close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

135.English for Bio-Medical Engineers (self-study competence development)

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
Е.В. Дмитриева, С.Г. Иванова, Н.С. Сахарова
ENGLISH FOR BIO-MEDICAL
ENGINEERS
(SELF-STUDY COMPETENCE
DEVELOPMENT)
Рекомендовано Ученым советом федерального государственного бюджетного
образовательного
учреждения
высшего
профессионального
образования
"Оренбургский государственный университет" в качестве учебного пособия для
студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального образования
по направлению подготовки 201000.62 Биотехнические системы и технологии,
профиль «Инженерное дело в медико-биологической практике»
Оренбург
2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 81.111 : 61(075.8).773.3 (076.5)
ББК 81.432.1я73+58я 73 32.973.202я73
Д 53
Рецензент – профессор, доктор педагогических наук О.М. Осиянова
Д 53
Дмитриева, Е.В.
English for Bio-Medical Engineers (self-study competence development) :
учебное пособие / Е.В. Дмитриева, С.Г. Иванова, Н.С. Сахарова;
Оренбургский гос. ун-т. – Оренбург : ОГУ, 2013. – 119 с.
ISBN
Учебное пособие состоит из 10 разделов и 2 приложений, в которых
представлены аутентичные тексты биоинженерной тематики на английском языке,
грамматический и лексический справочный материал, направленный на развитие
аналитических, переводческих и коммуникативных умений студентов в области
инженерного дела.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса по направлению
подготовки 201000.62 Биотехнические системы и технологии, профиль
«Инженерное дело в медико-биологической практике» (бакалавриат).
УДК 81.111 : 61(075.8).
ББК 81.432.1я73+58я 73
ISBN
 Дмитриева Е.В.,
Иванова С.Г.,
Сахарова Н.С., 2013
 ОГУ, 2013
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Содержание
Введение………………………………………………………………………….....
4
1 Unit1 Bio-Medical Engineering Training ………………………………….......…. 5
2 Unit 2 Bio-Medical Engineering……………………………………………........... 16
3 Unit 3 Biomedical Engineering Technician Career………………………….......... 22
4 Unit 4. Bio-medical Engineering Subdisciplines………………………………...... 25
5 Unit 5. Medical devices ……………………………………………………….…..
35
6 Unit 6. Fundus photography ………………………………………………………
41
7 Unit 7. Types of Microscopes ……………………………………………………
47
8 Unit 8. Laser Technology ……………………………………................................ 68
9 Unit 9. Telemedicine ……………………………………………………………… 82
10 Unit 10. Short history of fiber optics……………………………………..………
88
Список использованных источников……………………………………………... 98
Приложение А Реферирование и аннотирование……………………….……….. 99
Приложение Б Грамматический справочник…………………………………….. 105
3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Введение
Данное учебное пособие составлено в рамках ООП по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык» и предназначено для обучения студентов чтению, пониманию,
прямому и обратному переводу оригинальных текстов биоинженерной тематики на
английском языке, направленному на развитие аналитических, переводческих и
коммуникативных умений студентов в области инженерного дела.
Целью пособия является расширение знаний по специальности «Инженерное
дело в медико-биологической практике». Текстовый материал пособия знакомит
студентов с различными видами, техническими характеристиками и условиями
эксплуатациями медицинского диагностического оборудования.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса, по направлению
подготовки
201000.62
Биотехнические
системы
и
технологии,
профиль
«Инженерное дело в медико-биологической практике» (бакалавриат).
Пособие состоит из десяти разделов, каждый из которых включает
аутентичные тексты на английском языке, послетекстовые задания и список слов к
разделу. В пособии имеется грамматический справочник для самоконтроля
студентов при выполнении заданий по грамматике и
тест по чтению для
самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы студентов с последующим контролем в
аудитории.
Практическая ценность пособия заключается в наличии аутентичного
материала, системы разнообразных упражнений на развитие аналитических,
и
коммуникативных умений, а также навыков прямого и обратного перевода текстов
по специальности с использованием профессиональной терминологии как в
аудитории под контролем преподавателя, так и самостоятельно.
Материалы
пособия
направлены
не
только
на
расширение
как
лингвистических, так и профессиональных знаний средствами английского языка в
процессе выполнения коммуникативно-ориентированных заданий.
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1 Unit 1. Bio-Medical Engineering Training
1.1
Text A. My speciality
1.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
a second-year student
студент второго курса
Bio-Medical Engineering department
кафедра ИДМБ
head of the department
заведующий кафедрой
highly-qualified engineers
высококвалифицированные
инженеры
healthcare
здравоохранение
capacity
мощность
to be in great demand
пользоваться большим спросом
to carry out
осуществлять
to repair
ремонтировать
to be interested in
интересоваться чем-либо
scientific and technical developments
научно-технические разработки
design department
конструкторское бюро
1.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
bio-medical engineering department, higher educational establishments, Orenburg
Eye Microsurgery branch, academician, main research mission, highly-qualified engineers,
specialists,
speciality,
well-equipped
laboratories,
ophthalmology,
eye-deceases,
Microprocessor engineering, graduation thesis, bachelor, Magistracy course.
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the topic.
I am a second-year student of Bio-Medical Engineering department of the Orenburg
State University. It is one of the largest higher educational establishments not only in our
town but also in the Orenburg region. The Physical faculty was organized in 1995 on the
basis of the Orenburg Eye Microsurgery branch. The head of the Bio-Medical Engineering
department is the Academician of Russian Academy of Medical-Technical Sciences
Kanukov Vladimir Nikolaevich.
The main research mission of the Bio-Medical Engineering department is the usage
of modern developments in electronic, medical and biological practice. During the years of
its activity the Bio-Medical Engineering department has trained many highly-qualified
engineers. Such specialists are in great demand nowadays in the sphere of Healthcare.
Future engineers are supposed to check work capacity of bio-medical equipment and carry
out many repairing work with the equipment.
The academic program offers a 4-year course of study, where the students are
provided with general, scientific and engineering knowledge and training. The Physical
Faculty provides a wide choice of specialities such as: Medical Physics, Bio-Chemical
Physics, Radio-Physics, Projecting and Development of Radio-Electronic devices, BioMedical engineering.
The junior students are taught Mathematics, Physics, Bio-Chemistry, foreign
languages (English, German, French), Latin, Philosophy, Biology, Informatics, Russian
and History. They attend lectures, classes, seminars, tutorials, do laboratory works and
tests, carry out experiments in Physics, Electrical engineering, Ecology and Chemistry.
They have quite a number of well-equipped laboratories, display rooms, the library of
medical literature, a new computerized library with electronic catalogues and reading
rooms at their disposal. Students can borrow books with the help of electronic reading
cards and gain access to electronic catalogues.
The OSU students are interested in foreign languages. Mastering a foreign language
enables them to read foreign literature in the original, to learn about the latest scientific
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
and technical developments abroad, advanced technologies in ophthalmology, medical
diagnostics and treatment of eye-deceases.
The senior students are taught such special subjects as Electronics, Microprocessor
engineering, Optical Methods in Informatics, Bio-Medical Research Methods. The fourthyear students combine studies with their research work. They write course papers. The
fourth-year students prepare graduation thesis on the scientific problems of their research
work and take Bachelor degree exams. Upon graduation those inclined for research work
can take a two-year Magistracy course and get a Master’s degree.
Many highly-qualified teachers work at the departments of Physical faculty, some of
them have doctor’s and candidate's degrees and scientific ranks.
After the graduation from the university students will be able to work as engineers,
managers, designers in clinics, design departments or carry out pedagogical activity.
1.1.4 Answer the following questions:
1 What University do you study at?
2 What faculty do you belong to?
3 When was it founded?
4 Are you a second-year student?
5 What specialities does the Physical faculty train?
6 Why do you want to become a bio-medical engineer?
7 What subjects is the academic program composed of?
8 Why do the students study foreign languages?
9 What does the course of studies end with?
10 What problems do the students deal with in their course papers and graduation
thesis?
11 Where do the graduates work?
12 What way can graduates continue their studies in?
7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.2
Text B. Bio-medical engineering training
1.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
sound knowledge
прочные знания
tend to
как правило
curriculum
учебный план
undergraduate
студент
employment
занятость
admission
допуск, приём
tangible factor
реальный фактор
medical device
медицинский прибор
by virtue of
в силу
to encounter trouble
столкнуться с проблемой
to endeavor
стремиться
non-profit organization
некоммерческая организация
1.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
pharmaceutical, collaborative efforts, to endeavor, knowledge, bachelor of science,
undergraduate, requirement, tangible, interdisciplinary, substantial, deficiencies.
1.2.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Bio-medical engineers combine sound knowledge of engineering and biological
science, and therefore tend to have a bachelors of science and advanced degrees from
major universities, who are now improving their bio-medical engineering curriculum
because interest in the field is increasing. Many colleges of engineering now have a
biomedical engineering program or department from the undergraduate to the doctoral
level.
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Traditionally, bio-medical engineering has been an interdisciplinary field to
specialize in after completing an undergraduate degree in a more traditional discipline of
engineering or science, the reason for this being the requirement for biomedical engineers
to be equally knowledgeable in engineering and the biological sciences. However,
undergraduate programs of study combining these two fields of knowledge are becoming
more widespread, including programs for a Bachelor of Science in Bio-medical
Engineering. As such, many students also pursue an undergraduate degree in bio-medical
engineering as a foundation for a continuing education in medical school. Though the
number of bio-medical engineers is currently low (as of 2004, under 10,000 in the U.S.),
the number is expected to rise as modem medicine and technology improves.
In the U.S., an increasing number of undergraduate programs are also becoming
recognized by ABET as accredited bio-engineering/bio-medical engineering programs.
Over 40 programs are currently accredited by ABET.
As with many degrees, the reputation and ranking of a program may factor into the
desirability of a degree holder for either employment or graduate admission. The
reputation of many undergraduate degrees are also linked to the institution's graduate or
research programs, which have some tangible factors for rating, such as research funding
and volume, publications and citations).
Graduate education is also an important aspect in BIVtE. Although many
engineering professions do not require graduate level training, BME professions often
recommend or require them. Since many BME professions often involve scientific
research, such as in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, graduate education
may be highly desirable as undergraduate degrees typically do not provide substantial
research training and experience.
Graduate programs in BME, like in other scientific fields, are highly varied and
particular programs may emphasize certain aspects within the field. They may also feature
extensive collaborative efforts with programs in other fields, owing again to the
interdisciplinary nature of BME.
Education in BME also varies greatly around the world. By virtue of its extensive
bio-technology sector, numerous major universities, and few internal barriers, the U.S. has
9
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
progressed a great deal in the development of BME education and training. Europe, which
also has a large bio-technology sector and an impressive education system, has
encountered trouble in creating uniform standards as the European community attempts to
bring down some of the national barriers that exist. Recently, initiatives such as
BIOMEDEA have sprung up to develop BME-related education and professional
standards. Other countries, such as Australia, are recognizing and moving to correct
deficiencies in their BME education. Also, as high technology endeavors are usually
marks of developed nations, some areas of the world are prone to slower development in
education, including in BME.
ABET
ABET. Inc., formerly the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, is a
non-profit organization that serves the public by accrediting United States postsecondary
degree programs in applied science, computing, engineering, and technology.
Accreditation is intended to certify the quality of these programs. There are over 2,800
programs accredited at over 600 colleges and universities in the U.S.
ABET is the recognized U.S. accreditor of college and university programs in
applied science, computing, engineering, and technology. ABET also provides leadership
internationally through workshops, consultancies, memoranda of understanding, and
mutual recognition agreements, such as the Washington Accord. ABET has been
recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) since 1997.
1.2.4 Find in the text the sentences with the predicates in the Progressive Tense and
translate them.
1.2.5 Find in the text the sentences with the participles and define their function in
the sentence.
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.3
Text C. Training and Certification and Education
1.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
to emerge
появляться
to be linked to
быть связаным с
cross-disciplinary
междисциплинарный
degree holder
имеющий ученую степень
entry-level job
работа для начинающего специалиста
Masters level degree
степень магистра
Doctoral level degree
степень доктора
graduate credential
диплом об окончании
in fact
на самом деле
applicant
заявитель
to be prone to
быть склонным к
coursework
курсовая работа
to spring (sprung) up
возникать
deficiency
дефицит
1.3.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
jurisdiction, emerging, hybrid specialization, Canada, Australia, Canadian, Ryerson
University, undergraduate, the Polytechnique in Montreal, tangible factors, citations,
prestige, deficiencies.
1.3.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Bio-medical engineers require considerable knowledge of both engineering and
biology, and typically have a Master's (M.S., M.Tech, M.S.E., or M.Eng.) or a Doctoral
(Ph.D.) degree in BME (Bio-medical Engineering) or another branch of engineering with
considerable potential for BME overlap. As interest in BME increases, many engineering
11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
colleges now have a Bio-medical Engineering Department or Program, with offerings
ranging from the undergraduate (B.Tech,B.S., B.Eng or B.S.E.) to doctoral levels. As
noted above, bio-medical engineering has only recently been emerging as its own
discipline rather than a cross-disciplinary hybrid specialization of other disciplines; and
BME programs at all levels are becoming more widespread, including the Bachelor of
Science in Biomedical Engineering which actually includes so much biological science
content that many students use it as a "pre-med" major in preparation for medical school.
The number of bio-medical engineers is expected to rise as both a cause and effect of
improvements in medical technology.
In the U.S., an increasing number of undergraduate programs are also becoming
recognized by ABET as accredited bio-engineering/bio-medical engineering programs.
Over 65 programs are currently accredited by ABET.
In Canada and Australia, accredited graduate programs in Bio-medical Engineering
are common, for example in Universities such as McMaster University, and the first
Canadian undergraduate BME program at Ryerson University offering a four year B.Eng
program. The Polytechnique in Montreal is also offering a bachelors's degree in biomedical engineering.
As with many degrees, the reputation and ranking of a program may factor into the
desirability of a degree holder for either employment or graduate admission. The
reputation of many undergraduate degrees are also linked to the institution's graduate or
research programs, which have some tangible factors for rating, such as research funding
and volume, publications and citations. With BME specifically, the ranking of a
university's hospital and medical school can also be a significant factor in the perceived
prestige of its BME department/program.
Graduate education is a particularly important aspect in BME. While many
engineering fields (such as mechanical or electrical engineering) do not need graduatelevel training to obtain an entry-level job in their field, the majority of BME positions do
prefer or even require them. Since most BME-related professions involve scientific
research, such as in pharmaceutical and medical device development, graduate education
is almost a requirement (as undergraduate degrees typically do not involve sufficient
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
research training and experience). This can be either a Masters or Doctoral level degree;
while in certain specialties a Ph.D. is notably more common than in others, it is hardly
ever the majority (except in academia). In fact, the perceived need for some kind of
graduate credential is so strong that some undergraduate BME programs will actively
discourage students from majoring in BME without an expressed intention to also obtain a
masters degree or apply to medical school afterwards.
Graduate programs in BME, like in other scientific fields, are highly varied, and
particular programs may emphasize certain aspects within the field. They may also feature
extensive collaborative efforts with programs in other fields (such as the University's
Medical School or other engineering divisions), owing again to the interdisciplinary nature
of BME. M.S. and Ph.D. programs will typically require applicants to have an
undergraduate degree in BME, or another engineering discipline (plus certain life science
coursework), or life science (plus certain engineering coursework).
Education in BME also varies greatly around the world. By virtue of its extensive
biotechnology sector, its numerous major universities, and relatively few internal barriers,
the U.S. has progressed a great deal in its development of BME education and training
opportunities. Europe, which also has a large bio-technology sector and an impressive
education system, has encountered trouble in creating uniform standards as the European
community attempts to supplant some of the national jurisdictional barriers that still exist.
Recently, initiatives such as BIOMEDEA have sprung up to develop BME-related
education and professional standards. Other countries, such as Australia, are recognizing
and moving to correct deficiencies in their BME education. Also, as high technology
endeavors are usually marks of developed nations, some areas of the world are prone to
slower development in education, including in BME.
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.4
Text D. Licensure/certification of Professional engineer
1.4.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
license
лицензия
optional
дополнительный, необязательный
exemption
исключение, освобождение от налогов
due to
из-за
to gain Chartered Engineer status
получить
инженера
to run the Engineering in Medicine
and Health Division
статус
дипломированного
обслуживать технику в медицинских
учреждениях
содействовать, способствовать
to facilitate
to implement
реализовывать
degree of prominence
уровень квалификации
1.4.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
licensure, registration, requirements, industry exemption, Chartered Engineer status,
jurisdictions, pursuing, governmental, the Certified Clinical Engineer.
1.4.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Engineering licensure in the US is largely optional, and rarely specified by
branch/discipline. As with other learned professions, each state has certain (fairly similar)
requirements for becoming licensed as a registered Professional Engineer (PE), but in
practice such a license is not required to practice in the majority of situations (due to an
exception known as the private industry exemption, which effectively applies to the vast
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
majority of American engineers). This is notably not the case in many other countries,
where a license is as legally necessary to practice engineering as it is for law or medicine.
Bio-medical engineering is regulated in some countries, such as Australia, but
registration is typically only recommended and not required.
In the UK, mechanical engineers working in the areas of Medical Engineering, Bioengineering or Bio-medical engineering can gain Chartered Engineer status through
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The Institution also runs the Engineering in
Medicine and Health Division.
The Fundamentals of Engineering exam - the first (and more general) of two
licensure examinations for most U.S. jurisdictions - does now cover biology (although
technically not BME). For the second exam, called the Principles and Practices, Part 2, or
the Professional Engineering exam, candidates may select a particular engineering
discipline's content to be tested on; there is currently not an option for BME with this,
meaning that any bio-medical engineers seeking a license must prepare to take this
examination in another category (which does not affect the actual license, since most
jurisdictions do not recognize discipline specialties anyway). However, the Bio-medical
Engineering Society (BMES) is, as of 2009, exploring the possibility of seeking to
implement a BME-specific version of this exam to facilitate bio-medical engineers
pursuing licensure.
Beyond governmental registration, certain private-sector professional/industrial
organizations also offer certifications with varying degrees of prominence. One such
example is the Certified Clinical Engineer (CCE) certification for Clinical engineers.
1.4.4 Find in the text the sentences with the modal verbs and translate them.
1.4.5 Revise the modal verbs (see Appendix B.5) and make up ten sentences with
the modal verbs and their equivalents.
1.4.6 Compare the system of bio-medical specialists training in Russia and abroad.
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2 Unit 2. Bio-Medical Engineering
2.1 Text A. Bio-Medical Engineering
2.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
relatively
относительно
an array of fields
структура отраслей
discipline
дисциплина
manufacture
производство
pharmaceutical drugs
фармацевтические препараты
application
применение
problem solving skills
навыки решения проблем
patient health care
стационарная медицинская помощь
imaging equipment
аппаратура для получения изображения
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
МРТ(магнитно-резонансная томография)
EEG (electroencephalogram)
ЭЭГ (электроэнцефалограмма)
2.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
techniques, the quality of life of individuals, patient, array of fields, physiological ,
image processing, research and development.
2.1.3 Read and translate the text without a dictionary.
Bio-medical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and
techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving skills of
engineering with medical and biological sciences to help improve patient health care and
the quality of life of individuals.
As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in bio-medical engineering consists
16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
of research and development, covering an array of fields: bio-informatics, medical
imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, bio-mechanics, bio-materials
and bio-engineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete
applications of bio-medical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such
as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.
2.2 Text B. Disciplines in biomedical engineering
2.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
interdisciplinary field
междисциплинарная область
extreme diversity
чрезвычайное разнообразие
particular emphasis
особое внимание
taxonomic breakdowns of BME
таксономические
МБИ
tissue engineering
тканевая инженерия
medical devices
медицинские приборы
bio-medical optics
биомедицинская оптика
схемы
организации
2.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
molecular, cellular, neural, particular emphasis, instrumentation, mechanical
engineering, cellular and tissue engineering, associated.
2.2.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Bio-medical engineering is an interdisciplinary field, influenced by various fields
and sources. Due to the extreme diversity, it is typical for a bio-medical engineer to focus
on a particular emphasis within this field. There are many different taxonomic breakdowns
17
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
of BME, one such listing defines the aspects of the field as such:
-
Bio-electrical and neural engineering;
-
Bio-medical imaging and bio-medical optics;
-
Bio-materials;
-
Bio-mechanics and biotransport;
-
Bio-medical devices and instrumentation;
-
Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering;
-
Systems and integrative engineering.
In other cases, disciplines within BME are broken down based on the closest
association to another, more established engineering field, which typically include:
-
Chemical engineering - often associated with bio-chemical, cellular,
molecular and tissue engineering, bio-materials, and biotransport.
-
Electrical engineering - often associated with bio-electrical and neural
engineering, bio-instrumentation, bio-medical imaging, and medical devices.
-
Mechanical engineering - often associated with bio-mechanics, biotransport,
medical devices, and modeling of biological systems.
-
Optics and Optical engineering – bio-medical optics, imaging and medical
devices.
2.3 Text C. Duties and Responsibilities for Bio-Medical Engineer
2.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
in сonjunction
в сотрудничестве
artificial heart
искусственное сердце
pacemaker
кардиостимулятор
dialysis machine
диализный аппарат
equipment maintenance technician
техник по обслуживанию оборудования
deadline
крайний срок
kidney
почка
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
artificial hip
искусственный тазобедренный сустав
neural-integrative prosthese
нейро-интегративный протез
quantitative model
количественная модель
measurement technique
измерительная техника
nanometer dimension
нанометровый размер
regenerate living tissues
регенерирующие живые ткани
malfunction
неисправность
evaluate
оценивать
debug
отлаживать
2.3.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
conjunction, dialysis machines, technicians, equipment maintenance, surgical lasers, new
equipment, failure, purchasing, installing new equipment, supervise, hardware, software,
quantitative models
2.3.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Bio-medical Engineers use engineering principles to solve health related and
medical problems. They do a lot of research in conjunction with life scientists, chemists,
and medical professionals to design medical devices like artificial hearts, pacemakers,
dialysis machines, and surgical lasers. Some conduct research on biological and other life
systems or investigate ways to modernize laboratory and clinical procedures. Frequently,
biomedical engineers supervise bio-medical equipment maintenance technicians,
investigate medical equipment failure, and advise hospitals about purchasing and installing
new equipment. Bio-medical engineers work in hospitals, universities, industry, and
research laboratories.
Working Conditions: Bio-medical engineers work in offices, laboratories,
workshops, manufacturing plants, clinics and hospitals. Some local travel may be required
if medical equipment is located in various clinics or hospitals. Most biomedical engineers
work standard weekday hours. Longer hours may be required to meet research deadlines,
19
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
work with patients at times convenient to them, or work on medical equipment that is in
use during daytime hours.
Duties: Bio-medical engineers work closely with life scientists, chemists and
medical professionals (physicians, nurses, therapists and technicians) on the engineering
aspects of biological systems. Duties and responsibilities vary from one position to another
but, in general, biomedical engineers:
- design and develop medical devices such as artificial hearts and kidneys,
pacemakers, artificial hips, surgical lasers, automated patient monitors and blood
chemistry sensors;
- design and develop engineered therapies (for example, neural-integrative
prostheses);
- adapt computer hardware or software for medical science or health care
applications (for example, develop expert systems that assist in diagnosing diseases,
medical imaging systems, models of different aspects of human physiology or medical
data management);
- conduct research to test and modify known theories and develop new theories;
- ensure the safety of equipment used for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring;
- investigate medical equipment failures/malfunction and provide advice about the
purchase and installation of new equipment, debug medical equipment;
- develop and evaluate quantitative models of biological processes and systems;
- apply engineering methods to answer basic questions about how the body works;
- contribute to patient assessments;
- prepare and present reports for health professionals and the public;
- supervise and train technologists and technicians.
Bio-medical engineers may work primarily in one or a combination of the following
fields:
- bio-informatics – developing and using computer tools to collect and analyze data;
- bio-instrumentation – applying electronic and measurement techniques;
- bio-materials – developing durable materials that are compatible with a bio-logical
environment;
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
- bio-mechanics – applying knowledge of mechanics to biological or medical
problems;
- bio-nano-engineering – developing novel structures of nanometer dimensions for
application to biology, drug delivery, molecular diagnostics, microsystems and
nanosystems;
- bio-photonics – applying and manipulating light, usually laser light, for sensing or
imaging properties of biological tissue;
- cellular and tissue engineering – studying the anatomy, biochemistry and
mechanics of cellular and sub-cellular structures, developing technology to repair, replace
or regenerate living tissues and developing methods for controlling cell and tissue growth
in the laboratory;
- clinical engineering – applying the latest technology to health care and health care
systems in hospitals;
- genomics and genetic engineering – mapping, sequencing and analyzing genomes
(DNA), and applying molecular biology methods to manipulate the genetic material of
cells, viruses and organisms;
- medical or biological imaging – combining knowledge of a physical phenomenon
(for example, sound, radiation or magnetism) with electronic processing, analysis and
display;
- molecular bioengineering – designing molecules for biomedical purposes and
applying computational methods for simulating biomolecular interactions;
- systems physiology – studying how systems function in living organisms;
- therapeutic engineering – developing and discovering drugs and advanced
materials and techniques for delivering drugs to local tissues with minimized side effects.
2.3.4 Answer the following questions:
1 What do bio-medical engineers use to solve health related problems?
2 What kind of research do bio-medical engineers conduct?
3 What do bio-medical engineers frequently supervise?
4 What are the working conditions of bio-medical engineers?
21
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5 What are the duties and responsibilities of bio-medical engineers and what do they
depend on?
2.3.5 Summarize the information given in the unit and make a report on the problems
discussed in the texts.
3 Unit 3. Biomedical Engineering Technician Career
3.1 Text A. Biomedical Engineering Technician Career
3.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
maintain medical equipment
обслуживание медицинского
оборудования
x-ray machines
рентгеновские аппараты
military experience
военный опыт
preventative maintenance
профилактическое обслуживание
calibrating equipment
калибровка оборудования
3.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
maintain, scanners, x-ray machines, ultrasound devices, Associate's degree, military
experience, hydraulic and electronic devices, installations, preventative maintenance.
3.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Bio-medical engineering technicians test, repair, and maintain medical equipment,
such as CAT scanners, x-ray machines, electronic hospital beds, heart monitors, and
ultrasound devices. The majority of employers will require that you have at least an
Associate's degree or Bachelor's degree in medical technology or electronics. However,
22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
some employers will accept military experience and training that is equivalent. Other
responsibilities may include preventative maintenance, installations, repairing hydraulic
and electronic devices, and calibrating equipment.
3.2 Text B. Bio-medical Engineering Technician Education Requirements
3.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
available
доступный
skill
мастерство
multimeter
мультиметр
soldering irons
паяльники
beneficial
полезный
mechanical drawing
черчение
3.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
variety, certification, available, effectively, successfully, procedures and skills,
technician, beneficial, precision, mechanical drawings, odd hours.
3.2.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
In obtaining your Associate's degree or Bachelor's degree you will take a variety of
courses. Some courses may include bio-medical equipment repair, electronics, medical
technology, and other related courses. It is recommended that you obtain a Bachelor's
degree because this will give you more education and knowledge to perform the job, and
will make more jobs available. Obtaining your Bio-medical Equipment Technician
certification is highly recommended, and sometimes required by some employers. This
certification is obtained through the Association for the Advancement of Medical
Instrumentation.
23
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Having certain skills will ensure you can do your job effectively and successfully.
You must be able to use a variety of devices and tools ranging from multimeters and
computers, to soldering irons, to basic hand tools. You must be committed to constantly
keeping up-to-date with new technology, procedures and skills in order to repair and
maintain precision equipment like heart monitors and CAT scanners. Bio-medical
engineering technology is a rapidly developing and growing field and you must be able to
keep up with it. Other beneficial skills include strong problem-solving skills, strong
communication skills, being very detail-oriented, data entry skills, and word processing
skills. If you are a senior-level technician, or striving to become one, you must be able to
read technical documentation and mechanical drawings. You must also be responsible,
able to work as part of a team, able to work alone when necessary, and sometimes,
available at odd hours.
3.2.4 Answer the following questions:
1 What courses are necessary to take to obtain the Associate's degree or Bachelor's
degree?
2 Why is it necessary to obtain a Bachelor's degree?
3 How can you obtain a Bio-medical Equipment Technician certification?
4 What devices must a bio-medical equipment technician be able to use?
5 What other beneficial skills include?
3.2.5 Summarize the information given in the unit.
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4 Unit 4. Bio-medical Engineering Subdisciplines
4.1 Text A. Biomedical Engineering Subdisciplines
4.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
healthcare
здравоохранение
treatment
лечение
engineering field
инженерно-техническая область
transitions
переходы
a broad array of subfields
широкий спектр отраслей
prominent
выдающийся
pharmaceutical drugs
фармацевтические препараты
therapeutic biologicals
терапевтические биопрепараты
encompass
охватывать, содержать
ambiguous term
неоднозначный термин
interchangeable
взаимозаменяемый
dichotomy
дихотомия
4.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
oligomicroarray, healthcare treatment, diagnosis, therapy, interdisciplinary, emerge,
bio-compatible prostheses, therapeutic medical devices, micro-implants, regenerative
tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs, therapeutic biologicals.
4.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Figure 1 – Ultrasound representation of Urinary bladder (black butterfly-like shape)
a hyperplastic prostate
Figure 2 – An approximately 40,000 probe spotted oligomicroarray with enlarged
inset to show detail
Bio-medical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and
design concepts to medicine and biology. This field seeks to close the gap
between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of
engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance healthcare treatment,
including diagnosis, monitoring, treatment and therapy.
Bio-medical engineering has only recently emerged as its own discipline, compared
to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common as a new field transitions
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being
considered a field in itself. Much of the work in bio-medical engineering consists
of research and development, spanning a broad array of subfields (see below). Prominent
biomedical engineering applications
include
the
development
of bio-compatible
prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical
equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs,
regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals.
Notable subdisciplines within bio-medical engineering:
- Bio-medical Electronics;
- Bio-mechatronics;
- Bio-instrumentation;
- Bio-materials;
- Bio-mechanics;
- Bionics;
- Bio-transport;
- Cellular, Tissue, and Genetic Engineering;
- Clinical Engineering;
- Medical Imaging;
- Orthopaedic Bio-engineering;
- Rehabilitation engineering;
- Systems Physiology;
- Bio-nanotechnology;
- Neural Engineering.
Sometimes, disciplines within BME are classified by their association(s) with others
more established engineering fields, which can include:
-
chemical
engineering
is
often
associated
with bio-chemical,
cellular, molecular and tissue engineering, bio-materials, and bio-transport;
-
electrical
engineering
is
often
associated
with bio-electrical and neural
engineering, bio-instrumentation, bio-medical imaging, and medical devices. This also
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
tends to encompass optics and optical engineering - bio-medical optics, imaging and
related medical devices;
-
mechanical
engineering
is
often
associated
with bio-mechanics, bio-
transport, medical devices, and modeling of biological systems, like soft tissue mechanics.
Bio-technology (see also relatedly bio-engineering) can be a somewhat ambiguous
term, sometimes loosely used interchangeably with BME in general; however, it more
typically denotes specific products which use "biological systems, living organisms, or
derivatives thereof." Even some complex "medical devices" (see below) can reasonably be
deemed "biotechnology" depending on the degree to which such elements are central to
their principle of operation. Biologics/Bio-pharmaceuticals (e.g., vaccines, stored blood
product), genetic engineering, and various agricultural applications are some major classes
of bio-technology.
Pharmaceuticals are related to bio-technology in two indirect ways: 1) certain major
types (e.g. biologics) fall under both categories, and 2) together they essentially comprise
the "non-medical-device" set of BME applications. (The "Device - Bio/Chemical"
spectrum is an imperfect dichotomy, but one regulators often use, at least as a starting
point.)
4.1.3 Revise the Passive Voice (see Appendix B.4) and pick up sentences with
passive constructions and translate them. Make up ten sentences with the Passive Voice.
4.1.4 Speak on the classifications of disciplines within BME.
4.2 Text B. Tissue engineering
4.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
major segment
основной сегмент
goal
цель
to create artificial organs
создавать искусственные органы
28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
solid jawbone
твердые челюстные кости
urinary bladder
мочевой пузырь
hepatic
печеночный
bioreactor construct
биоаппарат
4.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
tissue, artificial, transplanted, jawbones, tracheas, liver, hepatic, components, human
patients, artificial bioreactor construct.
4.2.3 Read and translate the text in written form without the dictionary.
Tissue engineering is a major segment of Bio-technology. One of the goals of tissue
engineering is to create artificial organs (via biological material) for patients that need
organ transplants. Bio-medical engineers are currently researching methods of creating
such organs. Researchers have grown solid jawbones and tracheas from human stem cells
towards this end. Several artificial urinary bladders actually have been grown in
laboratories and transplanted successfully into human patients. Bio-artificial organs, which
use both synthetic and biological components, are also a focus area in research, such as
with hepatic assist devices that use liver cells within an artificial bioreactor construct.
Figure 3 – Micromass cultures of C3H-10T1/2 cells at varied oxygen tensions
stained with Alcian blue
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4.3 Text C. Genetic engineering
4.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
recombinant DNA technology
технология рекомбинантной ДНК
gene splicing
генное сращивание
traditional breeding
обычное выращивание
molecular cloning
молекулярное клонирование
erythropoietin
эритропоэтин
ovary cells
клетки яичников
oncomouse
онкомыши
perse
само по себе; по сути, непосредственно
4.3.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
molecular cloning, manipulation, breeding, techniques, genetic engineering,
recombinant DNA technology, bacteria, erythropoietin , hamster, ovary cells.
4.3.3 Read and translate the text without a dictionary. Render the text in English.
Genetic
engineering,
recombinant
DNA
technology,
genetic
modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct
manipulation of an organism's genes. Genetic engineering is different from traditional
breeding, where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly. Genetic engineering uses
the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and
characteristics of genes directly. Genetic engineering techniques have found success in
numerous applications. Some examples are in improving crop technology (not a medical
application per se; see BioSystems Engineering), the manufacture of synthetic human
insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse
(cancer mouse) for research.
4.4 Text D. Neural, Pharmaceutical engineering
4.4.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
to enhance
увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать
non-living constructs
неживые конструкты
regarded
рассматривается
hybrid sub-discipline
гибридная поддисциплина
inherent
присущий
prevalence
распространенность
4.4.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
uniquely,
neuroengineering,
enhance,
neural
engineering,
physiological,
prevalence, blurring, usage, hybrid, inherent.
4.4.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Neural engineering (also known as Neuroengineering) is a discipline that uses
engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, or enhance neural systems. Neural
engineers are uniquely qualified to solve design problems at the interface of living neural
tissue and non-living constructs.
Pharmaceutical Engineering is sometimes regarded as a branch of bio-medical
engineering, and sometimes a branch of chemical engineering; in practice, it is very much
a hybrid sub-discipline (as many BME fields are). Aside from those pharmaceutical
products directly incorporating biological agents or materials, even developing chemical
drugs is considered to require substantial BME knowledge due to the physiological
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
interactions inherent to such products' usage. With the increasing prevalence of
"combination products," the lines are now blurring among healthcare products such as
drugs, biologics, and various types of devices.
4.5 Text E. Clinical engineering
4.5.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
supervising biomedical equipment
техники по обслуживанию
technicians
биомедицинского оборудования
logistically managing
материально-техническое управление
governmental regulators
государственные инспекторы
procurement patterns
полученные образцы
opposed
противоположный
time-horizon
временной горизонт
to hire
нанимать
cost analysis
анализ затрат
environment
среда
leadership
руководство
to evaluate
оценивать
comprehensive
комплексный
acquisition
приобретение
hazard risks
опасности рисков
4.5.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
technicians, implementation, supervising, logistically, managing, governmental
regulators, audits, redirect, improvements, physicians, procurement patterns, accordingly.
32
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4.5.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Clinical engineering is the branch of bio-medical engineering dealing with the actual
implementation of medical equipment and technologies in hospitals or other clinical
settings. Major roles of clinical engineers include training and supervising bio-medical
equipment technicians (BMETs), selecting technological products/services and logistically
managing
their
implementation,
working
with
governmental
regulators
on
inspections/audits, and serving as technological consultants for other hospital staff (e.g.
physicians, administrators, I.T., etc.). Clinical engineers also advise and collaborate with
medical device producers regarding prospective design improvements based on clinical
experiences, as well as monitor the progression of the state-of-the-art so as to redirect
procurement patterns accordingly.
Their inherent focus on practical implementation of technology has tended to keep
them oriented more towards incremental-level redesigns and reconfigurations, as opposed
to revolutionary research & development or ideas that would be many years from clinical
adoption; however, there is a growing effort to expand this time-horizon over which
clinical engineers can influence the trajectory of biomedical innovation. In their various
roles, they form a "bridge" between the primary designers and the end-users, by combining
the perspectives of being both 1) close to the point-of-use, while 2) trained in product and
process engineering. Clinical Engineering departments will sometimes hire not just
biomedical engineers, but also industrial/systems engineers to help address operations
research/optimization, human factors, cost analysis, etc. Also see safety engineering for a
discussion of the procedures used to design safe systems.
Figure 4 – Normal ECG trace showing sinus rhythm
33
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Common roles of a "clinical engineer" or "bio-medical engineering technician"
(BMET) in a hospital.
- Advise and assist in the application of instrumentation in clinical environments.
- Provide leadership, guidance, support and supervision to the section staff and take
responsibility in the day to day operation of the clinics.
- Evaluate the safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of bio-medical equipment.
- Ensure that all medical equipment is properly maintained and documented.
- Provide engineering and technical expertise on all matters related to medical
technology, especially in the process of planning, review, evaluation, and specification of
medical equipment.
- Install, adjust, maintain, and/or repair biomedical equipment. Evaluate, negotiate
and manage service contracts.
- Adapt or design computer hardware or software for medical science uses.
- Develop and provide a comprehensive in-service education program on the safe
and effective use of medical equipment for both medical and nursing staff.
- Advise hospital administrators on the planning, acquisition, and use of medical
equipment.
- Develop and implement short and long term strategies for the development and
direction of the department to effectively manage medical equipment and technology in
the clinics.
- Minimize, investigate and rectify hazard risks associated with medical equipment
use.
- Perform other duties within the scope of the job and its technical capacity and
expertise.
4.5.4 Make a list of bio-medical engineer office duties.
4.5.5 Summarize the information given in the unit.
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5 Unit 5. Medical devices
5.1 Text A. Medical devices
5.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
extremely broad
чрезвычайно широкий
predominantly
преимущественно
to cure
лечить
mitigation
смягчение
prevention
предотвращение
infusion pumps
инфузионные насосы
the heart-lung machine
аппарат искусственного
кровообращения
artificial organs
искусственные органы
artificial limbs
протезы
ocular prosthetics
глазное протезирование
somato prosthetics
сомато протезирование
innovative therapies
инновационное лечение
tongue depressors
депрессоры языка
bedpans
горшки
elastic bandages
эластичные бинты
examination gloves
смотровые перчатки
labeling requirements
требования к маркировке
surveillance
наблюдение
wheelchairs
инвалидные коляски
infusion
вливание
Pumps
насосы
surgical drapes
хирургические простыни
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
premarket approval
предпродажное утверждение
notification
уведомление
cerebellar
мозжечковый
stimulators
стимуляторы
endosseous
эндооссальный
5.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
disease,
through,
vaccines,
essentially,
infusion
pump,
stereolithography,
equipment, endosseous, cerebellar, surgical drapes.
5.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
This is an extremely broad category - essentially covering all health care products
that do not achieve their intended results through predominantly chemical (e.g.,
pharmaceuticals) or biological (e.g., vaccines) means, and do not involve metabolism.
A medical device is intended for use in:
- the diagnosis of disease or other conditions;
- in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease;
- intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other
animals, and which does not achieve any of its primary intended purposes through
chemical action and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement
of any of its primary intended purposes.
Some examples include pacemakers, infusion pumps, the heart-lung machine,
dialysis machines, artificial organs, implants, artificial limbs, corrective lenses, cochlear
implants, ocular prosthetics, facial prosthetics, somato prosthetics, and dental implants.
Stereolithography is a practical example on how medical modeling can be used to
create physical objects. Beyond modeling organs and the human body, emerging
engineering techniques are also currently used in the research and development of new
devices for innovative therapies, treatments, patient monitoring, and early diagnosis of
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
complex diseases.
Medical devices are regulated and classified (in the US) as follows (see
also Regulation):
1.
Class I devices present minimal potential for harm to the user and are often
simpler in design than Class II or Class III devices. Devices in this category include
tongue depressors, bedpans, elastic bandages, examination gloves, and hand-held surgical
instruments and other similar types of common equipment.
2.
Class II devices are subject to special controls in addition to the general
controls of Class I devices. Special controls may include special labeling requirements,
mandatory performance standards, and postmarket surveillance. Devices in this class are
typically non-invasive and include x-ray machines, PACS, powered wheelchairs, infusion
pumps, and surgical drapes.
3.
Class III devices generally require premarket approval (PMA) or premarket
notification (510k), a scientific review to ensure the device's safety and effectiveness, in
addition to the general controls of Class I. Examples include replacement heart valves, hip
and knee joint implants, silicone gel-filled breast implants, implanted cerebellar
stimulators, implantable pacemaker pulse generators and endosseous (intra-bone)
implants.
A medical device is intended for use in:
- the diagnosis of disease or other conditions,
- in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease.
Figure 5 – Two different models of the C-Leg prosthesis
37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5.1.4 Ask your groupmates five questions on the content of the text.
5.1.5 Make a plan to the text. Be ready to retell the text according to the plan.
5.2 Text B. Medical/bio-medical imaging
5.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
major segment
основной сегмент
fluoroscopy
рентгеноскопия
nuclear medicine
ядерная медицина
positron emission tomography
позитронная эмиссионная
томография
projection radiography
проекционная
радиография\рентгенография
5.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
clinicians, utilizing, ultrasound, projection, emission tomography, nuclear medicine.
5.2.3 Scan the text and give the main idea.
Medical/bio-medical imaging is a major segment of medical devices. This area deals
with enabling clinicians to directly or indirectly "view" things not visible in plain sight
(such as due to their size, and/or location). This can involve utilizing ultrasound,
magnetism, UV, other radiology, and other means.
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Figure 6 – Diagnostic imaging. An MRI scan of a human head
Imaging technologies are often essential to medical diagnosis, and are typically the
most complex equipment found in a hospital including:
- Fluoroscopy
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Nuclear medicine
- Positron emission tomography (PET) PET scansPET-CT scans
- Projection radiography such as X-rays and CT scans
- Tomography
- Ultrasound
- Optical microscopy
- Electron microscopy
5.3 Text C. Implants
5.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
subcutaneous drug
препарат для подкожного введения
implantable pill
имплантируемая таблетка
paved
мощеный
spare part
запасная часть
injury
травма
39
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5.3.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
bio-medical tissue, surface, apatite, cochlear implants, subcutaneous, drug-eluting
stent, injury, available, damaged.
5.3.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
An implant is a kind of medical device made to replace and act as a missing
biological structure (as compared with a transplant, which indicates transplanted biomedical tissue). The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone or apatite depending on what is the most
functional. In some cases implants contain electronics e.g. artificial pacemaker and
cochlear implants. Some implants are bioactive, such as subcutaneous drug delivery
devices in the form of implantable pills or drug-eluting stents.
Bionics
Artificial body part replacement is just one of the things that bionics can do.
Concerned with the intricate and thorough study of the properties and function of human
body systems, bionics may be applied to solve some engineering problems. Careful study
of the different function and processes of the eyes, ears, and other organs paved the way
for improved cameras, television, radio transmitters and receivers, and many other useful
tools. These developments have indeed made our lives better, but the best contribution that
bionics has made is in the field of bio-medical engineering. Bio-medical Engineering is the
building of useful replacements for various parts of the human body. Modern hospitals
now have available spare parts to replace a part of the body that is badly damaged by
injury or disease. Bio-medical engineers who work hand in hand with doctors build these
artificial body parts.
5.3.4 Summarize the information given in the unit.
40
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5.3.5 Describe one of the medical devices and define the class it belongs to
according to the classification given in the text (Task 5.1.3).
6 Unit 6. Fundus photography
6.1 Text A. Fundus photography
6.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
interior surface of the eye
внутренняя поверхность глаза
retina
сетчатка
macula
пятно
posterior pole
задний полюс
handheld ophthalmoscope
ручной офтальмоскоп
6.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
fundography, interior, posterior, angiography, ophthalmologists, fundus, advantage,
availing, recreate, handheld ophthalmoscopes.
6.1.3 Read and translate the text without the dictionary and say what fundus
photography is used for.
Fundus photography (also called fundography) is the creation of a photograph of the
interior surface of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole (i.e.
the fundus).
Fundus photography is used by optometrists, ophthalmologists, and trained medical
professionals for monitoring progression of a disease, diagnosis of a disease (combined
with retinal angiography), or in screening programs, where the photos can be analysed
later.
41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Compared to ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography generally needs a considerably
larger instrument, but has the advantage of availing the image to be examined by a
specialist at another location and/or time, as well as providing photo documentation for
future reference. Modern fundus photographs generally recreate considerably larger areas
of the fundus than what can be seen at any one time with handheld ophthalmoscopes.
6.2 Text B. Fundus camera
6.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
монокулярная непрямая офтальмоскопия
retinal area
область сетчатки
relationship
связь
auxiliary lenses
вспомогательные линзы
dissimilar paths
разнородные пути
doughnut shaped aperture
апертура круглой формы
telescopic eyepiece
телескопический окуляр
mirror interrupts
зеркальные прерывания
excitation color
возбуждение\активизация цвета
fluorescent color
флуоресцентные цвета
sodium fluorescein angiography
натриевая флуоресцентная ангиография
headache
головная боль
swollen optic discs
опухшие оптические диски
papilledema
отек диска зрительного нерва
raised intracranial pressure
повышенное внутричерепное давление
hydrocephalus
гидроцефалия
benign intracranial hypertension
brain tumor
доброкачественная
внутричерепная
гипертензия
опухоль головного мозга
diabetes mellitus
сахарный диабет
42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
regular fundus examinations
регулярное обследование глазного дна
cerebrovascular accidents
нарушение мозгового кровообращения
6.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
doughnut, shaped aperture, magnified , retinal area, magnification, auxiliary lenses,
ophthalmoscope, monocular, medium, simultaneously, cornea, towards, light source.
6.2.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the topic.
Figure 7 – A non-mydriatic Topcon retinal camera
Fundus photography is performed by a fundus camera, which basically consists of a
specialized low power microscope with an attached camera.
Optical principles. The optical design of fundus cameras is based on the principle
of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. A fundus camera provides an upright, magnified
view of the fundus. A typical camera views 30 to 50° of retinal area, with a magnification
of 2.5x, and allows some modification of this relationship through zoom or auxiliary
lenses from 15°, which provides 5x magnification, to 140° with a wide angle lens, which
minifies the image by half. The optics of a fundus camera is similar to those of an indirect
43
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ophthalmoscope in that the observation and illumination systems follow dissimilar paths.
The observation light is focused via a series of lenses through a doughnut shaped aperture,
which then passes through a central aperture to form an annulus, before passing through
the camera objective lens and through the cornea onto the retina. The light reflected from
the retina passes through the un-illuminated hole in the doughnut formed by the
illumination system. As the light paths of the two systems are independent, there are
minimal reflections of the light source captured in the formed image. The image forming
rays continue towards the low powered telescopic eyepiece. When the button is pressed to
take a picture, a mirror interrupts the path of the illumination system allow the light from
the flash bulb to pass into the eye. Simultaneously, a mirror falls in front of the
observation telescope, which redirects the light onto the capturing medium, whether it is
film or a digital CCD. Because of the eye’s tendency to accommodate while looking
though a telescope, it is imperative that the exiting vergence is parallel in order for an in
focus image to be formed on the capturing medium.
Since the instruments are complex in design and difficult to manufacture to clinical
standards, only a few manufacturers exist: Topcon, Zeiss, Canon, Nidek, Kowa, CSO and
CenterVue.
Modes. Practical instruments for fundus photography perform the following modes
of examination:
- Color, where the retina is illuminated by white light and examined in full color.
- Red-free, where the imaging light is filtered to remove red colors, improving
contrast of vessels and other structures.
- Angiography, where the vessels are brought into high contrast by intravenous
injection of a fluorescent dye. The retina is illuminated with an excitation color which
fluoresces light of another color where the dye is present. By filtering to exclude the
excitation color and pass the fluorescent color, a very high-contrast image of the vessels is
produced. Shooting a timed sequence of photographs of the progression of the dye into the
vessels reveals the flow dynamics and related pathologies. Specific methods include
sodium
fluorescein
angiography (abbreviated
FA
or
FAG)
and indocyanine
green (abbreviated ICG) angiography.
44
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Indications. Fundus photography is used to detect and evaluate symptoms of retinal
detachment or eye diseases such as glaucoma.
In patients with headaches, the finding of swollen optic discs, or papilledema, on
fundus photography is a key sign, as this indicates raised intracranial pressure (ICP) which
could be due to hydrocephalus, benign intracranial hypertension (aka pseudotumor
cerebri) or brain tumor, amongst other conditions. Cupped optic discs are seen
in glaucoma.
In patients with diabetes mellitus, regular fundus examinations (once every 6
months to 1 year) are important to screen for diabetic retinopathy as visual loss due to
diabetes can be prevented by retinal laser treatment if retinopathy is spotted early.
In arterial hypertension, hypertensive changes of the retina closely mimic those in
the brain, and may predict cerebrovascular accidents (strokes).
6.2.4 Say whether the statement is true or false and if it is necessary correct it.
1 Fundus photography is performed by a fundus camera, which basically consists of
a specialized high power microscope with an attached camera.
2 A fundus camera provides an upright, magnified view of the fundus.
3 A typical camera views 30 to 50° of retinal area, with a magnification of 2.5x, and
allows some modification of this relationship through zoom or auxiliary lenses from 15°,
which provides 7x magnification, to 140° with a wide angle lens, which magnifies the
image by half.
4 The light reflected from the retina passes through the un-illuminated hole in the
doughnut formed by the illumination system.
5 When the button is pressed to take a picture, a mirror interrupts the path of the
illumination system allow the light from the flash bulb to pass into the eye.
6 Specific methods do not include sodium fluorescein angiography and indocyanine
green angiography.
7 Fundus photography is used to correct the symptoms of retinal detachment or eye
diseases such as glaucoma.
45
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8 In patients with diabetes mellitus, regular fundus examinations are important to
screen for diabetic retinopathy as visual loss due to diabetes can be prevented by retinal
laser treatment.
9 In arterial hypotension, hypotensive changes of the retina closely mimic those in
the brain, and may predict cerebrovascular accidents (strokes).
10 By filtering to exclude the excitation color and pass the fluorescent color, a very
low-contrast image of the vessels is produced.
6.2.5 Answer the following questions:
1 What does fundus camera basically consist of?
2 What are optical principles of fundus camera?
3 What is fundus camera similar to an indirect ophthalmoscope in?
4 What does the light reflected from the retina pass through?
5 What are the manufacturers of fundus camera?
6 What modes of examination does fundus camera perform?
7 What are the specific methods of angiography?
8 What is fundus photography used for?
9 How often and why is it important to arrange fundus examinations in patients
with headaches and diabetes mellitus?
10
May
hypertensive
changes
of
the
retina
predict cerebrovascular
accidents (strokes)?
6.2.6 Speak on the main principles of operation and indications for fundus camera
application.
46
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7 Unit 7. Types of Microscopes
7.1 Text A. History of the Microscope
7.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
latin word lentil
латинское название чечевицы
lentil bean
чечевичный боб
magnifying glasses
увеличительные стекла
grinding
шлифовальние
polishing
curvature
yeast
blood cells
metal frames
полирование
кривизна
дрожжи
клетки крови
металлические каркасы\рамки
7.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
experimented, edges, lentil, magnifier, object, curvature, contribution, marvel, affordable
for, microscope manufacturer.
7.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Outline the main stages in the
microscope invention.
During the 1st century AD (year 100), glass had been invented and the Romans were
looking through the glass and testing it. They experimented with different shapes of clear
glass and one of their samples was thick in the middle and thin on the edges. They
discovered that if you held one of these “lenses” over an object, the object would look
larger.
47
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Someone also discovered that you can focus the rays of the sun with one of these
special “glasses” and start a fire. These early lenses were called magnifiers or burning
glasses. The word lens by the way is derived from the Latin word lentil, as they were
named because they resembled the shape of a lentil bean (look up lens in a dictionary).
These lenses were not used much until the end of the 13th century when spectacle
makers were producing lenses to be worn as glasses.
The early simple “microscopes” which were really only magnifying glasses had one
power, usually about 6X - 10X. One thing that was very common and interesting to look
at was fleas and other tiny insects. These early magnifiers were hence called “flea
glasses”.
Sometime about the year 1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and
his father Hans started experimenting with these lenses. They put several lenses in a tube
and made a very important discovery. The object near the end of the tube appeared to be
greatly enlarged, much larger than any simple magnifying glass could achieve by
itself! They had just invented the compound microscope (which is a microscope that uses
two or more lenses).
Galileo heard of their experiments and started experimenting on his own. He
described the principles of lenses and light rays and improved both the microscope and
telescope. He added a focusing device to his microscope and of course went on to explore
the heavens with his telescopes.
Anthony Leeuwenhoek of Holland became very interested in lenses while working
with magnifying glasses in a dry goods store. He used the magnifying glass to count
threads in woven cloth. He became so interested that he learned how to make lenses. By
grinding and polishing, he was able to make small lenses with great curvatures. These
rounder lenses produced greater magnification, and his microscopes were able to magnify
up to 270X!
Anthony Leeuwenhoek became more involved in science and with his new
improved microscope was able to see things that no man had ever seen before. He saw
bacteria, yeast, blood cells and many tiny animals swimming about in a drop of
48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
water. From his great contributions, many discoveries and research papers, Anthony
Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) has since been called the "Father of Microscopy".
Robert Hooke, an Englishman (who is sometimes called the “English Father of
Microscopy”), also spent much of his life working with microscopes and improved their
design and capabilities. Little was done to improve the microscope until the middle of the
19th century when great strides were made and quality instruments like today’s microscope
emerged. Companies in Germany like Zeiss and an American company founded by
Charles Spencer began producing fine optical instruments.
Today, there are no microscope manufacturers in the US and most of the
microscopes come from Germany, Japan and China. Toy plastic microscopes should be
avoided as they do not achieve the level of quality of the basic instruments with metal
frames and glass lenses.
Because of foreign production, quality microscopes have become affordable for
all. Zaccharias Janssen, the inventor of the microscope would marvel at the quality of
even the most basic microscopes found in schools today.
7.2 Text B. Microscope Glossary
7.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
vertical direction
вертикальное направление
numerical aperture
числовая апертура
pinion system
система шестерней
focusing knob
кнопка фокусировки
eyepiece lenses
окуляры оптического прибора
focusing block
блок фокусировки
to unscrew
выкручивать
differential measurements
дифференциальные измерения
liquid samples
жидкие образцы
interchangeable
взаимозаменяемый
49
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
opposite side
противоположная сторона
widefield lenses
широкоугольные линзы
rack
стойка
pinion
шестерня
durable
прочный
upper part
верхняя часть
tungsten
вольфрам
comfortable viewing
удобный просмотр
tilting
наклон
interpupiliary distance
расстояние между зрачками
adult
взрослый
protozoans
простейшие животные
linear measurement
линейное измерение
revolving nosepiece
вращающаяся головка
turret
турель, башенка
angular aperture
угловая апертура
objective pairs
объективные\реальные пары
to refocus
перефокусировать
minor adjustments
незначительные корректировки
parfocal
парфокальный
cranking
раскрутка
fuzzy
нечеткий
achromatic lenses
ахроматические линзы
rectangular plate
прямоугольная пластина
liquid
жидкость
lower illuminator
нижняя подсветка
proofed
проверенный
tension adjustment
регулировка натяжения
trinocular head
тринокулярная головка
retractable
убирающийся
50
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7.2.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
condenser, size of the iris, diameter, iris type aperture, focal point of the cone,
specimen, numerical, pinion system, focusing knob, alignment, articulated arm, stand
clamp, dimension, unscrew, coaxial systems, adjustment, liquid samples, immersion of
tilting, drawback, angular aperture, aberrations, rectangular.
7.2.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Find explanations for many of
the common words used in microscopy, make a list of them and find Russian equivalents.
Abbe Condenser: A specially designed lens that mounts under the stage and is
usually movable in the vertical direction. It has an iris type aperture to control the diameter
of the beam of light entering the lens system. By changing the size of the iris and moving
the lens toward or away from the stage, the diameter and focal point of the cone of light
that goes through the specimen can be controlled. Abbe condensers really become useful
at magnifications above 400X. The condenser lens system should have a numerical
aperture equal to or greater than the N.A. of the objective lens being used. All of our
microscopes that go to 1000X use Abbe condensers with a 1.25 N.A. There are two
types. One is a spiral type that you turn to move it up or down and the other is on a rack
and pinion system and controlled with a condenser focusing knob.
Achromatic lenses: When light goes through a prism or lens, it is bent or
refracted. Some colors refract more than others and as a result, will focus at different
points, reducing resolution. To help correct this problem, achromatic lenses are
used. These lenses are made of different types of glass with different indexes of
refraction. The result is a better (but not perfect) alignment of some of the colors at the
focal point, thereby giving you a clearer image.
Arm: The part of the microscope that connects the tube to the base. When carrying a
microscope, grab the arm with one hand and place your other hand under the base.
Articulated Arm: A type of stand that holds a microscope body. The stand clamps to
a table and has a variety of motion in three dimensions.
51
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Binocular Head: A microscope head with two eyepiece lenses, one for each eye.
Generally this term is used in describing a high power (compound) microscope. With a
low power microscope we say "stereo" head because, unlike the compound microscope,
the stereo has a separate objective lens for each eyepiece lens, producing two independent
paths of light, one for each eye. In the compound microscope with a binocular head, there
are two eyepiece lenses but still only one objective lens and you will not get stereo vision.
Body: This term is used mostly with the low power stereo microscopes and it is the
basic heart of the microscope without any type of stand (base) or illuminators. It usually
includes the eyepiece and objective lenses but not the focusing block.
C-mount: This is an adapter used with various types of video cameras. Usually, you
unscrew the lens from the camera and screw in the adapter. The adapter then connects to
the trinocular port on the microscope.
Coarse Focus: This is the rough focus knob on the microscope. You use it to move
the objective lenses toward or away from the specimen.
Coaxial Focus: A focusing system that has both the coarse and fine focusing knobs
mounted on the same axis. Usually the coarse knob is larger and on the outside and the
fine knob is smaller and on the inside. On some coaxial systems, the fine adjustment is
calibrated, allowing differential measurements to be recorded.
Condenser Lens: A lens mounted in or below the stage whose purpose is to focus or
condense the light onto the specimen. The higher power objective lenses have very tiny
diameters and require concentrated light to work properly. By using a condenser lens you
will increase the Illumination and resolution. Condenser lenses are not required on low
power microscopes.
Contrast Plate: A circular opaque plate placed on the stage of a low power
microscope. One side is white, the other is black. It can be flipped around depending on
the coloration of your specimen.
Cover Slip: A very thin square piece of glass or plastic placed over the specimen on
a microscope slide. When used with liquid samples, it flattens out the liquid and assists
with single plane focusing.
52
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Diaphragm: Generally a five-hole disc placed under the stage on a high power
microscope. Each hole is of a different diameter. By turning it, you can vary the amount
of light passing through the stage opening. This will help to properly illuminate the
specimen and increase contrast and resolution. The diaphragm is most useful at the higher
powers.
DIN Optics: A German standard for the manufacturing of microscope lenses. DIN
lenses aren't particularly better than non-DIN but they will be interchangeable from one
DIN microscope to another. They are set to work with a 160 mm tube length and have a
uniform thread. Most quality microscopes use DIN optics.
Diopter Adjustment: When you look through a microscope with two eyepiece
lenses, you must be able to change the focus on one eyepiece to compensate for the
difference in vision between your two eyes. The diopter adjustment does this. The way to
correctly adjust this is to first close the eye over the eyepiece with the diopter adjustment
and normally focus the microscope so that the open eye sees the image in focus. Next,
switch eyes and without changing the main focus knobs, focus on the image by turning the
diopter adjustment only. Now with both eyes open, the image should be clear with both
eyes.
Dual Head: A microscope with a single eyepiece lens coming out one side and an
additional single eyepiece tube coming either off the top or from the opposite side. Dual
heads are used so that a teacher can verify what a student is seeing or can be used for
video or camera work. It is not recommended that two students do a lab sharing a single
dual microscope as it will get to be uncomfortable for the student using the top eyepiece.
Eyepiece Lens: The lens at the top of the microscope that you look into. They are
usually 10X but also are available in 5X, 15X and 20X. Widefield lenses have a large
diameter and show a wide area of the field of view.
Fine Focus: This is the knob used to fine tune the focus on the specimen. It is also
used to focus on various parts of the specimen. Generally one uses the coarse focus first to
get close then moves to the fine focus knob for fine tuning.
Field of View: Sometimes abbreviated "FOV", it is the diameter of the circle of light
that you see when looking into a microscope. As the power gets greater, the field of view
53
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
gets smaller. You can measure this by placing a clear metric ruler on the stage and
counting the millimeters from one side to the other. Typically you will see about 4.5mm at
40X, 1.8mm at 100X, 0.45mm at 400X and 0.18mm at 1000X. See micrometer.
Fixed Arm: A type of stand used with low power microscopes. The arm and body
are integral parts of the microscope and connected solidly to the base.
Focus: A means of moving the specimen closer or further away from the objective
lens to render a sharp image. On some microscopes, the stage moves and on others, the
tube moves. Rack and pinion focusing is the most popular and durable type.
Head: The upper part of the microscope that contains the eyepiece tube and prisms.
A monocular head has one eyepiece, a binocular has two (one for each eye), a dual head
has two but they are not together, and a trinocular head has three, one which is generally
used for a camera connection.
Illuminator: A light source mounted under the stage. Three types of light are
commonly used: Tungsten, Fluorescent and Halogen. Tungsten is the least expensive and
most common. Fluorescent is bright, white and runs cool and Halogen is very bright and
white but gives off heat like tungsten.
Immersion Oil: A special oil used in microscopy with only the 100X objective lens
(usually at 1000X total power). A drop is placed upon the cover slip and the objective is
lowered until it just touches the drop. Once brought into focus, the oil acts as a bridge
between the glass slide and the glass in the lens. This concentrates the light path and
increasing the resolution of the image. Both Type A and Type B are commonly used in
light microscopy and the only difference is the viscosity (B is more viscous).
Inclination Joint: Where the arm connects to the base, there may be a pin. If so, you
can place one hand on the base and with the other grab the arm and rotate it back. It will
tilt your microscope back for more comfortable viewing. One drawback of tilting it back is
that wet samples will run off the slide.
Interpupiliary Adjustment: When using a stereo or binocular microscope there must
be an adjustment for the distance between the viewer’s eyes. A young child will have a
small interpupiliary distance and an adult a larger one. The eyepiece lenses will spread
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
apart or get closer together to fit each individual. This should be the first adjustment to
make so that you are comfortably viewing the specimen with both eyes.
Mechanical Stage: A mechanical way to move the slide around on your stage. It
consists of a slide holder and two knobs. Turn one knob and the slide moves toward or
away from you. Turn the other knob and the slide moves left and right. Since everything is
upside down on a (high power) microscope it takes some getting used to but it is very
convenient to have one especially when observing moving specimens like protozoans or
other pond water critters. Microscopes either have the bolt on mechanical stage that can be
added to many models at any time or the integral mechanical stage that comes built in to
the microscope.
Micrometer: Also called a micron it is the metric linear measurement used in
microscopy. There are 1000 microns in a millimeter. If something is 1.8mm long then it
can also be expressed as 1,800 microns (or micrometers) long.
Mirror: Allows you to direct ambient light up through the hole in the stage and
illuminate the specimen.
Monocular Head: A microscope head with a single eyepiece lens.
Nosepiece: The part of the microscope that holds the objective lenses also called a
revolving nosepiece or turret.
Numerical Aperture (N.A.): This is a number that expresses the ability of a lens to
resolve fine detail in an object being observed. It is derived by a complex mathematical
formula and is related to the angular aperture of the lens and the index of refraction of the
medium found between the lens and the specimen. To get the best possible image, you
should have a condenser system that matches or exceeds the N.A. of the highest power
objective lens on your microscope.
Objective Lens: The lens closest to the object. In a stereo (low power) microscope
there are objective pairs, one lens for each eyepiece lens. This gives the 3-D effect. On a
high power binocular model there is still only one objective lens so no stereo vision.
Oil Immersion Lens: An objective lens (usually 100X or greater) designed to work
with a drop of special oil placed between it and the slide. With oil, an increase in
resolution will be noticed. Also, see "Immersion Oil" above.
55
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Parcentered: This is an alignment issue. When changing from one objective lens to
another, the image of the object should stay centered. Test this by centering something in
your field of view. Change to a higher power. Is it still centered? Almost all microscopes
are parcentered.
Parfocal: This is a focus issue. When changing from one objective to another, the
new image should be either in focus or close enough so that you can refocus with only
minor adjustments. Most microscopes are parfocal.
Pointer: When you look through the eyepiece lens, you may see a pointer. By
turning the eyepiece, you can rotate the pointer around.
Post Stand: A type of stand used with low power microscopes. It consists of a single
post rising vertically from the base. The microscope body can rotate about the post and
also be moved up and down on it.
Rack and Pinion: The rack is a track with teeth and the pinion is a gear that rides on
the teeth. By turning a knob, the pinion gear moves along the rack. These systems are used
in focusing mechanisms, in Abbe condenser focusing systems, and on mechanical stages
to move the slide around.
Rack Stop (or Safety Rack Stop): Usually set at the factory, the rack stop keeps you
from cranking the objective lenses too far down (damaging something). If you are using a
very thin slide, you may find that you can't get the high power objective lens close enough
to the slide to focus. Here you can either adjust the rack stop or place a thin glass slide
under your original slide, making it closer to the lens.
Resolution: The ability of a lens system to show fine details of the object being
observed.
Reticle: A very tiny grid pattern inserted in an eyepiece lens. It is used to make
actual measurements of the size of objects seen through the microscope.
Ring Light: An independent light that usually connects to the microscope body and
gives off a ring of light.
Semi-Plan Lenses: Lenses are never perfect. If you were looking at something
perfectly flat, you might find that much of the center part of your field of view is in focus
but out on the edges it is fuzzy and a bit out of focus. Semi-plan lenses improve this
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
deficiency by showing sharper images and less aberration in the perimeter of the field of
view. They are better than standard achromatic lenses but cost quite a bit more.
Slide: A flat glass or plastic rectangular plate that the specimen is placed on. It may
have a depression or well to hold a few drops of liquid.
Slip Clutch: When students bring the focus all the way up or down and continue to
try turning the knob, damage to the focusing system can occur if there wasn't a slip clutch.
It is a mechanical device that protects the gears of the microscope.
Stage: The flat plate where the slides are placed for observation.
Stage Clips: Clips on the stage used to hold the slide in place.
Stage Plate: On a low power microscope, there is a frosted circular glass plate that
fits in over the lower illuminator. This is called the stage plate. See also contrast plate.
Stand: On a low power microscope, the type of connection between the microscope
body and the base. There are three main types: the post, the fixed arm and the universal
boom stand.
Stereo: Related to microscopes, seeing with both eyes through separate eyepiece
and objective lenses. With two objectives, the image looks 3-D.
Sub-stage: The area below the stage as in "sub stage illuminator"
T-mount: A type of adapter used to mate still cameras (usually 35mm) to
microscopes.
Tension adjustment: This is an adjustment of the focusing mechanism that is made
at the factory. It is set so that the instrument is easy to focus but also tight enough so that
the stage doesn't drift when you are not focusing. Stage drift is caused by the weight of the
stage (or tube) automatically unfocusing the microscope.
Trinocular Head: Available on both high and low power microscopes, tri heads
have two eyepiece lenses (one for each eye) and a third port at the top for a camera. Some
microscopes give you the option of sending all the light to the tri port, or perhaps half and
half, or maybe 70/30%. On some stereo tri heads with dual power, the tri port transmits the
image through the set of lenses not being used by the stereo eyepieces.
Universal Stand: A long boom type arm used to support a (low power) microscope
body. It has many adjustments allowing the microscope to be aligned in a wide variety of
57
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
configurations. Generally one uses an external (like a fiber optic) light source with a
universal stand.
Widefield eyepiece lenses: These are wide diameter glass eyepiece lenses. They
offer the greatest field of view when looking at specimens.
X: Times as in 200X or two hundred times magnification. The magnification of a
microscope is determined by multiplying the power of the eyepiece lens by the power of
the corresponding objective lens.
XR: The X is times and the R stands for retractable. These objective lenses have a
spring loaded tip so if they hit the slide, they will retract, and telescope inward. This
prevents damage to the lens or slide.
S
7.3 Text C. The Microscope: Parts and Specifications
7.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
compound microscope
сложный микроскоп
change power
переменная мощность
sophisticated microscope
сложный микроскоп
cranking
раскрутка
speciman
образец
condenser lense
конденсорная линза
transparency
прозрачность
crisp image
четкое изображение
consideration
решение
to purchase
купить
reputable source
авторитетный источник
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7.3.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
historians, spectacle maker, revolving nosepiece or turret, sophisticated microscope,
interchangeable, achromatic, parcentered, parfocal lenses, focusable condenser lens,
transparency.
7.3.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Write the summary of the text
in Russian. Ask a groupmate to render your summary in English.
Historians credit the invention of the compound microscope to the Dutch spectacle
maker, Zacharias Janssen, around the year 1590. The compound microscope uses lenses
and light to enlarge the image and is also called an optical or light microscope (vs./an
electron microscope). The simplest optical microscope is the magnifying glass and is good
to about ten times (10X) magnification. The compound microscope has two systems of
lenses for greater magnification, 1) the ocular or eyepiece lens that one looks into and 2)
the objective lens, or the lens closest to the object. Before purchasing or using a
microscope, it is important to know the functions of each part.
Figure 8 – Parts of Microscope
59
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Eyepiece Lens: the lens at the top that you look through. They are usually 10X or
15X power.
Tube: Connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses.
Arm: Supports the tube and connects it to the base.
Base: The bottom of the microscope, used for support.
Illuminator: A steady light source (110 volts) used in place of a mirror. If your
microscope has a mirror, it is used to reflect light from an external light source up through
the bottom of the stage.
Stage: The flat platform where you place your slides. Stage clips hold the slides in
place. If your microscope has a mechanical stage, you will be able to move the slide
around by turning two knobs. One moves it left and right, the other moves it up and down.
Revolving Nosepiece or Turret: This is the part that holds two or more objective
lenses and can be rotated to easily change power.
Objective Lenses: Usually you will find 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope.
They almost always consist of 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X powers. When coupled with a
10X (most common) eyepiece lens, we get total magnifications of 40X (4X times 10X),
100X , 400X and 1000X. To have good resolution at 1000X, you will need a relatively
sophisticated microscope with an Abbe condenser. The shortest lens is the lowest power,
the longest one is the lens with the greatest power. Lenses are color coded and if built to
DIN standards are interchangeable between microscopes. The high power objective lenses
are retractable (i.e. 40XR). This means that if they hit a slide, the end of the lens will push
in (spring loaded) thereby protecting the lens and the slide. All quality microscopes have
achromatic, parcentered, parfocal lenses.
Rack Stop: This is an adjustment that determines how close the objective lens can
get to the slide. It is set at the factory and keeps students from cranking the high power
objective lens down into the slide and breaking things. You would only need to adjust this
if you were using very thin slides and you weren't able to focus on the specimen at high
power (Tip: If you are using thin slides and can't focus, rather than adjust the rack stop,
place a clear glass slide under the original slide to raise it a bit higher).
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Condenser Lens: The purpose of the condenser lens is to focus the light onto the
specimen. Condenser lenses are most useful at the highest powers (400X and above).
Microscopes with in stage condenser lenses render a sharper image than those with no lens
(at 400X). If your microscope has a maximum power of 400X, you will get the maximum
benefit by using a condenser lenses rated at 0.65 NA or greater. 0.65 NA condenser lenses
may be mounted in the stage and work quite well. A big advantage to a stage mounted
lens is that there is one less focusing item to deal with. If you go to 1000X then you
should have a focusable condenser lens with an N.A. of 1.25 or greater. Most 1000X
microscopes use 1.25 Abbe condenser lens systems. The Abbe condenser lens can be
moved up and down. It is set very close to the slide at 1000X and moved further away at
the lower powers.
Diaphragm or Iris: Many microscopes have a rotating disk under the stage. This
diaphragm has different sized holes and is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of
light that is projected upward into the slide. There is no set rule regarding which setting to
use for a particular power. Rather, the setting is a function of the transparency of the
specimen, the degree of contrast you desire and the particular objective lens in use.
How to Focus Your Microscope: The proper way to focus a microscope is to start
with the lowest power objective lens first and while looking from the side, crank the lens
down as close to the specimen as possible without touching it. Now, look through the
eyepiece lens and focus upward only until the image is sharp. If you can't get it in focus,
repeat the process again. Once the image is sharp with the low power lens, you should be
able to simply click in the next power lens and do minor adjustments with the focus knob.
If your microscope has a fine focus adjustment, turning it a bit should be all that's
necessary. Continue with subsequent objective lenses and fine focus each time.
61
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7.4 Text D. Surgical Microscopes in Ophthalmology
7.4.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
vision
зрение
outpatient corneal correction
амбулаторная коррекция роговицы
retina
сетчатка
vitreous
стекловидный
posterior segment
задний сегмент
challenge
проблема
light-sensitive
светочувствительный
illumination
освещение
high-intensity
высокая интенсивность
transmission optics
трансмиссионная оптика
contrast ratio
коэффициент контрастности
retina procedures
процедуры на сетчатке
clouding of the lens
помутнение хрусталика
the cataract patient's comfort
помощь пациенту с катарактой
intuitive
интуитивный
coaxial double beam stereo
коаксиальное стерео освещение
illumination
двойным лучом
стабильный красный рефлекс
a stable red reflex
передний сегмент
anterior segment
7.4.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
eye procedure, outpatient, corneal correction, vitreous humor, surgery, posterior
segment, challenge, retina, clouding of the lens, high-intensity transmission optics, coaxial
expandable, requirements.
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7.4.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the topic.
Ophthalogy
Figure 9 – Surgical Ophthalmology – microsurgery on the eye
Surely, vision is the most important of a person's five senses. Accordingly, the
variety of eye procedures extends from routine outpatient corneal correction to complex
operations on the retina and vitreous humor.
Surgery on the posterior segment presents special challenges for the surgeon and the
microscope. Because the retina is highly light-sensitive, only low level illumination is
allowed. This means that the optics have to work very efficiently. TheLeica Low Light
concept – with direct halogen illumination and high-intensity transmission optics –
provides the necessary contrast ratio for retina procedures.
Efficient operation ensures the patient's comfort and well-being. Operations in
the anterior segment are often done on an outpatient basis. To ensure the cataract patient's
comfort, operating the microscope must be intuitive and reliable in every phase of surgery.
Leica’s coaxial double beam stereo illumination and OttoFlex™ II finally provide a stable
red reflex, even with difficult anatomical conditions (e.g. small pupils or advanced
clouding of the lens).
Leica microscopes are modular and expandable. They meet the specific
requirements of educational institutions and small clinics with limited space in their
operating rooms.
63
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a)
b)
Figure 10 – Operations in the anterior segment of patient's eye
a
b
Figure 11 – a) Leica M844 F40 / F20Premium class in ophthalmic surgery; b) Leica
M822 F40 / F20The Ultimate Red Reflex Surgical Microscope
a
b
Figure 12 – a) Leica M620 F20Easy-to-use, high-quality ophthalmic microscope; b)
Leica DI C800Digital Imaging Color Module for Ophthalmology
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a
b
Figure 13 – a) Leica KeratoscopeThe Cost-Efficient Aid to Determine Astigmatism;
b) Leica ToricEyePieceThe Perfect Aid for Placement of Premium IOL's
a
b
Figure 14 – a) Leica RUV800Panoramic Viewing System for Retinal Surgery; b)
Leica M220 F12Surgical microscope for routine ophthalmic surgery
a
b
Figure 15 – a) Leica Rotatable BeamsplitterSwing around whenever needed; b)
Leica M620 TTSTabletop surgical microscope for ophthalmology
7.4.4 Name the main parts and types of surgical microscopes andndescribe one of
them. icroscopes Ophthalmology
65
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7.5 Text E. Operation microscope 10960 (1)
7.5.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
optional accessories
дополнительные аксессуары
caster legs
литые ножки
vertical shaft
вертикальный вал
binocular arm
бинокулярная рукоятка
to counterbalance
уравновешивать
to enhance hygiene
улучшать гигиенические условия
7.5.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
surgeons, fatigue, delicate operations, optional accessories, application, high efficiency,
diagonal base, pentagonal, counterbalance mechanism, adjustable, horizontal arm,
filament, finger, detachable, protection caps, hygiene, emergency, manipulate.
7.5.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the topic.
Inami &Co.,LTD
No. 24-2 Hongo 3-chome
Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo 113, Japan
Tel.(03) 814-5916 FAX.(03) 814-3334
Telex.02723147 HINAMI I
CABLE ADDRESS.HONGOINAMI TOKYO
® TRADE MARK OF INAMI &Co.,LTD
Application The new INAMI Operation Microscope provides surgeons with a finely
focused clear and sharp image, minimizing fatigue during delicate operations. Combined
with a variety of optional accessories, it offers wide applications with high efficiency.
For added stability, the stand's 700mm diagonal base is pentagonally shaped with
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
five caster legs, plus a counterbalance mechanism is incorporated at the end of the arm that
sits at the top of the 1,400mm high vertical shaft. The latter allows for free up and down
movement of the binocular arm which can be precisely positioned at the desired point with
only a minimum of force. The horizontal arm is 400mm long with 3200 rotation, while the
counterbalanced one is 560mm and rotates 2800.
Focusing is motorized for trouble free operation merely stepping on the foot pedal.
Its range is total 40mm, or 20mm each for the UP and DOWN movements (at the speed of
2mm per second. Total magnifications are adjustable in five steps. Most control knobs to
be manipulated with one's fingers have detachable protection caps to permit easy
sterilization for enhanced hygiene.
Main illuminator employs two sets of bright and cool 15V 150W halogen lamps:
one is used for actual illumination, and the other is a spare in case of emergency. Its
lighting is guided to the optical head through a fiber optic cable. Should the filament of the
lamp in use be blown during surgery, the illumination source can be immediately switched
to the other lamp by pulling off the light guide and attaching it to the second lamp.
Further, replacement of the burnt lamp after the surgical process is very simple.
Innovations A Rich Variety Of Optional Accessories Further Extends Functional
Ability. Any kind of surgical situation can be satisfied by combining the necessary parts
selected from a wide array of optional accessories. With appropriate adaptors, image
recording and or monitoring on a TV screen through a still or video camera is also
possible.
7.5.4 Speak on the main principles of surgical microscope operation using the
information given in the texts of Unit 7.
67
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8 Unit 8. Laser Technology
8.1 Text A. Laser and its applications
8.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
to conduct
вести, проводить
amplification
усиление
as well
также
approximately
почти, приблизительно
capacity
мощность, нагрузка
heating
нагрев
heat-resistant
теплостойкий
indeed
действительно, на самом деле
cost
стоимость
duration
продолжительность
enough
достаточно, довольно
entire
полный, целый
exist
существовать
fulfillment
выполнение, осуществление
single
один, одиночный
suggest
предлагать, советовать
tool
инструмент, орудие, средство
installation
установка, сборка
involved
связанный, рассматриваемый
rapidly
быстро
represent
представлять, олицетворять
stimulate
возбуждать, индуцировать
reatment
обработка
68
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
vary
мерить, изменять
weapon
оружие
to meet the demands\the requirements
удовлетворять требованиям
in order to
для того чтобы
power plant
силовая установка, электростанция
8.1.2 Read the following words and word-groups:
mysterious, sword of heat, amplification, emission of radiation, sophisticated, to
vaporize, heat – resistant, thermonuclear reaction, Physicists, to disintegrate, vibrating,
simultaneously, encyclopedia Britannica, satellites, subsequently.
8.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the
topic.
In the ‘War of Worlds” written before the turn of the century H. Wells told a
fantastic story of how Martians almost invaded our Earth. Their weapon was a mysterious
“sword of heat”. Today Wells’ sword of heat has come to reality in the laser. The name
stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
Laser, one of the most sophisticated invention of man, produces an intensive beam
of light of a very pure single colour. It represents the fulfillment of one of the mankind’s
oldest dreams of technology to provide a light beam intensive enough to vaporize the
hardest and most heat - resistant materials. It can indeed make lead run like water, or, when
focused, it can vaporize any substance on earth. There is no material unamenable to laser
treatment and by the end of 2000 laser will have become one of the main technological
tools.
The applications of laser in industry and science are so many and so varied as to
suggest magic. Scientists in many countries are working at a very interesting problem:
combining the two big technological discoveries of the second half of the 20-th century laser and thermonuclear reaction - to produce a practically limitless source of energy.
69
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Physicists of this country have developed large laser installations to conduct physical
experiments in heating thermonuclear fuel with laser beams. There also exists an idea to
use laser for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction. The laser beam
must heat the fuel to the required temperature so quickly that the plasma does not have time
to disintegrate.
According to current estimates, the duration of the pulse has to be approximately a
thousand - millionth of the second. The light capacity of this pulse would be dozens of
times greater that the capacity of all the world’s power plants. To meet such demands in
practice scientists and engineers must work hard as it is clear that a lot of difficulties are to
be encountered, on route.
The laser’s most important potential may be its use in communications, the intensity
of a laser can be rapidly changed to encode very complex signals. In principle, one laser
beam, vibrating a billion times faster than ordinary radio waves, could carry the radio, TV
and telephone messages of the world simultaneously. In just a fraction of a second, for
example, one laser beam could transmit the entire text of the encyclopedia Britannica.
Besides, there are projects to use lasers for long distance communication and for
transmission of energy to space stations, to the surface of the Moon or to planets in the
solar system. Projects have also been suggested to place laser aboard Earth satellites nearer
to the Sun in order to transform the solar radiation into laser beams, with this transformed
energy subsequently transmitted to the Earth or to other space bodies. These projects have
not yet been put into effect, because of the great technological difficulties to be overcome
and therefore the great cost involved. But here is no doubt that in time these projects will
be realized and the laser beam will begin operating in outer space as well.
8.1.4 Look through the text and answer the questions.
1 What is this text about?
2 What does the word “Laser” mean?
3 What is laser: is it a device or some phenomenon?
4 Who was the first to write about laser?
70
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5 What writer from this country wrote a book about laser?
6 What can laser do?
7 What other uses do you know?
8.1.5 Say whether the statements are true or false. Correct if it is necessary.
1
Laser means “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”.
2
Laser produces an intensive beam of light.
3
In the next few years laser will become one of the main technological tools.
4
Martians almost invaded the Earth before the turn of the century.
5
Laser and thermonuclear reaction can produce a limited source of energy.
6
The laser beam heats the fuel so quickly that the plasma disintegrates.
7
There are projects to transform lunar radiation into beams.
8
The laser beam will be operating in outer space.
8.1.6 Find English equivalents to the following Russian words:
устанавливать - installment, installation, install;
различие, разница - differ, difference, different;
распадаться - desintegrator, disintegration, disintegrate;
применимый - application, applicable, apply;
укреплять - strong, strength, strengthen;
эффективно - efficient, efficiency, efficiently;
усилитель - amplification, amplifier, amplify.
8.1.7 Read and translate the text in written form without a dictionary.
То understand why light from the laser is so concentrated you must know tha light
travels in waves. Ordinary white light is made up of many wavelengths travelling in every
direction. Laser light is essentially of one wavelength, with all the waves moving in one
71
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
direction. Because the laser wavelengths intensify each other! they can remain in an
unbelievably straight beam for a long distance. Almost any! substance can be forced to
“lase” if you work hard enough with it. Gas lasers give off continuos beams of light. Tiny
semiconductor lasers may be especially useful ini computers for transmitting signals to
replace the use of cables. Many lasers can give off invisible radiation, either infrared or
ultraviolet.
8.1.8 Match two parts to make sentences.
1) A laser can find
a) must heat the fuel to the required
temperature very quickly.
2) It is very interesting to combine
b) a very wide application.
3) There is an idea
c)
hard
to
overcome
numerous
technological difficulties.
4) In this case a laser beam
d) is not an easy task.
5) The
e) to use a laser for solving the problem
light capacity in a laser
installation should be dozens of times
of controlled termonuclear reaction.
greater
6) Scientists and engineers must work
f) than the capacity of all world’s
power plants.
7) To develop such a laser system in
g) laser and thermonuclear reaction to
practice
produce a limitless source of energy.
8.2 Text B. Laser
8.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
sun-light
солнечный свет
72
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ruby
рубин
intermittent
прерывистый
intense flash
интенсивная вспышка
diverge
расходиться
amplification
усиление
dim
тусклый
opaque
светонепроницаемый
8.2.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
special, ordinary, out of phase, wavelength, ruby, behavior, continuous, opaque, absorbed,
intermittent.
8.2.3 Scan the text and name three main characteristics of laser beam that makes it
different from other beams of light.
The word "laser" means "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation". What is a laser beam and what special is there about a laser beam, that makes
it different from other beams of light?
We know that light consists of waves. These waves are very short — much too short
to be seen directly. *An ordinary light consists of waves all out of phase, out of step with
each other. White light or sun-light is also a mixture of every possible wavelength.
*Waves of red light are about twice as long as waves of blue light.
All the waves in a laser beam have the same wavelength. A laser beam has a very
definite colour. The red colour of the ruby is one of the most widely seen colours in them.
But the difference between an ordinary beam of ruby red light and a laser beam of ruby
red light is that in the laser beam the waves are all in step with each other. *This orderly
behaviour of the laser beam makes a big difference, and there's one more difference to be
mentioned. Most beams of light, like the car headlamps, for example, are continuous. They
shine all the time. *But the laser beam is intermittent, and it's off much longer than it's on.
73
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Because these switches on and off are very fast, the eye doesn't see them. *While the laser
beam is off, the energy for the next flash is building up, and when it comes, it's a very
intense flash indeed. So lots of power can be packed into a laser beam. Besides that, an
ordinary beam of light diverges. *It gets wider and wider, and therefore dimmer and
weaker as it goes on. But a laser beam doesn't diverge in this way. So it carries its energy
in a compact form, until it's absorbed when it strikes something.
8.2.4 Translate the sentences marked with the sign * into Russian.
8.2.5 Speak on the topic “Laser and its application”.
8.3 Text C. The compact combination lasers for ophthalmology
8.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
asymmetrical instrument
асимметричный инструмент
to upgrade
обновлять
optimum fundus coagulation
оптимальная коагуляция глазного дна
retrofitted
модифицированный
laser console
лазерная консоль
compact unit
компактный блок
prime consideration
первостепенное внимание
stereo corneal microscope
стереомикроскоп для исследования
роговицы
coaxial coupling
коаксиальная связь
superb optics
превосходная оптика
high efficiency
высокий КПД
layout
макет
74
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8.3.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
future-oriented unit, treatment, column, asymmetrical instrument table, upgraded,
therapy, compromise, coagulation, successful, retrofitted, technician, arrangement, patient
and physician, coupling, corneal, coaxial, magnification, multi-function joystick,
accessories.
8.3.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
VISULAS Argon/YAG, VISULAS Argon С and VISULAS YAG С the compact
combination lasers for ophthalmology.
OPTON
West Germany
Opton Feintechnik G.m.b.H.
D-7082Oberkohen Application:
The VISULAS YAG C: The VISULAS YAG С from Opton is a future-oriented
unit for optimum Nd:YAG laser treatment. *The slit lamp has been designed for future
attachment of an argon laser - the power units for the slit lamp and the YAG laser are
integrated into the column of the asymmetrical instrument table. *VISULAS YAG С is an
Nd:YAG laser unit which can be upgraded at any time into a complete Nd:YAG/argon
therapy unit - without any necessity for compromise in either from of treatment.
The VISULAS Argon C: The VISULAS Argon С from Opton is a future- oriented
treatment unit for optimum fundus coagulation to which the successful Opton Nd:YAG
laser can be also be retrofitted, if required. *The slit lamp allows simple attachment of the
Nd:YAG laser head - the power unit for Nd:YAG laser operation is already integrated into
the column of the instrument table. *This means that VISULAS Argon С can be upgraded
by our service technicians at any time into a complete unit for both argon and Nd:YAG
treatment.
The VISULAS Argon/YAG is a purpose built unit comprising a special laser Slit
lamp, the extremely successful Opton Nd:YAG laser and a compact argon laser console.
75
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Arrangement of the slit lamp with the Nd:YAG laser head on the asymmetrical instrument
table and integration of the Nd:YAG and slit lamp power unit into the column of the
instrument table have resulted in an exceptionally compact unit. The Opton VISULAS
Argon/YAG is the ideal therapy unit to meet varying requirements in hospitals and in the
doctor’s office - for every type of treatment. In the desigh of the unit prime consideration
was given to the safety of both the patient and physician.
Innovations:
The Slit Lamp *This slit lamp was specially developed by Opton as an all-round
combination slit lamp to meet the varying requirements of Nd:YAG and argon laser
treatment.
Direct coupling of the Nd:YAG laser radiation into the stereo corneal microscope.
Exact coaxial coupling of the argon laser beam into the slit illumination —
coagulation field always illuminated.
Superb optics - optimum imaging quality for the both Nd:YAG and argon laser
treatment Always optim. A magnification: selectable up to 30X - for both Nd:YAG and
argon laser treatment.
Multi-function joystick - operating convenience for both Nd:YAG and argon laser
treatment.
The Argon Laser Console The argon console, like the slit lamp developed and
manufactured by Opton, offers pin point precision, superb stability and top-class
performance.
The laser tube - state-of-the-art technology.
High efficiency - maximum transmission rate.
High stability of laser power - increased safety due to latest microprocessor
technology.
Clear layout of the control panel.
Service and user friendly.
The Nd:YAG Laser The Nd:YAG Laser - the time-tested therapy unit for the
anterior and intermediate ocular media. Compact laser head - clear layout of control panel.
Optimum treatment with either single-pulse or burst modes Built-in HeNe laser for safe
76
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
focusing.
Safety for both patient and physician - monitoring by microprocessor.
The Instrument Table comfortable sitting position for physician and patient.
The following accessories are attached:
Contact lenses Laser safety eyeglasses *Two different accessories can be
mounted at the same time using a beam splitter: a mono or stereo coobservation tube
and a TV or 35 mm camera for documentation. Other Ophthalmic Lasers from Opton:
Nd:YAG Laser. Three different Nd:YAG lasers are available:
VISULAS YAG - a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with two laser tubes with different
apertures and energies.
VISULAS YAG - a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with one laser tube and
asymmetrical instrument table.
VISULAS YAG S - a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for use on patients in a lying
position.
Argon Laser. VISULAS Argon is the compact coagulation laser.
8.3.4 Translate the sentences marked with the sign * into Russian and define the
tense form and voice of the predicate.
8.4 Text D. Laser Product Standards. Glossary of Laser Terms
8.4.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
red mushroom
красный гриб
aiming laser
наведение лазера
emitting light
светоизлучающий
interlock feature
функция блокировки
shutter
затвор
manually switched
переключается вручную
inadvertently exposed
случайно подвергаться
77
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
active medium
активная среда
liquid
жидкость
to intensify
усиливать
optical cavity
оптический резонатор
handpiece
наконечник
laser tube
лазерная трубка
optical fiber
оптоволокно
optical losses
оптические потери\погрешности
spot size
размер пятна
power density
концентрация мощности
depth of field
степень резкости
infrared ray
инфракрасный луч
8.4.2 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Laser Product Standards
•
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard 825-1 1993.
•
USA standards 21CFR 1040.10, 21CFR 1040.11 1997 and ANSI ZI36.1-
•
British standard BS4803.
•
Australian standard AS2211-1991.
1986.
The safety features provided in accordance with these standards include:
Feature
Lockable Key Switch
Emergency Stop Button
Description
The laser can only be turned on with the
correct key. The key cannot be removed
while in the ON position, so the laser
cannot operate without the key in place.
This is a red mushroom type button
which when depressed cuts power to
all functions.
78
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Laser On/Off
During normal operation this illuminated
push button switch is in the ON position,
depressed, indicating that aiming laser is
on and emitting light. When released it
immediately switches off the laser power
supplies and eliminates any risk of laser
irradiation.
Laser Ready / Stand By Indicator
Once the power is turned on with the key
switch and the laser on/off switch is in
the on position, the display is illuminated
and the standby indicator glows. The
system must be manually switched to
laser ready mode before the treatment
laser is ready to fire.
Safety Interlock (feature)
This is a user installed feature. A
connector is provided on the stand base
for connection to a door interlock switch.
This will switch off the aiming beam,
disable user controls and prevent the
treatment laser from firing when the
door is opened. These functions will be
returned 2 seconds after the door has
been closed or interlock is satisfied. The
unit is supplied with a blanking plug
which can be easily disconnected if the
interlock feature is required.
Safety Shutter
The laser and optical system module is
equipped with a spring loaded safety
shutter that keeps the treatment laser
optical path blocked unless the system is
manually switched into laser ready mode
and the fire switch is depressed.
Protective Housings
Protective housings on the laser and
optical system as well as the control and
display systems prevent the operator
being inadvertently exposed to laser
emission or high voltage shock. The
protective housings cannot be removed
without tools and must only be opened
by authorized service personnel.
79
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Glossary of Laser Terms
Term
Description
Active Medium
A material in which lasing
(stimulated emission) will take place
under the proper kind of excitation.
Includes solids, gases, dyes and
other liquids.
Aiming Beam
A low-power beam of light from a
medical laser system to indicate
where and over what area the highpower laser treatment beam will
contact the tissue to be irradiated.
Amplification
An optical process that intensifies
the laser beam in the resonator
(optical cavity) of a laser. As the
radiation is reflected back and forth
between the mirrors at the end of the
cavity, it is amplified through
stimulated emission on each trip
through the active medium.
Anode
The positive electrode in the laser
which attracts electrons from its
opposite, the negative cathode.
Axis or Optical Axis
The optical centerline passing through
a handpiece, lens system, laser tube, or
optical fiber.
Beam Diameter
The 'working' portion of a laser
beam; the central area containing
about 86% of the power (unless the
beam has an irregular pattern).
Brewster Windows
Transparent windows at the ends of gas
laser tubes that are mounted at
Brewster's angle to allow radiation to
pass through them with minimum
optical losses.
Cathode
The negative electrode in a laser tube.
(See Anode.)
Coherent Light or Coherence
Collimated, or parallel rays of light of
the same wavelength and phase. In
80
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
other words, laser light.
Depth of Field
The working range for a laser beam
which is dependent upon lens focal
length,
wavelength,
and
beam
diameter. For small spot sizes with
high power densities, the depth of field
is very small.
Electromagnetic Wave
A radio wave, visible light,
ultraviolet ray, X-ray, gamma ray,
infrared ray or other wave travelling
outward from a changing electric
field.
Energy density
The amount of energy incident upon a
surface divided by the area of the
surface being irradiated. Usually given
in terms of joules per square centimeter
(J/cm2).
Focal length
The distance from the center of a lens,
lens system or mirror to the point of
principle focus.
81
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
9 Unit 9. Telemedicine
9.1 Text A. Telemedicine
9.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
via telephone
по телефону
satellite technology
спутниковые технологии
real-time consultation
консультация в реальном времени
generally refers
как правило, относится
clinical care
клиническая помощь
to metamorphose
изменять; трансформировать
two-way radio
рация
telehealth
телемедицина
electronic medical records
электронные медицинские документы
9.1.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
telemedicine, remote medical procedures, satellite technology, care, absentia care,
metamorphosed, e-health, telehealth, electronic medical records.
9.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the
topic.
Telemedicine is a rapidly developing application of clinical medicine where medical
information is transferred via telephone, the Internet or other networks for the purpose of
consulting, and sometimes remote medical procedures or examinations.
Telemedicine may be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over
the telephone, or as complex as using satellite technology and video-conferencing
equipment to conduct a real-time consultation between medical specialists in two different
countries. Telemedicine generally refers to the use of communications and information
technologies for the delivery of clinical care.
82
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Care at a distance (also called in absentia care), is an old practice which was often
conducted via post; there has been a long and successful history of in absentia health care,
which - thanks to modern communication technology - has metamorphosed into what we
know as modern telemedicine.
In its early manifestations, African villagers used smoke signals to warn people to
stay away from the village in case of serious disease. In the early 1900s, people living in
remote areas in Australia used two-way radios, powered by a dynamo driven by a set of
bicycle pedals, to communicate with the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia.
The terms e-health and telehealth are at times wrongly interchanged with
telemedicine. Like the terms "medicine" and "health care", telemedicine often refers only
to the provision of clinical services while the term telehealth can refer to clinical and nonclinical services such as medical education, administration, and research. The term ehealth is often, particularly in the UK and Europe, used as an umbrella term that includes
telehealth, electronic medical records, and other components of health IT.
9.1.4 Answer the questions:
1 What is telemedicine?
2 What does telemedicine generally refer to?
3 How was absentia care conducted?
4 What has absentia health care metamorphosed into?
5 What changes has absentia health care undergone?
6 What does the term telemedicine often refer to?
7 What does the term telehealth often refer to?
8 What does the term e-health include?
83
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
9.2 Text B. Types of Telemedicine
9.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
robotic surgery
роботизированная хирургия
synchronous telemedicine
синхронная телемедицина
peripheral devices
периферийные устройства
tele-stethoscope
телестетоскоп
obstetrics
акушерство
pharmacy
аптека
preferably
предпочтительно
general observation
общий результат научных наблюдений
valuable bed
дорогое койко-место
vital signs
жизненно важные функции
bandwidth analog
широкополосный аналог
medical domains
области медицины
general practitioner
врач общей практики
cardiac resuscitation
кардиореанимация
pressure monitors
датчики давления
chronic disease
хроническое заболевание
morbidity
заболеваемость
whereby
посредством, при помощи
caregiver
человек,
ухаживающий
за
больным,
инвалидом, пожилым человеком
store-and-forward network
сеть передачи данных с промежуточным
накоплением
9.2.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
84
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
synchronous, asynchronous, store-and-forward, peripheral devices, interaction, realtime, surgery, tele-otoscope, psychiatry, obstetrics, rehabilitation, pathology and
pharmacy, bandwidth, capabilities, beneficial, telecardiology, general practitioner,
resuscitation, blood pressure monitors.
9.2.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the
topic.
Types of Telemedicine are practiced on the basis of two concepts: real time
(synchronous) and store-and-forward and Home Health (asynchronous).
Real time telemedicine could be as simple as a telephone call or as complex as
robotic surgery. It requires the presence of both parties at the same time and a
communications link between them that allows a real-time interaction to take place.
Video-conferencing equipment is one of the most common forms of technologies used in
synchronous telemedicine. There are also peripheral devices which can be attached to
computers or the video-conferencing equipment which can aid in an interactive
examination. For instance, a tele-otoscope allows a remote physician to 'see' inside a
patient's ear; a tele-stethoscope allows the consulting remote physician to hear the patient's
heartbeat. Medical specialties conducive to this kind of consultation include psychiatry,
family practice, internal medicine, rehabilitation, cardiology, pediatrics, obstetrics,
neurology, speech-language pathology and pharmacy.
Store-and-forward telemedicine involves acquiring medical data (like medical
images, biosignals etc) and then transmitting this data to a doctor or medical specialist at a
convenient time for assessment offline. It does not require the presence of both parties at
the same time. Dermatology (cf: teledermatology), radiology, and pathology are common
specialties that are conducive to asynchronous telemedicine. A properly structured
Medical Record preferably in electronic form should be a component of this transfer.
When a patient is in the hospital and he is placed under general observation after a
surgery or other medical procedure, the hospital is usually losing a valuable bed and the
patient would rather not be there as well. Home health allows the remote observation and
85
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
care of a patient. Home health equipment consists of vital signs capture, video
conferencing capabilities, and patient stats can be reviewed and alarms can be set from the
hospital nurse's station, depending on the specific home health device. Usually low
bandwidth analog Plain Old Telephone System (POTS). Some newer systems do support
higher bandwidth capabilities. Disease management, post-hospital care, assisted living,
etc.
Telemedicine is most beneficial for populations living in isolated communities and
remote regions and is currently being applied in virtually all medical domains. Specialties
that use telemedicine often use a "tele-" prefix; for example, telemedicine as applied by
radiologists is called Teleradiology. Similarly telemedicine as applied by cardiologists is
termed as telecardiology, etc.
Telemedicine is also useful as a communication tool between a general practitioner
and a specialist available at a remote location.
The first interactive Telemedicine system, operating over standard telephone lines,
for
remotely
diagnosing
and
treating
patients
requiring
cardiac
resuscitation
(defibrillation) was developed and marketed by MedPhone Corporation in 1989. A year
latter the company introduced a mobile cellular version, the MDphone. Twelve hospitals
in the U.S. served as receiving and treatment centers.
Monitoring a patient at home using known devices like blood pressure monitors and
transferring the information to a caregiver is a fast growing emerging service. These
remote monitoring solutions have a focus on current high morbidity chronic diseases and
are mainly deployed for the First World. In developing countries a new way of practicing
telemedicine is emerging better known as Primary Remote Diagnostic Visits whereby a
doctor uses devices to remotely examine and treat a patient. This new technology and
principle of practicing medicine holds big promises to solving major health care delivery
problems in for instance Southern Africa because Primary Remote Diagnostic
Consultations not only monitors an already diagnosed chronic disease, but has the promise
to diagnosing and managing the diseases a patient will typically visit a general practitioner
for.
86
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
9.2.4 Answer the questions in the full form:
1 What basis is Telemedicine practiced on?
2 What could real time telemedicine be?
3 How does simple/complex telemedicine operate?
4 What do medical specialties conducive to the remote consultation include?
5 What does store-and-forward telemedicine involve?
6 What does home health allow?
7 What does home health equipment consist of?
8 What kind of population is telemedicine most beneficial for?
9 How did the interactive telemedicine system develop?
10 What does this new technology and principle of practicing medicine hold?
9.2.5 Speak on the topic “Telemedicine”.
9.3 Text C. Teleradiology
9.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
essential components
основные компоненты
image sending station
станция, передающая изображение
transmission network
передающая сеть
major provider
основной поставщик
9.3.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
9.3.3 Read and translate the text without a dictionary and say how it is connected
with the Text 9.2.3.
87
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Teleradiology is the ability to send radiographic images (x-rays) from one location
to another. For this process to be implemented, three essential components are required, an
image sending station, a transmission network, and a receiving / image review station. The
most typical implementation are two computers connected via Internet. The computer at
the receiving end will need to have a high-quality display screen that has been tested and
cleared for clinical purposes. Sometimes the receiving computer will have a printer so that
images can be printed for convenience.
The teleradiology process begins at the image sending station. The radiographic
image and a modem or other connection are required for this first step. The image is
scanned and then sent via the network connection to the receiving computer.
An example of teleradiology is the EU-funded project R-Bay. One of the major
providers for teleradiology services in Europe is Telemedicine Clinic.
9.3.4 Summarize the information given in the unit.
10 Unit 10. Short history of fiber optics
10.1 Text A. Short history of fiber optics
10.1.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
semaphores
семафоры
hand-carried messages
доставляемые курьером сообщения
visible legacy
очевидное доказательство
surrounded
окруженный
to ship
перевозить
intervening years
прошедшие годы
internal reflection
внутреннее отражение
quartz rods
кварцевые стержни
88
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
refractive index
индекс преломления
dental illuminators
стоматологические осветители
plexiglass tongue depressor
шпатель из плексигласа
facsimile systems
факсимильные системы
bundle
узел, связка, пачка
unclad fiber
неизолированное волокно
to confine
ограничивать
invention
изобретение
10.1.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
human operator, hand-carried messages, scatter, visible legacy, languish,
intervening years physicist, jest of water, transparent, flexible, facsimile systems, unclad
fibers, inaccessible.
10.1.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
Optical communication systems date back two centuries, to the "optical telegraph"
that French engineer Claude Chappe invented in the 1790s. His system was a series of
semaphores mounted on towers, where human operators relayed messages from one tower
to the next. It beat hand-carried messages hands down, but by the mid-19th century was
replaced by the electric telegraph, leaving a scattering of "Telegraph Hills" as its most
visible legacy.
Alexander Graham Bell patented an optical telephone system, which he called the
Photophone, in 1880, but his earlier invention, the telephone, proved far more practical.
He dreamed of sending signals through the air, but the atmosphere didn't transmit light as
reliably as wires carried electricity. In the decades that followed, light was used for a few
special applications, such as signalling between ships, but otherwise optical
communications, like the experimental Photophone Bell donated to the Smithsonian
Institution, Languished on the shelf.
89
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
In the intervening years, a new technology slowly took root that would ultimately
solve the problem of optical transmission, although it was a long time before it was
adapted for communications. It depended on the phenomenon of total internal reflection,
which can confine light in a material surrounded by other materials with lower refractive
index, such as glass in air. In 1840s, Swiss physicist Daniel Collodon and French physicist
Jacques Babinet showed that light could be guided along jest of water for fountain
displays. British physicist John Tyndall popularized light guiding in a demonstration he
first used in 1854, guiding light in a jet of water flowing from a tank. By the turn of the
century, inventors realized that bent quartz rods could carry light, and patented them as
dental illuminators. By the 1940s, many doctors used illuminated plexiglass tongue
depressors.
Optical fibers went a step further. They are essentially transparent rods of glass or
plastic stretched so they are long and flexible. During the 1920s, John Logie Baird in
England and Clarence. Hansell in the LESSONed States patented the idea of using arrays
of hollow pipes or transparent rods to transmit images for television or facsimile systems.
However, the first person known to have demonstrated image transmission through a
bundle of optical fibers was Heinrich Lamm, than a medical student in Munich. His goal
was to look inside inaccessible parts of the body, and in a 1930 paper he reported
transmitting the image of a light bulb filament through a short bundle. However, the
unclad fibers transmitted images poorly, and the rise of the Nazis forced Lamm, a Jew, to
move to America and abandon his dreams of becoming a professor of medicine.
10.1.4 Speak on the main stages in fiber optics development.
10.2 Text B. Optical Technology
10.2.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
telephone wire
телефонный шнур\кабель
considerable increase
значительное увеличение
90
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
telecommunication network
телекоммуникационная сеть
ultra-thin silicon fiber
сверхтонкое кремневое волокно
incredible transparency
сверхвысокая прозрачность
single pair
одна\ единственная пара
glass fiber
стекловолокно
10.2.2 Read the text and find the information about the advantages of fiber optics in
communication; the basis of optical communication and application of optical
technologies. Find the information in the text connected with the following dates: 1960,
1970, 1982 (in written form).
One of the most interesting developments in telecommunication is the rapid
progress of optical communication where optical fibers are replacing conventional
telephone wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone
system, optical communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality,
performance and reliability of the global telecommunication network. New technologies
such as fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized
information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly
integrated into a single digital communication network capable to process and transmit
virtually any kind of information.
It is a result of combining two technologies: laser, first demonstrated in 1960, and
the fabrications 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibers which can serve as lightwave
conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually
improved techniques to produce thin silica fibers of incredible transparency, optical
systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for
amplification or regeneration.
At present high-capacity optical transmission system are being installed between
many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147
megabits (thousand bits) per second and accomodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of
glass fibers (one for each direction of transmission). This у stem will soon be improved to
91
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone
channels simultaneously.
10.3 Text C. Slit lamp
10.3.1 Memorize the following words and word-groups from the texts of the unit:
slit lamp
щелевая лампа
high-intensity light source
источник высокоинтенсивного света
thin sheet
тонкий лист
hand-held lens
ручная линза
to originate
создавать
increasingly complex
чрезвычайно сложный
ophthalmologic practice
офтальмологическая практика
technical perfection
техническое совершенство
restriction
ограничение
vertical adjustable column
вертикальная регулируемая стойка
glass plate
стеклянная пластина
double articulated arm
двойной шарнирный рычаг
tabletop
рабочая поверхность стола
incandescent lamp
лампа накаливания
liquid filter
жидкий фильтр
to handle
использовать\пользоваться
adjustable chin rest
регулируемая подставка для подбородка
cross-slide stage
поперечные салазки суппорта
swivel axis
ось вращения
horizontal movement
движение по горизонтали
daylight quality
качество дневного света
operating distance
рабочее расстояние
92
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
10.3.2 Read the following words and word-combinations:
high-intensity light source, in conjunction with, biomicroscope, facilitate, anterior
segment, posterior segment, eyelid, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, rystalline lens, cornea, retina,
vertical adjustable column, glower, tabletop, incandescent lamp, luminance, swiveling axis,
particular, configuration.
10.3.3 Read and translate the text using the dictionary. Be ready to speak on the
topic.
Figure 16 – Side view of a slit lamp machine
Micrscopes Ophthalmology
Figure 17 – Cataract in human eye-magnified view with the slit lamp
93
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a high-intensity light source that can be
focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye. It is used in conjunction with
a biomicroscope. The lamp facilitates an examination of the anterior segment, or frontal
structures and posterior segment, of the human eye, which includes the eyelid, sclera,
conjunctiva, iris, natural crystalline lens, and cornea. The binocular slit-lamp examination
provides a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, enabling anatomical
diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions. A second, hand-held lens is used to
examine the retina.
History To fully understand the development of the slit lamp one must consider that
with this invention and its improvements, it had to be accompanied by the introduction of
new examination techniques. Two conflicting trends emerged in the development of the
slit lamp. One trend originated from clinical research and aimed at an increase in functions
and the introduction and application of the increasingly complex and advanced technology
of the time. The second trend originated from ophthalmologic practice and aimed at
technical perfection and a restriction to useful methods and the applications of the
instrument. The first man credited with developments in this field was Hermann Von
Helmholtz (1850) when he invented the ophthalmoscope.
In ophthalmology and optometry, the term “slit lamp” is the most commonly
referred to term however it would be more correct to call it the “slit lamp
instrument”. Today’s instrument however is a combination of two separate developments
in instruments. The two developments are the corneal microscope and that of the slit lamp
itself. Though the slit lamp is a combination of these two developments, the first concept
of the slit lamp dates back to 1911 credited to Alvar Gullstrand and his “large reflectionfree ophthalmoscope.” The instrument was manufactured by the company Zeiss and
consisted of a special illuminator that was connected by a small stand base through a
vertical adjustable column. The base was able to move freely on a glass plate. The
illuminator employed a Nernst glower which was later converted into a slit through a
simple optical system. However, the instrument never received much attention and the
term “slit lamp” did not appear in any literature again until 1914.
94
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
It wasn’t until 1919 that several improvements were made to the Gullstrand slit
lamp made by Vogt Henker. First, a mechanical connection was made between lamp and
ophthalmoscopic lens. This illumination unit was mounted to the table column with a
double articulated arm. The binocular microscope was supported on a small stand and
could be moved freely across the tabletop. Later, a cross slide stage was used for this
purpose. Vogt introduced Koehler illumination, and the reddish shining Nernst glower was
replaced with the brighter and whiter incandescent lamp. Special mention should be paid
to the experiments that followed Henker’s improvements in 1919. On his improvements
the Nitra lamp was replaced with a carbon arc lamp with a liquid filter. At this time the
great importance of color temperature and the luminance of the light source for slit lamp
examinations were recognized and the basis created for examinations in red-free light.
In the year 1926, the slit lamp instrument was redesigned. The vertical arrangement
of the slit projector (slit lamp) made it an easy to handle instrument. For the first time, the
axis through the patient’s eye was fixed at a common swiveling axis. This was a
fundamental principle that was adopted for every slit lamp instrument developed. A
limitation still with the instrument was it lacked a coordinate cross-slide stage for
instrument adjustment but only a laterally adjustable chin rest for the patient. The
importance of focal illumination had not yet been fully recognized.
In 1927, stereo cameras were developed and added to the slit lamp to further its use
and application. In 1930, Rudolf Theil presented the further development of the slit lamp,
encouraged by Hans Goldmann. Horizontal and vertical co-ordinate adjustments were
performed with three control elements on the cross-slide stage. The common swivel axis
for microscope and illumination system was connected to the cross-slide stage, which
allowed it to be brought to any part of the eye to be examined. A further improvement was
made in 1938. A control lever or joystick was used for the first time to allow for horizontal
movement.
Following World War II the slit lamp was improved again. On this particular
improvement the slit projector could be swiveled continuously across the front of
the microscope. This was then improved again in 1950. In 1950, a company named
95
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Littmann redesigned the slit lamp again. They adopted the joystick control from the
Goldmann instrument and the illumination path present in the Comberg instrument.
Additionally Littmann added the stereo telescope system with a common objective
magnification changer.
In 1965, the Model 100/16 Slit Lamp was produced based on the slit lamp by
Littmann. This was soon followed by the Model 125/16 Slit Lamp in 1972. The only
difference between the two models was their operating distances of 100 mm to 125 mm.
With the introduction of the photo slit lamp further advancements were possible. In 1976,
the development of the Model 110 Slit Lamp and the 210/211 Photo Slit Lamps were an
innovation by which each were constructed from standard modules allowing for a wide
range of different configurations. At the same time, halogen lamps replaced the old
illumination systems to make them brighter and essentially daylight quality. From 1994
onwards, new slit lamps were introduced which took advantage of new technologies. The
last major development was in 1996 in which included the advantages of new slit lamp
optics.
10.3.3 Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct if it is
necessary.
1 The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a low-intensity light source.
2 The binocular slit-lamp examination provides a stereoscopic magnified view of
the eye structures in detail.
3 The first hand-held lens is used to examine the retina.
4 The first man credited with developments in this field was Hermann Von
Helmholtz (1850) when he invented the ophthalmoscope.
5 Today’s instrument however is a combination of three separate developments in
instruments.
6 The base was not able to move freely on a glass plate.
7 The instrument was manufactured by the company OPTON.
96
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8 The slit lamp instrument was never redesigned.
9 The fundamental principle that was adopted for every slit lamp instrument was
vertical arrangement of the slit projector.
10 Following World War II the slit lamp was improved again.
10.3.4 Answer the questions:
1 What kind of instrument is the slit lamp?
2 What does the slit lamp facilitate?
3 What are the main stages of slit lamp development?
4 What is the fundamental principle that was adopted for every slit lamp instrument?
5 Who was the inventor of the slit lamp?
6 When and what modifications did the slit lamp undergo?
7 What are the main performance data of the slit lamp instrument?
10.3.5 Speak on the topic “Slit lamp”.
97
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Список использованных источников
1.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [Электронный ресурс]: Engineering.
– Электрон. дан. – Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org/
2.
Raymond, M. English Grammar in USE / M. Raymond. - 3-rd edition –
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. – 391 p.
3.
[Электронный ресурс]: – Электрон. дан. – Режим доступа:
http://www.iupui.edu/~cletcrse/webpages/bmet.html
4.
Ibbotson, M. English for Engineering / M. Ibbotson. - New edition –
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. – 112 p. – ISBN 9780521715188
5.
Ibbotson, M. Professional English in Use / M. Ibbotson. – Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2009. – 148 p. – ISBN 978-0-521-73488-2
6.
Armer, T. Cambridge English for Scientists / T. Armer. - Pap/Com
edition – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. – 128 p. – ISBN
10: 052115409X, ISBN 13: 978-0521154093
98
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Приложение A
(рекомендуемое)
Реферирование и аннотирование
A. 1 Реферирование
Двадцатый век отмечен небывалым развитием науки во всех областях знаний,
техническим прогрессом, многообразием международных связей и контактов,
чрезвычайно интенсивной общественно-политической жизнью на всех континентах.
Следствием этих процессов, происходящих в мире и обществе, явился бурный
рост информации. Составной частью информационной деятельности является
обработка
документов,
научных
статей,
реферирование
и
аннотирование
первоисточников, несущих информацию.
В
наше
время
существуют
сотни
реферативных
журналов,
бюро,
реферативных отделов при библиотеках и научных учреждениях.
Что же такое реферат?
Реферат — это обобщенное, сжатое изложение содержания первоисточника.
Поскольку мы будем иметь дело с реферированием исключительно иноязычного
материала, то здесь уместно сказать, что реферат — это отнюдь не сокращенный
перевод и не пересказ первоисточника.
Предполагается, что реферат отвечает на основной вопрос: какая новая
информация заключена в реферируемой работе?
Референт в отличие от переводчика сталкивается с двойной трудностью —
ему
нужно,
во-первых,
досконально
разобраться
в
тексте
иноязычного
первоисточника и, во-вторых, изложить основные мысли реферируемого материала
(статьи, монографии и т. п.) в сжатом виде.
К сожалению, не существует унифицированных требований, предъявляемых к
реферату. Требования к реферату разнятся в зависимости от учреждения или лица,
которое заказывает реферат, а также от тех аспектов материала, которые его
99
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
интересуют.
Приступая к реферированию, референт должен:
1)
устно или письменно перевести текст первоисточника;
2)
выделить ключевые отрывки, несущие в себе основной смысл;
3)
отобрать те главные факты, данные и положения, которые должны быть
отражены в реферате, и выстроить их в логической последовательности;
4)
руководствуясь
внутренней
логикой
текста
и
пользуясь
четкими
формулировками, обобщить содержание текста- первоисточника; при этом следует
отбросить
все
гипотетического
доказательства,
характера,
рассуждения,
элементы
авторской
полемику,
соображения
субъективной
трактовки,
образность и эмоциональность.
Язык реферата должен быть предельно четким, точным и лаконичным.
Только
это
поможет
избежать
частностей
и
соблюсти
специфическую
литературную форму реферата. В зависимости от характера реферируемого
материала и от задания реферат может быть рефератом-конспектом и рефератомрезюме.
Если референт имеет дело с материалом, изобилующим данными, фактами,
цифрами, именами, которыми он не может пожертвовать при обобщении, то
реферат будет носить конспективный характер, и степень обобщенности будет
меньшей, нежели у реферата-резюме, который призван отразить главное, наиболее
важное в реферируемом материале и оставить в стороне второстепенное.
Ниже мы приводим в качестве иллюстраций два реферата небольших статей
из периодики. Рефераты такого рода могут понадобиться при обзоре печати. Статьи
эти принадлежат к жанру газетной публицистики, но несут разную информацию.
Внимательно сравнив первоисточник с рефератом, можно получить представление
о технической стороне процесса реферирования.
Separating kids and guns
Even the most hard-nosed police officers and veteran reporters wince when stories
100
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
come across their desks about children killed in accidents involving firearms. Yet the
reports keep coming in with alarming frequency. Every day, 10 American children 18 or
under are killed in handgun suicides, homicides and accidents, according to the Center to
Prevent Handgun Violence, and many more children are wounded. In larger urban areas,
gunshot wounds to children ages 16 and under have increased 300 percent since 1986.
From the National Council for Health Statistics, more chilling numbers: in 1987, one out
of every 10 children who died before the age of 20 was killed by a gun. It is enough to
move concerned legislators to vote for new safety measures — and in Virginia, the state
senate has done so. If house delegates add their votes in sufficient numbers, a sensible
child-gun safety bill can go on the books.
The senate-passed proposal now before the House Courts of Justice Committee in
Virginia is a modest approach, similar to a law enacted last year in Florida. It focuses on
ways to discourage adults from leaving loaded guns accessible to children. If a child
obtained an improperly stored loaded gun and killed or wounded someone, the adult gun
owner could be guilty of a misdemeanor. The measure also would mandate that a gunsafety program be taught in the state’s public schools beginnings next year.
Supporters also note that the intent is not to put grief- stricken parents in prison for
the death of their child. Half the time, children are killed with guns owned by someone
other than their parent; 30 percent of the time, it is a neighbour’s gun. In any event,
prosecutors would have discretion whether to bring charges, and most are not insensible to
the grief of parents.
Support for this bill comes from gun-owners, too, who point out that the measure is
not a gun “control” bill in the sense that it would affect anyone’s ownership of a firearm.
It does not prevent children from using or possessing guns while under the supervision of
an adult.
If just one child’s life were saved by this measure, the lawmakers in Virginia could
be proud to have helped. With passage by the house, the child-gun safety bill can be given
the try that it certainly merits.
Оградить детей от огнестрельного оружия — Separating Kids and Guns
101
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Американская
общественность
обеспокоена
растущей
статистикой
самоубийств, убийств и ранений среди детей и молодежи, совершаемых с помощью
огнестрельного оружия. В штатах Вирджиния и Флорида принимаются робкие
попытки законодательным путем обязать родителей хранить свое оружие в месте,
недоступном
для
детей.
Предполагается,
что
родители
должны
нести
ответственность за несоблюдение мер безопасности. Законопроект, ограждающий
детей от огнестрельного оружия, заслуживает внедрения в судебную практику.
“Oxygen depletion — a serious threat to global ecology”
by Michael McCarthy, an environment correspondent
The depletion of the Earth’s oxygen through burning fossil fuels might be a
greater threat than increased carbon dioxide causing global warming, yet it is largely
unheeded, a leading physicist said last night.
About sixteen billion tonnes of oxygen are being used up every year, and this
might bring catastrophe, especially to parts of the ocean, which might be “asphyxiated”
long before the supply of oxygen has gone, Professor Freeman Dyson said. “It is possible
that the depletion of oxygen in the ocean presents an even more serious longterm threat to
the global ecology than the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,” he said.
“Reducing oxygen by 50 percent will cause more drastic damage to more species
than increasing carbon dioxide by 50 percent. A doubling of C02 would be for the majority
of species a tolerable insult; a reduction of oxygen in the ocean to zero would be a total
catastrophe.”
Professor Dyson, professor of natural sciences at the institute of advanced study at
Princeton, said he was surprised that the general public all over the world was not
clamouring to know how fast we were using up the oxygen.
Pointing out that eight tonnes of oxygen are used up for every three tonnes of coal,
oil or gas burned.Professor Dyson called on the international scientific community to
begin a programme of accurately measuring the depletion rate of oxygen. He said that the
rate was at present thought to be 13 parts per million per year, and although accurate
102
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
measurement was not easy, it should be possible with modern instruments.
Professor Dyson said that the biggest effects of oxygen depletion were likely to be
found in the oceans because there was a much smaller amount than in the atmosphere and
effects of depletion were consequently greater. “Catastrophe may come to parts of the
ocean long before the oxygen reservoir is exhausted. The Pacific Ocean is already
seriously depleted. It contains 50 percent of the Planet’s water but only 40 percent of the
dissolved oxygen.”
“So long as we are not measuring the rate of depletion year by year, we have no
basis for guessing how soon the asphyxiation of large parts of the Pacific Ocean might
begin. For this reason a programme of measurement of the oceanic oxygen fluxes is
urgently necessary.”
Недостаток кислорода — серьезная экологическая проблема
“Oxygen depletion — a serious threat to global ecology”
by Michael McCarthy
Изложено мнение проф. Дайсона из Принстонского института перспективных
исследований о необходимости непрерывного контроля за содержанием кислорода
(СК) в атмосфере Земли, и особенно в океанах, где СК существенно меньше, чем в
атмосфере. Вызывает тревогу состояние Тихого океана, в водах которого СК
уменьшилось до 40% от нормы. При отсутствии программы контроля невозможно
предсказать скорость убывания СК и предупредить умирание жизни в океане.
A. 2 Аннотирование
Что такое аннотация? Это предельно сжатое описание материала, имеющее
своей целью дать представление читателю, о чем сообщает первоисточник. По
аннотации можно узнать о наличии определенного материала, познакомиться с его
выходными данными (автор, название публикации, место и год издания, название
103
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
газеты или журнала, где опубликован аннотируемый материал, номер и дата
опубликования) и получить общее представление о его содержании.
Существуют два вида аннотации — описательная и реферативная.
Описательная аннотация предлагает максимально сжатое описание материала,
но не раскрывает его содержания.
Реферативная аннотация, помимо описания и характеристики первоисточника,
дает очень краткое содержание оригинала.
Аннотация существенно отличается от реферата. Во-первых, аннотация не
заменяет собой оригинал. Во-вторых, аннотация носит более обобщенный характер,
чем реферат. Она дает лишь самое общее представление о содержании оригинала.
104
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Приложение Б
(рекомендуемое)
Грамматический справочник
Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
Инфинитив представляет собой основу глагола, которой обычно предшествует
частица to, и относится к его неличным формам (cм. таблицу Б.1).
Таблица Б.1 – Формы инфинитива
Tense
Active
Simple
to help
Continuous
to be helping
Perfect
to have helped
Passive
to be helped
to have been helped
1) The Simple Infinitive Active и Passive употребляется для выражения
действия, одновременного с действием, обозначенным глаголом-сказуемым в
предложении, в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.
Примеры
1 I am glad to help him. – Я рад помочь ему.
2 I was glad to help him. – Я был рад помочь ему.
3 I’ll be glad to help him. – Я буду рад помочь ему.
4 I am glad to be helped. – Я рад, что мне помогают.
2) The Continuous Infinitive Active употребляется для выражения действия в
процессе
его
развертывания,
происходящего
одновременно
с
действием,
обозначенным глаголом-сказуемым в предложении.
Примеры
1 I am glad to be helping him. – Я рад, что сейчас помогаю ему.
2 It was pleasant to be helping him again. – Было приятно снова помогать ему.
105
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3) The Perfect Infinitive Active и Passive употребляется для выражения
действия, которое предшествует действию, обозначенному глаголом-сказуемым в
предложении.
Примеры
1 I am glad to have helped him. – Я рад, что помог ему.
2 I am glad to have been helped. – Я рад, что мне помогли.
Б.1.1 Функции инфинитива
Инфинитив может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:
1) Подлежащего.
Примеры
1 То translate such an article without a dictionary is difficult.
2 To work with computer was new to many of us.
В этом случае инфинитив стоит в самом начале предложения во главе группы
слов перед сказуемым. Инфинитив в функции подлежащего можно переводить как
неопределенной формой глагола, так и отглагольным существительным.
2) Обстоятельства цели.
Примеры
1 То translate such an article without a dictionary, you must know English well. –
Чтобы переводить такую статью без словаря, вы должны хорошо знать английский
язык.
2 One must work hard to master a foreign language. – Нужно много работать,
чтобы овладеть иностранным языком.
3 To increase the speed, the designers have to improve the aircraft shape and engine
efficiency. – Чтобы увеличить скорость, конструкторы должны улучшить форму
самолета и КПД (эффективность) двигателя.
4 Once a week a student of Cambridge is to go to his tutor to discuss his work. – Раз
в неделю студент Кембриджа должен встретиться со своим наставником, чтобы
обсудить свою работу.
106
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
В этом случае инфинитив может стоять как в самом начале предложения
перед подлежащим, так и в конце предложения. В функции обстоятельства цели
инфинитиву могут предшествовать союзы in order to, so as чтобы, для того чтобы.
3) Части сказуемого (простого и составного).
Примеры
1 Our aim is to translate technical articles without dictionaries. – Наша цель –
переводить (перевод) технические статьи без словаря.
2 Не can translate this article without a dictionary. – Он может переводить такую
статью без словаря.
3 He will translate the article next week – Он будет переводить (переведет) эту
статью на следующей неделе.
В этом случае инфинитив стоит либо после глагола to be, либо после
модальных глаголов, либо после вспомогательных глаголов.
4) Дополнения.
Примеры
1 Не doesn’t like to translate technical articles. – Он не любит переводить
технические статьи.
2 The article was not difficult to translate. – Эту статью было нетрудно
переводить.
3 I am glad to have spoken to our lecturer about my work. – Я рад(а), что
поговорил(а) с нашим лектором о моей работе.
В этом случае инфинитив стоит после глагола или прилагательного.
5) Определения.
Пример – Не was the first to translate this article. – Он первым перевел эту
статью.
В этой функции инфинитив стоит после слов the first, the second, the last и т. д.
или после существительного.
После существительного инфинитив чаще всего стоит в пассивной форме,
обычно имеет модальное значение и выражает действие, которое должно произойти
107
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
в будущем. В этом случае инфинитив переводится определительным придаточным
предложением.
Примеры
1 Не gave me some articles to translate. – Он дал мне несколько статей, которые
нужно было перевести (для перевода).
2 Here is the article to be translated. – Вот статья, которую нужно перевести.
3 Here is the article to translate. Gagarin was the first to orbit the Earth. – Вот
статья для перевода. Гагарин первый облетел Землю.
4 The device to be tested has been made in our lab. – Прибор, который будет
(должен) испытываться, сделан в нашей лаборатории.
Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for представляет собой сочетание
предлога for с существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном
падеже и инфинитива. Инфинитив показывает, какое действие должно быть
совершено лицом, обозначенным существительным или местоимением. Этот оборот
переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением обычно с союзом что,
чтобы.
Пример – Не waited for her to speak. – Он ждал, что она заговорит.
Инфинитив как часть сложного дополнения (The Complex Object)
В английском языке суждение, мнение, предположение о чем-то или о ком-то
можно выразить двумя способами:
1) сложноподчиненным предложением с дополнительным придаточным
предложением;
2) простым предложением со сложным дополнением, которое представляет
собой сочетание существительного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в объектном
падеже) с инфинитивом. На русский язык сложное дополнение с инфинитивом
переводится
точно
так
же,
как
и
сложноподчиненное
предложение
с
дополнительным придаточным предложением.
108
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Сложное дополнение с инфинитивом употребляется после следующих
глаголов: to know знать, to want хотеть, to find находить, устанавливать, to like
любить, нравиться, to think думать, to believe полагать, to assume допускать,
предполагать, to consider считать, to expect предполагать, to allow позволять, to
enable давать возможность, to cause заставлять и др.
Особенностью употребления сложного дополнения с инфинитивом является
то, что после некоторых глаголов опускается частица to перед инфинитивом. К ним
относятся глаголы чувственного восприятия: to feel чувствовать, to hear слышать, to
see видеть, to watch наблюдать, to notice замечать, to let позволять, to make
заставлять.
Инфинитив как часть сложного подлежащего (The Complex Subject)
В английском языке мнение или предположение группы неопределенных лиц
о чем-то или о ком-то можно выразить двумя способами:
1) сложноподчиненным предложением;
2) простым предложением со сложным подлежащим, которое включает имя
существительное (в общем падеже) или местоимение (в именительном падеже) и
инфинитив.
Инфинитивный
оборот
«сложное
подлежащее»
употребляется
после
следующих глаголов в страдательном залоге: to know знать, to say говорить, to report
сообщать, to find находить, устанавливать, to assume, to suppose предполагать, to
consider, to think считать, думать, to expect ожидать, полагать и др.
Примеры
1 Не is known to be a good specialist. – Известно, что он хороший специалист.
2 The experiment is expected to be over soon. – Предполагают, что эксперимент
скоро закончится.
Перевод таких предложений следует начинать со сказуемого предложения и
переводить его неопределенно-личным предложением известно, предполагают,
109
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
установлено, считают и т. д., за которым следует придаточное предложение,
вводимое союзом «что».
Возможен и другой способ перевода этих предложений (начиная с
подлежащего): Он, как известно, хороший специалист. Эксперимент, как полагают,
скоро закончится. Глагол-сказуемое может быть и в действительном залоге, если
употребляются следующие глаголы: to seem, to appear казаться, по-видимому,
очевидно; to prove, to turn out оказываться; to happen случаться, оказываться.
Пример – They seem to work very hard. Они, кажется, много работают.
Наконец, глагол-сказуемое может быть составным: to be likely вероятно, to be
unlikely невероятно, маловероятно, едва ли, to be sure, certainly несомненно,
непременно, обязательно.
Причастие (The Participle)
Причастие является неличной формой глагола, которая обладает свойствами
глагола, прилагательного и наречия. Подобно прилагательному, причастие может
быть определением к существительному или именной частью составного
сказуемого.
Примеры
1 A broken cup – разбитая чашка.
2 Cup was broken – чашка была разбита.
Подобно наречию, причастие может быть обстоятельством, характеризующим
действие, выраженное сказуемым.
Пример – Reading the text he wrote out new words. – Читая текст, он выписывал
новые слова.
Подобно глаголу, причастие имеет видовременные и залоговые формы, может
иметь прямое дополнение и определяться наречием. В английском языке существует
два вида причастий: Participle I и Participle II.
Participle I образуется путем прибавления окончания –ing к основе глагола.
110
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Пример – to speak – speaking, to stop – stopping, to begin – beginning, to travel –
travelling, to drive – driving, to lie – lying.
Participle II правильных глаголов образуется путем добавления окончания -ed
к основе глагола.
Пример – to ask – asked, to train – trained.
Participle II неправильных глаголов образуется особыми способами; это третья
форма неправильных глаголов: to give – given, to build – built.
Все
другие
сложные
формы
Participle
I
образуются
с
помощью
вспомогательных глаголов to be или to have и Participle II смыслового глагола.
Независимый причастный оборот – это сочетание существительного в общем
падеже (или местоимения в именительном падеже) с Participle I или Participle II, в
котором существительное (или местоимение) выполняет роль подлежащего по
отношению к причастию и не является подлежащим всего предложения. Такой
оборот
логически
связан
с
предложением
и
по
существу является
его
обстоятельством. Подобно обстоятельству, независимый причастный оборот может
предшествовать подлежащему, т. е. стоять в начале предложения или следовать за
группой сказуемого в конце предложения. Этот оборот всегда отделяется запятой от
остальной части предложения.
В начале предложения в функции обстоятельства на русский язык этот оборот
переводится, как правило, придаточным предложением причины, времени, условия
с союзами так как, когда, если и др.
Примеры
1 The weather being fine, we went for a walk. – Так как погода была хорошая мы
пошли погулять.
2 Weather permitting, the airplane will fly. – Когда погода позволит, самолет
вылетит.
Герундий (The Gerund)
111
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, которая выражает действие как
процесс, и образуется прибавлением окончания –ing к основе глагола. Герундий
является промежуточной формой между глаголом и существительным и поэтому
обладает свойствами и глагола и существительного.
Свойства глагола у герундия
Герундий имеет следующие формы времени и залога (см. таблицу B.1):
Таблица Б.2
Indefinite
Perfect
Active
Passive
writing
being written
having written
having been written
The Indefinite Gerund выражает процесс в наиболее общем виде и действие,
одновременное с действием глагола в личной форме.
Примеры
1 We prefer using new methods of work. – Мы предпочитаем использовать
новые методы работы.
2 We prefer new methods of work being used. – Мы предпочитаем, чтобы
использовались новые методы работы.
Perfect Gerund выражает действие, которое обычно предшествует действию,
выраженному глаголом в личной форме.
Примеры
1 I remember having given this instruction. – Я помню, что дал (давал) это
указание.
2 I remember having been given this instruction. – Я помню, что мне давали это
указание.
112
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Чаще всего формы пассивного герундия на русский язык переводятся
придаточными предложениями.
Герундий может иметь прямое дополнение.
Пример – We are interested in improving working conditions. – Мы
заинтересованы в том, чтобы улучшить условия работы (в улучшении условий
работы).
Герундий может определяться наречием.
Пример – We have to insist on your replying promptly. – Мы вынуждены
настаивать, чтобы вы ответили немедленно.
Свойства существительного у герундия
1) Герундий может определяться притяжательным местоимением или
существительным в притяжательном падеже.
Пример – I insist on his (the inspector’s) coming as soon as possible. – Я
настаиваю на том, чтобы он (инспектор) приехал как можно скорее.
2) Перед герундием может стоять предлог.
Пример – On receiving a letter we shall immediately take action. – По получении
письма мы немедленно примем меры.
Употребление герундия
1 После следующих глаголов без предлогов:
a) to begin, to start, to finish, to stop, to continue, to keep (продолжать) и др.
Пример – Please keep sending us letters at this address. – Пожалуйста,
продолжайте посылать нам письма по этому адресу.
б) to like, to enjoy, to prefer, to mind, to excuse, to remember, to forget, to suggest,
to avoid, to need, to want, to require и др.
Пример – The results need being checked. – Результаты необходимо проверить.
113
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2 После глагола с предлогами: to apologize for, to thank for, to look forward to, to
congratulate on, to insist on, to depend on, to object to, to be interested in, to be
responsible for и др.
Пример – We insisted on continuing the experiment. – Мы настаивали на
продолжении эксперимента.
3) После существительного с предлогом: way of, programme of, reason for,
process of и др.
Пример – The way of using is indicated in the instructions. – Способ
использования указан в инструкциях.
4) После составных предлогов и словосочетаний:
– on account of – ввиду, из-за;
– because of – из-за;
– due to – благодаря, из-за;
– with a view to – с целью (для того чтобы);
– despite – несмотря на.
Пример – We could not continue the work because of no raw materials being
supplied. – Мы не смогли продолжать работу из-за отсутствия поставки сырья.
Герундий употребляется:
1) В качестве подлежащего.
Пример – Reading is useful. – Чтение полезно.
2) Как часть сказуемого после глаголов to finish, to start, to continue, to go on, to
keep и др.
Пример – He started reading the book. – Он начал читать книгу.
3) Как предложное дополнение.
Пример – I am fond of reading. – Я люблю читать
4) Как прямое дополнение:
Пример – Do you mind my reading here? – Вы не против моего чтения здесь?
5) Как обстоятельство времени.
Пример – After reading he closed the book. – После чтения он закрыл книгу.
6) Как обстоятельство образа действия.
114
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Пример – Instead of reading he went to the movies. – место чтения он пошел в
кино.
Перевод герундия на русский язык
Герундий может переводиться на русский язык:
1) Существительным.
Пример – We are interested in buying these goods. – Мы заинтересованы в
покупке этих товаров.
2) Инфинитивом.
Пример – Everybody went on working. – Все продолжали работать.
3) Деепричастием.
Пример – On coming to the laboratory he got down to work. – Придя в
лабораторию, он принялся за работу.
4) Придаточным предложением.
Пример – We regretted having done it. – Мы сожалели о том, что сделали это.
Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)
Формы страдательного залога английских глаголов образуются с помощью
вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и
Причастия II (Participle II) смыслового глагола:
Present Indefinite: Past Indefinite: Future Indefinite:
The letter is written. The letter was written. The letter will be written.
Present Continuous: The letter is being written.
Past Continuous:
The letter was being written
Future Continuous: The letter will be being written.
Present Perfect:
The letter has been written.
Past Perfect:
The letter had been written.
Future Perfect:
The letter will have been written.
115
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге показывает, что подлежащее
предложения является объектом действия со стороны другого лица или предмета.
Сравните:
I bought a book. Я купил книгу.
The book was bought (by me). Книга была куплена (мной).
Глаголы в страдательном залоге на русский язык переводятся
1 глаголом быть + краткая форма причастия страдательного залога:
The letter was sent yesterday. Письмо было послано вчера.
1 глаголом с частицей -ся (-сь):
This problem was discussed last week. Эта проблема обсуждалась на прошлой
неделе.
3 неопределенно-личным оборотом, т.е. глаголом в действительном залоге 3
лица множественного числа, типа “говорят”, “сказали”:
English is spoken in many countries. На английском языке говорят во многих
странах.
4 глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя действия):
Pupils are taught at school by teachers. Учеников учат в школе учителя.
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (Modal Verbs and their Equivalents)
В английском языке есть группа глаголов, которые выражают не действия, а
только отношение к ним со стороны говорящего. Они называются модальными. С
их помощью говорящий показывает, что то или иное действие возможным или
невозможным, обязательным или ненужным и т.д. К числу модальных глаголов
относятся can, may, must, ought, shall, should, will, need.
He саn swim.
Он умеет плавать.
He may swim.
Он может плавать (ему разрешено).
I must swim.
Я должен плавать.
You should swim.
Ты должен плавать (рекомендация).
She needs to swim.
Ей надо плавать (необходимо).
116
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
He саn swim.
Он умеет плавать.
He may swim.
Он может плавать (ему разрешено).
I must swim.
Я должен плавать.
You should swim.
Ты должен плавать (рекомендация).
She needs to swim.
Ей надо плавать (необходимо).
Чисто модальные глаголы являются недостаточными по форме, так как у них
отсутствует ряд грамматических форм, например: они не имеют суффикса -s в 3-м
лице единственного числа настоящего времени; у них нет инфинитива, инговой
формы и причастия; у некоторых из них нет формы прошедшего времени (must,
should, ought, need). Среди других особенностей модальных глаголов необходимо
упомянуть следующие:
1 Инфинитив смыслового глагола употребляется без частицы to после всех
модальных глаголов, кроме ought, to have и to be.
2 Вопросительные и отрицательные формы предложений, в которых имеются
модальные глаголы, строятся без вспомогательного глагола do, за исключением
глагола to have, например:
Must I come too?
Я тоже должен прийти?
She cannot do it today. Она не может сделать этого сегодня.
Взамен недостающих форм употребляются их эквиваленты:
Таблица Б.3 – Эквиваленты модальных глаголов
Past
Present
Future
shall
could
can
be able to do smth
will
shall
had to do smth
must
have to do smth
will
117
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
shall
might
may
be allowed to do smth
will
Употребление:
may, might
May + Present Infinitive выражает просьбу, разрешение, возможность,
предположение, сомнение. Might - прошедшее время от may выражает также
сомнение - в большей степени, чем may.
can, could
Can
+
Present
Infinitive
выражает
возможность
или
способность.
Could+Infinitive часто имеет оттенок неопределённости и может соответствовать
русскому сослагательному наклонению.
must
Must + Present Infinitive в утвердительных и вопросительных предложениях
выражает необходимость, долженствование, обязанность, а также совет, приказ.
Отрицательная форма mustn't (must not) обычно выражает запрет (нельзя), т.е.
является противоположной по значению глаголу may. Отсутствие необходимости
(не нужно, не надо) выражается глаголом needn't (need not).
Must может относится только к настоящему и, в некоторых случаях, к
будущему времени. Для выражения долженствования в прошедшем и будущем
вместо must употребляется have to + Present Infinitive (в соответствующей временной
форме).
Например:
He had to take a taxi to get to the airport on time.
Ему пришлось взять такси, чтобы вовремя попасть в аэропорт.
I'll have to go to the super- market tomorrow.
Завтра мне придётся пойти в супермаркет.
+ He had to wake uр early yesterday.
- He didn't have to wake up early yesterday.
118
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
? Did he have tо wake up early yesterday?
Yes, I did. No, I did not. (No, I didn't.)
had to do smth - in the Past Indefinite Tense
will (shall) have to do smth - in the Future Indefinite Tense
need
Need + Present Infinitive ( Active или Passive ) употребляется только в форме
настоящего времени - обычно в отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях.
should, would
Глагольные формы should и would выполняют функцию не только
вспомогательных глаголов, но и употребляются в качестве модальных глаголов.
Would выражает в качестве модального глагола:
1) повторность действия в прошлом;
2) просьбу;
3) намерение, желание.
Should выражает (в качестве модального глагола) наставление, увещевание,
рекомендацию, совет (на русский язык переводится - должен, должен бы, следует,
следует бы).
Ought to, в отличие от can, may, must, требует инфинитива смыслового глагола
с частицей to. Обозначает часто моральный долг, обязанность говорящего.
Совпадает по значению с should, но используется реже.
119
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
10
Размер файла
1 013 Кб
Теги
development, competent, 135, self, engineer, stud, medical, bio, English
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа