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83.Деловые переговоры и деловая переписка на английском языке курс лекций Учебное пособие.- Казань 2014.- 52 с.

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Деловые переговоры
и деловая переписка
на английском языке
Курс лекций
Учебное пособие
Казань - 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Российский экономический университет им. Г.В.Плеханова»
Казанский институт (филиал)
Деловые переговоры
и деловая переписка
на английском языке
Курс лекций
Учебное пособие
КАЗАНЬ - 2014
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УДК 811.111; 327.78
ББК 81.2 Англ.- 923
Д 29
Рекомендовано к печати научно-методическим советом
Казанского института (филиала) ФГБОУ ВПО «РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова»
Авторы-составители:
Мазитова Ф.Л., к.филол.н., профессор, заведующая кафедрой гуманитарных и естественнонаучных дисциплин КИ (филиала) РЭУ
им. Г.В. Плеханова;
Низамиева М.А., к.филол.н., старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарных и естественнонаучных дисциплин Казанского института (филиала) РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова;
Москалѐва Д.Р., старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарных и естественнонаучных дисциплин Казанского института (филиала)
РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова.
Рецензенты:
Агеева А.В., к.филол.н., доцент кафедры французского языка ИФИ
К(П)ФУ;
Андреева Е.А., к.филол.н., доцент кафедры гуманитарных и естественнонаучных дисциплин Казанского института (филиала) РЭУ
им. Г.В. Плеханова.
Деловые переговоры и деловая переписка на английском языке:
курс лекций. Учебное пособие /Мазитова Ф.Л., Низамиева М.А., Москалѐва
Д.Р. – Казань: …………………, 2014. – 52 с.
ISBN
Настоящее пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной
работы студентов 2 курса направления «Экономика» профилей «Бухгалтерский учет, анализ и аудит» и «Финансы и кредит».
Учебное пособие содержит лекционные и текстовые материалы по
деловым переговорам и деловой переписке, диалоги, деловые письма,
дополнительные тексты, упражнения на закрепление материала.
Целью пособия является приобретение студентами лингвокультурной,
языковой и коммуникативной компетенции с целью успешного использования английского языка в их будущей профессиональной деятельности, помощь в организации самостоятельной работы студентов.
ISBN
© Мазитова Ф.Л., 2014
© Низамиева М.А., 2014
© Москалева Д.Р., 2014
© Оформление КИ РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова, 2014
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LECTURE 1
BUSINESS ETHICS
Business ethics represent the set of the behavior principles of the people occupied in spheres of administrative business activity.
Such ethics allow to consider and estimate business relations of businessmen, and also their personal behavior from the point of view of compliance to the
principles of behavior which are standard in the business world.
Ethical principles and standards of behavior of business people are the principles of behavior standard in the business world. They are: freedom, tolerance,
tactfulness and sensitivity, justice, business obligation, etc.
Business ethics are based on such universal value as freedom. It means: the
businessman or the manager has to appreciate freedom of the competitors that is
expressed in inadmissibility of intervention in their affairs, infringement, even in
trifles, their interests.
The other fundamental principle of business relationship is the tolerance
which means a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward other people’s opinions, practices. The tolerance gives rise to mutual trust, understanding and frankness, helps "to extinguish" conflict situations.
Business relationship is always fraught with different difficulties and the
conflicts therefore they demand tactfulness and sensitivity. The step in such communication is not only understanding of compliance of the purposes and standards
of behavior, but also ability to apply ethical standards to the specific person.
To be tactful means in any situation to consider the partner, the client or the
subordinate to be the equal human person taking into account features of a sex,
age, nationality, temperament, habits, etc. As sensitivity understand politeness and
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attentiveness in communication, ability to spare vanity of the colleagues. It is a
form of manifestation of a correctness and sincerity in communication.
Sensitivity - the simplest working instrument of business communication
helping with the smallest moral and psychological expenses to solve business problems.
Business ethics are guided by such concept, as justice which assumes an assessment of personal and business qualities of people and their activity, recognition
of their identity, openness to criticism, self-criticism.
Business people of the whole world have such concept, as business obligation. In the USA, for example, the term "Texas Handshake" when the parties simply agree that will be engaged together in any activity is known. If one of the parties
violated the terms of the contract, no body will deal with this firm (organization)
any more.
The formula of success of the western entrepreneur is simple:
prosperity = professionalism + decency.
In business there is a golden rule: take care of the clients, and the market will
take care of you.
It is very difficult to get the good reputation, but it is possible to lose it instantly and often because of a trifle, for example not having answered in time a
phone call or a letter.
Everything is important for the reputation: standard of speech, clothes, behavior manner, office interior. Business contacts break at once as soon as incompetence or dishonorableness of businessmen are found.
So, the main postulate of ethics of each company can be expressed by the
motto: "profit above all, but honor above profit".
Types and forms of business communication. According to the character
and the contents the communication are divided into: formal (business) and informal (secular, ordinary, household).
Business communication is a process of speech interrelation and interaction
in which there is an exchange of activity, information and the experience assuming
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achievement of a certain result, the solution of a specific problem or realization of
a definite purpose.
Business communication can be divided conditionally on direct speech contact and indirect (when between partners there is an existential distance).
Direct business communication possesses bigger, productivity, force of emotional influence and suggestion.
Business communication differs from ordinary (informal) because in its
process the purposes and specific objectives which demand the decision are set. In
business communication we can't stop interaction with the partner (at least without
loss for both parties). In usual companionship specific tasks, definite purposes
aren't set most often. Such communication can be stopped (at the request of participants) at any time.
Business communication is realized in various forms:
 business conversation – speech communication between interlocutors
who have necessary powers from the organizations and firms for establishment of business relations, permission of business problems or development of a constructive approach to their decision.
 business negotiations – the main means of the coordinated decisionmaking in the course of communication of interested parties.
 business meetings – a way of open collective discussion of problems
group of experts.
 public statements – transfer to one acting information of various level
of wide audience with observance of rules and the principles of creation
of speech and use of oratorical receptions.
Vocabulary:
infringement – нарушение
trifle – мелочь
compliance – соответствие
assessment – оценка
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decency – порядочность
dishonorableness – бесчестность, непорядочность
interrelation – взаимосвязь, взаимоотношение
interlocutor – собеседник
Questions:
1. What is business ethics?
2. What are the ethical principles and norms of business people?
3. Tell about tolerance and tactfulness.
4. By what concept are business ethics guided?
5. Name the formula of success of the western entrepreneur and the golden rule of
the business.
6. Tell about the reputation and the motto of a company to keep it.
7. Tell about the types and forms of business communication.
8. What is business communication?
9. Name the forms of business communication.
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LECTURE 2
THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS ETHICS IN RUSSIA
Ethical standards of business contacts, business relationship, and ethical requirements in Russia were known and spread in the activities of merchants in the
middle of the eighteenth century.
The book "Medieval merchant" by A.Gurevich and A.Fomin from Arkhangelsk tells about them.
Russian thinkers and philosophers worked out the views and approaches to
work and business ethics, who argued that the dignity of man is determined by his
labor.
Describing merchant ethics in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
contemporaries talked about its contradictions: on the one hand, honesty, fidelity to
the word, integrity, a desire to preserve the good name and on the other - deceitfulness, the desire for profit at any cost, the violation of commitments.
Researchers note beneficial effects and the impact of Orthodoxy in business
ethics. This impact has been, above all, the overall positive moral and ethical character.
Orthodox Church encouraged charity, but condemned usury. This led to the
inhibition of the unfolding banking, thus delaying the economic development of
the country.
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In the history and development of the basic ideas of business ethics and the
ethics of governance in Russia an important role belongs to the Old Believer
branches of religion.
They settled in new places, became the owners of new businesses - industrial, commercial, exploration and production of minerals. Old Believers formed new
ethical standards which are then allocated to the people and made it possible to
achieve success in business.
Russia in XIX - early XX centuries was characterized by a set of traditions
that placed it on the same level as the leading nations of the world. At this time
those who did not observe moral and ethical standards might be "cut off" from the
business. In each city, there were merchant society, which had the right to recommend an entrepreneur in the merchant guild.
This right must be earned by honesty and personal integrity. There was a
court, which could permanently deprive the merchant of the actual right to engage
in entrepreneurial activities. To create a "limited partnership" there was a matter of
only one merchant's word.
In 1912 the Russian business community adopted "Seven principles of doing
business in Russia", which can be considered the starting point of the formation of
the modern code of ethics of the Russian business culture. These seven principles
are: respect the power, and be honest and truthful, respect the right to private property, love and respect the person, and be true to his word, live by means, and be
purposeful.
After the World War I, the October Revolution and the Civil War entrepreneurial class was defeated, entered the command-bureaucratic system of management. In the Soviet period, bulk lawlessness against the individuality existed, a
person’s interests were almost entirely subordinated to the interests of the society.
During the socialist period businessmen were prosecuted and punished, including the death penalty. The Marxist socialism served as ethics. It claimed the
class character of moral requirements and standards. Hence, labor public relations
always prevailed over personal, discipline - on the initiative, etc.
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In the post-Stalin period a gradual replacement of purposes took place: bureaucratic, technocratic apparatus began to focus on their own narrow goals of a
personal nature. As a result of the declared socialism eroded ethics of "double
standards".
The old business ethics, based on the foundations of Orthodox spirituality
and education, being outlawed, was lost.
Vocabulary:
dignity – достоинство
integrity – честность
deceitfulness – лживость, двуличность
violation of commitments – нарушение обязательств
usury – ростовщичество
to cut off – отсекать, зд. выкинуть
guild – гильдия
to defeat – побеждать
lawlessness – беззаконие, бесправие
death penalty – смертная казнь
spirituality – духовность
outlawed – вне закона
Questions:
1. When were Ethical standards of business contacts, business relationship, and
ethical requirements in Russia known and spread?
2. What did Russian thinkers and philosophers work out?
3. Tell about the contradictions of ethics in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
4. Tell about the impact of the Orthodox Church on the business ethics.
5. Tell about the role of the Old believers in the development of Russian business
ethics.
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6. What set of traditions did Russia have in XIX - early XX centuries?
7. Tell about Russia "Seven principles of doing business in Russia".
8. What changes took place after the World War I, the October Revolution and the
Civil War?
9. What was the attitude towards business during the socialist period?
10.What changes happened in the socialist period?
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LECTURE 3
EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN BUSINESS ETHICS
Knowledge of national characteristics can serve as a guide of possible behavior of the partner. For example, Americans have made a significant element of
democracy and pragmatism in the practice of business.
USA
The American pragmatism is reflected in the fact that during the business
discussions, negotiations they focus their attention on the problem to be discussed,
and seek to identify and discuss not only the total possible approaches to a solution, but the details related to the implementation of the agreements. American appreciate professionalism.
Americans prefer big deals and tend to emphasize the scope of activities,
turnover, size, and other characteristics of his company. Americans prefer to know
with whom they are dealing. American use to hung documents on the walls in the
form of photos (license, diplomas etc.). If you have extensive relationships with the
U.S., such a "clearance" of your office can be helpful.
France
Americans prefer big deals and tend to emphasize the scope of activities,
turnover, size, and other characteristics of his company. Americans prefer to know
with whom they are dealing. American use to hung documents on the walls in the
form of photos (license, diplomas etc.). If you have extensive relationships with the
U.S., such a "clearance" of your office can be helpful.
French entrepreneurs do not like to face with unexpected changes in positions during negotiations. The contracts prepared to sign with French firms must be
extremely correct and precise in wording.
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While French businessmen prepare themselves for the upcoming negotiations, they thoroughly study all aspects and implications of the offers received.
Negotiating style corresponds to the principles of non-confidence and at the same
time to compromise.
The French are not characterized by accuracy and punctuality. But they follow the rule: the higher is the status of the visitor, the later he arrives. If you are
invited to dinner with the president of the French company, you risk to wait half an
hour after the appointed time.
England
For the English such qualities as self-restraint, a tendency to understatement,
scrupulousness are typical, which makes the English closed and uncommunicative
with unfamiliar people. Independence, bordering on alienation is the basis of human relations in Britain. But they respect property and efficiency.
Frugality is a quality that British show for money, words and emotions.
They are hostile to any expression of feelings. Punctuality is a rigid rule in the UK.
Negotiations can be conducted with one or more participants.
British are quite flexible and willing to respond to the initiative of the opposite side. Traditionally the British have the ability to avoid sharp angles in the negotiations.
Germany
Germans are characterized by work ethic, diligence, punctuality, thrift, skeptical mind, the desire for order. Business ties with German companies can be set by
an exchange of letters with the cooperation, and through agency and brokerage
firm.
Main clothing is a strict business suit. Pay attention to the selection of shoes
and do not wear bright ones.
Germans prefer the negotiations in which they see the possibility of finding
a solution clearly enough. In transactions Germans will insist on implementing the
commitments strictly, as well as the payment of heavy fines in case of noncompliance.
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Spain
To understand Spain's business ethics, it's important to understand the family-oriented approach to life dominant in that country.
In Spain, making time for family and leisure often takes precedence.
Spain has two business cultures. Larger businesses that have significant foreign involvement or interaction have usually adopted many international management techniques and styles, such as those prevalent in the United States.
Spain has two business cultures. Larger businesses that have significant foreign involvement or interaction have usually adopted many international management techniques and styles, such as those prevalent in the United States.
Vocabulary:
implementation – реализация, выполнение
scope – масштаб
extensive – обширный
clearance – просвет
precise in wording – точные формулировки
non-confidence – недовериe
scrupulousness – скрупулезность
alienation – отчуждение
frugality, thrift – бережливость
hostile – враждебный
diligence – старательность
compliance – соблюдение
to take precedence – брать верх
hands-on approach – практический подход
to solicit – просить, требовать
Questions:
1. What can knowledge of national characteristics serve as?
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2. Tell about the business ethic of American nation.
3. Tell about the business ethics of France.
4. Tell about the business ethics of Great Britain.
5. Tell about the business ethics of Germany.
6. Tell about the business ethics of Spain.
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LECTURE 4
THE ETHICS OF EASTERN COUNTRIES
The main characteristics of ethics of business communication in the East.
Oriental etiquette is much based on ceremonies than the European one, and
is more deeply rooted in the past. Thus, in the Arab countries during the conversation people often ask about the health, but detailed answers are not necessary.
There are certain rules of behaviour and communication, which will be valid
in any country:
1. Respect national traditions in food, holidays, religion, and leadership.
2. Refrain from criticism and any comparisons with another country.
3. Always be punctual, take into account the traffic on the roads and a
crowd of people on the streets.
4. You should not brag about the financial situation.
5. Be familiar with the monetary system of the country in which you live.
6. In any country the titles are very important so they should be used.
7. Correspondence should be purely formal.
8. Be sure to stand up when the national anthem sounds.
9. It is not necessary to wear special costumes like a toga or sari.
10.It is impossible to claim that everything is as you have at home: food,
service, etc. The general advice with an unfamiliar food - eat what you
are offered, and do not ask what it is.
11.Names should be remembered. If the name is difficult, work out in its
pronunciation. Bear in mind that the names can indicate social status
and marital status.
12.In any country civility (politeness) is valued, especially in Asia.
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China
Chinese representation of the rules of etiquette are very different from the
European.
Thus, in communication types of physical contact - hugging, kissing and
even touching are considered unacceptable.
Entering into business relations, the Chinese business people pay special attention to two points:
1) the collection of information about the subject of discussion and negotiating partner,
2) the formation of the "spirit of friendship" to the representatives of the
other part.
Spirit of friendship in the negotiations is very important for the Chinese,
normally it is identified with the usual personal relationship partners.
In China it is accepted to put forward the names. If you meet a Chinese, you
should call him by his name. During the greeting, shaking hands, first shake hands
with the most senior person.
Japan
Japanese culture is historically associated with the Chinese. A community
can be seen in the strict hierarchy of relations of older and younger, use of intermediaries in complex and controversial issues, the giving of gifts in gratitude for
the service and help.
The main advantages of the Japanese national character are: diligence, discipline, adherence to tradition, dedication to the authority, duty, self-control, accuracy, courtesy, curiosity.
According to Japanese morality, the basis of relations between people is mutual dependence. Therefore, membership in a particular group is the basis of the
Japanese attitude.
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South Korea
Traditional morality of this nation appreciates personal communication. To
establish business relations they need a personal meeting, or to negotiate through
an intermediary. The latter is familiar with both sides seeking to contact, so it is
able to correctly inform the Korean side of your company and your offerings.
Even in cases where just a call would be enough to solve any issue, Koreans
tend to a personal meeting. Uncertain response to the suggestion of such a meeting,
they can interpret as consent. When meeting men is customary to exchange handshakes. Women do not shake hands. It is not necessary to look straight in the eyes.
India
Almost all Indians speak English. When greeting men shake hands. The local greeting can also be used, especially with a woman - hands folded together in
front of chest and a slight bow.
Dress is recommended as common in this country or region where you are
staying. Business women in India are not required to wear a sari.
Instead saris women wear a suit with a straight skirt to the knee or with
trousers.
It should always be borne in mind that in India there is a strict caste system.
Be sure to know the caste of people with whom you have entered into business relations, and consider the corresponding restrictions (for example, a ban on
contact with members of the lower castes), do not force the Indian partners to do
what is contrary to their principles.
Features of business etiquette in the Middle East
There are a number of general principles that should guide the business
communication in the Muslim world:
1. In all cases five times a day the business is interrupted to perform namaz
(prayer).
2. Respect the right of a business partner to kneel and face turned towards
Mecca.
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3. Outdoors greetings in the form of a handshake are widespread. In a private home the owner, is likely to greet you with a kiss on both cheeks and you have to respond the same way.
4. Business cards are printed in two languages - English and local.
5. At the business meeting, wear a lightweight dark suit, shirt and tie.
Hands and feet of women must be covered, as well as pants are not allowed.
6. During the conversation the Arabs are very close to each other. It is not
necessary to step back.
7. The Arab peoples are not accepted to discuss privacy.
8. Keep the feet flat on the floor – to show the soles is indecent.
9. You should not make fun of the person or argue with him.
Vocabulary:
to refrain – воздерживаться
to brag – хвастать(ся)
the national anthem – государственный гимн
civility – вежливость, учтивость
senior person – человек пенсионного возраста
hierarchy – иерархия
intermediary – посредник
to fold – складывать
Questions:
1. What is the oriental etiquette based on?
2. What are the most important rules of behaviour and communication, which will
be valid in any country?
3. Are Chinese representation of the rules of etiquette very different from the European?
4. What are the main advantages of the Japanese national character?
5. Are business women in India required to wear a sari?
6. Can you name the general principles that should guide the business communication in the Muslim world?
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LECTURE 5
NEGOTIATION ETHICS
Negotiations are formal, precise business meetings and generally include the
signing of documents defining the mutual obligations (agreements, contracts, etc.).
The negotiations fit the following scheme:
 the beginning of the conversation
 an exchange of information
 the arguments and counterarguments
 development and adoption of solutions
 the completion of negotiations.
Negotiation ethics is the application of ethical behavior during negotiations
or talks.
An ethical negotiation is successful when the outcome is found satisfying by
both sides, is defensible and, and can be justified by universal principles.
The principles of reciprocity, respect, and trust must be present in the negotiation ethics.
The moral minimum for negotiating ethics consists of principles of wellbeing, autonomy, political freedom, standard social roles, and self interests.
The use of role models is also recognized as an excellent way to teach ethical behavior across a wide variety of disciplines.
Recent research has demonstrated that college students who described having an ethical role model were less likely to adopt questionable ethical behavior in
negotiation situations.
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Assessing the Situation
No matter the negotiation approach one chooses, the place to start is by
doing research.
Undoubtedly, it is not always cost-effective or beneficial to do in-depth prenegotiation research, but an individual should not miss this important point.
Building Mutual Trust
One of the many fears and suspicions of negotiations is the idea that the other side is likely to be dishonest and will unfairly exploit any weakness displayed by
an honest negotiator.
This suspicion and fear may be overcome if a climate of mutual trust can be
developed.
Self-Protection
Some component of self-protection from actions committed by the other side
must take place.
Caveat emptor (Let the Buyer Beware - пусть покупатель будет бдителен)
may not always be a sound legal rule, but it is a reasonable advice for negotiators
in many business transactions.
There are six basic rules to establish relations between the partners
proposed by American experts.
1. Rationality. Need to keep a low profile. Uncontrolled emotions have
negative impact on the negotiation process and the ability to conduct
reasonable solutions.
2. Understanding. Inattention to partner’s view restricts developing mutually acceptable solutions.
3. Communication. If your partner does not show great interest, still try to
hold consultations with them. This will keep and improve relations.
4. Reliability. False information weakens the argument and adversely affect the reputation.
5. Avoid mentor tone. It is unacceptable to teach partner. The primary method is the conviction.
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6. Acceptance. Try to take the other side and be open to learn something
new from a partner.
The optimal days for negotiations are Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday.
The most favorable time of the day - half an hour - an hour after lunch, when
the thought of food does not distract from solving business problems. The favorable ambiance for talks can be created, depending on the circumstances, in your office, office of a partner or on neutral territory (conference room equipped for meeting room at the hotel, restaurants, etc.).
Vocabulary:
negotiations – переговоры
outcome – результат
defensible – законный
well-being – благосостояние
autonomy – автономия, самоуправление
questionable – сомнительный
to keep a low profile – сдерживать эмоции, быть хладнокровным
to restrict – ограничивать
conviction – убеждение
ambiance – среда
circumstances – обстоятельства
Questions:
1. What are negotiations?
2. What does the scheme of negotiations include?
3. Name the principles of conducting the negotiations.
4. What are six basic rules to establish relations between the partners proposed by
American experts?
5. Tell about the most favorable time and dates of negotiations.
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LECTURE 6
ETHICS AND CULTURE OF THE BUSINESS MEAL
There are two styles of meal - Continental and American.
The first is adopted around the world, excluding the part of Americans and
Canadians. Fork is held in the left hand and the knife - in the right. In this case, the
objects from one hand to the other does not shift. In the American style when cutting food fork is held in the left hand and the knife - in the right, then people lay
the knife aside, take the right fork and eat well.
Manners at the table
There are strict rules about manners:
Sit up straight. Don’t pile on the table and do not lean on your elbows.
Do not recline the chair.
Belching at the table is a very unbecoming event.
Cover your mouth with a napkin, and if something happened, quietly apologize to no one in particular.
If you spilled something on the table and poured someone gently use a
napkin. Offer to pay for washing or cleaning.
If you break something, tell the waiter. If this happens at someone’s house,
tell the owner and offer to make amends.
A business dinner
This is a great opportunity to become better acquainted with your customers, co-workers, subordinates or superiors.
The informal atmosphere and the extra time spent at dinner with a partner,
be sure to have a positive impact on your career than short contacts in the office or
telephone. But beware:
 To show that you do not know how to behave at the table;
 Tell and ask a companion about his personal life - it hurts your professional prestige;
 To drink too much alcohol.
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With all the benefits of business meals it should be kept in mind that meal
can not be offered to all partners. In the business world dinner is a serious event,
and you should offer it only when you really want it. Making such an offer, immediately assign a specific time.
A business breakfast
The best time to meet the people who work in the lunch hours, or those who
plan meals for the week ahead is painted.
For business men and women the less compromising situation would be
breakfast and lunch. It has less suspicions about where the couple had spent the
previous night, over dinner and does not give grounds for assumptions about the
evening and the following night.
Ability to combine the solution of professional problems with a meal can be
one of the most effective ways to achieve success.
Vocabulary:
to pile – наклоняться
to lean on – облокачиваться
napkin – салфетка
to spill – проливать
to pour – облить, налить
to make amends – возместить убытки
suspicion – подозрение
Questions:
1. Tell about two styles of meal
2. Tell about table manners.
3. Tell about a business dinner.
4. Tell about a business breakfast.
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LECTURE 7
BUSINESS LETTER
Structure of a business letter
• Heading or letterhead
• Dateline
• Inside address
• Reference lines (Attention, Personal and Confidential, Subject)
• Salutation
• Body
• Complimentary clause
• Signature
• References
• Enclosures or Copies
Heading or letterhead
The company’s name
The forms of processing of the business letters
The full postal address
Contact numbers
Full Block style
• all the lines are moved to the left side
•
there are no spaces at the beginning of the paragraph
Block style
• complimentary close and date are on the right
• there are no spaces at the beginning of the paragraph
Types of the business letters
 adjustment letter
 claim letter
 collection letter
 credit letter
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 inquiry letter
 reply to inquiry letter
 refusal letter
 sales letter
 transmittal letter
 letter of confirmation
 follow-up letter
 goodwill or public relations letter
 order letter
 order cancellation letter
 Letter of application
 A set of documents for employment
If an employee changed any personal information (address, name, passport
number, etc.), it shall immediately provide information about the management of
personnel.
General rules of applying:
 the 15th of the month - providing for admission and notification of dismissal.
 within 5 working days (from the date of submission of the application
by an employee) and the 20th day of the month providing the complete
set of documents for employment (except the application form).
Documents for applying for a job
• Personal data sheet (or: personal record sheet) – Личная карточка работника;
• Curriculum vitae (CV) – Резюме;
• Letter of application – Заявление о приеме на работу;
• Passport – Паспорт (original + 1 copy with the registration).
• Employment history – Трудовая книжка, сведения о прошлых работах;
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• State pension insurance certificate of insurance (original) – Страховое свидетельство государственного пенсионного страхования (оригинал).
• Individual taxpayer identification number – Индивидуальный номер налогоплательщика (ИНН).
• Pension certificate (original and copy) – Пенсионное удостоверение (оригинал и копия).
• Military documents - for conscripts and persons subject to military conscription (the original) – Документы воинского учета – для военнообязанных и лиц, подлежащих призыву на военную службу (оригинал).
• Education documents and qualifications (originals and copies) – Документы об образовании, о квалификации (оригиналы и копии).
• The birth certificate of a child under 18 years old (original + copy) – Свидетельство о рождении ребенка до 18 лет (оригинал + копия).
• Award documents (original + copy) – Наградные документы (оригинал +
копия).
• Documents giving facilities – Документы, дающие право на льготы.
Registration is complete if fully executed set of documents, including briefing is granted.
For timely payment (by the 20th of the current month in which an employee is
accepted) the complete set of documents for employment must be timely provided
to the Office of Personnel.
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LECTURE 8
DELIVERY AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Delivery is the process of transporting goods. Most goods are delivered
through a transportation network
The general process of delivering goods is known as distribution. The study
of effective processes for delivery and disposition of goods and is called logistics.
Firms that specialize in delivering commercial goods from point of production to
point of sale are generally known as distributors, while those that specialize in the
delivery of goods to the consumer are known as delivery services.
Products sold by catalogue or the Internet may be delivered directly from the
manufacturer to the consumer's home. Small manufacturers may deliver their
products directly to retail stores without warehousing.
Delivery vehicles
Vehicles are often specialized to deliver different types of goods. On land,
semi-trailers are outfitted with various trailers such as box trailers, flatbeds, car
carriers, tanks and other specialized trailers. Armored cars, dump trucks and concrete mixers are examples of vehicles specialized for delivery of specific types of
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goods. On the sea, merchant ships come in various forms, such as cargo ships, oil
tankers and fishing boats.
Often, passenger vehicles are used for delivery of goods. These include buses, vans, pick-ups, motorcycles and bicycles.
Some products are delivered to consumers on a periodic schedule. Historically, home delivery of many goods was much more common in urban centers of
the developed world. At the beginning of the 20th century, perishable farm items
such as milk, eggs and ice, were delivered weekly or even daily to customers by
local farms. Milkmen delivered milk and other farm produce.
Likewise deliveries of coal and wood for home heating were more common
until they were replaced in many areas by natural gas, oil, or electric heating.
Acknowledgements
An acknowledgement letter is a formal letter for business communication. It
is sent by one person to another acknowledging and thanking another person for
putting in time, effort, money or trust. Apart from this, it can also be used to acknowledge any receipt of cash or goods or services owed to you. It is basically a
tool aimed at maintaining good relations with the people you deal with. Sending
this letter shows an acknowledgement that you really value the association and
would like to maintain a long-term business relationship with them.
A letter of acknowledge is a formal letter and hence like any business writing it should be kept short and to the point. It is a good idea to send a letter of acknowledgement on the letterhead of the company. One should not ramble about
how much the association matters to them. It is like a small 'thank you'.
Here are the basic contents in an acknowledgement letter:
Date and Address of the Addressee
A line to specify the subject of the letter
Content: First paragraph should be that you have received whatever it was that they
have sent you in good condition. Second paragraph should say that you value your
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association with that company and would like to deal with them in the future
'Thanking You/ Yours Sincerely' and your name
Given below is a sample for receipt of goods from company A. You can alter the
content based on your individual need.
Date:
Name of Addressee Address of Addressee Dear Sir/Madam,
Subject: Acknowledgement for the receipt of Goods
I, (your name), (designation) of (name of your company), would like to thank you
for the timely delivery of goods on such a short notice. We understand and appreciate the effort you have put in regarding the same. We are happy to have a company of your reputation as our associates and look forward to working with you in
the future.
Thanking you,
(your name)
This letter is very important as business today is about maintaining good relations with your associates. The more frequent and positive your interactions with
remain, the better your chances of progressing become.
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LECTURE 9
COMPLAINTS CLAIMS ADJUSTMENTS AND REPLIES TO COMPLAINTS
If the seller causes a breach of contract, or if there is else something wrong
with the execution of the order, the buyer can make a complaint.
A buyer can complain about:
 the goods are of inferior quality
 the goods are damaged
 the goods were lost in transit
 there was a delay in delivery
 the price is incorrect
 the goods were shortshipped (the weight was too low or the quantity too
small)
 the wrong goods were delivered.
If the complaint is justified, the seller has to make an adjustment, i. e. he has
to offer the buyer some form of compensation.
There are four possibilities.
1. The seller invites the buyer to return the goods at the seller’s expense
2. The seller replaces the faulty goods at his own expense
3. In some cases, the goods can be repaired by the seller or at the seller’s
expense
4. The buyer keeps the goods, but the seller offers him a price reduction.
If the seller is late in delivering the goods, the buyer can send one or more
reminders and tell the seller that he will withdraw the contract if the goods are not
delivered by a certain date, the final deadline. It can be that the buyer reserved the
right to cancel the order if delivery was late. In this case, he can cancel his order
without sending any reminders.
It can happen that the buyer suffers a loss if the goods are delivered late. In
this case, he can claim damages from the seller; that means, he can start legal proceedings for compensation. However, if the delay is caused by factors beyond the
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seller’s control, for example floods, earthquakes, war etc., the seller is not liable
for any of the buyer’s losses.
Vocabulary:
breach of contract – нарушение контракта
inferior – более низкий, плохой
damaged – поврежденный
in transit – в пути
shortshipped – недопоставленный
justified – обоснованный
reminder – (письмо-)напоминание
deadline – крайний срок
to reserve the right – оставлять за собой право
to cancel – отменять
to suffer a loss – понести убытки
to claim damages – требовать возмещения
Questions:
1. What reasons can the buyer make a complaint for?
2. What can the buyer insist on if the seller supplied wrong goods?
3. What can the buyer do if the delivered goods are damaged?
4. What can the buyer ask for if the goods are shortshipped?
5. When can the buyer ask for the price reduction?
6. What are the possibilities for the seller to make an adjustment if the complaint
is justified?
7. What is a final deadline?
8. In what cases can the buyer send the seller a reminder?
9. When can the buyer claim damages?
10.In what case isn’t the seller liable for any of the buyer’s losses?
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LECTURE 10
PAYMENT
Payment is the transfer of money from one part (such as a person or company) to another.
Payment is usually made in exchange for the provision of goods, services or
both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.
The simplest and oldest form of payment is barter, the exchange of one good
or service for another. In the modern world, common means of payment by an individual include money, cheque, debit, credit, or bank transfer, and in trade such
payments are frequently preceded by an invoice or result in a receipt.
However, there are no arbitrary limits on the form a payment can take and
thus in complex transactions between businesses, payments may take the form of
stock or other more complicated arrangements.
In law, the payer is the party making a payment while the payee is the party
receiving the payment.
There are two types of payment methods; exchanging and provisioning. Exchanging is to change coin, money and banknote in terms of the price. Provisioning
is to transfer money from one account to another. In this method, a third party must
be involved. Credit card, debit card, money transfers, and recurring cash or ACH
(Automated Clearing House) disbursements are all electronic payments methods.
Electronic payments technologies are magnetic stripe card, smartcard, contactless
card and mobile handset. Mobile handset based payments are called mobile payments.
Payments may be classified by the number of parties involved to consummate a transaction. For example, a credit card transaction in the United States requires a minimum of four parties (the purchaser, the seller, the issuing bank, and
the acquiring bank). A cash payment requires a minimum of three parties (the seller, the purchaser, and the issuer of the currency). A barter payment requires a minimum of two parties (the purchaser and the seller).
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The infrastructure and electronic clearing methods are formed by the payment provider. Global credit card payment providers are Visa and Mastercard.
Maestro and Cirrus are international debit card payment providers.
 Debit cards
In the U.S., debit cards are the fastest growing payment technology. In 2001,
debit cards accounted for 9 percent of all purchase transactions, and this is expected to double to 18.82 percent in 2011.
 Checks
Historically, checks have been one of the primary means of payment for
purchasing goods and services in the U.S. In 2001, checks accounted for
25°percent of the U.S.-based payment mix; in 2006, this is projected at 17 percent.
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DIALOGUES
1.
 Sorry, do you have a minute?
 Yes, how can I help you?
 This year we will study a new subject – business ethics. Could you explain me
what does it mean?
 Oh, it is a very interesting and useful subject! We studied it last year. Well, it is
set of the principles of behavior of the people occupied in business activity.
 I see, what exactly does it consider?
 Business ethics considers business relations of businessmen, their personal behavior whether it fits the principles of behavior which are standard in the business world.
 What are they? Could you recall some?
 Yes I can. They are: freedom, tolerance, tactfulness and sensitivity, justice,
business obligation, etc. And also I remember that Business ethics are based on
such universal value as freedom. It means: the businessman or the manager has
to appreciate freedom of the competitors that is expressed in inadmissibility of
intervention in their affairs, infringement, even in trifles, their interests.
 Thanks a lot, now I understand!
 My pleasure.
2.
 Hi! We have recently had some lessons of Business ethics. It is a really interesting subject, as you told.
 Great! What have you already learnt?
 The principles of business ethics and the types and forms of business communication.
 What do you know about types and forms of business communication?
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 A lot! First the classification: they may be formal (business) and informal (secular, ordinary, household).
 Good, and what about the speech contact?
 Business communication can be divided conditionally on direct speech contact
and indirect (when between partners there is an existential distance).
 Not bad! But how can we differ business communication and an ordinary (informal) one?
 Business communication differs from ordinary (informal) because in its process
the purposes and specific objectives which demand the decision are set. In business communication we can't stop interaction with the partner (at least without
loss for both parties). In usual companionship specific tasks, definite purposes
aren't set most often. Such communication can be stopped (at the request of participants) at any time.
 I see you are a good student! I wish you good luck and success in your studies!
 Thank you for your help!
3.
 Well, students, let us discuss the features of business ethics in different countries. We studied the business ethics of Russia, Europe and Asia. Let’s start
with our native country. Who wants to tell about business ethics of the Russian
Federation?
 May I? Ethical requirements in Russia were known and spread in the activities
of merchants in the middle of the eighteenth century. They were on the one
hand, honesty, fidelity to the word, integrity, a desire to preserve the good name
and on the other - deceitfulness, the desire for profit at any cost, the violation of
commitments.
 Good, now tell about the impact of the Orthodox Church.
 Orthodox Church encouraged charity, but condemned usury. This led to the inhibition of the unfolding banking, thus delaying the economic development of
the country.
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 What important document was adopted in 1912?
 In 1912 the Russian business community adopted "Seven principles of doing
business in Russia", the starting point of the formation of the modern code of
ethics of the Russian business culture. These seven principles were: respect the
power, and be honest and truthful, respect the right to private property, love and
respect the person, and be true to his word, live by means, and be purposeful.
 Well done! Now who wants to tell about the revolution and the Soviet era?
 Me! After the World War I, the October Revolution and the Civil War entrepreneurial class was defeated, entered the command-bureaucratic system of
management. In the Soviet period, bulk lawlessness against the individuality
existed, a person’s interests were almost entirely subordinated to the interests of
the society.
 What was the new socialist ethics?
 The Marxist socialism served as ethics. During the socialist period businessmen
were prosecuted and punished, including the death penalty. It claimed the class
character of moral requirements and standards. Hence, labor public relations
always prevailed over personal, discipline - on the initiative.
 Very good! And what about the modern time?
 In the post-Stalin period a gradual replacement of purposes took place: bureaucratic, technocratic apparatus began to focus on their own narrow goals of a
personal nature. As a result of the declared socialism eroded ethics of "double
standards". The old business ethics, based on the foundations of Orthodox spirituality and education, being outlawed, was lost. The modern business ethics is
the Western ethics.
 Excellent! There are very clever and industrious student in this group!
4.
 Now let us continue our discussion. We should talk about the business ethics of
the European countries and the USA. Let us start with the USA. What do you
know about the business ethics of the USA?
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 Americans have made a significant element of democracy and pragmatism in
the practice of business. It is reflected in the fact that during the business discussions, negotiations they focus their attention on the problem to be discussed,
and seek to identify and discuss not only the total possible approaches to a solution, but the details related to the implementation of the agreements. Americans
appreciate professionalism.
 Good! Now what about Europe, for example France?
 In the business life in France personal relationships and dating are important.
New partners seek indirectly related friendship, family or financial relations.
And also the important point – lack of punctuality.
 That’s right. You may wait for the big boss for a long time! What do you know
about England?
 Englishmen appreciate self-restraint, a tendency to understatement, scrupulousness. Independence, bordering on alienation is the basis of human relations in
Britain. But they respect property and efficiency.
 But they are quite flexible and willing to respond to the initiative of the opposite side! Now let us talk about the business ethics of Germany.
 Germans are characterized by work ethics, diligence, punctuality, thrift, skeptical mind, the desire for order. Business ties with German companies can be set
by an exchange of letters with the cooperation, and through agency and brokerage firm.
 Correct. And now – Spain.
 In Spain the family-oriented approach to life is dominant.
 What exactly does it mean? Explain, please.
 Making time for family and leisure often takes precedence. And alsoSpain has
two business cultures. Larger businesses that have significant foreign involvement or interaction have usually adopted many international management techniques and styles, such as those prevalent in the United States.
 Everything is correct! Very good!
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5.
 And now we talk about the business ethics of Asia. Who wants to start?
 Oriental etiquette is much based on ceremonies than the European one, and is
more deeply rooted in the past. Thus, in the Arab countries during the conversation people often ask about the health, but detailed answers are not necessary.
 Agree. Let us start with Chinese ethics.
 Chinese representations of the rules of etiquette are very different from the European. Thus, in communication types of physical contact - hugging, kissing
and even touching are considered unacceptable.
 May I add? Spirit of friendship in the negotiations is very important for the
Chinese, normally it is identified with the usual personal relationship partners.
And also Chinese businessmen collect the information about partners very carefully.
 Thank you. Now who knows about Japanese ethics of the business world?
 Japanese culture is historically associated with the Chinese. A community can
be seen in the strict hierarchy of relations of older and younger, use of intermediaries in complex and controversial issues, the giving of gifts in gratitude for
the service and help.
 Good and what do you know about the Indian business culture?
 Almost all Indians speak English. When greeting men they shake hands. The
local greeting can also be used. Dress is recommended as common in this country or region where you are staying. Business women in India are not required
to wear a sari.
 Correct now South Korea, please.
 Traditional morality of this nation appreciates personal communication. To establish business relations they need a personal meeting, or to negotiate through
an intermediary. The latter is familiar with both sides seeking to contact, so it is
able to correctly inform the Korean side of your company and your offerings.
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 Very nice! All students have received excellent marks. Please do not ever forget
about the principles you have learnt. They will be very useful in your professional activity!
 Thank you, professor!
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EXTRA TEXTS:
Appearance and image of the businessman
What is the image?
Image is an external image created entity with the purpose to provoke a certain impression, opinion, attitude of others.
Business woman style.
In the office feminine blouses, elegant and stylish are allowed. It is better to
choose a blouse of fine natural "breathable" fabrics (silk, linen, cotton). In the
business-style women's blouses are now allowed to have ruffles, frills.
Business women select several classic skirts. They wear them with a jacket
or costumes. Skirts can be straight or flared.
Dress can be worn with a jacket from a suit if the colors, styles and fabrics
are coordinated. Colored dresses can be brighter than the colors of the costumes.
Sweaters being unacceptable option for men in conservative situations of
sales, sweaters are quite accepted for women. The monophonic sweater is an optimum option, and it shouldn't be great.
Shoes should be of the main color, such as black, dark blue, brown or dark
brown, depending on the dominant colors in your wardrobe. The color of your
shoes should be of the same color or darker than the rest of your clothes.
Real leather will provide comfort and quality. Avoid white, pastel and fashion colors. They draw attention to your legs, and can be considered too frivolous.
The most faithful version of shoes with a small heel (5-6 cm). Choose a neutral
color stockings.
Jewelry. Select tasteful earrings, decorative pins and watches help complete
wardrobe of business woman. These accessories should be very modest. Jewelry
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should be seen and not heard: Avoid knocking and ringing items. Do not wear
dangling earrings in the shape and form of a ring, and shiny jewelry. Earrings must
have a classic look. Limit yourself to one ring, not counting the wedding one.
Handbags and briefcases. To carry bulk items, such as documents, consider
using not her purse and briefcase. If the protocol provides for the portfolio, never
change it on the bag and never wear both together. Portfolio should be made of
leather. Choose a dark color.
Handbag is the most important accessory, so choose the best available to
you. It should never be proved crowded. As a handbag, briefcase or should depend
on the growth and size of the person.
Appropriate nail design for business women - a French manicure. It is suitable for any business clothes of different colors and textures. That is why it is popular with a businesswoman.
Silk scarf looks good. Your wallet should be dark in color. Belts are also fashionable element so that prefer classical style. Wear gloves only in winter, and
they should be in harmony with the coat. Try not to wear too fancy glasses.
Business hairstyle is a special class. They can tell you about the woman who
wears them, much more than the suit. Therefore you should pick up your hair with
attention, not passing a reasonable boundaries.
Successful business woman must be successful in everything. In particular,
she must look perfectly.
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Businessman style
Business suit. A classic suit tells about reliability, elegance and seriousness.
The main principle - it should be strict, should fit the size and situation,
should to be good "adjusted" to the figure. Suit should have soft colors, not bright,
contrasting colors. The ornament may be a small cell, a narrow vertical strip. Traditional fabric for men's suits is always of a high quality.
Shirt. For shirts it is important to harmonize with the suit jacket. The shirt
should not be darker than the jacket, must be of good quality fabric. Often the
shirts are plain, but small, barely noticeable strip or cell are allowed too. It is necessary to combined the color and pattern of the shirt with the color and pattern of
the suit fabric.
The main thing in choosing a shirt - is the rigor and elegance. Collar should
be neither too small nor too large. A shirt with short sleeves is not allowed. Cuff
should be visible from the sleeves jacket for about 2 cm.
A tie is a basic decoration of a male costume. In choosing a tie a man may
manifest his personality, his taste. The width and length of the tie depend on the
fashion trends and on the constitution of a man. The color of this indispensable accessory of a business men should directly depend on the color of shirt and suit. If
you want to wear a tie with a suit made of variegated fabric with a pattern you
should remember that the figure of suit and tie should not be repeated.
Shoes and socks must be preferably dark, thin and smooth socks which
should be long and hold well on the leg. Socks should matched in tone to the suit.
Shoes are the important elements of a man's suit. That finishes all the external appearance of a man. For business style classic boots or shoes with thin soles
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with laces or buckles, plain, with no flashy elements of genuine leather are common. Shoes should combine with the color of the costume (black or dark brown).
Hair, face, hands. A business man should have a good short haircut, which
suited to the type of person, age, condition of the hair. Even a day beard is unacceptable in the business world. But if it is, you need to take care of it every day:
trim, shave, wash with a shampoo. As for the perfume, there is one rule: all should
have the measure or "who smells too good, smells bad". Groomed nails and hands
will characterize you as lazy and careless man. The hands and the nails should be
short and clean.
Accessories. For all papers and documents attache-case of good leather, uniform, preferably dark or cool colors is suitable. Business men just need a notebook
or diary bound in a good and a decent handle, preferably expensive, ink pen. Special attention is being paid to the modern tie clasp - it should match the color of his
tie. Another part of the modern business suit is associated with color of tie - handkerchief pash, which is inserted into the top pocket jacket. This scarf should be the
same color as the tie or sharply contrast with it. Another accessory that must be selected with great attention is the belt. It must be made of genuine leather, a buckle
should be of a medium size. Belt should match the suit, but the main rule is: the
tone of the belt and shoes should be close or coincide.
A very important accessory for the business man is the watch. It is the only
decoration that a business man can afford, so they have to be beautiful, elegant, in
the classic style. Other Jewelry (different chains, rings) are misplaced. The best option – only а wedding ring.
Negotiation styles
R.G. Shell identified five styles/responses to negotiation. Individuals can often have strong dispositions towards numerous styles; the style used during a negotiation depends on the context and the interests of the other party, among other factors. In addition, styles can change over time.
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1. Accommodating: Individuals who enjoy solving the other party's problems and preserving personal relationships. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states, body language, and verbal signals of the
other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations
when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship.
2. Avoiding: Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don't do it unless
warranted. When negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating; however, they may be perceived as
tactful and diplomatic.
3. Collaborating: Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving
tough problems in creative ways. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties.
They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations
into more complex ones.
4. Competing: Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an
opportunity to win something. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Because
their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators
often neglect the importance of relationships.
5. Compromising: Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing
what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation. Compromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal;
however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process
and make concessions too quickly.
Types of negotiators
Three basic kinds of negotiators have been identified by researchers involved in The Harvard Negotiation Project. These types of negotiators are: Soft
bargainers, hard bargainers, and principled bargainers.
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
Soft. These people see negotiation as too close to competition, so they
choose a gentle style of bargaining. The offers they make are not in their
best interests, they yield to others' demands, avoid confrontation, and
they maintain good relations with fellow negotiators. Their perception
of others is one of friendship, and their goal is agreement. They do not
separate the people from the problem, but are soft on both. They avoid
contests of wills and will insist on agreement, offering solutions and
easily trusting others and changing their opinions.

Hard. These people use contentious strategies to influence, utilizing
phrases such as "this is my final offer" and "take it or leave it." They
make threats, are distrustful of others, insist on their position, and apply
pressure to negotiate. They see others as adversaries and their ultimate
goal is victory. Additionally, they will search for one single answer, and
insist you agree on it. They do not separate the people from the problem
(as with soft bargainers), but they are hard on both the people involved
and the problem.

Principled. Individuals who bargain this way seek integrative solutions,
and do so by sidestepping commitment to specific positions. They focus
on the problem rather than the intentions, motives, and needs of the
people involved. They separate the people from the problem, explore interests, avoid bottom lines, and reach results based on standards (which
are independent of personal will). They base their choices on objective
criteria rather than power, pressure, self-interest, or an arbitrary decisional procedure. These criteria may be drawn from moral standards, principles of fairness, professional standards, tradition, and so on.
Researchers from The Harvard Negotiation Project recommend that negotiators explore a number of alternatives to the problems they are facing in order to
come to the best overall conclusion/solution, but this is often not the case (as when
you may be dealing with an individual utilizing soft or hard bargaining tactics)
(Forsyth, 2010).
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Negotiation tactics
Tactics are always an important part of the negotiating process. But tactics
don't often jump up and down shouting "Here I am, look at me". If they did, the
other side would see right through them and they would not be effective. More often than not they are subtle, difficult to identify and used for multiple purposes.
Tactics are more frequently used in distributive negotiations and when the focus in
on taking as much value off the table as possible. Many negotiation tactics exist.
Below are a few commonly used tactics.
Auction: The bidding process is designed to create competition. When multiple parties want the same thing, pit them against one another. When people know
that they may lose out on something, they will want it even more. Not only do they
want the thing that is being bid on, they also want to win, just to win. Taking advantage of someone's competitive nature can drive up the price.
Brinksmanship: One party aggressively pursues a set of terms to the point at
which the other negotiating party must either agree or walk away. Brinkmanship is
a type of "hard nut" approach to bargaining in which one party pushes the other
party to the "brink" or edge of what that party is willing to accommodate. Successful brinksmanship convinces the other party they have no choice but to accept the
offer and there is no acceptable alternative to the proposed agreement.
Bogey: Negotiators use the bogey tactic to pretend that an issue of little or
no importance to him or her is very important. Then, later in the negotiation, the
issue can be traded for a major concession of actual importance.
Chicken: Negotiators propose extreme measures, often bluffs, to force the
other party to chicken out and give them what they want. This tactic can be dangerous when parties are unwilling to back down and go through with the extreme
measure.
Defence in Depth: Several layers of decision-making authority is used to allow further concessions each time the agreement goes through a different level of
authority. In other words, each time the offer goes to a decision maker, that decision maker asks to add another concession in order to close the deal.
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Deadlines: Give the other party a deadline forcing them to make a decision.
This method uses time to apply pressure to the other party. Deadlines given can be
actual or artificial.
Flinch: Flinching is showing a strong negative physical reaction to a proposal. Common examples of flinching are gasping for air, or a visible expression of
surprise of shock. The flinch can be done consciously or unconsciously. The flinch
signals to the opposite party that you think the offer or proposal is absurd in hopes
the other party will lower their aspirations. Seeing a physical reaction is more believable than hearing someone saying, "I'm shocked".
Good Guy/Bad Guy: The good guy/bad guy approach is typically used in
team negotiations where one member of the team makes extreme or unreasonable
demands, and the other offers a more rational approach. This tactic is named after a
police interrogation technique often portrayed in the media. The "good guy" will
appear more reasonable and understanding, and therefore, easier to work with. In
essence, it is using the law of relativity to attract cooperation. The good guy will
appear more agreeable relative to the "bad guy". This tactic is easy to spot because
of its frequent use.
Highball/Lowball: Depending on whether selling or buying, sellers or buyers
use a ridiculously high, or ridiculously low opening offer that will never be
achieved. The theory is that the extreme offer will cause the other party to reevaluate his or her own opening offer and move close to the resistance point (as far as
you are willing to go to reach an agreement). Another advantage is that the person
giving the extreme demand appears more flexible he or she makes concessions toward a more reasonable outcome. A danger of this tactic is that the opposite party
may think negotiating is a waste of time.
The Nibble: Nibbling is asking for proportionally small concessions that
haven't been discussed previously just before closing the deal. This method takes
advantage of the other party's desire to close by adding "just one more thing".
Snow Job: Negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information
that he or she has difficulty determining which facts are important, and which facts
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are diversions. Negotiators may also use technical language or jargon to mask a
simple answer to a question asked by a non-expert.
E-commerce payment system
An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic
payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular
due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking.
Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of
payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online
B2C transactions were made with this payment type. Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting
credit and debit cards due to their widespread use. Increased security measures include use of the card verification number (CVN) which detects fraud by comparing
the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with
the information on file with the cardholder's issuing bank. Also online merchants
have to comply with stringent rules stipulated by the credit and debit card issuers
(Visa and MasterCard) this means that merchants must have security protocol and
procedures in place to ensure transactions are more secure. This can also include
having a certificate from an authorized certification authority (CA) who provides
PKI (Public-Key infrastructure) for securing credit and debit card transactions.
Despite widespread use in North America, there are still a large number of
countries such as China, India and Pakistan that have some problems to overcome
in regard to credit card security. In the meantime, the use of smartcards has become extremely popular. A Smartcard is similar to a credit card; however it contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor and uses electronic cash which transfers
from the consumers ’card to the sellers’ device. A popular smartcard initiative is
the VISA Smartcard. Using the VISA Smartcard you can transfer electronic cash to
your card from your bank account, and you can then use your card at various retailers and on the internet.
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There are companies that enable financial transactions to transpire over the
internet, such as PayPal. Many of the mediaries permit consumers to establish an
account quickly, and to transfer funds into their on-line accounts from a traditional
bank account (typically via ACH transactions), and vice versa, after verification of
the consumer's identity and authority to access such bank accounts. Also, the larger
mediaries further allow transactions to and from credit card accounts, although
such credit card transactions are usually assessed a fee (either to the recipient or
the sender) to recoup the transaction fees charged to the mediary.
The speed and simplicity with which cyber-mediary accounts can be established and used have contributed to their widespread use, although the risk of
abuse, theft and other problems – with disgruntled users frequently accusing the
mediaries themselves of wrongful behavior – is associated with them.
Bitcoin
Bitcoin is an open source peer-to-peer electronic money and payment network introduced in 2009 by pseudonymous developer "Satoshi Nakamoto". Bitcoin has been called a cryptocurrency because it uses cryptography to secure transactions. Digitally signed payment messages are broadcast to and verified by a decentralized network of computers all over the world. Specialized computers use a
proof-of-work system to prevent people from copying and spending the same bitcoin multiple times, a problem for digital currencies known as double-spending.
The operators of these computers, known as "miners", are rewarded with transaction fees and newly minted bitcoins.
Bitcoins are stored by associating them with cryptographically generated addresses. These addresses may be stored on web services, on local hardware like
PCs and mobile devices, or on paper print-outs. A collection of Bitcoin addresses
is known as a wallet. Thefts of bitcoins from web services and online wallet services have been covered in the media, prompting assertions that the safest way to
store bitcoins is in a paper wallet generated by the owner on an uncompromised
computer.
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In 2012, The Economist reasoned that Bitcoin has been popular because of
"its role in dodgy online markets", and in 2013 the FBI shut down one such service, Silk Road, which specialized in illegal drugs (whereupon the FBI took control of approximately 1.5% of all bitcoins in circulation). However, Bitcoins are
increasingly used as payment for legitimate products and services, and merchants
have an incentive to accept the currency because transaction fees are lower than the
2% to 3% typically imposed by credit card processors. Notable vendors include
OkCupid, Reddit, WordPress, and Chinese Internet giant Baidu.
Speculators have been attracted to Bitcoin, fueling volatility and price
swings. As of November 2013, the use of Bitcoin in the retail and commercial
marketplace is relatively small compared with a relatively large use by speculators.
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ЛИТЕРАТУРА
1. Мазитова Ф.Л., Москалева Д.Р. Английский язык: учебное пособие по деловым переговорам и переписке на английском языке. – Казань: Изд-во
МОиН РТ, 2010. – 208 с.
2. Дюканова Н.М. Английский язык для экономистов: Учеб. пособие. – М.:
ИНФРА-М, 2010. – 320 с.
3. Дудкина Г.А., Павлова М.В., Рей З.Г., Хвальнова А.Т. English for Businessmen – М.: «Филоматис», 2010. – 384 с.
4. Рей З.Г. English for Businessmen (Workbook) – М.: «Филоматис», 2010. –
167 c.
5. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negotiations
6. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitcoin
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Содержание
Lecture 1. BUSINESS ETHICS
Lecture 2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS ETHICS IN RUSSIA
Lecture 3. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN BUSINESS ETHICS
Lecture 4. THE ETHICS OF EASTERN COUNTRIES
Lecture 5. NEGOTIATION ETHICS
Lecture 6. ETHICS AND CULTURE OF THE BUSINESS MEAL
Lecture 7. BUSINESS LETTER
Lecture 8. DELIVERY AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Lecture 9. COMPLAINTS CLAIMS ADJUSTMENTS AND REPLIES TO
COMPLAINTS
Lecture 10. PAYMENT
Dialogues
Extra texts
Литература
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Мазитова Флѐра Локмановна
Низамиева Мария Александровна
Москалѐва Дина Рамилевна
Деловые переговоры
и деловая переписка
на английском языке
Курс лекций
Учебное пособие
Дизайн обложки
Компьютерная верстка и корректура
Скляр А.Д.
Подписано к печати 19.05.2014
Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16 Усл. печ. л. 3,25
Бумага офсетная
Гарнитура «Times New Roman»
Тем. план 2014 г. Тир. 500 экз.
Отпечатано с оригинал-макета заказчика
В типографии ООО «Алекспресс»
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