late 1890s, Wundt defined
psychology as the study of the elements of consciousness. He and his followers
became known as (6) _________. In the early 1900s, Freud theorized that psychology
should be concerned with hidden or (7) __________ feelings. In the 1940s, John
Watson objected to studying mental processes and redefined psychology as the study
of observable (8) ________. Today, psychology is defined as the systematic, (9)
__________study of human and animal behavior. One goal of psychology is to
discover why organisms behave as they do, why, for example, certain people become
alcoholics. This is the goal of (10) ________ behavior. A second goal of psychology
is to be able to say how particular organisms are likely to act in the future, for
instance, which members of a population are apt to become alcoholics and which are
not. This is the goal of (11) _______behavior. A third goal of psychology, which is
more controversial, involves (12) __________ behavior. When psychologists develop
programs to help alcoholics stop drinking, they follow this goal. Along with the
techniques for controlling behavior that psychologists have developed, they have also
developed guidelines so that psychologists will not abuse these techniques.
Unit 4
Dr Nathan Pritkin claimed in his best-selling book that the following study
showed that his diet was the healthiest in the world. For his study, Pritkin placed
volunteer subjects on his special diet, which is low in fat and high in carbohydrates,
for 26 days. Before, during, and after this period, subjects were checked to determine
their cholesterol level and blood pressure, which were presumed to measure health.
As Pritkin predicted, after 26 days the people on his special diet showed a lowered
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cholesterol level, and those with high blood pressure also showed a drop in blood
pressure.
Let’s see if you can identify the steps of the experimental method in Pritkin’s
study. Pritkin’s special low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet represents the experimental
treatment and is called the (1)__________ variable. Measures of the subjects’
healthiness were cholesterol level and blood pressure. These two measures, which are
used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment, are called the (2)__________
variables. Usually ther are at last two groups of subjects in an experiment. One group
is exposed to treatment and one group is not. In this study, the group of subjects who
were exposed to the special diet for 26 days comprised the (3)__________ group. To
determine if the treatment is effective, researches normally compare the results of the
experimental group with those of the (4)__________ group, who do not receive
treatment. In this case there is no control group.Without an experimental and control
group, it is impossible to determine if the differences between the groups were due to
the treatment or to (5)__________. So it is necessary to use (6)__________ tests. To
avoid bias by the researcher and the subjects in this experiment, Dr Pritkin had to use
such procedures as (7)_________ and (8)_________.
Unit 5
Driving home at twilight, you see a billboard with a huge hand holding a glass of
milk. Below the picture, several letters are missing in the sign's slogan. The top line
reads "Be nice to your bo_y," and the bottom line reads "Drink three gla__es of
milk". What you are seeing is more than just a set of sensations. Your brain has
organized sensations from the billboard into a meaningful experience. This
meaningful experience is called a (1) ___________.
Without being aware of it, you have automatically used a number of perceptual
principles to organize this perception. For example, when you differentiate the figure
of the hand and the glass from its background, you are demonstrating a principle of
organization called (2) ___________ and __________. You see the fingers as part of
the same object partly because they look alike in form and color. This illustrates the
principle of (3) ___________. You also see the fingers as composing a whole hand,
because this is the easiest way to perceive the stimulus. This is an example of the
principle of (4)_________. On the basis of their closeness and spacing, you organize
the letters "benicetoyour" into four words: "be nice to your". This demonstrates the
principle of (5) ___________. Your eye naturally follows the line of the glass,
illustrating the principle of (6) ___________. When you add the missing letters d and
ss for the words "bo y" and "gla es," you are using the principle of (7) ___________.
Although your perceptions of the billboard were accurate, this is not always the
case. Sometimes we see objects differently than they really are. Such distortions in
perceptions are called (8) __________. To have the illusion of motion when viewing
movies and television, our visual system uses a number of different mechanisms to
create (9)__________ motion. The study of illusions tells us that perception is an
active process of inferring what the world is like.
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Unit 6
Hank and Marge got into the front seat and sat down. As the roller coaster started
its climb, Hank felt scared and Marge felt excited. For six very long minutes, Hank
was in the grips of fear. According to the component definition of emotion, Hank's
screams and yells would be part of the (1) ___________ component, his sweaty
hands and increased heart rate would be part of the (2) ___________ component, and
his thoughts about being hurled off into space would be part of the (3) ___________
component. After the ride, Hank felt very relieved and Marge felt exhilarated. "I hate
roller coasters," Hank said. "I love them," Marge said.
If we were to follow Hank and Marge around the amusement park, we could
divide their emotions into three pleasant ones, (4) ________, ________, and possibly
___________ and three unpleasant ones, (5) ___________, ___________, and
___________. One function of Hank's fearful feelings is to help him escape from
dangerous situations, which is referred to as the (6) __________ function of
emotions.
How does riding a roller coaster produce emotions in Hank and Marge? There are
three theories about what causes emotions. If you believed that feedback from the
muscles and skin in Marge's face were primarily responsible for an emotion, this
would be the (11) ___________ feedback hypothesis, first suggested by Charles
Darwin. If you believed that there are separate physiological patterns for each
emotion, this would be the (12) __________ theory. If you believed that Marge used
cues from the environment to label her emotion, this would be the (13) ___________
theory, which was first suggested by Schachter and Singer. All of these original
theories have been modified.
Unit 7
As you are walking to the drugstore you pass an apartment with a "For Rent" sign
in the window. The first type of memory this stimulus enters is known as (1)
___________ memory. This kind of memory involves a momentary lingering of
sensory information, even after a stimulus is removed. It gives you the second or so
you need to determine if a particular stimulus deserves further processing. In this
case, your attention is captured by the sign in the window, as you are looking for an
apartment to rent. As you focus your attention on the sign, you are putting its
information into what is called (2) _____-_____ memory. This memory refers to the
process of attending to information in sensory memory or of attending to your
conscious thoughts and perceptions at any given moment. You read the sign and
notice that underneath the words "For Rent" is a handwritten telephone number. You
search your pockets for a paper and pencil to copy the number but discover you do
not have them. You know that if you want to remember the number later that day,
you must transfer it to (3)___ -_____ memory. The process of attending to new
information, using old information to analyze it, and then storing the result in longterm memory is called (4)________. As you walk on down the street, still repeating
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the numbers to yourself, a man rushes out of a store and nearly knocks you down. As
you turn around to get a better look at him, he jumps into a waiting car. All you
noticed clearly was that he was carrying a gun and a large wad of money. It occurs to
you that you must be witnessing a holdup and you turn to look at the car's license
plate. You realize that the license plate will not stay in short-term memory for very
long, so you begin to repeat the numbers to yourself, a process called (5)_________
rehearsal.
Your experiences of the last few minutes illustrate several of the different kinds of
long-term memories a person can form. First, your memories of the events that
happened to you are called (6) __________memories because they pertain to distinct
episodes in your life. Episodic memories are usually encoded quickly and with little
conscious effort, a process known as (7)__________ encoding. Forming long-term
memories of the phone number and the license plate, in contrast, needs more thought
and attention. This type of encoding involves what is generally called (8) _______
processing. The numbers, are pieces of factual information that is of
(9)_________memories. You would be able to write down the numbers on a piece of
paper as well as perform other skills because you have (10) ___________memories.
So you keep the license number in short-term memory using maintenance
rehearsal, encode the license number into long-term memory using (11)
___________ between the number and something you already know. You can form
new associations using (12) ________ rehearsal.
Unit 8
A time machine takes you back to the early 1900s, to the office of the Minister of
Public Education in Paris. He is talking to a psychologist who has just produced for
the Paris schools the world's first standardized intelligence test. The psychologist's
name is Alfred (1)__________. The minister is listening to Binet telling how the new
test will allow the schools to assess each child's ability to perform certain cognitive
tasks, such as understanding the meaning of words and following directions. For each
question, Binet has determined whether the average child of a certain age can get that
item right. You recognize Binet's name because it appears in a test called the
(2)_______ -_________. On this test, the number of questions the child answered
right determined what is called your (3) _____________age. Then his mental age
was divided by his (4)__________ age to get his (5) ______ ______, or IQ.
Now you move into the future and see how intelligence testing develops. You
reenter your time machine and go to the year 1950. This time you are in the United
States, in the office of a psychologist named David Wechsler. He and his colleagues
have just introduced an intelligence test for adults, and they are now working on a
similar test for school-age children. The series of IQ tests they are designing is
collectively called the (6) ________________.
These scales illustrate the
(7)__________ approach to measuring IQ. Another approach is called the (8)
__________ approach. As you enter Wechsler's office, he and his assistants are
discussing the fact that their IQ test for children produce consistent results. This
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finding shows that the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children is very
(9)__________. In the 1950s and 1960s, intelligence testing became very popular in
American schools.
At the present time, some psychologists believe that IQ tests do not measure
general (10) ________ but the ability to solve (11) __________problems.
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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
ДЛЯ ПСИХОЛОГОВ
Учебное пособие
для студентов пчихологических
факультетов
Составитель:
к.ф.н., доцент С.А. Сергутина
Подписано в печать 25.09.2014 г. Формат 60х841/16 .
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