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137.Английский глагол и его грамматические категории учебно-методическое пособие

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет
имени М.В. Ломоносова»
Е.Б. Авраменко
Английский глагол
и его грамматические категории
Учебно-методическое пособие
Архангельск
ИД САФУ
2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК811.111ʼ36
ББК 81.2 Англ-2
А21
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом
Северного (Арктического) федерального университета
имени М.В. Ломоносова
Рецензенты:
доцент, кандидат филологических наук Т.С. Бабарыкина,
доцент, кандидат филологических наук К.А. Мякшин
Авраменко, Е.Б.
А21 Английский глагол и его грамматические категории: учеб.-метод.
пособие / Е.Б. Авраменко; Сев. (Арктич.) федер. ун-т им. М.В. Ломоносова. – Архангельск: ИД САФУ, 2014. – 162 с.
ISBN 978-5-261-00947-4
Содержание пособия соответствует учебному плану и программе
дисциплины «Практическая грамматика английского языка». Представлены материалы (упражнения, схемы, таблицы, алгоритмы и др.),
позволяющие систематизировать и обобщить имеющиеся у студентов знания о глаголе и его категориях, а также организовать работу
по развитию и совершенствованию практических умений и навыков,
связанных с устной и письменной речью.
Предназначено студентам очной и заочной формы обучения по направлению 050100.62 «Педагогическое образование», профиль «Иностранный язык» (английский), а также аспирантам и преподавателям
английского языка.
УДК 811.111ʼ36
ББК 81.2 Англ-2
ISBN 978-5-261-00947-4
© Авраменко Е.Б., 2014
© Северный (Арктический)
федеральный университет
им. М.В. Ломоносова, 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Оглавление
Введение.................................................................................................... 4
Значение и образование видовременных форм английского глагола
(Meaning and formation of tense and aspect forms of the English verbs).
6
Страдательный залог (Passive voice)...................................................... 42
Согласование времен (Sequence of tenses).............................................. 53
Косвенная речь (Indirect speech)............................................................. 72
Условные предложения и сослагательное наклонение (Conditional
sentences and subjunctive mood)............................................................... 80
Неличные формы глагола (Non-finite forms of the verb)........................ 110
Модальные глаголы (Modal verbs).......................................................... 150
Библиографический список.................................................................... 160
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Введение
Содержание пособия соответствует учебному плану и программе дисциплины «Практическая грамматика английского языка».
Освоение данной дисциплины является необходимой основой для
последующего изучения таких дисциплин, как «Практика устной
и письменной речи», «Теоретическая грамматика», а также дисциплин вариативной части профессионального цикла.
Материалы пособия направлены на упорядочение и обобщение
знаний студентов, формирование иноязычной коммуникативной
компетенции, одним из основных критериев которой является
умение уверенно пользоваться наиболее употребительными языковыми средствами в основных видах речевой деятельности, таких как говорение, чтение, аудирование, письмо.
Основные задачи:
– систематизация ранее полученных знаний и формирование
речевых грамматических навыков продуктивной речи;
– закрепление изученного грамматического материала, предусмотренного программой;
– совершенствование лексико-грамматических навыков студентов посредством большого количества упражнений различной направленности.
К числу основных формируемых умений и навыков относятся:
– твердое знание системы английской грамматики;
– успешное владение навыками речевого общения на основе
правил английской грамматики;
– умение употреблять в речи клише и клишированные фразы с
учетом грамматических правил построения фраз речевого этикета;
– умение выстраивать стратегию устного и письменного общения с учетом социокультурных особенностей изучаемого языка;
– уверенное владение навыками письменной речи.
Каждый раздел пособия наряду с новым материалом содержит
элементы грамматики предыдущих разделов. В зависимости от
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уровня подготовки студентов преподаватель может вводить новый
грамматический материал, одновременно закрепляя и развивая
знания, умения и навыки, приобретенные студентами ранее. Многие примеры взяты из аутентичных классических и современных
художественных произведений английских и американских авторов. В подготовке пособия использовались фундаментальные труды по грамматике английского языка российских и зарубежных
лингвистов, а также был учтен имеющийся у автора многолетний
опыт преподавания данной дисциплины в вузе.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Значение и образование видовременных  
форм английского глагола 
(Meaning and formation of tense and aspect  
forms of the English verbs)
Perfect
Continuous
Indefinite
Значение
Present
Обычное, одно­к ратV1 / Vs
ное или по­вторяю(do, does)
щееся дей­ствие,
независимое от точно (often, usually,
frequently,
указан­ного момента
дей­ствия и длительgenerally,
commonly)
но­сти его протекания
Past
Future
V2 / Ved
(did)
will + V1
(yesterday,
2 days ago,
last month)
(tomorrow,
in 2 days,
next week)
Действие (в настоящем, прошед­шем,
будущем), носящее
длитель­ный характер
и продолжающееся
в указанный период
времени
am /is / are
+ Ving
was / were
+ Ving
will + be
+ Ving
(now,
at present
moment)
(at 7 o’clock
yesterday,
from 12 till
15, all day
long, the
whole day
yesterday )
(this time
tomorrow,
the whole
day tomorrow, from
Monday till
Wednesday)
Действие, закончившееся к опре­деленному мо­менту, связанное результатом
с по­следующим
перио­дом времени
have / has
+ V3
had + V3
will + have
+ V3
(today, just,
already, ever)
(by 7 o’clock
yesterday,
before he
came)
(by dinner,
before he
phones)
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Окончание таблицы
Perfect
Continuous
Значение
Present
Past
Future
Действие, начав­шееся
have / has
had + been
shall / will
до опреде­ленного
+ been+Ving
+ Ving
+ have been
момента, длившее+ Ving
ся какой-то период
( for 2 hours
( for 2 hours ( for 2 weeks
already;
before he
before he
времени и имеющее резуль­тат или
since 14;
came;
comes)
How long …? How long …?
продол­жающееся в
по­следующий период Since when …?) Since when …?)
Настоящее неопределенное (the Present Indefinite):
I (we, you, they) often visit our university reading hall.
Do I (we, you, they) often visit our university reading hall?
I (we, you, they) don’t often visit our city library.
He (she) usually (always) goes to the university by bus.
Does he (she) usually (always) go to the university on foot?
He (she) doesn’t usually (always) go to the university by (in) a taxi.
Настоящее длительное (the Present Continuous):
I am learning new words now.
Am I revising new words now?
I am not learning reading a book now.
He (she) is speaking over the phone now.
Is he (she) speaking with his (her) friends now?
He (she) is not speaking with his (her) teacher now.
We (they, you) are going to the cinema now.
We (they, you) are not going to the theater now.
Настоящее совершенное (the Present Perfect):
I (we, you, they) have just returned from business trip.
Where have I (we, you, they) returned from?
I (we, you, they) have just returned from summer vocation.
There are books, which have been our great favourites since childhood.
He (she) has already done everything.
Has he (she) done everything or only part of all necessary things?
He (she) hasn’t come yet.
Настоящее совершенное длительное (the Present Perfect Continuous):
I (we, you, they) have been discussing the plan of our conference for 2
hours already.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
What have I (we, you, they) been discussing for 2 hours already?
I (we, you, they) haven’t been discussing the new film for 2 hours.
He (she) has been working too hard for the last three months.
Has he (she) been blowing off his homework work for the last week?
He (she) hasn’t been answering my letters for a month.
Прошедшее неопределенное (the Past Indefinite):
In the 17th century the New Englanders in the North spoke the language
of Shakespeare and Milton.
Did you notice the dark man who was sitting alone in the dining-saloon?
Two hours ago he didn’t say anything of the kind.
Прошедшее длительное (the Past Continuous):
Fielding himself repeatedly stressed the novelty of the form he was
creating.
Was American English becoming almost unintelligible to the average
Englishman in the first decade of the 19th century as some American
literary men noticed?
He wasn’t going out from 5 till 6 yesterday.
Прошедшее совершенное (the Past Perfect):
Almost a century had passed after his death in 1827 before William
Blake (an English poet, painter and printer) was recognized as a truly
great poet and artist.
Margaret Mitchell (the author of the book «Gone with the Wind») put
on paper all the stories she had heard about the Civil War.
She asked me why I hadn’t come there the day before.
Had she promised her friend to return him his tape?
Прошедшее совершенное длительное (the Past Perfect Continuous):
He said that he was very tired as he had been playing football for three
hours.
How long had he been playing football before he got tired?
Had she been travelling a lot to become a good interpreter?
She hadn’t been standing at the bus stop for 20 minutes when George
drove up and got out.
Будущее неопределенное (the Future Indefinite):
She will look after the children, don’t worry.
He doesn’t even have the decency to apologize. I’m sure he won’t
apologize.
What will happen if he stops supporting us?
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Будущее длительное (the Future Continuous):
They will be demonstrating a very interesting film at this time tomorrow.
At 87, Jenny Wood Allen will be doing the London marathon for the
13th time this Sunday.
Will she be interrogating us the whole day tomorrow?
The general drift of the rhetorical questions she and her research team
won’t be framing is in tune with the times.
Будущее совершенное (the Future Perfect):
By the age of 65, the average American will have seen two million TV
commercials.
How long will he have seen all these scenes before there appears
anyone who will put a stopper on it?
I won’t have washed all linen by the time you come.
Будущее совершенное длительное (the Future Perfect Continuous):
I’m sure I will have been waiting for him for half an hour when he says
that he hadn’t had any desire to go anywhere.
How long will they have been playing in the yard by the time you come?
By the year of the election you will not have been living in this country
long enough to participate in it.
Неправильные глаголы 
(Irregular Verbs)
По способу образования II и III форм глагола (формы прошедшего неопределенного времени и страдательного причастия /
причастия II) английские глаголы делятся на правильные и неправильные. Правильные глаголы (Regular Verbs) – это глаголы, которые образуют II и III формы путем прибавления суффикса -ed к
основе глагола. Неправильные глаголы (Irregular Verbs) образуют
указанные формы различными синтетическими способами (непродуктивный тип) в соответствии с исторически сложившейся
языковой традицией (древнеанглийский язык).
I форма
II форма
III форма
Перевод
arise
be
beat
bear
become
arose
was, were
beat
bore
became
arisen
been
beaten
born
become
подниматься
быть, являться
бить, колотить
родить
сделаться, стать
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Продолжение таблицы
I форма
II форма
befall
befell
begin
began
bend
bent
beseech
besought
bet
bet
bind
bound
bite
bit
bleed
bled
blow
blew
break
broke
bring
brought
broadcast
broadcast
build
built
burn
burnt
burst
burst
buy
bought
cast
cast
catch
caught
choose
chose
come
came
cost
cost
creep
crept
cut
cut
deal
dealt
dig
dug
do
did
draw
drew
dream
dreamt
drink
drank
drive
drove
eat
ate
fall
fell
feed
fed
feel
felt
fight
fought
find
found
flee
fled
fly
flew
forbid
forbad, forbade
forget
forgot
forgive
forgave
III форма
Перевод
befallen
begun
bent
besought
bet
bound
bit
bled
blown
broken
brought
broadcast
built
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chosen
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
случиться
начинать(ся)
гнуть, наклонять
умолять
спорить, держать пари
связывать
кусать(ся)
истекать кровью
дуть
ломать(ся)
приносить
вещать, передавать по радио
строить
гореть, жечь
лопаться, разрываться
покупать
кидать
ловить, схватывать
выбирать
приходить
стоить
ползать, пресмыкаться
резать
иметь дело, распределять
рыть, копать
делать
тащить, рисовать
мечтать, видеть во сне
пить
вести, гнать
есть, кушать
падать
кормить
чувствовать
бороться, сражаться
находить
бежать, спасаться
летать
запрещать, не позволять
забывать
прощать
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Продолжение таблицы
I форма
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hit
hold
hurt
keep
kneel
knit
know
lay
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
mistake
pay
put
read
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
seek
sell
send
II форма
III форма
froze
frozen
got
got
gave
given
went
gone
grew
grown
hung
hung
had
had
heard
heard
hid
hidden
hit
hit
held
held
hurt
hurt
kept
kept
knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled
knit, knitted
knit, knitted
knew
known
laid
laid
led
led
learned, learnt learned, learnt
left
left
lent
lent
let
let
lay
lain
lit
lit
lost
lost
made
made
meant
meant
met
met
mistook
mistaken
paid
paid
put
put
read
read
rode
ridden
rang
rung
rose
risen
ran
run
said
said
saw
seen
sought
sought
sold
sold
sent
sent
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Перевод
замораживать, сковывать
получать, становиться
давать
идти, ходить
расти, становиться
вешать, висеть
иметь
слышать
прятать
ударять, поражать
держать
ранить, причинять боль
держать, хранить
стоять на коленях
вязать
знать
лежать
вести
учить(ся)
оставлять, покидать
давать взаймы
позволять
лгать
зажигать
терять, проигрывать
делать
значить
встречать
ошибаться
платить, оплачивать
класть
читать
ездить верхом
звенеть, звонить
подниматься
бежать
сказать
видеть
искать, разыскивать
продавать
посылать
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Продолжение таблицы
I форма
II форма
III форма
Перевод
set
set
set
помещать, устанавливать
sew
sewed
sewn, sewed
шить, пришивать
shake
shook
shaken
трясти
shave
shaved
shaved, shaven
брить(ся)
shine
shone
shone
сиять, блестеть
shoot
shot
shot
стрелять
show
showed
showed, shown
показывать
shrink
shrank, shrunk shrunk, shrunken сжиматься, сокращаться
shut
shut
shut
закрывать
sing
sang
sung
петь
sink
sank
sunk
погружаться, тонуть
sit
sat
sat
сидеть
sleep
slept
slept
спать
slide
slid
slid
скользить
smell
smelt
smelt
нюхать, пахнуть
speak
spoke
spoken
говорить
spell
spelt
spelt
произносить по буквам
spend
spent
spent
тратить
spill
spilled, spilt
spilt, spilled
проливать
split
split
split
раскалывать, расщеплять
spoil
spoilt
spoilt
портить
spread
spread
spread
распространять
spring
sprang
sprung
прыгать
stand
stood
stood
стоять
steal
stole
stolen
красть, похищать
stick
stuck
stuck
втыкать, приклеивать
sting
stung
stung
жалить, укусить
strike
struck
struck
ударять, бить, бастовать
string
strung
strung
нанизать, натянуть
strive
strove
striven
стараться, пытаться
swear
swore
sworn
клясться
sweep
swept
swept
мести, подметать, смахивать
swim
swam
swum
плавать
swing
swung
swung
раскачивать, размахивать
take
took
taken
брать
teach
taught
taught
обучать
tear
tore
torn
разрывать, рвать
tell
told
told
сказать
think
thought
thought
думать
throw
threw
thrown
бросать
understand understood
understood
понимать
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Окончание таблицы
I форма
II форма
III форма
Перевод
wake
wear
weep
win
wind
withdraw
withstand
wring
write
woke
wore
wept
won
wound
withdrew
withstood
wrung
wrote
woken
worn
wept
won
wound
withdrawn
withstood
wrung
written
просыпаться, будить
носить, изнашивать
плакать, рыдать
выигрывать, побеждать
крутить, заводить (часы)
взять назад, отозвать
устоять, противиться
скрутить, сжать
писать
Правила правописания (Spelling Rules). При образовании от
правильных глаголов прошедшего неопределенного времени (the
Past Indefinite) и причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II),
имеющих одинаковую форму, соблюдаются следующие орфографические правила:
1) если начальная форма глагола заканчивается на непроизносимую -е, то она выпадает: to hope – hoped; to smile – smiled;
to dance – danced;
2) если начальная форма глагола заканчивается на букву -y, которой предшествует согласная, то перед окончанием -ed она изменяется на i: to study – studied; to cry – cried; но, если ей предшествует гласная, то изменений не происходит: to play – played;
to stay – stayed;
3) если начальная форма глагола заканчивается на одну согласную букву, входящую в состав ударного слога, то конечная согласная перед -ed удваивается: to stop – stopped; to permit – permitted;
to regret – regretted;
4) если начальная форма глагола состоит из двух или более слогов и оканчивается на согласную -r, то эта согласная удваивается,
если последний слог ударный и не имеет дифтонга: to prefer – preferred; to occur – occurred;
5) если начальная форма глагола оканчивается на -l, она удваивается, если ей предшествует краткий гласный звук независимо
от ударности/безударности слога: to travel – travelled; to cancel –
cancelled.
При образовании причастия настоящего времени (Participle I),
которое используется в длительных (продолженных) формах, соблюдаются следующие орфографические правила:
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1) если первая форма глагола оканчивается на непроизносимую -е, то она выпадает: to take – taking; to make – making;
2) если начальная форма глагола состоит из одного краткого
слога и оканчивается на одну согласную, то согласная удваивается: to cut – cutting; to stop – stopping; to hit – hitting;
3) если начальная форма глагола состоит из двух или более слогов и оканчивается на одну согласную, входящую в состав ударного слога, то эта согласная удваивается: to begin – beginning;
to occur – occurring; to forget – forgetting;
4) если начальная форма глагола оканчивается на -l, то она удваивается независимо от ударности/безударности слога: to travel –
travelling; cancel – cancelling;
5) конечная -у не претерпевает никаких изменений: to study –
studying; to stay – staying; to carry – carrying;
6) в инфинитивах на -iе происходит замена этих букв на -у:
to tie – tying; to lie – lying; to die – dying.
Exercise 1. Form the Past Indefinite and Participle I from the given
verbs.
Beg, rev, equip, agree, glue, issue, queue, stage, singe, dandify, die,
lie, tie, vie, fulfill, appall, enthrall, extol, hope, smile, dance, confuse,
plan, rub, prefer, permit, regret, visit, develop, happen, remember,
travel, cancel, boil, need, explain, stay, study, play, occur, trek.
Английские времена, соответствующие  
настоящему времени в русском языке 
(English Tenses Corresponding to the Present  
Tense in the Russian Language)
Настоящему времени в русском языке соответствуют следующие английские времена:
• настоящее неопределенное (the Present Indefinite);
• настоящее длительное (the Present Continuous);
• настоящее совершенное, включающее момент действия (the
Present Perfect Inclusive);
• настоящее совершенное длительное, включающее момент
действия (the Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive).
Сравните:
Он пишет стихи.
He writes poems.
Он пишет новое стихотвореHe is writing a new poem. Don’t
bother him.
ние. Не мешай ему.
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Он пишет новое стихотворение уже три дня.
He has been writing a new poem
for three days.
Я уверена, что они изучают в
школе английский язык.
Они изучают английский сейчас.
Они изучают английский с детства.
I am sure that they study the English language at school.
They are studying English now.
They have been studying English
since childhood.
Где он работает? (вообще)
Где он сейчас работает?
Как долго он работает?
(сколько лет)
Where does he work?
Where is he working now?
How long has he been working?
Он обедает дома?
Почему мы не можем зайти к
нему? Он сейчас обедает?
Давно ли он обедает?
Does he have dinner at home?
Why can’t we call on him? Is he
having dinner now?
How long has he been having
dinner?
Особое внимание надо уделить настоящему совершенному
времени (the Present Perfect), которое используется вместо Present
Perfect Continuous с глаголами, не употребляющимися во временах группы Continuous. В этом случае Present Perfect переводится
на русский язык настоящим временем:
Я знаю его 3 года.
Они (находятся) здесь с утра.
I have known him for three years.
They have been here since
morning.
К числу глаголов, не употребляющихся во временах группы
Continuous, относятся такие, которые не могут выражать действие
или состояние как процесс, например:
• глаголы чувства и мышления: to adore (обожать), to agree (соглашаться), to believe (верить), to doubt (сомневаться), to hear (слышать), to notice (замечать), to see (видеть), to smell (ощущать запах),
to forget (забывать), to remember (помнить), to know (знать), to suppose (полагать, предполагать), to understand (понимать), to recognize (узнавать), to realize (понимать, осознавать), to mean (значить,
означать, подразумевать), to care (заботиться, проявлять заботу), to
love (любить), to like (нравиться), to dislike (не нравиться), to hate
(ненавидеть), to prefer (предпочитать), to feel (чувствовать, полагать), to seem (казаться), to appear (казаться), to care for (ухаживать,
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заботиться), to detest (ненавидеть), to respect (уважать), to admire
(восхищаться), to appreciate (оценивать, (высоко) ценить; быть
признательным, благодарным), to assume (принимать), to consider
(полагать, считать), to expect (полагать), to imagine (воображать,
придумывать), to perceive (воспринимать, понимать, осознавать;
постигать), to presume (полагать, допускать), to recall (вспоминать,
напоминать), to recollect (вспоминать), to regard (расценивать, рассматривать, считать), to think (полагать), to trust (доверять);
• глаголы общего значения: to apply (применять), to be (быть),
to have (иметь), to possess (обладать), to belong to (принадлежать),
to consist of (состоять), to result in (иметь результатом, приводить
к чему-либо), to depend on (зависеть), to concern (касаться, относится), to contain (содержать), to deserve (заслужить), to differ from
(отличаться), to equal (равняться), to fit (подходить), to hold (содержать), to include (включать), to involve (вовлекать), to lack (испытывать недостаток), to matter (значить), to need (нуждаться, требовать), to owe (быть должным), to own (владеть), to remain (оставаться), to require (требовать), to resemble (напоминать, быть похожим),
to signify (значить), to suffice (быть достаточным, хватать);
• глаголы желания и волеизъявления: to want (хотеть), to wish
(хотеть), to desire (желать), to mind (помнить, придавать значение,
возражать), to refuse (отказывать), to forgive (прощать);
• некоторые другие глаголы: to agree (соглашаться), to allow (позволять, разрешать), to appear (казаться), to astonish (изумлять, поражать, удивлять), to claim (требовать, заявлять о правах), to consent (соглашаться), to displease (вызывать недовольство, сердить,
раздражать), to envy (завидовать), to fail to do (не смочь что-либо
сделать), to find (находить), to forbid (запрещать), to forgive (прощать), to intend (намереваться), to interest (интересовать), to keep
doing (продолжать что-либо делать), to manage to do (быть способным что-либо сделать), to object (возражать), to please (радовать,
доставлять удовольствие, быть в радость, нравиться, угождать),
to prefer (предпочитать), to prevent (препятствовать), to puzzle (озадачивать), to remind (напоминать), to satisfy (удовлетворять), to
seem (казаться), to succeed (преуспевать), to suit (подходить), to surprise (удивлять), to tend (иметь склонность, склоняться), to value
(ценить).
Некоторые глаголы изменяют свое значение в зависимости от
того, используются ли они в формах Continuous или Non-continuous:
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Глагол
Простая форма
Длительная форма
to hear
(слышать)
The men shouted and I distinctly heard them through the
falling snow.
Joe shouted for joy when he
heard he’d passed the exam.
to smell (пахнуть)
These flowers smell bad.
Some perfume smells very
sweet.
to taste (иметь вкус)
This soup tastes great.
This apple tastes sour.
to see
(видеть)
What can you see over there?
(прислушиваться, слушать дело)
I think we’re going to be hearing
the patter of tiny feet soon.
The judge is hearing this case
today.
(нюхать)
Why are you smelling these roses,
they are plastic.
(пробовать)
What are you tasting?
What are you really tasting when
you drink tea with lemon?
(встречаться)
We are seeing at Ann’s tonight.
Глагол to have употребляется в формах Continuous, когда он
является частью сказуемого. Наиболее употребительными сочетаниями этого типа являются: to have lunch / breakfast / dinner / supper (завтракать, обедать, ужинать), to have a lesson (иметь урок), to
have a talk (поговорить), to have a look (взглянуть), to have a cold
(простудиться), to have a good time (хорошо провести время), to
have a rest (отдохнуть), to have a bite (перекусить), to have a drink
(выпить), to have a smoke (покурить), to have a quarrel (поссориться), to have an accident (попасть в аварию, неприятности), to have
a headache (иметь головную боль), to have an interview (провести
интервью, иметь встречу по поводу работы), to have a party (организовать прием, вечеринку), to have a swim (поплавать), to have a
thought (прийти к мысли, иметь мысль). Например:
He is having dinner.
How long have you been having
a headache?
Since when have you been having a quarrel?
Он обедает.
Как давно у вас болит голова?
С каких пор вы находитесь в
ссоре?
Глагол to be в форме Continuous в сочетании с некоторыми прилагательными служит для описания действия или поведения, которое имеет проходящий, временный характер. Например:
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Your friend is being very annoying today.
She is being very patient with me.
Твой друг очень надоедливый
сегодня.
Она очень терпелива по отношению ко мне.
Почему ты такой скучный?
Why are you being so boring?
Exercise 2. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of the
correct forms of the verb. Explain the use of them in the text.
The camera moves past Adam’s window where we see the dog slowly and sadly finishing off the chicken. It moves on to the next window.
The elderly woman is busy with another game of cards. Suddenly the
cell phone on the table rings. She lets it ring a couple of times then picks
it up.
Elderly woman: Hello? … Sam! Oh, Sam! Where are you, honey? …
Supper? No, it’s never too late. I made your favorite meat sauce today!
… OK, I’ll see you in a little while!
She gets up and goes over to the plate on the floor. She picks it up
and sniffs it. Her intentions are very clear.
The camera moves back to the dark ledge where the black cat is sitting. He is washing his fur carefully. When he has finished, he walks
slowly along the ledge toward Alice’s window. Below we hear again the
noise of police sirens getting louder and louder. Alice suddenly appears
at her window. She looks down at the street. The cat walks slowly towards her, his tail straight up. He meows softly.
Young woman: Tom! You came back! Come here! Oh, sweetie!
Where have you been? I missed you! I’m really sorry I got so mad at
you …
The cat allows her to pick him up. She holds him close and strokes
him. He begins to purr but he turns his head towards the last window.
The camera follows his gaze. As it reaches the window, we hear a door
slam, then open again.
Exercise 3. Translate from English into Russian.
1. He is having a meeting this afternoon. 2. You see, in six weeks
his regiment goes back to the front. 3. You’ve so often been helpful.
4. I’ve been talking to your boyfriend, Adeline, and I like him. 5. We’ve
been staying here nearly a week. 6. Mankind is always developing its
mental faculties. 7. I have been thinking over your offer, but still can’t
tell you anything definite. 8. Oh, I have no patience with you. Why are
you always losing your things? 9. Don’t shout. I’m hearing you per18
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fectly well. 10. I’ve started learning English at least ten times. 11. Mr.
Aldridge is writing a new novel at present. 12. Why are you so hot? –
I’ve been running all the way. 13. Augustus has been dining with us
tonight. 14. I know what you are feeling, Roy. We all feel exactly the
same. 15. There is paint on Olga’s dress. She has been painting.
Exercise 4. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct
tense.
1. I (to work) in Paris this week, filming an advert for sportswear. 2. Linda (to write) emails all morning and she (to write) 15 so
far. 3. People always (to blame) their circumstances for what they are.
4. The millennium (to be) a date on the calendar, introduced around the
year 525. 5. You can’t miss him. He (to wear) a white jacket, and (to
carry) a striped umbrella. 6. Peter (to read) the same book since last
year. I wonder when he will finish. 7. We (to have) a party next Saturday night. Will you come? 8. I can’t listen to him anymore. He (to
lecture) us for half an hour. 9. Sue (to look) very smart today. She (to
wear) her new black evening dress. 10. Our tourist group (to sleep) at
the Globe hotel this night and (to start) for Berlin tomorrow morning.
11. Oh, here you are at last! I (to wait) for you all day long! 12. I don’t
know what he’s going to do, I (to see) him. 13. I (to forget) things more
and more now. 14. I (not to see) what you are doing. 15. Be quiet, please.
We (work) at the translation and you (make) a lot of noise.
Exercise 5. Choose the most suitable form of the verb to complete
the sentence.
1. Why has Shaun got a headache? Has he played / Has he been playing computer games again? 2. You always make / are always making
mistakes in your test. You should be more attentive. 3. What do you
look at / are you looking at? – This book. It hasn’t been here before.
4. They spend / are spending their holidays at the seaside this summer.
5. People have used / have been using salt as money in different places
until recently. 6. According to scientists, the Earth gets / is getting hotter. 7. I have sat / have been sitting here quite a while. 8. It is raining /
has been raining for at least two hours, but now the wind has driven /
has been driving the clouds away. 9. I have lived / have been living here
for two months while they have travelled / have been travelling all over
Europe. 10. The world changes / is changing rapidly in such fields as
business, art and medicine. 11. We have / are having a heat wave. It’s
not usually so hot at this time of the year. 12. It takes / has been taking
ages for children to use a knife and a fork properly. 13. When you have /
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have had your tea, we’ll see about it. 14. I don’t know what you mean /
are meaning. 15. I’m a new person here. I am / have been here for just
several days.
Exercise 6. Open the brackets and use the correct tense form. Write
what tense is used.
1. My son (to go) to pool and there he (to swim) on Fridays. 2. His
dog never (to bite) our neighbors. 3. What he (to eat)? – Just some fruit.
4. Where you (to be)? – I never (to go away). 5. I (to type) all the letters.
The job is done. 6. I’m sorry, you (to wait) long? – No, I just (to come).
7. I (to wait) here since 6 o’clock. 8. They (to discuss) the problem for
hours but (not to come) to any decision. 9. I often (to see) his name in
the papers this year. 10. Would you like a cup of apple juice? – Not,
thanks. I (to drink) just two glasses. 11. I (to know) her since her childhood. 12. Look at him. What he (to do)? 13. You ever (to be) to Moscow? 14. We (to build) the garage ourselves and hope to finish it within
the two months. 15. I (to know) it since yesterday. 16. I (to translate) this
article and (to translate) the first. 17. They (to advertise) for information
since May. 18. Why you (to smoke) in the toilets? – Just because our
headmaster (not to permit) to smoke in the corridors of school. 19. Why
not tell her the truth? – I (to tell) already. 20. We (to build) the garage
ourselves and just (to begin) to use it.
Exercise 7. Choose the correct variant.
1. Have you bought a dress for the wedding? – No, I … to see whether or not my sister will lend me one.
A. wait
B. am waiting
C. have been waiting
2. Sarah … her new car for three months.
A. has
B. has had
C. has been having
3. His entire life uncle Henry … hard in his farm in Kansas.
A. works
B. has worked
C. has been working
4. How swiftly the years … .
A. fly
B. are flying
C. have been flying
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5. We … Mrs. James for half an hour but can’t get through.
A. are phoning
B. have phoned
C. have been phoning
6. The man … near the bank for three hours already. Isn’t that
strange?
A. is standing
B. has stood
C. has been standing
7. Have you had many accidents since you … it?
A. do
B. are doing
C. have been doing
8. … to what I am saying?
A. Do you hear
B. Are you hearing
C. have you been hearing
9. They are going to be even more amazed when I tell them that I …
a new job in London.
A. take up
B. am taking up
C. have been taking up
10. Helena … really late at night. She is so annoying.
A. always phones
B. is always phoning
C. has always been phoning
11. The cook … the soup to see if it is right.
A. tastes
B. is tasting
C. have tasted
12. Edinburgh castle … above for centuries.
A. stands
B. has stood
C. has been standing
13. I … all the pros and cons.
A. still consider
B. am still considering
C. have still considered
14. The Volga … its waters into the Caspian Sea.
A. forever pours
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B. is forever pouring
C. has forever been pouring
15. What … since last Friday?
A. do you do
B. have you done
C. have you been doing
Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Мне кажется, что он слишком много нервничает в последнее
время. 2. Я пытаюсь объяснить тебе это правило уже 2 часа. 3. Она
работает на этом заводе с тех пор, как окончила институт. 4. Сейчас мы повторяем английские времена. 5. Как долго она переводит
этот текст? 6. Где он обычно обедает? 7. Она сейчас читает журнал. 8. Чем больше он учит, тем больше он знает. 9. Он постоянно
сомневается в правильности своих суждений. 10. Ему нравится эта
книга с детства. 11. Она не может сейчас подойти к телефону, она
обедает. 12. Это понятие относится к области филологии. 13. Не
шумите! Ребенок спит. 14. Тихо! Идет экзамен. 15. Я отдыхаю, скажи, что меня нет.
Exercise 9. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Она губит себя. 2. Мы не молодеем! 3. Это место разрушается
уже в течение многих лет: посмотрите на все эти большие деревья, растущие прямо над воротами, на эти камни; всякий, кто увидит это, скажет, что никто не жил здесь в течение сотен лет. 4. Тем
временем третий человек, постоянно ругающийся последние
10 минут, хочет знать, в какую игру вы играете и почему палатка
до сих пор не поставлена. 5. Мне не нравится, как он разговаривает со мной. 6. Вы постоянно говорите мне о ваших отрицательных
качествах, Лорд Геринг. 7. Я не хочу показывать тебе свою внутреннюю боль, но я не могу совладать со слезами. 8. Мой милый
мальчик, они только и делают, что говорят об этом в течение 6 недель, но, к великому сожалению, британское общество действительно не способно к умственному напряжению для обсуждения
и одной проблемы раз в 3 месяца. 9. Его семья знает эту медсестру
с тех пор, как она покинула старый госпиталь, чтобы ухаживать
за их бабушкой. 10. Сейчас я хочу спросить у вас, знаете ли вы,
кто может это сделать? 11. Ты думаешь, она была украдена? 12. По
правде, она не говорит много, но когда говорит – всегда по существу. 13. Я не знаю точно, что происходит с ней, так как она наста22
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ивает на том, чтобы все держать в секрете и впадает в бешенство,
если кто-то задает ей вопросы. 14. Он никогда не думает о других
людях. Он очень эгоистичный. 15. Наша кошка не обращает никакого внимания на мышей.
Английские времена, соответствующие  
прошедшему времени в русском языке  
(English Tenses Corresponding to the Past Tense  
in the Russian Language)
Прошедшему времени в русском языке соответствуют следующие английские времена:
• настоящее совершенное (the Present Perfect),
• настоящее совершенное длительное (the Present Perfect Continuous),
• прошедшее неопределенное (the Past Indefinite),
• прошедшее длительное (the Past Continuous),
• прошедшее совершенное (the Past Perfect),
• прошедшее совершенное длительное (the Past Perfect Continuous).
Глаголы в Present Perfect, Past Indefinite, Past Perfect соответствуют в русском языке глаголам совершенного вида:
Она написала сочинение.
She has written her composition.
Она написала сочинение вчера
She wrote her composition yes(два дня назад).
terday (two days ago).
Она написала сочинение к пятShe had written her composition
нице.
by Friday.
Глаголы в Past Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous соответствуют глаголам несовершенного вида в
русском языке:
Она писала сочинение весь веShe was writing her composition
чер вчера.
the whole evening yesterday.
Она писала сочинение уже два
She had been writing her comчаса, когда пришла мама.
position for 2 hours when mother
came.
Я уже думал над вашим предI have been thinking over your
ложением, но до сих пор не моoffer, but still can’t tell you anyгу сказать вам ничего опредеthing definite.
ленного.
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Present Perfect Continuous выражает длительное действие, которое началось в прошлом и закончилось непосредственно перед
моментом речи:
У нее красные глаза, она плаHer eyes are red, she has been
кала.
crying.
Сравните:
Have you ever been to London?
Did you ever visit London when
you were a child?
I never met him when we lived in
Moscow.
Did you see her this morning? (It
is afternoon).
He ate 20 sweets yesterday.
I saw her just now.
I have never met him (in my life).
Have you seen her this morning?
(It is still morning).
He has eaten 20 sweets today.
I have just seen her.
ЗАПОМНИ: Present Perfect не употребляется в следующих
предложениях:
Что Вы сказали?
What did you say?
Я не слышал Вашего вопроса.
I didn’t hear your question.
Я забыла.
I forgot.
Теперь я поняла.
Now I understand.
Вам понравилась книга?
Did you like the book?
Простите, я вышла из себя.
I’m sorry I lost my temper.
Где Вы купили эту книгу?
Where did you buy this book?
Вы хорошо спали?
Did you sleep well?
Видели ли Вы аварию?
Did you see the accident?
Вам понравился фильм?
Did you enjoy the film?
При употреблении составных союзов no sooner … then, hardly
… when, scarcely … when, barely … when, nearly … when, которые
имеют одинаковые значения: как только …, так; лишь только …,
как; как только, и подчеркивают, что действия быстро следовали
друг за другом, после первой части стоит Past Perfect, а после второй – Past Indefinite:
She had hardly entered the
Едва она вошла в дом, как заhouse, when the telephone rang.
звонил телефон.
He had scarcely said her goodКак только он попрощался, она
bye, when she began crying.
заплакала.
No sooner had she returned, than
Не успела она приехать, как заher son fell ill.
болел ее сын.
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При этом следует помнить, что при использовании составного
союза no sooner … then всегда употребляется инверсия, а с hardly
… when, scarcely … when, barely … when, nearly … when – как прямой, так и обратный порядок слов:
Hardly had I had a cup of tea
Не успел я выпить чашку чая,
when my mother came. = I had
как пришла мама.
hardly had a cup of tea when my
mother came.
Scarcely had the taxi approached
Лишь только такси подъехаthe house when a very strange
ло к дому, как у входа появился
man appeared at the entrance.
очень странный человек.
= The taxi had scarcely approached the house when a very
strange man appeared at the entrance.
Jean had barely begun to sip
Лишь только Джин начал поhis drink when dinner was anтягивать свой напиток, как
nounced. = Barely had Jean beдоложили, что обед подан.
gun to sip his drink when dinner
was announced.
No sooner had he pulled the hat
Не успел он надвинуть шляпу
over his eyes then the frisky wind
на глаза, как резвый ветер сдул
blew it out off his head.
ее с его головы.
Exercise 10. Translate from English into Russian.
1. The achievements of science in the field of curing AIDS haven’t
shown radical results yet. 2. The scientists haven’t refuted the theory
put forward by Galileo. 3. My friend went to England 3 months ago
and since then I have received only one letter from him. 4. We finished
school and we haven’t met since. 5. We’ve just finished our negotiations.
6. Moscow has greatly changed for the last few years. 7. Have you ever
used this washing machine? 8. It is the first time the young surgeon has
performed an operation by himself. 9. I can’t stand the heat. I’ve never
participated in a Safari and I don’t feel sorry about it. 10. The company
hasn’t increased the salaries so far, although we have already worked
there for 20 years. 11. She likes to change her clothes very much. It’s already the 6th time that she has changed her clothes today. 12. He hasn’t
passed any tests yet. 13. This morning I sent for a doctor. It’s already
noon, but he’s not come yet. 14. He has never asked anybody for the
help. 15. How long have you been cleaning the flat? 16. He has been
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working as a bus-driver for 20 years already. 17. Since our first meeting
he’s not changed at all. 18. The students had translated the article by the
end of the lesson. 19. After the actress had read the scenario she felt that
it was her role. 20. He wrote a test very well, because he had learnt all
the necessary material hard.
Exercise 11. Choose the right alternative.
1. Everything is going well. We didn’t have / haven’t had any problems so far. 2. Margaret didn’t go / hasn’t gone to work yesterday. She
wasn’t feeling well. 3. I still don’t know what to do. I didn’t decide /
haven’t decided yet. 4. After leaving school, Tim found / has found it
very difficult to get a job. 5. When Sue heard the news, she wasn’t /
hasn’t been very pleased. 6. Where is Mr. Andrew? – He left / has left
for the Hague. – When did he leave / has he left? – Several days ago.
7. Have you been / were you to a Broadway theatre? What did you see /
have you seen there? When were / have you been you there last? 8. I haven’t
heard / didn’t hear from my parents lately. – When have you got / did
you get the last letter? – A month ago. I have sent / sent them several letters since that time. 9. The weather has changed / changed since
yesterday. It’s very cold, it’s snowing and a strong wind is blowing.
10. They met / have met at my friend’s six months ago, but they didn’t
see / haven’t seen each other since then. 10. Do you know about Sue?
She’s given up / gave up her job. 11. The Chinese have invented / invented printing. 12. How many plays has Shakespeare written / did
Shakespeare write? 13. Albert Einstein has been / was the scientist who
has developed / developed the theory of relativity. 14. I’ve lost / lost my
key. I can’t find it anywhere. 15. Have you seen / Did you see the news
on television last night?
Exercise 12. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct
tense.
1. I (to fall asleep) in the car and now I (to have got) a pain in my
neck. 2. Oh, I look tired. I (to work) on my computer all the morning.
3. The rock band (to be) together for ten years before they (to break up).
4. I (to work) in the garden, so I’ll have to dress up before we go out.
5. My brother (to have) an accident because he (to drive) too extreme.
6. Jack (to win) the tennis final because he (to play) brilliantly. 7. I fly
a lot and I (to have) never a serious problem. 8. I’m sure I not (to borrow) any money from you. I never (to forget) things like that. 9. My
skin much softer since I (to use) a new face cream. 10. As I not (to set)
my alarm, I (to oversleep) this morning. 11. As we (to board) the plane,
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I (to drop) my passport. 12. I don’t like John any more. I (to go off) him.
13. When I (to find out) that over twenty bikes (to steal) in my area in
the previous six months, I (to promise) myself that the thief would be
caught and punished. 14. Don’t feed the cat; I (to give) him his dinner.
15. If they not (to return) by lunchtime, we will find out where they are.
Exercise 13. Choose the suitable form of the verb.
1. Iris (started / has started) work at the circus in May. It’s the first
job she (has been having / has had) since she was a model. 2. I can’t go
out now because I just (have washed / had washed) my hair. 3. Who
(has been drinking / has drunk) all the fruit juice left in the fridge?
4. Luckily we (had taken / took) an umbrella. 5. If you (were not eating / had not eaten) so little at lunch, you wouldn’t be so hungry now.
6. The house where I (had been lived / lived) as a child is no longer
there. 7. I feel sick. I wish I (hadn’t eaten / wasn’t eating) that seafood last night. 8. Jenny can’t sleep. I wish she (didn’t watch / hadn’t
watched) that horror film. 9. Public transport is terrible where I live.
I wish I (had / have) a car. 10. We (lost / had lost) a piece of luggage on
the way back from Singapore. 11. The MP3-player I (have given / gave)
my sister for her birthday doesn’t work. 12. They just (have built / built)
a new university in my town. 13. E. Hillary (had been / was) the first
man to climb Mount Everest. 14. She told him she never (had been /
was) to Japan. 15. Bob (has been doing / was doing) the apartment. He
(decided / had decided) he should help me about the house, and (began /
had begun) from this morning.
Exercise 14. Open the brackets and use the required past tense.
1. It was the poorest room he ever (see). 2. No sooner she (come) at
the station than a fast London train (arrive). 3. I (finish) my work by
afternoon and (sit) quietly in my armchair, thinking of the days that
(pass) by. 4. The storm already (die) away, but very far off the thunder
still (mutter), water still (rain) down from the roofs. 5. I already (go)
into the bed and (fall asleep) when my mother (knock) at the door and
(ask) me to get up. 6. By the time the guests (come), she still (not be
ready). 7. I (not listen) so I missed what she (say) and he (loose) hatred
upon me. 8. By 9 o’clock he (finish) his work and (go) outside. The rain
(stop) but it (be) rather cool. 9. By the time I (come) the shop already
(close). 10. Hardly we (leave) when our bicycle (break) down. 11. His
voice quavered. He nearly (to cry). The situation (seem) pretty hopeless.
12. When the train got in, it (to be) nearly midnight. 13. Last summer
I very nearly (to go) to Spain. 14. He did not hope to become a doctor.
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He (to be) nearly twenty-six. 15. I asked her about her plans. But she
scarcely (to listen).
Exercise 15. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Я всегда любила музыку. 2. Теперь я поняла, что он мне
сказал вчера. 3. Почему у Вас красные глаза? Вы плакали? 4. Она
отправила письмо, которое написала. 5. Он вышел из библиотеки
и встретил Маргариту. 6. Он сделал уже несколько докладов
в этом году. 7. Вчера с 8 до 12 часов вечера шел дождь. 8. Она
много работала и плохо спала в последнее время, и вид у нее
был усталый. 9. Она всхлипывала, и глаза ее были красными,
потому что она прорыдала 2 часа от обиды. 10. Когда я пришла
домой, ужин был уже готов, для меня был накрыт стол, горели
свечи. 11. Когда я проснулась, рядом с кроватью звонил телефон.
12. Он сказал, что пришел обсудить со мной покупку новой шубы.
13. Она очень устала, потому что целый день стирала белье.
14. Я не видела его на лекции. 15. Вчера она пришла домой рано,
в 2 часа пообедала, с 3 до 5 часов смотрела интересный фильм, а
остаток вечера провела в гостях у друзей.
Exercise 16. Choose the correct variant.
1. It is reported the president’s wife … .
A. has been kidnapped
B. was kidnapped
C. had been kidnapped
2. When you … watching the DVD please put it back in its case.
A. finished
B. had finished
C. have finished
3. So that’s why he … a new language where everyone would be
equal.
A. proposed
B. was proposing
C. has proposed
4. In his home country several streets … after him, and he is buried
in the walls of the Kremlin on Red Square.
A. have been named
B. were named
C. had been named
5. I’m furious with my son. I wish I … him my car.
A. don’t lend
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B. hadn’t lent
C. didn’t lend
6. I’m very sorry, I can’t see you tonight. Something urgent … up.
A. has been coming
B. has come
C. came
7. The motorcyclist was going so fast he nearly … me over.
A. had run
B. has run
C. ran
8. He … and at the moment he … at the local police station.
A. has just been arrested; was being held
B. was arrested; was being held
C. has just been arrested; is being held
9. Their train … ten minutes ago. We’re late!
A. arrived
B. had arrived
C. has arrived
10. My parents … before, and so they were very nervous when we
… at Heathrow Airport to take our flight to Benidorm in Spain.
A. weren’t flying; had arrived
B. didn’t fly; arrived
C. had not flown; arrived
11. We were not hungry during the excursion because we … a meal
earlier in one of the best restaurants.
A. had
B. had had
C. had been having
12. The most beautiful city I ever … is on the Pacific coast of Canada.
A. have visited
B. visited
C. was visiting
13. As a child he … to eat solid food, and rejected everything until
his father gave him a sugar sandwich.
A. had refused
B. refused
C. had been refusing
14. He … and … .
A. went; had never come back
B. had gone; had never come back
C. had gone; came never back
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15. She … to speak French since she was child.
A. was able
B. had been able
C. has been able
Exercise 17. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct
tense.
1. Время от времени я оглядывался на него, который все еще
пытался что-то предпринять, чтобы хоть как-то разместить многочисленные коробки в машине. 2. Она была уверена, что он не имеет представления, как глубоко ее ранил. 3. Он был очень расстроен. Его жена узнала, что он влюблен в актрису. Теперь она постоянно устраивает ему сцены из-за нее. 4. Я проделала долгий путь
и хочу увидеть его сейчас и быстрее. 5. Нет, Гарри, я сделал слишком много ужасных вещей в своей жизни. 6. Она думала об этом с
того времени, как впервые поговорила со своей сестрой. 7. У меня
голова раскалывалась утром. 8. Она работала очень долго без отдыха и очень нуждалась в нем. 9. Сначала я купила масло и затем
испекла пирог. 10. Вместе они смотрели на странное животное, которое преследовало их несколько дней и которое уже уничтожило
половину их собачьей упряжки. 11. По правде говоря, я попробовала большинство блюд за этот час: от холодного фаршированного кабачка до сырых сосисок. 12. Я был несколько удивлен, но не
рассердился. 13. Как только их представили друг другу, они тут же
начали бурно обсуждать события последних дней. 14. Не успел он
ответить на сообщение, как раздался телефонный звонок. 15. Он
знал, что она уехала в Париж, и не сомневался, что если бы ему
сделали такое предложение, он бы тоже, не задумываясь, отправился в город своей мечты.
Английские времена, соответствующие  
будущему времени в русском языке  
(English Tenses Corresponding to the Future Tense  
in the Russian Language)
Будущему времени в русском языке соответствуют следующие
времена в английском языке:
• будущее неопределенное (the Future Indefinite),
• будущее длительное (the Future Continuous),
• будущее совершенное (the Future Perfect),
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• будущее совершенное длительное (the Future Perfect Continuous),
• настоящее неопределенное (the Present Indefinite),
• настоящее длительное (the Present Continuous).
Сравните:
Я выучу это стихотворение
I shall learn this poem tomorrow.
завтра.
Я выучу это стихотворение к
I shall have learnt this poem by
понедельнику.
Monday.
Я выучу это стихотворение
I shall have learnt this poem beперед тем, как он придет.
fore he comes.
Я буду учить это стихотвореI shall be learning this poem
ние, когда он придет.
when he comes.
Я буду учить это стихотвореI shall be learning this poem the
ние весь день завтра.
whole day tomorrow.
Я буду учить это стихотвоI shall be learning this poem
рение, когда ты будешь смоwhile you will be watching TV.
треть телевизор.
Я буду учить это стихотвоI shall have been learning this
рение уже час, когда он верpoem for an hour when he reнется.
turns.
Для выражения заранее намеченных действий на ближайшее
будущее вместо Future Indefinite употребляется Present Continuous:
She is giving a birthday party toЗавтра она устраивает вечеmorrow.
ринку по поводу дня рождения.
We are going to the theatre toЗавтра мы идем в театр.
morrow.
They are coming to see us on
Они придут навестить нас в
Sunday.
воскресенье.
He is not coming. He is meeting
Он не придет. После занятий
some friends after studies.
он встречается со своими друзьями.
Для выражения будущих действий, которые происходят согласно расписанию, вместо Future Indefinite употребляется Present
Indefinite:
What time does the film begin?
Когда начинается фильм?
The train leaves at 10.
Поезд уходит в 10.
Tomorrow is Wednesday.
Завтра (есть) среда.
Next month is October.
Следующий месяц – октябрь.
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Для выражения предполагаемых будущих действий вместо Future Indefinite употребляются следующие конструкции:
1) to be going + инфинитив для выражения намерения (о лицах)
или вероятности (о событиях) в будущем:
It is going to be interesting.
Будет интересно.
What are you going to do with all
Что ты собираешься делать со
these old things?
всеми этими старыми вещами?
How long are you going to stay in
Сколько времени ты собираSt. Petersburg?
ешься пробыть в Санкт-Петербурге?
2) to be sure (certain) + инфинитив для выражения уверенности
в совершении будущего действия:
It is sure to rain.
Будет дождь.
They are certain to come.
Они придут.
The contract is certain to be sigОни наверняка подпишут контned.
ракт.
Future Indefinite (будущее неопределенное) употребляется:
1) когда мы решаем что-то сделать в момент речи:
Did you phone her? – Oh, no, I
Ты ей звонил? – О, нет, я заforgot. Iʼll do it now.
был. Я сделаю это сейчас.
2) для выражения действия, относящегося к будущему:
I shall do it tomorrow.
Я сделаю это завтра.
3) для выражения повторяющихся действий в будущем:
I shall visit her every week-end.
Я буду навещать ее каждый
выходной.
4) для выражения последовательных действий в будущем:
I shall come home and call on her.
Я приду домой и позвоню ей.
5) со словами и выражениями
probably, expect:
I don’t think it will rain this afternoon.
«I think I shall really be King
of the Land of Oz. I shall know
Kiki’s secret,» the wicked Nome
thought.
I’m sure you will like it.
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I think, I don’t think, to be sure,
Я не думаю, что сегодня днем
будет дождь.
«Я думаю, что я действительно буду королем страны Оз.
Я узнаю секрет Кики», – думал
нечестивый Нома.
Я уверен, что вам понравится.
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He will probably not come back
to Georgia for a while.
I expect our team will lose again.
Он, вероятно, не вернется в
Грузию.
Я предчувствую, что наша команда опять проиграет.
Exercise 18. Translate from English into Russian.
1. According to the meteorological centre forecast the pressure will
increase tomorrow. 2. Don’t worry. I won’t tell anybody I have seen
you. 3. If it’s sunny in the morning we’ll go to sunbathe. 4. If you read
till midnight you won’t be able to get up early. 5. According to the
declaration of the central laboratory at the beginning of the month there
will be a magnetic storm. 6. Have you heard the news? Our friends are
coming tomorrow. 7. What is he going to do tomorrow? – He will be
rehearsing. 8. Is he going to have a holiday? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.
9. What are you going to do when the course finishes? 10. Is she coming
to the party? 11. I’m having lunch with David tomorrow. 12. Don’t ask
him to the party, he won’t come. 13. We think we will have to visit him.
14. I’m seeing my grandmother tomorrow. She has a birthday party.
15. We are eating dinner at seven o’clock every day.
Exercise 19. Open the brackets and use the required tense.
1. Bob: Where you (go) for your next vocation? (Where have you
arranged to go?)
Lucy: I don’t know yet but we probably (go) to Thailand.
2. We (have) a party with our friends tonight. It’s their last night;
they (leave) tomorrow.
3. Bob: Do you think we (see) Frank on Sunday?
Lucy: I hope so. He probably (look) in on his way to the airport.
4. I (see) my bank manager tomorrow. (I have arranged this.) I’m
going to ask him for a loan but I expect he (refuse).
5. I (know) the result of our investigation tomorrow. As soon as I
hear, I (tell) you.
6. Lucy: Jackie (be) ready in a moment. She is just finishing
breakfast.
Bob: If I wait for her any longer I (miss) my train. I think I (walk) on;
she probably (catch) me up.
7. I probably (come) to Moscow sometime next year. I (give) you a
ring nearer the time and tell you when I (come). (When I have decided /
arranged to come.)
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8. Hotel Porter: You (get) a parking ticket if you leave your car there,
Madam. If you (stay) the night (have arranged to stay) you (have to) put
it in the hotel garage.
Madam: All right. I (move) it as soon as I’ve arranged about an
apartment.
9. Bob: I’ve spoilt Mark’s shirt. Whatever he (say)?
Lucy: Oh, he (not mind). He just (buy) another shirt. He is fond of
buying new shirts.
10. Bob: We’d better leave a message for Jack. Otherwise he (not
know) where we’ve gone.
Lucy: All right. I (leave) a note on the fridge.
11. Bob: I don’t want to get married. I never (get) married.
Lucу: You think that now. But one day you (meet) a girl and you
(fall) in love.
12. Bob: I (go) to New Castle tomorrow. (I have arranged to go.)
Lucy: You (come) back the same day? (Have you arranged to come
back?)
Bob: No, I probably (have) to spend the fortnight there.
В придаточных предложениях времени после союзов when
(когда), after (после того как), before (прежде чем), as soon as (как
только), as long as (пока), unless (если не), until (till) (до тех пор,
пока не) и в придаточных предложениях условия после союзов if
(если), unless (если не) будущее время не употребляется. Оно заменяется формой настоящего времени, например:
Let’s wait until the rain stops.
Давайте подождем, пока не
прекратится дождь.
What shall we do if it snows?
Что мы будем делать, если
пойдет снег?
Ring me up when you are free.
Позвони мне, когда будешь свободен.
Come back as soon as you can.
Возвращайся как можно скорее.
He will do it before you come.
Он сделает это прежде, чем
вы придете.
В изъяснительных придаточных предложениях будущее время
употребляется:
When they will join us is not yet
Когда они к нам присоединятся,
known, but when they do it I’ll inеще неизвестно, но когда они
form you.
сделают это, я сообщу Вам.
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When they will join us is not yet
known, but when they do it I’ll inform you.
I don’t know when she will return.
I don’t know when he will come
but I shall ask him about it when
he arrives.
The question is if they will be
able to help us.
Do you know if there will be any
changes in our time-table?
Когда они к нам присоединятся,
еще неизвестно, но когда они
сделают это, я сообщу Вам.
Я не знаю, когда он возвратится.
Я не знаю, когда он придет, но
я спрошу его об этом, когда он
вернется.
Вопрос заключается в том,
смогут ли они помочь нам.
Ты не знаешь, будут ли какиелибо изменения в нашем расписании?
Exercise 20. Open the brackets and use the required tense.
1. When he (return) I’ll give him your book. 2. He’ll be ready as
soon as you (be). 3. I don’t know how long he (stay) with us. 4. I’ll stay
in bed till the clock (strike) seven. 5. She will be delighted when she
(hear) this. 6. The problem is whether he (return) my book in time.
7. When it (get) cold I’ll make the fire. 8. The lift (not start) until you
press the button. 9. When they (make up) for their absence is unknown
to us. 10. He (be) here before you go. 11. I (give) you my DVD-player
whenever you want it. 12. I’ll ask him to give you a call back when
I (run) across him. 13. He (ring) us up when he arrives in England?
14. They will be astonished when they (see) how slowly he works.
15. I don’t know if he (come) here in summer, but if he (come) we’ll
definitely go to the Solovky.
Exercise 21. Choose the correct variant.
1. I won’t give you a definite answer until I ... from my bank.
A. hear
B. will hear
C. will have heard
2. You can’t see this film on TV tonight, they ... it only next Sunday.
A. are showing
B. will show
C. will be showing
3. John has bought this TV set on credit. He ... all the money by the
first of August.
A. will pay
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B. is paying
C. will have paid
4. If I ... George tomorrow, I will tell him to come and see you.
A. meet
B. will meet
C. am going to meet
5. Where ... work after you graduate from the University?
A. are you going to
B. you are going to
C. will you
6. By the time you come home you ... everything I have told you.
A. will have forgotten
B. will forget
C. have forgotten
7. I’ll come home late tonight. But I don’t think that by the time I
come the children will have gone to bed; they ... for me.
A. will wait
B. will be waiting
C. will have been waiting
8. By the first of December this year I ... here for fifteen years already.
A. will have been working
B. will have worked
C. will be working
9. When Jerry enters a Medical school he ... Chemistry for more than
four years.
A. will study
B. will have been studying
C. will have studied
10. I don’t know if he ... to join us, but if he does, it will change my
plans.
A. will make up his mind
B. will have made up his mind
C. makes up his mind
11. We’ll go skiing in the Alps next winter if we ... enough money for
the trip.
A. will save
B. will have saved
C. have saved
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12. I ... to London tomorrow; I will phone you when I arrive.
A. will come
B. am coming
C. will have come
13. My parents are returning from Italy next Monday at 7 p.m. At
this time next Monday I ... them at the airport.
A. will meet
B. will be meeting
C. will have met
14. … they … at midnight?
A. Will not … be sleeping
B. Will … not be sleeping
C. Will not … sleep
15. He … breakfast when you … ready to go.
A. will be still having, will be
B. will still have, are C. will be still having, are
Exercise 22. Open the brackets and use the required tense.
1. By the end of this month, we (move) to our new house so you can
come after that. 2. At this time tomorrow my parents (fly) over the Atlantic on their way to New York! 3. If the match starts at 7.00 p.m., we
(play) until 8.45 at least. 4. I can’t meet you for lunch tomorrow because
I think I (work). 5. You can’t live that far from the office. In a little while
you (look) for a place back here. 6. In a year’s time, they (build) the new
road and we’ll be able to get to work much quicker. 7. She (ask) Matt
about it when he (come) to the meeting. 8. He never (forgive) me. 9. If
everything goes according to plan, we (spend) Christmas in Paris this
year. 10. I think you (stay) in town for a night at least. 11. That time she
(have) her early morning cup of coffee. 12. Take off your wet clothes
or else you (have) pneumonia. 13. I’m not going to the cinema with her
anymore. She (chat) on the phone all the time and (get) on my nerves.
14. We (start) early in the morning if the rain (stop) by that time. 15. By
the 5th of October we (live) here for 20 years.
Exercise 23. Translate the following sentences.
1. Я не уверен, что смогу завтра навестить тебя, так как послезавтра у меня контрольная работа по английскому языку. 2. Когда ты придешь, я уже буду спать, поэтому не шуми, пожалуйста.
3. На следующей неделе, когда ты вернешься обратно, мы пойдем
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на концерт. 4. Я не знаю, когда он возвращается, но думаю, что это
произойдет через 2 недели. 5. Когда Вы будете сдавать все свои
долги, мне неизвестно. 6. Я не буду упоминать этот случай, пока
он сам не захочет обсудить его. 7. С того самого момента, когда ты
станешь моей женой, ты будешь беспрекословно мне подчиняться
и выполнять все, о чем я тебя попрошу. 8. Говорят, что весь апрель
будет холодным. 9. Не знаю, будете ли Вы учиться фехтованию,
но учиться музыке Вы должны обязательно. 10. Когда Вы придете в следующий раз, мы обсудим второю главу Вашей дипломной
работы. 11. Мне так нравится этот молодой человек, что, когда он
заговорит со мной, я, наверное, упаду в обморок. 12. Ну, хорошо,
я стану учиться, только я не знаю, когда я начну. Так как если сегодня придет учитель философии, которого я нанял нынче утром,
я займусь одной из важнейших материй – душой. 13. До тех пор
пока ты не вернешь мне словарь, я не дам тебе учебник по английской грамматике. 14. Утро всегда прекрасно, пока тебе его ктонибудь не испортит. 15. Я устала сидеть у телефона и ждать, когда
ты мне позвонишь.
Test paper
Task 1. Choose the right variant.
1. He … for some time before a servant … and … what he … .
A. knocked, opened, asked, wanted
B. was knocking, opened, asked, was wanting
C. had been knocking, opened, asked, wanted
D. had knocked, had opened, had asked, had wanted
2. The doctor … there … nothing to worry about if the fever …
above 38,5 °С.
A. said, was, would not go
B. tells, is, will go
C. says, had been, went
D. said, was, did not go
3. I … a wash and a brush-up before starting to go to the luncheon
Tom … me to, when they … me from the desk to say that he … below.
A. had, was invited, were ringing, had been
B. was having, invited, had rung, was
C. was having, had invited, rang, was
D. had been having, had invited, had rung, had been
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4. Someday I … to Paris to revisit all the places where I … in the
time of my youth. I … them for a quarter of a century or so.
A. will have gone, have lived, haven’t seen
B. am going, had lived, did not see
C. will go, lived, haven’t seen
D. will be going, had lived, hadn’t seen
5. Hardly … asleep ... an alarm clock … .
A. have I gone, than, will ring
B. had I gone, when, rang
C. I had gone, then, had rung
D. was I going, as, was ringing
6. We … continue our research unless he … us.
A. can’t, won’t help
B. will not be able to, does not help
C. can, will help
D. won’t be able to, helps
7. We … him in many moods, but none of us … him to do a cruel thing.
A. see, ever know
B. see, don’t ever know
C. have seen, have ever known
D. have seen, haven’t ever known
8. All … that he needed to feel that he was listened to, that he …
here, and that his word … .
A. had already got used to, was commanding, was always obeyed
B. got used to, is commanding, is always obeyed
C. have already got used to, was being commanding, was always
being obeyed
D. get used to, is being commanding, was always being obeyed
9. Look! What a beautiful view! The sun … yet, but the grey sky is
parted near the horizon.
A. was not appeared
B. did not appear
C. has not been appeared
D. has not appeared
10. When he saw that someone … at him, he did not immediately
realize who this someone … .
A. looked, is
B. was looking, was
C. has been looking, is
D. had looked, was being
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11. While our coffee … , I … him our sad story which impressed
him greatly.
A. was making, told
B. was made, said
C. had been making, told
D. was being made, told
12. It … in the night, but now there … sunshine.
A. has rained, was
B. had rained, had been
C. is raining, is being
D. was raining, is
13. As he … the room that morning, Ann … up the letter which she … .
A. was entered, was holding, had just received
B. was entering, has held, has just received
C. entered, was holding, had just received
D. had entered, held, has just received
14. I … a note with the address of the hotel and the boy’s name into
his pocket in case he … his way.
A. have put, will lose
B. will put, will have lost
C. have put, loses
D. will have put, have lost
15. They … , but as they … me there … a hush.
A. were talking, saw, was
B. are talking, have seen, had been
C. had been talking, will see, would be
D. have been talking, had seen, will be
16. Come on, if the sun … before we … home, we … our way.
A. has set, reach, will lose
B. will have set, will reach, lose
C. will have set, reach, will lose
D. has been set, will reach, lose
17. … when he … her for the first time.
A. Tell me, has met
B. Say me, had met
C. Say to me, met
D. Tell me, met
18. He was tired and by the time I … , he … asleep.
A. have come, has fallen
B. came, fell
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C. came, had fallen
D. had come, had fallen
19. If you … to Paris you’ll see the Eiffel Tower.
A. go B. did C. goes D. does go
20. Who … America?
A. discovered
B. did discovered
C. did discover
D. discovers
21. A secretary is a person who … letters.
A. is typing
B. types
C. typed
D. will type
22. I wonder when she … my books.
A. returns
B. will return
C. would return
D. had return
23. What … at 5 o’clock tomorrow?
A. will you do
B. were you doing
C. will you be doing
D. are
24. He knew that if they … alone for any length of time, they (to
become) violent.
A. left
B. were left
C. will be left
D. will leave
25. When he … an hour later it … that a hurricane … through the
classroom.
A. returned, seemed, had passed
B. returned, had seemed, had passed
C. returned, had seemed, passed
D. had returned, seemed, had passed
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Страдательный залог  
(PASSIVE VOICE)
Конструкция предложения, при которой подлежащее не является действующим лицом (или предметом), а само подвергается
действию со стороны дополнения (при этом дополнение может
лишь подразумеваться, не будучи выражено в предложении), называется страдательным залогом:
We are invited to a party.
Мы приглашены на вечеринку.
She was asked to come as early
Ее попросили прийти как можas possible.
но раньше.
Времена страдательного залога образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени действительного залога и причастия прошедшего времени основного глагола. В страдательном залоге, в отличие от действительного, имеется не четыре, а три группы времен: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.
Времена Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous и Future Continuous
in the Past в страдательном залоге не употребляются.
Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Present
am / is / аre +V3
Past
was / were + V3
have / has
+ been + V3
had been + V3
Future
shall / will + be
+ V3
should / would
+ be + V3
am / is / are
+ being + V3
was / were
+ being + V3
Future in the
Past
–
–
shall / will
+ have been + V3
should / would
+ have been +V3
Формы страдательного залога имеют не все глаголы, а в основном глаголы переходные (to take, to give, to send, to make, to see, to
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значают действие, направленное на какой-либо объект, и принимают прямое, косвенное или предложное дополнение.
В страдательном залоге послелог сохраняет свое место после
глагола (The prepositional passive construction).
Активный залог
Пассивный залог
Перевод
to account for
to agree to / with
to agree upon / on
to arrive at
to call for / on
to comment on
to count on
to deal with
to depend on
to hear of
to insist on
to interfere with
to laugh at
to listen to
to look after
to look at
to look down upon
to look up to
to put on with
to put up at
to refer to
to rely on
to send for
to speak about
to write about
to be accounted for
to be agreed to
to be agreed upon / on
to be arrived at
to be called for / at
to be commented on
to be counted on
to be dealt with
to be depended on
to be heard of
to be insisted on
to be interfered with
to be laughted at
to be listened to
to be looked after
to be looked at
to be looked down upon
to be looked up to
to be put on with
to be put up at
to be referred to
to be relied on
to be sent for
to be spoken about
to be written about
объяснять
соглашаться с
договориться о
достигать
зайти за
комментировать
надеяться на
иметь дело с
полагаться на
слышать о
настаивать на
вмешиваться, мешать
смеяться над
слушать
ухаживать
смотреть на
смотреть сверху вниз
смотреть снизу вверх
примириться с
остановиться
ссылаться на
полагаться на
посылать за
говорить о
писать о
Сравните:
Active Voice
This is certainly a great inconvenience, but you must put up with
it.
Passive Voice
This is certainly a great inconvenience, but it must be put up
with.
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In our country we did away with
In our country this fact was done
this fact many years ago.
away with many years ago.
We look upon him as a teacher.
He is looked upon as a teacher.
Для введения исполнителя или орудия, с помощью которого
производится действие, используются следующие предлоги:
by – для описания исполнителя действия (одушевленного или
неодушевленного):
He was hit by a ball. Его ударило мячом.
with – предваряет предмет, который является орудием в руках
исполнителя действия:
He was hit with a ball. Его ударили мячом.
Особые случаи образования страдательного залога 
(Special Cases of the Passive Voice Formation)
Ряд словосочетаний считается неделимыми, так как в их составе уже есть существительное, и поэтому действие над этим существительным не может быть совершено. Обратите внимание на образование страдательного залога в данном случае.
Активный залог
Пассивный залог
Перевод
to find fault with
to lose sight of
to make a fool of
to make fun of
to make use of to pay attention to
to put an end to
to take care of
to take notice of
to be found fault with
to be lost sight of
to be made fool of
to be made fun of
to be made use of to be paid attention to
to be put an end to
to be taken care of
to be taken notice of
придираться
терять из виду
дурачить
насмехаться над
использовать
уделять внимание
положить конец
заботиться
замечать
Сравните:
Active Voice
He always took care of his nails.
Passive Voice
His nails were always taken care of.
Monica is always paid attention
to by all the young men.
Mr. Green was lost sight of.
Young men always pay attention
to Monica.
We lost sight of Mr. Green.
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Sam put an end to all this drug
trouble.
He finds fault with his nephew.
All this drug trouble was put an
end to.
His nephew is found fault with.
ЗАПОМНИ:
1. В страдательном залоге не употребляются:
а) непереходные глаголы. В английском языке называют непереходными те глаголы, которые не требуют после себя прямого дополнения: to live , to come, to fly, cry и другие. При них нет
объекта, который испытывал бы воздействие, то есть нет прямых
дополнений, которые могли бы стать подлежащими при глаголе в
форме Passive;
б) некоторые переходные глаголы. В большинстве случаев это
глаголы состояния, такие как to resemble, to suit, to fit, to have, to
possess, to lack, to like и другие: She resembles her father.
2. Некоторые глаголы могут образовывать две формы страдательного залога:
My father gave me this watch. (active)
1) I was given this watch by my father. (passive)
2) This watch was given to me by my father. (passive)
It was believed he had never met her before. (active)
1) He was not believed to have met her before. (passive)
2) It was believed she had never been met before. (passive)
3. Некоторые предложения употребляются с глаголами в действительном залоге, хотя по значению действие является пассивным:
The newspaper sells well.
Glass breaks easily.
The novel reads easily.
The hall was filling up.
This dress irons well.
It says in the Bible, «Thou shalt
not steal.»
Страдательный залог с модальными глаголами 
(Passive Voice with Modal Verbs)
Сказуемому действительного залога, которое выражено сочетанием модального глагола с инфинитивом действительного залога,
в страдательном залоге соответствует сочетание того же модального глагола с пассивным инфинитивом: must / can (could) / may
(might) / should / ought to / have to (has to, had to, will have to) / be to
(am to / is to / are to; was to / were to) + be + V3.
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Сравните:
Active Voice
You must do it in time.
One can buy the book in the shop.
Passive Voice
It must be done in time.
The book can be bought in this
shop.
The house will have to be cleaned
up, her parents are returning.
She will have to clean up the
house, her parents are returning.
Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. The doctor was sent for half an hour. 2. The book has often been
referred to in many articles. 3. The first space flight was much spoken
about for a long time. 4. It is well-known fact that a car must be taken
care of. 5. At last the agreement was arrived at. 6. Our laboratory will
be provided with all necessary equipment. 7. The experiments have
been carried out by this laboratory. 8. After artificial radioactivity
had been discovered a whole new world was opened up. 9. The report
will have been written by Friday. 10. The two problems were widely
discussed at the last conference. 11. The problem was being discussed
for two hours. 12. Rome was not built in a day. 13. The flowers have
been kept without water for a week. 14. Each candidate was questioned
in turn by five examiners. 15. What is done can’t be undone.
Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying
attention to the passive voice form.
1. Two people were taken to the hospital after an accident, yesterday.
2. The second son is intended for the army, and the third for the science.
3. New Zealand is a country that should be watched with interest.
4. The tourist industry was boosted and the country’s geographical
isolation has become an advantage. 5. My friend can’t stand being told
about the history. 6. The fire could have been caused by an electrical
fault. 7. Mary came back to her native town 20 years later and wasn’t
recognized by old acquaintances. 8. Users of portable music players
are advised to limit listening one hour a day and keep the volume
down. 9. There is an intensely strong tie between mother and baby
and if it’s broken, the infants don’t learn anything. 10. The parents are
concerned for their children’s safety outside the home while young people
themselves say there is not enough to do in the area where they live. 11. It
should be decided if he is worth of mercy or not. 12. The students who
were questioned in the survey produced a wide range of comments, some
rather negative in their tone. 13. It seems that a passion for science can
be maintained by enthusiastic teachers who highlight the relevance of the
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subject in a modern world. 14. When you are surrounded by people from
many other countries, you start to notice the way different nationalities
express themselves. 15. Nearly all areas of physics were changed by
Einstein’s work, and without it lasers, television, computers, space travel,
and many other things we are familiar with today would not exist.
Exercise 3. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.
1. Who is going to welcome the guest? 2. He meant nothing in
particular by his remark, but she took it up in an unexpected way.
3. Somebody might have stolen this rare book if the police hadn’t put
everything in order. 4. She didn’t ask him anything because she knew
a sister’s place. 5. He was throwing his things into a suitcase as if the
place were on fire. 6. They can arrange all things. 7. Dangerous driving
causes many accidents. 8. You can’t wash this dress; you must dry-clean
it. 9. They are showing the officer their passports. 10. When will they
offer you the job? 11. The doctor advised him to quit smoking. 12. Mike
went to hospital as a dog had beaten him in the street. 13. She is
delivering the documents to the department. 14. They pay the bill before
leaving the restaurant. 15. They will have informed her about their plans
before their leaving. 16. Nobody had ever spoken to him that way in his
life. 17. People will laugh at you for your trouble. 18. She didn’t really
know anything about what he had done. 19. They know him to have
visited her last year. 20. He might have done it, nobody knows.
Exercise 4. Change the following sentences into the active voice.
1. Ann has been promised a new dress. 2. She will be granted a large
sum of money. 3. He was warned against entering the building. 4. They
must be shown how to operate the machine. 5. He was provided with
false information. 6. He was recommended to buy a new vocabulary.
7. How was he rewarded? 8. He should be given some advice to help him
to solve this problem. 9. She is expected to get married a millionaire.
10. Inflation is said to be increasing. 11. The matter will have to be
discussed. 12. The child is looked after well. 13. We don’t know why
this question wasn’t taken the least notice of. 14. The boat was lost sight
of. 15. Illiteracy was done away with many years ago in our country.
Exercise 5. Choose the correct form of verb.
1. Ann became the editor-in-chief, that’s why the newspaper (is
sold / sells) well. 2. This part of grammar is very important and
difficult; it should (pay attention / be paid attention to). 3. Now it (is
knew / is known) as the Big Apple, a name which (has been made /
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was made) popular by the jazz musicians. 4. Look to the left, this
wonderful painting Sistine Chapel (was painted / has been painted) by
Michelangelo. 5. These actors are very talented. I’m sure that people
(will be amazed / are being amazed) by the performance tomorrow.
6. Did anyone clean he windows? – No, they should (be cleaned / have
been cleaned), but they weren’t. 7. Airline companies (are being forced /
will be forced) to put up their prices to cover these costs, making air
travel much more expensive. 8. Famous journalist complimented his
pupil and said that the article would be wide commented. 9. You must
(relieve / be relieved) that you found your credit card! 10. She (was
disappointed / is disappointed) with her exam results and decided to
stay at home. 11. We (were exhausted / has been exhausted) completely
after we had finished painting the room. 11. His features (has been
imprinted / were imprinted) on my memory I couldn’t forget his
charming eyes. 12. I (was not amused / was not amusing) when the
children started firing their water pistols on me. 13. My boss’s speech
(is being laught at / is laughed at) but I pay no attention to it. 14. A lot
of idioms and phrasal verbs (are used / has been used) in this text, that’s
why it’s unusual. 15. Our camping weekend (is being held / will be hold)
in North Wales next week.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English paying
attention to the passive voice form.
1. Вас когда-нибудь учили, как надо вести себя в приличном
обществе? 2. Обед был приготовлен папой и мамой, а стол накрыт
сестрой. 3. Маленькая девочка плачет, так как мама ругает ее за
порванное платье. 4. Информация была получена после полудня.
5. В этом году в нашем городе было построено много новых удобных магазинов. 6. Нужно почистить ковры, вымыть пол и приготовить обед. 7. В комнате не живут. 8. Сколько тебе заплатили за
эту работу? 9. Тебе никогда не скажут правду. 10. Я долго искал
ключи, прежде чем найти их. 11. Старшая сестра с детства присматривала за близнецами. 12. К нему часто обращаются за советом.
13. На нее часто обращают внимание на улице из-за ее броского
макияжа. 14. Кому нужно будет передать эту книгу? 15. Его часто
обвиняют в том, чего он не делал.
Exercise 7. Complete the sentences. Use the correct passive form of
the verb in brackets.
1. The director of «Lord of Rings» (be born) in the country where
the film (make). 2. «Out of Africa» (nominate) for 11 Oscars and it won
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seven. 3. When he sat down next to his victim’s husband, officers on duty at the stadium (inform) of the situation and the thief (arrest). 4. A new
James Bond film (make) at the moment. 5. When the results of the survey (publish)? 6. She couldn’t train because her leg (broke). 7. The suspect (follow) by the police when he crashed into a tree. 8. The book (not
release) last year due to writer’s serious illness. 9. Originally there were
a few hundred settlers in New York and 18 different languages (speak).
10. It is 1,280 miles long and costs $35 million to build. It’s not surprising that it (photograph) more often than any other bridge in the world.
11. An old fortune-teller knew what (happen) with him. 12. A man who
wore a dark hat gave me some paper and ran away. Later I understood
that he (take notice of) only by me. 13. Charlie goes on believing that
his wealth (return). 14. She followed Mike with her eyes until he (lose
sight of). 15. The beaches of this mount (choose) for the next children’s
holidays.
Exercise 8. Choose the right variant.
1. The new hotel … there next year.
A. will be build
B. is being built
C. will be built
2. The results of experiments … by a group of scientists at the
moment.
A. is studied
B. was being studied
C. are being studied
3. Soon visitors from abroad … by the new ski resort.
A. will be attracted
B. weren’t attracted
C. are being attracted
4. The Maori guide was quite relaxed about … the same questions
all the time, but he got tired of … by tourists.
A. not asking, photographing
B. be asked, be photographed
C. being asked, being photographed
5. She wouldn’t … if she had been wearing a seat-belt.
A. be injured
B. has been injured
C. have been injured
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6. I haven’t free time now, but I hope that I … my sweater to March.
A. would knit
B. will have been knitted
C. will be knitted
7. Then I promised myself that the thief would … .
A. catch and punish
B. have been caught and punished
C. be caught and punished
8. He … by the noise of four wild dogs scratching at the rocks.
A. was waked
B. were waked
C. was woken
9. Ghosts? Nonsense! They can … .
A. not be saw
B. have been seen
C. not be seen
10. His last will … to his relatives several months later and surprised
everybody.
A. was announced
B. will be announced
C. were announced
11. At first the show was not successful and it … by NTB after its
third season.
A. has been cancelled
B. was cancel
C. was cancelled
12. Laura … of dogs since she … by one as a child.
A. will be terrified, is bitten
B. has been terrified, was bitten
C. was terrified, has been bitten
13. The scientists confirmed what … for a long time.
A. was suspected
B. has been suspected
C. had been suspected
14. No one working in such jobs as a construction worker or a forest
ranger ever completely … by mass production.
A. will be replaced
B. has been replaced
C. would be being replaced
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15. Animals can … in national parks as they are endanger species.
A. be hunted
B. not be hunted
C. haven’t been hunted
Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into English paying
attention to the passive voice form.
1. Музыка на вечеринке была очень громкая, ее можно было услышать издалека. 2. Комнату собираются покрасить на следующей
неделе. 3. Уходите! Я хочу, чтоб меня оставили одного! 4. Преступник был застрелен полицейским из пистолета. 5. Не забывайте,
что слово office пишется с двумя буквами f. 6. Наша бригада очень
взволнована – нас только что известили о еще одном происшествии
на заводе. 7. Убийц обычно приговаривают к пожизненному заключению. 8. Хотя сейчас ресторан используется как художественная
выставка, посетителей не убавилось. 9. Некоторым актерам никогда не предлагают главных ролей. 10. Подождите немного! Через пять минут фотографии будут напечатаны. 11. Вам выписан
штраф. Парковка в центре города запрещена. 12. Обратите внимание – эта скульптура сделана из гранита. 13. Дети узнали, что вода
состоит из кислорода и водорода. 14. Рано утром ценную картину
украли прямо из-под носа владельца. 15. Он отказывался идти на
вечеринку, но когда за ним зашли друзья не мог не согласиться.
Exercise 10. Transform from active into passive.
1. I turned back to him and his expression startled me. 2. He wondered how widely they had already linked their names. 3. She often
leaves them alone. 4. Students had eagerly asked her if there would be
Americans this year. 5. While the barmaid was giving him his change,
he studied her (the barmaid). 6. The education office will properly recognize you in ten years’ time. 7. Before that, they hadn’t ever allowed
me into their house. 8. His interest encouraged her greatly. 9. He assured
us that they won’t make a decision until the next meeting. 10. They
can’t find the missing boy anywhere. 11. He gave me a message for you.
12. He carried a wooden spade in his hands. 13. He said he would give
me the job on the usual terms. 14. My friends told me not to believe the
girl’s tears. 15. They have changed the date of their departure.
Exercise 11. Transform into passive if possible.
1. She is a soft of elegant creature that one cannot keep one’s eyes
from, I’m always watching her to admire; and I do a pity her from my
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heart. 2. He has long known that you are a superior performer. 3. But
really I begin now to comprehend that a married woman has many
things to call her attention. 4. That she was really ill was very certain;
he had declared himself convinced of it, at Randall’s. 5. I tried to examine myself. 6. Though the cheeses smell bad? I don’t mind keeping
them for him. 7. Andrew asked himself that question with intensity as
he went over her again. 8. He has been rude to her. 9. Sadly, but he has
never taken care of her. 10. He had learned long ago to trust his instincts. 11. He believed in God, and God he believed in wanted him to
be rich and successful, and his enemies dead. 12. Colonel Black turned
his face away. 13. That suit you, or would you rather eat first? 14. Wedlock suits you. I think that you have put on seven and a half pound since
I saw you. 15. Ecologists say that we should take care of our planet.
16. Ecologists say that we should take care of our planet. 17. He thought
of the lives, that they had lived here for nearly two centuries. 18. They
saw him to enter the museum. 19. The referee gave Mary the first prize.
20. He referred his fast recovery to this new medicine he had been taking.
Exercise 12. Transform from active into passive.
1. They make fun of her at work. 2. We had been looking after the
child for a week, before they came. 3. They are constantly turning to
him for assistance. 4. They will have talked about it by Monday. 5. We
didn’t take notice of the problem. 6. What foreign languages did they
teach you at school? 7. They will look after him much better. 8. The
secretary was looking through morning mail. 9. They will be exhibiting the paintings till the end of the month. 10. At last they arrived at
an agreement. 11. They largely commented upon her strange behavior.
12. We did away with it in our group. 13. They lost sight of him. 14. All
the boys looked up to Stella. 15. They will describe the experiment in
several journals. 16. If we use the old methods, we may waste a lot of
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Согласование времен 
(SEQUENCE OF TENSES)
Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем времени, то в придаточном предложении употребляется любое время, необходимое по смыслу:
I know that he is busy now.
I know that he was busy yesterday.
I know that he will be busy tomorrow.
I know that he has done it already.
I know that he had done it by 7 o’clock the day before.
I know that he is having his dinner now.
I know that he will be making a report on this topic tomorrow at
2 o’clock.
Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то в придаточном предложении употребляется:
1) Past Indefinite или Past Continuous, если действие является
одновременным с действием главного предложения:
He informed us that he studied at the Institute.
He didn’t know that she was preparing for her exam.
It was known that he could speak French.
2) Past Perfect, если действие в придаточном предложении
предшествует действию в главном предложении:
We didn’t know that he had already gone.
I heard he had already come back from Italy.
Но: We didn’t know that he left his native town yesterday (two days
ago; in 1999; when she was in Moscow), так как есть указание определенного времени.
3) Future in the Past, если действие является будущим по отношению к прошедшему моменту:
He hoped he would be able to help his friends.
He didn’t know if the delegation would arrive on Sunday, but if it came
we should be able to meet them.
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Правила согласования времен нарушаются:
1) в определительных придаточных предложениях:
He told me about the book you are reading now.
At the theater I saw the girl who lives next door to me.
2) в придаточных обстоятельственных причины:
He didn’t translate the text yesterday because he doesn’t know English
at all.
The judge visited his full anger upon the defendant as he has been very
short-tempered lately.
3) в придаточных обстоятельственных сравнения:
Last year he worked harder than he does this year.
The air is not so cold now as it was in the early morning.
4) в придаточных обстоятельственных уступительных:
He didn’t give me the book yesterday, though he doesn’t need it.
Though I failed last week, I will still try.
5) в придаточных обстоятельственных результата:
She worked hard and slept badly last week and she looks completely
worn-out.
No wonder she has poor eyesight, in her childhood she was fond of
wearing Granny’s horn spectacles (and of course she did it secretly,
without anyone knowing about it).
6) в придаточных изъяснительных, если сообщается общеизвестный факт:
Galileo proved that the Earth is round.
The teacher said that the Moon is the natural satellite of the Earth.
Exercise 1. Explain the rules of the sequence of tenses. State the
tense form.
1. He asked me what work I was doing and whether I intended to go
to University. 2. She claimed that she had met Monty on her way home.
3. She called my mother to say that they had just got a telegram from
Boston announcing that Henry’s brother had been married in Germany.
4. He wanted to return to the house to see how Billy was doing and
tell him that he would go out to California in two or three days. 5. At
10 o’clock he phoned again to say that he had changed his mind. 6. She
wrote that she had been living in France for a year. 7. What she could
not understand why he had told them such a pack of lies. 8. I wondered
what she would do there so late at night. 9. I was surprised you didn’t
know my name. 10. She said that her job was boring. 11. He says he is
free tomorrow. 12. Teacher said that water boils at 100 ˚C. 13. We knew
that he plays tennis well. 14. My brother told me about the novel you are
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writing. 15. I was sure that he knows his job from A to Z. 16. He sought
pleasure in the simple and natural things that life offers to everyone.
17. Galileo proved that the Earth moves round the Sun.
Exercise 2. Translate an extract from the novel by J.K. Rowling
«Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban» into Russian paying
attention to the sequence of tenses.
The Dursley family of number four, Privet Drive, was the reason
that Harry never enjoyed his summer holidays. Uncle Vernon, Aunt
Petunia, and their son, Dudley, were Harry’s only living relatives. They
were Muggles, and they had a very medieval attitude toward magic.
Harry’s dead parents, who had been a witch and wizard themselves,
were never mentioned under the Dursleys’ roof. For years, Aunt Petunia
and Uncle Vernon had hoped that if they kept Harry as downtrodden as
possible, they would be able to squash the magic out of him. To their
fury, they had been unsuccessful. These days they lived in terror of
anyone finding out that Harry had spent most of the last two years at
Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The most they could do,
however, was to lock away Harry’s spell books, wand, cauldron, and
broomstick at the start of the summer break, and forbid him to talk to
the neighbors.
This separation from his spell books had been a real problem for
Harry, because his teachers at Hogwarts had given him a lot of holiday
work. One of the essays, a particularly nasty one about shrinking
potions, was for Hurry’s least favorite teacher, Professor Snape, who
would be delighted to have an excuse to give Harry detention for a
month. Harry had therefore seized his chance in the first week of the
holidays. While Uncle Vernon, Aunt Petunia, and Dudley had gone out
into the front garden to admire Uncle Vernon’s new company car (in
very loud voices, so that the rest of the street would notice it too), Harry
had crept downstairs, picked the lock on the cupboard under the stairs,
grabbed some of his books, and hidden them in his bedroom. As long as
he didn’t leave spots of ink on the sheets, the Dursleys need never know
that he was studying magic by night.
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences of an extract from the novel by
Arthur Conan Doyle «The Lost World» the text with the correct form of
the verb in brackets.
Gladys (to be) full of every womanly quality. Some (judge) her to
be cold and hard; but such a thought (to be) treason. That delicately
bronzed skin, almost oriental in its coloring, the raven hair, the large
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liquid eyes, the full but exquisite lips, – all the stigmata of passion (to
be) there. But I (to be) sadly conscious that up to now I never (find)
the secret of drawing it forth. However, (come) what might, I should
(do) with suspense and (bring) matters to a head to-night. She (can) but
refuse me, and better be a repulsed lover than an accepted brother.
So far my thoughts (carry) me, and I (to be) about to break the
long and uneasy silence, when two critical, dark eyes (look) round at
me, and the proud head (to be) shaken in smiling reproof. «I (have) a
presentiment that you (to go) to propose. I do wish you wouldn’t; for
things (to be) so much nicer as they are.»
I (draw) my chair a little nearer. «Now, how you (know) that I (to go)
to propose?» I (ask) in genuine wonder.
Exercise 4. Choose the correct variant.
1. It … since early morning.
A. snows
В. has been snowing
C. snow
D. have been snowing
2. The war broke out in 1914. The European ruling class … for it for
20 years.
A. had been preparing
B. had preparing
C. prepared
D. were preparing
3. Sir Walter will be executed unless he … to the tyrant lord.
A. will submit
B. not submit
C. submits
D. will not submit
4. Bу July, 15 we … all the credits.
A. pass
B. will pass
C. will be going to pass
D. will have passed
5. When I came home my parents … TV and my brother had gone to
the cinema.
A. have been watched
B. had been watching
C. used to watch
D. were watching
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6. As your leader I’ll tell you about our future excursions. We … by
tram at 9 in the morning and coming back at about 7.
A. are leaving
B. shall leave
C. will have been leaving
D. shall be leaving
7. It is conceivable, that the water supply in the city of Mexico … by
next century.
A. will be going to get exhausted
B. will have been exhausted
C. shall be exhausting
D. will be exhausting
8. The European experts … long … that the arms race would lead
to war.
A. –; warned
B. were; warning
C. had; been warning
D. had; been being warned
9. By the 16th century a new economic system … feudalism.
A. replaced
B. was replacing
C. has replaced
D. had been replaced
10. John came to Britain from the US nearly 3 years ago. Next Monday he … there exactly for 3 years.
A. will be
B. has been
C. will have been
D. will have been being
11. We … the tickets by 5 o’clock.
A. will buy
B. shall be buying
C. shall have bought
D. shall buy
12. By 7 о’clock I … this article.
A. was read
B. had read
C. read
D. was reading
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13. It was raining when I … through the newspapers.
A. have watched
B. were looking
C. was looking
D. have been watching
14. My brother … music lessons for 3 years now.
A. took
B. have taken
C. has been taking
D. is taking
15. It was pointed out that the patient … treatment for heart problems for a year.
A. had
B. was having
C. had had having
D. had been having
16. When Jim ran out of petrol he … what to do.
A. has been wondering
B. was wondering
C. is wondering
D. has wondered
17. Julia … flu for the last few days.
A. has
B. has been having
С. has had
D. have had
18. Now I … how the industry began to expand.
A. shall be illustrating
B. shall have illustrated
C. will have illustrated
D. will be illustrating
19. I … to go to Japan since I was a child.
A. have wanted
B. want
C. have been wanting
D. wanted
20. Scientists fear that more and more holes in the ozone layer … by
the year 2100.
A. will appear
B. shall be appearing
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C. will be appearing
D. will have appeared
21. No wonder she was so fat. She … these last few weeks.
A. overate
B. had been overeating
C. has been overeating
D. used to overeat
22. I … a letter while he was reading a book.
A. am writing
В. was writing
C. had been writing
D. have written
23. They … a movie today from 3 till 5.
A. watches
B. will have been watching
C. will be watching
D. will have watched
24. When he … my translation, he’ll go to the theatre to watch «The
Swan Lake».
A. will finish
B. has finished
C. will finished
D. will have been finishing
25. … they … in the mountains for a month by July?
A. Will … be going to travel
B. Will … be travelling
C. Will … have been travelling
D. Will … travel
26. I will speak to your parents, when … an opportunity.
A. I will have had
B. I have
C. I shall have
D. I will have
27. The passenger was nervous during the flight because he … in a
plane before.
A. did not fly
B. not flew
C. had not flown
D. was not flying
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28. Don’t take any steps to change the situation until I … you to.
A. will have asked
B. ask
C. will ask
D. will be asking
29. What are his plans for this coming month? – He … his entrance
exams to the university.
A. took
B. is taking
C. will be taking
D. takes
30. The Treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783. The colonies
were now free but they … yet … a united nation.
A. had not … formed
B. did not … formed
C. did not … form
D. were not … formed
31. In 2020 the agreement … in force for 50 years.
A. was
B. will be
C. will have been
D. has been
32. While James was telling jokes, Tim … a cigar quietly.
A. has been smoking
B. was smoking
C. had been smoking
D. will be smoking
33. It … for 2 hours.
A. has been raining
B. rains
C. were raining
D. is raining
34. What … he … at 4:30 tomorrow?
A. has … done
B. will … doing
C. will … be doing
D. were … doing
35. By 2 o’clock the students will … the test for 2 hours.
A. use to do
B. do
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C. be doing
D. have been doing
36. My friend … on the ship for 15 years by next year.
A. will have been going serving
B. have served
C. was serving
D. will have been serving
37. Meanwhile in the settlement most men … to go away.
A. were preparing
B. was going to prepare
C. was preparing
D. used to
38. At this time yesterday I … a diploma – paper in the library.
A. had been writing
B. have been writing
C. used to write
D. was writing
39. Before the murder took place, I … and … home.
A. left … had driven
B. had left … driven
C. have left … have driven
D. left … drove
40. You are a good footballer. How long … ?
A. you have been playing
B. has you been playing
C. did you play
D. have you been playing
41. Julian came in, took off her coat, sat down by the fire place
then … at the flame all night through.
A. looked
B. had looked
C. had been looking
D. was looking
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences of the text with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets.
I once (to know) a village teacher who (to be) partially blind. He (to
deprive) of one eye as the result of infection. His blind eye (to take) out,
and a glass one (to insert) in its socket instead.
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One day the teacher (to need) to leave his class of small children
alone for half or so. But he (to hold) back by one consideration. The
children of the class (to be) really unruly. He (to know) that if they (to
leave) alone for any length of time, they (to become) violent and complaints (to make) by their parents.
Suddenly he (to strike) by an idea. In a moment his glass eye (to
take) out of its socket, and (to place) on the table.
«Now, children», he said, «I (to go) out for a few minutes but you (to
observe) all the time by my eye. If anything (to do) which (not to approve) by me it (to see) by my eye, and the child (to punish) when I (to
return).»
The children (to impress) very much, and the teacher (to go) off.
But when he (to return) an hour later it (to seem) that a hurricane (to
pass) through the classroom. The teacher (to astound). «Evidently», he
thought, «I (to outwit). I wonder how.»
In the classroom the tables (to overturn), the walls (to spatter) with
ink from ink-bombs which (to throw) during the battle which still (to
fight) out as a manifestation of high spirit. In fact, a good time (to have)
by all.
The teacher (to wonder) why the presence of his glass eye (not to
respect). He (to look) round for it and (to see) that it (to cover) by a hat.
Exercise 6. Translate an extract from the novel by Lewis Carroll
«Alice in Wonderland» from Russian into English.
А она все падала и падала. Неужели этому не будет конца?
– Интересно, сколько миль я уже пролетела? – сказала Алиса
вслух. – Я, верно, приближаюсь к центру Земли. Дайте-ка вспомнить… Это, кажется, около четырех тысяч миль вниз.
Видишь ли, Алиса выучила кое-что в этом роде на уроках в
классе, и, хоть сейчас был не самый подходящий момент демонстрировать свои познания – никто ведь ее не слышал, – она не могла удержаться.
– Да так, верно, оно и есть, – продолжала Алиса. – Но интересно, на какой же я тогда широте (latitude) и долготе (longitude)?
Сказать по правде, она понятия не имела о том, что такое широта и долгота, но ей очень нравились эти слова. Они звучали так
важно и внушительно!
Помолчав, она начала снова:
– А не пролечу ли я всю Землю насквозь? Вот будет смешно!
Вылезаю – а люди вниз головой! Как их там зовут?... Антипатии,
кажется…
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В глубине души она порадовалась, что в этот миг ее никто не
слышит, потому что слово это звучало как-то не так.
– Придется мне у них спросить, как называется их страна.
«Простите, сударыня, где я? В Австралии или в Новой Зеландии?»
И она попробовала сделать реверанс (curtsey). Можешь себе
представить реверанс в воздухе во время падения? Как, по-твоему,
тебе бы удалось его сделать?
– А она, конечно, подумает, что я страшная невежда (ignorant)!
Нет, не буду никого спрашивать! Может, увижу где-либо надпись!
Exercise 7. Choose the right alternative.
1. When I looked at her, I realized that we had met / met before.
2. The teacher told the pupils that Novosibirsk stands / stood on the
both banks of the river Ob. 3. We had been walking / were walking for
three hours and were very hungry. 4. We got out of the train and took a
taxi to get to the place on time. The taxi driver was entertaining / had
entertained us with funny stories. 5. The same person has been phoning / phoned me once a week, for the past two months asking for a «Mr.
Bruno». 6. She was sitting / had been sitting at the desk when the door
opened and a stranger came running into the room. 7. We are living /
live in a small flat, but we are going to move to a bigger one. 8. Oh, look.
They have cut / cut down the tree near our house. 9. I have been sitting /
was sitting at the computer surfing the World Wide Web these last few
days trying to come up with a topic related to skiing. 10. I met her at the
station. She was / has been a little tired after the journey. 11. I cannot
unlock the door, because I have lost / had lost the key. 12. The reasons of
the explosion are unknown. Hopefully by tomorrow we will have had /
will have some answers. 13. I was often asking / have often asked myself what was the true meaning of human existence. 14. I came into the
room and saw that everyone was having / had fun: John and Mug were
dancing; Kate, Tom and Jerry were chatting and laughing. 15. I have
been reading / read since morning. Can’t quit, the book is so gripping.
Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English paying attention to
the sequence of tenses.
1. Я был так напуган, что не мог пошевелиться. 2. Сьюзи с нетерпением ждала встречи. Она слышала много об этом молодом
человеке и знала о его романе с Маргарет. 3. Маргарет пришло в
голову, что Оливер был автором записки. 4. «Я никогда не видел
такой преданной пары», – сказал он. 5. «Я не помню, почему я решился придти сюда, – сказал он, – но теперь я уверен, что добрый
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ангел направил меня». 6. Вы не знаете обо мне, если не читали
книгу «Приключения Тома Сойера». 7. Весь мир читал историю
об этом маленьком страннике. 8. Я так никогда и не набрался храбрости спеть ту серенаду Шуберта после того, как она сказала,
что это ее любимое произведение. 10. Обычно он просил миссис
Брентфорд не говорить, что он здесь, когда звонила миссис Дриффилд. 11. Мне никогда не нравилось вмешиваться в дела других
людей. 12. С тех пор я никого из них не видел. 13. Миссис Санберри была неспокойна, потому что раньше она никогда не позволяла ему играть с детьми на улице. 14. Она никогда в жизни не
пользовалась ни румянами, ни помадой. 15. В тот момент, когда
он сказал мне, что он холостяк, я решила, что, всеми правдами и
неправдами, выйду за него замуж. 16. Он сказал мне, что любит
меня с первого дня, как увидел. 17. Я понимал, что он ушел вместе
со мной для того, чтобы обсудить снова то, что он уже обсуждал
часами со своей невесткой. 18. Дневник, как бы то ни было, был
таким же чистым, как и до того, как чернильница опрокинулась на
него. 19. Однако слуга, которого я позвал, доложил мне, что солдат
с военной точностью явился ровно в половине восьмого. 20. Вы будете править, вершить правосудие среди них и защищать от врагов, когда они восстанут.
Exercise 9. Choose the right variant.
1. He … for some time before a servant … and … what he … .
A. knocked, opened, asked, wanted
B. was knocking, opened, asked, was wanting
C. had been knocking, opened, asked, wanted
D. had knocked, had opened, had asked, had wanted
2. The doctor … there … nothing to worry about if the fever …
above 38,5 °С.
A. said, was, would not go B. tells, is, will go
C. says, had been, went
D. said, was, did not go
3. I … a wash and a brush-up before starting to go to the luncheon
Tom … me to, when they … me from the desk to say that he … below.
A. had, was invited, were ringing, had been
B. was having, invited, had rung, was
C. was having, had invited, rang, was
D. had been having, had invited, had rung, had been
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4. Someday I … to Paris to revisit all the places where I … in the
time of my youth. I … them for a quarter of a century or so.
A. will have gone, have lived, haven’t seen
B. am going, had lived, did not see
C. will go, lived, haven’t seen
D. will be going, had lived, hadn’t seen
5. Hardly … asleep … an alarm clock … .
A. have I gone, than, will ring
B. had I gone, when, rang
C. I had gone, then, had rung
D. was I going, as, was ringing
6. We … continue our research unless he … us.
A. can’t, won’t help
B. will not be able to, does not help
C. can, will help
D. won’t be able to, helps
7. We … him in many moods, but none of us … him to do a cruel
thing.
A. see, ever know
B. see, don’t ever know
C. have seen, have ever known
D. have seen, haven’t ever known
8. He needed to feel that he was listened to, that he … here, and that
his word … .
A. was commanding, was always obeyed
B. is commanding, is always obeyed
C. was being commanding, was always being obeyed
D. is being commanding, was always being obeyed
9. Look! What a beautiful view! The sun … yet, but the grey sky is
parted near the horizon.
A. was not appeared
B. did not appear
C. has not been appeared
D. has not appeared
10. When he saw that someone … at him, he did not immediately
realize who this someone … .
A. looked, is
B. was looking, was
C. has been looking, is
D. had looked, was being
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11. While our coffee … , I … him our sad story which impressed
him greatly.
A. was making, told
B. was made, said
C. had been making, told
D. was being made, told
12. It … in the night, but now there … sunshine.
A. has rained, was
B. had rained, had been
C. is raining, is being
D. was raining, is
13. As he … the room that morning, Ann … up the letter which she … .
A. was entered, was holding, had just received
B. was entering, has held, has just received
C. entered, was holding, had just received
D. had entered, held, has just received
14. I … a note with the address of the hotel and the boy’s name into
his pocket in case he … his way.
A. have put, will lose
B. will put, will have lost
C. have put, loses
D. will have put, have lost
15. They … , but as they … me there … a hush.
A. were talking, saw, was
B. are talking, have seen, had been
C. had been talking, will see, would be
D. have been talking, had seen, will be
16. Come on, if the sun … before we … home, we … our way.
A. has set, reach, will lose
B. will have set, will reach, lose
C. will have set, reach, will lose
D. has been set, will reach, lose
17. … when he … her for the first time.
A. Tell me, has met
B. Say me, had met
C. Say to me, met
D. Tell me, met
18. He was tired and by the time I … , he … asleep.
A. have come, has fallen
B. came, fell
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C. came, had fallen
D. had come, had fallen
19. If you … to Paris you’ll see the Eiffel Tower.
A. go B. did C. goes D. does go
20. Who … America?
A. discovered
B. did discovered
C. did discover
D. discovers
21. A secretary is a person who … letters.
A. is typing
B. types
C. typed
D. will type
22. I wonder when she … my books.
A. returns
B. will return
C. would return
D. had return
Exercise 10. Correct the verbs in bold type if the tenses are wrong.
1. You have always been telling me of your bad qualities, Lord Garing. 2. I didn’t want to show you inner pain but I can’t cope with tears.
3. It is a great responsibility to bring up children. 4. From time to time
I looked back at Jam, who was still trying to place the note on the window. 5. She was sure that he has no notion how deeply he has wounded
her. But after all she is trying to be tolerant. 6. He was very upset. His
wife found out, he is in love with actress. And now she is making scenes
about her [actress]. 7. His family knew this nurse since she left old hospital to take care of their grandmother. 8. I didn’t change a thing. 9. The
thought about friends make him remember Mathew who disappeared.
10. I don’t quite know what the matter with her is as she insists on making a secret of the whole thing and flies into a passion if you ask her
questions. 11. He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish.
12. I can’t understand why he is so selfish. He is not usually like that.
13. I came a long way and I want to see him now and quick. 14. Our
cat hasn’t paid any attention to mice. 15. Did you ever think of writing
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your recollections of him? 16. I thought he had been working and had
not come into the room. 17. Our guide told us that the castle had been
built in the 14th century. 18. He asked what he would be doing when
he retired. 19. The correspondents were informed that the problem of
prices was still being discussed and as soon as it will have been solved
the contract would be signed. 20. The professor told me not to come till
I have learned all the material.
Exercise 11. Complete the sentences of the text «Tourism today»
with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
The effects of tourism since the 1960s (be) incredible. To take just a
few examples:
The Mediterranean shores (have) a resident population of 130 million, but this (swell) to 230 million each summer because of the tourists.
This is nothing. The United Nations (project) that visitors to the region
could number 760 million by the year 2025. In Spain, France, Italy, and
most of Greece, there (be) no undeveloped coastline left, and the Mediterranean (be) the dirtiest sea in the whole world.
In the Alps, the Cable cars (climb) higher and higher. More and more
peaks (conquer). It (be) now an old Swiss joke that the government
(have to build) new mountains because they (wire up) all the old ones.
There are 15000 cable car systems and 40000 kilometers of ski-runs.
American national parks (operate) permit systems for years. But even
this is not enough for the most popular sites. By 1981, there (be) an eightyear waiting list to go rafting down the Grand Canyon’s Colorado River,
so now there (be) a lottery once a year to select the lucky travellers.
Poor Venice with its unique, exquisite beauty! On one hot, historic
day in 1987, the crowds (be) so great that the city (have to close) to all
visitors.
In Notre Dame in Paris, 108 visitors (enter) each minute during
opening hours. Thirty-five buses, having put down their passengers,
(wait) outside; their fumes (eat away) the stonework of the cathedral.
In Barbados and Hawaii, each tourist (use) ten times as much water
and electricity as a local inhabitant. Whilst feeling that this (be) unfair locals (acknowledge) the importance of tourism to their economy
overall.
The prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux in France slowly (ruin)
by the breath and bacteria from 200.000 visitors a year. The caves now
(close) to the public and a replica (build). This is much praised for its
likeness to the original.
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Exercise 12. Translate from Russian into English an extract from
the novel by Jane Austen «Pride and Prejudice» paying attention to the
sequence of tenses.
Мистер Бингли вскоре перезнакомился почти со всеми присутствовавшими. Он был оживлен и любезен, участвовал в каждом танце, жалел о слишком раннем окончании бала и даже упомянул вскользь, что не мешало бы устроить бал в Незерфилде.
Столь приятные качества говорили сами за себя. Как разительно
отличался он от своего друга! Мистер Дарси танцевал только раз
с миссис Херст и раз с мисс Бингли, не желая быть представленным другим дамам, он весь вечер прохаживался по залу, изредка
перекидываясь словами с кем-нибудь из своих спутников. Его манеру поведения осудили все. Дарси был признан одним из самых
заносчивых и неприятных людей на свете, и все хором выражали
надежду на то, что он больше никогда не появится в местном обществе. Среди злейших его противников оказалась миссис Беннет.
Разделяемое этой дамой общее неудовольствие поведением мистера Дарси превратилось в личную неприязнь после того, как он
пренебрежительно отнесся к одной из ее дочерей.
Exercise 13. Use the required verb forms.
5th September.
Let me introduce myself. I (be) Jane Bailey, and I (live) with my
parents in Nottingham. At the moment, though, it (seem) I may not
be here much longer. The reason? Last June, I (take) my A-levels in
three subjects: biology, chemistry and mathematics. I (pass) the first
two but I (fail) mathematics. That (mean) I (cannot) get into a university this year. I (be) really upset when I (hear) that I (fail) one of
the exams.
Now I (have) to decide what to do. I (work) in a shop near home for
the summer, and (manage) to save some money. I (think) I must do a
quick secretarial course and get a job. So my plan (be) to go to London and do a three-month typing course there. I (want) to earn some
money and then take my A-level mathematics again next summer. My
father (not to agree). He (not to want) me to go to London and he (not
to think ) a university education ( be )necessary for a girl. My mother
(be) on my side. She (think) I should work this year and try to study
for my exam at the same time. At the moment we still (try) to decide
what to do.
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Exercise 14. Read an extract from the novel by W. Somerset
Maugham «The Moon and Sixpence» and explain the use of the tenses,
used by the author.
I had not been in Tahiti long before I met Captain Nichols. He came
in one morning when I was having breakfast on the terrace of the hotel
and introduced himself. He had heard that I was interested in Charles
Strickland, and announced that he had come to have a talk about him.
They are as fond of gossip in Tahiti as in an English village, and one or
two enquiries I had made for pictures by Strickland had been quickly
spread. I asked the stranger if he had breakfasted.
«Yes; I have my coffee early,» he answered, «but I don’t mind having
a drop of whisky.» I called the Chinese boy.
«You don’t think it’s too early?» said the Captain.
«You and your liver must decide that between you,» I replied.
«I’m practically a teetotaler,» he said, as he poured himself out a
good half-tumbler of Canadian Club.
When he smiled he showed broken and discolored teeth. He was a
very lean man, of no more than average height, with gray hair cut short
and a stubbly gray moustache. He had not shaved for a couple of days.
His face was deeply lined, burned brown by long exposure to the sun,
and he had a pair of small blue eyes which were astonishingly shifty.
They moved quickly, following my smallest gesture, and they gave him
the look of a very thorough rogue. But at the moment he was all heartiness and good-fellowship. He was dressed in a bedraggled suit of khaki,
and his hands would have been all the better for a wash.
«I knew Strickland well,» he said, as he leaned back in his chair and
lit the cigar I had offered him. «It’s through me he came out to the islands.»
«Where did you meet him?» I asked.
«In Marseilles.»
«What were you doing there?»
He gave me an ingratiating smile.
«Well, I guess I was on the beach.»
Exercise 15. Translate from Russian into English paying attention to
the sequence of tenses.
1. Я попытаюсь помочь Вам, если Вы пообещаете помочь моей
маме. 2. Потом она уснет – подумай об этом; часы сладкого нормального сна, без боли, без лекарств. А на следующий день все
будут говорить о том, что она поправилась. 3. Я, несомненно, по70
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пробую сделать, что могу для вас как для старого друга, но, конечно, ничего пообещать не могу. 4. К концу недели он закончит
расследование. 5. Он знал, что случится завтра, но был уверен, что
через неделю все будет разрешено. 6. «Куда ты собираешься?» –
спросила она. «Думаю, я уеду из Парижа. Здесь все будет напоминать мне о том, что я потерял. Я должен вернуться к работе».
7. Если Петра напишет тебе, я бы хотел, чтобы ты сказала ей, что я
никогда не упрекну ее в том, что она сделала, и всегда сделаю все,
что она захочет. 8. Если его никто не остановит, он будет ворчать
часами. 9. Доктор, вы должны что-нибудь сделать для меня. Я боюсь ложиться спать. Я сойду с ума, если это будет продолжаться.
10. Я надеюсь, ты не станешь так рисковать. 11. Так ему и надо.
12. Должно быть, ты узнал об этом из газет. 13. Я обещаю, что позвоню тебе, как только приду домой. 14. Мы можем встретиться в
пять вечера завтра? Я буду работать утром, но, я думаю, я закончу работу к пяти часам вечера. 15. Боюсь, я буду занят в субботу.
Я собираюсь покрасить свой дом, я уже пригласил рабочих.
Exercise 16. Read the text paying attention to the sequence of tenses
and its translation. Fix the errors, if there are any.
Louis Creed, who had lost his father at three and who had never
known his grandfather, never expected to find a father as he entered his middle age, but that was
exactly what happened although
he called this man a friend, as
a grown man must do when he
finds the man who should have
been his father relatively late in
life. He met this man on the evening he and his wife and his two
children moved into the big white
frame house in Ludlow. Winston
Churchill moved in with them.
Church was his daughter Eileen’s
cat.
Луис Крид никогда не знал
своего деда, а отца потерял в
три. Он не питал больших надежд, что когда-нибудь найдет
его, но это случилось, только
поздно… Он называл его другом, как делают все взрослые
люди, когда в их жизни появляется человек, которого можно считать отцом. Они познакомились в тот вечер, когда он
с семьей переехал в большой
белый дом в Лудлоу. С ними
был еще Уинстон Черчилль.
Так звали кота его дочери,
Черч.
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Косвенная речь  
(INDIRECT SPEECH)
При преобразовании прямой речи в косвенную следует помнить ряд правил. Если глагол, вводящий прямую речь, стоит в одном из прошедших времен, происходит сдвиг времени:
Present Indefinite > Past Indefinite
Present Continuous > Past Continuous
Present Perfect > Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous > Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite > Past Perfect
Past Continuous > Past Perfect Continuous или остается без изменений
Past Perfect – не изменяется
Past Perfect Continuous – не изменяется
Future Indefinite > Future Indefinite in the Past
Future Continuous > Future Continuous in the Past
Future Perfect > Future Perfect in the Past
Future Perfect Continuous > Future Perfect Continuous in the Past
Но: сдвиг времени отсутствует, если:
1) есть указание на время:
She said (that) she met him when
She said, «I met him when I was
crossing the street».
she was crossing the street.
2) после слов since и before, если глагол-сказуемое после одного
из этих слов стоит в Past Indefinite:
She said, «I had left home before
She said (that) she had left home
the telegram came».
before the telegram came.
She said, «I have been writing
She said (that) she had been writsince I came».
ing since she came.
3) в условных предложениях второго типа:
She usually said, «If I had a garShe usually said (that) if she had
den I should grow flowers».
a garden she would grow flowers.
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При преобразовании прямой речи в косвенную происходит изменение местоимений и наречий времени и места:
this > that
yesterday > the day before, the previthese > those
ous day
here > there
last week > the week before
now > then, at that time
last night > the previous night
today > that day
ago > before
this week > that week
tomorrow > the next day
so, such > very, exceedingly (в восклицательных предложениях)
Например:
He said, «Whose play did we
He wanted to know whose play we
watch last night?»
had watched the previous day.
Преобразование вопросительных предложений  
в косвенной речи  
(Conversion of Interrogative Sentences  
in Indirect Speech)
В косвенной речи специальные и общие вопросы имеют прямой порядок слов, при этом общие вопросы вводятся с помощью if,
whether, а специальные – с помощью вопросительного слова, стоящего в начале предложения. Сравните:
He asked, «Were you ill yesHe wanted to know if he had been ill
terday?»
the day before.
We asked, «What was the
We asked what the weather had
weather like some days ago?»
been like some days before.
В косвенной речи в разделительных вопросах опускается хвостик (часть предложения после запятой):
«She is still watching TV, isn’t
He wanted to know if she was still
she?» he asked.
watching TV.
Слова для введения косвенной речи:
to admit – допускать, соглашатьto instruct – давать инструкся, признавать
ции, сообщать
to announce (to sb) – объявлять,
to tell – говорить, сказать,
заявлять, сообщать
высказывать, велеть
to answer – отвечать
to order – приказывать
to assure – уверять, заверять
to permit – разрешать
to beg – просить, умолять
to promise – обещать
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to admit – допускать, соглашаться, признавать
to announce (to sb) – объявлять,
заявлять, сообщать
to answer – отвечать
to assure – уверять, заверять
to beg – просить, умолять
to instruct – давать инструкции, сообщать
to tell – говорить, сказать,
высказывать, велеть
to order – приказывать
to permit – разрешать
to promise – обещать
Просьбы и команды в косвенной речи  
(Requests and Commands in Indirect Speech)
Просьбы и команды в английском языке выражаются посредством повелительного наклонения, которое в косвенной речи заменяется инфинитивом:
She said to him, «Be at 6».
She told him to be at 6.
He said to her, «Don’t close the
He asked her not to close the
window, please».
window.
Неэмоционально выраженная форма повелительного наклонения в косвенной речи также заменяется инфинитивом:
It was very stuffy in the room and it
It was very stuffy in the room
was difficult for the boy to breathe
and it was difficult for the boy
and his mother asked the nurse,
to breathe and his mother asked
«Would you open the window,
the nurse to open the window.
please!»
Exercise 1. Change the following text into indirect speech.
«It’s all right, Joss. Don’t cry. It’ll be OK.»
«If only you knew how badly I want to see Mags … and my mum.»
«Have you thought of calling her?»
«I have called. But when she answered I just put the phone down.»
«She probably realized that it was you. That you wanted to give her
a little sign that you’re OK.»
«Do you think so?»
«Yes.» She hesitated, knowing that she was going to break all the
rules. «I know this for a fact.»
«What do you mean?»
«My son was just a bit older than you are when he left. Six months
ago he and I had a terrible fight and he walked out. Just like that. He put
some things into a backpack and went. I haven’t spoken to him since
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then. But every now and then the phone rings and when I pick it up
there is a silence, and then the caller hangs up. I know it’s James. In my
heart I know it’s him.»
She waited, trying not to let her own emotions take over, praying
that she had done the right thing in talking about her own life. The seconds ticked by.
Then Joss said, «I had a fight with my dad. That’s why I ran away.»
«It must have been an awful fight.»
«We’re always fighting. But this time it was really bad. I said some
horrible things.»
«We all do when we’re angry, Joss.»
«I said I hated him and that he was one of life’s failures.»
«Do you really think that?»
«Well, no. It was a terrible thing to say. He lost his job three months
ago. He was made redundant. And Mum was furious with me, too.»
«Everyone must have been feeling tense and worried.»
«Yeah.»
She waited. She could almost hear her heart beating.
«Marian … what would you do if James came home?»
«I would put my arms round him and give him a huge hug. I’d tell
him how much I love him. That I’d missed him more than I can say.»
«You wouldn’t be angry?»
«I’d be too pleased to see him.»
«Do you think my mum and dad would do the same thing?»
«I can’t guarantee it ... but I’m almost certain they would.»
Exercise 2. Rewrite an extract from the novel by Harper Lee «To
Kill a Mocking Bird», replacing the direct speech into indirect.
Miss Maudie laughed. «Wasn’t talking about your father», she
said. «What I meant was, if Atticus Finch drank until he was drunk
he wouldn’t be as hard as some men are at their best. There are just
some kind of men who – who’re so busy worrying about the next world
they’ve never learned to live in this one, and you can look down the
street and see the results.
«Do you think they’re true, all those things they say about B, Mr.
Arthur?»
«What things?» I told her.
«That is three-fourths colored folks and one-fourth Stephanie Crawford», said Miss Maudie grimly. «Stephanie Crawford even told me
once she woke up in the middle of the night and found him looking in
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the window at her. I said what did you do, Stephanie, move over in the
bed and make room for him? That shut her up a while.» I was sure it
did. Miss Maudie’s voice was enough to shut anybody up.
«No, child,» she said, «that is a sad house. I remember Arthur Radley when he was a boy. He always spoke nicely to me, no matter what
folks said he did. Spoke as nicely as he knew how.»
Exercise 3. Change the following sentences into direct speech.
1. An old man shouted (that) he had been working like a horse for
this company all those years since he was elected to the post of the
manager. 2. I wrote the review some days ago but I had no time to send
it off, so I asked my mother to do it. 3. He said (that) he was born in
1985. 4. Alice told him (that) he should send them a telegram at once.
5. She explained me (that) she had got to the Institute before the rain
began. 6. Sam said (that) he had been watching TV since he came home.
7. The doctor asked the patient to wait for a minute. 8. He asked me if
I knew his telephone number. 9. She said (that) I mustn’t come without knocking. 10. The policeman told the pedestrian not to cross the
street under the red lights. 11. As a pupil got a bad mark for the poem
his teacher told him to recite that poem once more at the following lesson. 12. Michael refused to go to the theatre because he was having an
exam in a few days. 13. A deep sorrow flashed in her face and she said
(that) she had been crying since she came. 14. She said that if he weren’t
afraid of darkness he would have gone up to the attic and brought that
picture. 15. Mary asked whether or not he was satisfied. 16. The tourist wanted to know how long it took to get to Edinburgh by coach.
17. Mr. Jones asked me what I had been doing with those skeleton keys.
18. The girl asked if it would be all right if she came a little later that
night. 19. I wanted to know why he hadn’t signaled to the tanker. 20. He
asked me what I would do if he proposed to me.
Exercise 4. Rewrite an extract from the novel by Bernard Shaw
«Pygmalion», replacing the direct speech into indirect.
Eliza looks at him speechless and doesn’t stir. The look is quite a
lost on him. He eats his apple with a dreamy expression of happiness.
Higgins: I dare say my mother could find some chap or other who
would do very well.
Eliza: We were above that at the corner of Tottenham Court Road.
Higgins: What do you mean?
Eliza: I sold flowers. I didn’t sell myself. Now you’ve made a lady of me.
Pm not fit to sell anything else. I wish you’d left me where you found me.
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Higgins: Gosh, Eliza. Don’t you insult human relations by dragging
all this cant about buying and selling into it? You needn’t marry the fellow if you don’t like him.
Eliza: What else am I to do?
Higgins: Oh, lots of things. What about your old idea of the florist’s
shop? Pickering could set you up in one: he has lots of money. Come!
You’ll be all right. I must clear off to bed. I’m devilish sleepy. By the
way, I came down for something: I forgot what it was.
Eliza: Your slippers.
Higgins: Oh, yes, of course. You’d shied them at me.
Eliza: Before you go, sir …
Higgins: Eh?
Eliza: Do my clothes belong to me or to Colonel Pickering?
Higgins: What the devil use would they be to Pickering?
Eliza: He might want them for the next girl you pick to experiment on.
Higgins (shocked and hurt): Is that the way you feel towards us?
Eliza: I don’t want to hear anything more about that! All I want to
know is whether anything belongs to me. My own clothes were burnt.
Higgins: But what does it matter? Why need you bothering about
that in the middle of the night?
Eliza: I want to know what I may take with me. I don’t want to be
accused of stealing.
Higgins (now deeply wounded): Stealing? I shouldn’t have said that,
Eliza. That shows a want of feeling?
Eliza: I’m sorry. I’m only a common ignorant girl and in my station
I have to be careful! There can’t be any feelings between the like of you
and the like of me. Please, will you tell me what belongs to me and what
doesn’t?
Higgins: You may take the whole damned houseful if you like. Except the jewels. They’re hired, will that satisfy you? (He turns on his
heels and is about to go).
Eliza: Stop, please. (She takes off her jewels.) Will you take these to
your room and keep them safe? I don’t want to run the risk of their being missing.
Higgins (furious): Hand them over. (She puts them into his hand.)
If these belonged to me instead of jeweller, I’d ramp them down your
ungrateful throat.
Eliza (taking a ring off): This ring is not the jeweller’s; it’s the one
you bought me in Brighton. I don’t want it now. (Higgins dashes the
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ring into the fireplace and turns on her so threateningly that she crouches over the piano with her hands over her face.) Don’t you hit me!
Higgins: Hit you? You, infamous creature. How dare you accuse me
of such a thing? It’s you who have hit me. You have wounded me to the
heart.
Eliza: I’m glad. I’ve got a little of my own back, anyhow.
Test paper
Task 1. Complete the sentences of the text with the correct form of
the verbs in brackets.
1. Mother said that she (to think) of going to Moscow. 2. My friend
whispered that his father (to be) in hospital. 3. Mr. Black said that he
(not to see) Bill for a while. 4. Martin said that he (to play) tennis a lot
recently. 5. Mr. Jones said that Margaret (to have) a baby. 6. He said
that he (not to know) what Fred (to do). 7. We wonder if you (to have)
met our guests. 8. Charlie said that he (to work) 14 hours a day. 9. The
girl asks her boyfriend whether he (to love) her. 10. They reply that they
(to feel) ill at the party. 11. The teacher said that Tom (to have) an accident last week. 12. A photographer repeated that he (to see) Jack at a
party a few months ago. 13. He admitted he (not to be) here for weeks.
14. I asked her when she (to give) me that book to read. 15. Bob told me
that he (to feel) very bad, and he (to have) a headache.
Task 2. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. The people asked him why he was so happy. 2. Uncle Bill asked
us where our parents were. 3. She told me not to come next day as she
wouldn’t be there. 4. He says that we are to meet him at the station.
5. She asked where I had spent my summer holidays. 6. Nick asked me
if I often met his sister at the library. 7. She asked me how long I had
been in St. Petersburg. 8. She asked him why he hadn’t done the task.
9. She asked him what his favourite writer was. 10. She told me that
she would go to the museum the following day. 11. My mother said that
we ate sandwiches for breakfast. 12. The teacher asked what the capital
of England was. 13. The teacher tells the pupil not to smoke in school.
14. He says that he wants to find a good wife. 15. She told me she was
not surprised at the news as she knew about it.
Task 3. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Он сказал, что не пойдет завтра на рыбалку. 2. Я не знал,
что он занят и не сможет мне помочь. 3. Она сказала, что не хочет
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идти на прогулку. 4. Мы сообщили, что видели, что дети играли
в футбол. 4. Он сказал, что уверен, что закончит работу до вечера. 5. Моя сестра сказала, что никогда не встречала эту женщину
раньше и ничего не слышала о ней. 6. Мой брат сказал, что не согласен со мной. 7. Олег сообщил, что знал, что она поедет в командировку, но не знал, когда она вернется. 8. Я спросила, какой
язык они изучают и разговаривают ли они по-английски. 9. Друзья
написали, что они были очень рады, что не заблудились в незнакомом городе и пришли вовремя. 10. Том спросил своего двоюродного брата, занят ли он и сможет ли он поговорить с ним. 11. Джон
спросил своих родителей, кто прислал нам эту телеграмму.
12. Когда мой друг пришел ко мне, он спросил, почему меня не было в школе. 13. Миша сказал Славе, что хочет пить и попросил его
принести сок. 14. Мой брат написал мне, что он поступил в университет. 15. Он ответил, что его отец уже устроился на работу.
Task 4. Choose the right alternative.
1. She realized that nobody will come / would come. 2. They thought
he will have finished / would have finished his work by the evening.
3. He said he will arrive / would arrive in some days. 4. She said she has /
had a terrible headache. 5. I didn’t know they are / were in the room.
6. We supposed the rain will stop / would stop in some hours. 7. He
said he never has been / had been in London. 8. We ask who is singing /
was singing in the next room. 9. I always thought he is / was a brave
man. 10. We supposed they will send / would send us the documents.
11. He said he has not seen / had not seen us for ages. 12. Peter said that
he would try / will try to finish the report on Monday. 13. Tom said that
he had never eaten / have never eaten fried mushrooms. 14. Jeremy said
that he was writing / is writing a letter to Santa because he wanted /
wants a new computer. 15. Peter said that he likes / liked night clubs but
he didn’t like / doesn’t like restaurants.
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Условные предложения  
и сослагательное наклонение  
(CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
Условные предложения могут быть первого, второго и третьего
типов. Первый тип выражает реальное, осуществимое предположение, второй – маловероятное или невероятное предположение,
а третий – невыполнимые предположения. Из элементов второго и
третьего типов условных предложений образуются два типа смешанных предложений.
Условные предложения первого типа  
(Conditional Sentences of the First Type)
Время
Придаточное предложение (условие)
Будущее If (unless) + V1
If I see him
Главное предложение (следствие)
Shall / will + V1
I shall ask him to
bring the book.
Перевод
Изъявительное наклонение
Если я увижу его, я
попрошу его принести книгу.
В первом типе условных предложений в придаточном предложении иногда может стоять глагол should (для всех лиц и чисел),
а предложение будет переводиться следующим образом: случись
так, что + глагол в изъявительном наклонении в будущем времени:
If I should see him I shall ask him
Cлучись так, что я увижу
to help us.
его, я попрошу его помочь нам.
If he should meet him he will ask
Случись так, что он встреhim to ring you back.
тит его, он попросит его
перезвонить тебе.
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Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. If you hear her singing, you will be impressed by her voice.
2. When this museum is open, we will go for an excursion there. 3. If
you heat ice, it melts. 4. When it rains, the streets are wet. 5. The dog is
happy when it sees its master. 6. If I have a lot of money, I will by a car.
7. If I should have a lot of money, I will buy a car. 8. If I see him, I will
speak to him. 9. If you don’t take a taxi, you’ll miss your train. 10. If it
rains tomorrow, we won’t (shan’t) go to the forest. 11. It will be cheaper
if you go back by train. 12. Ask him to wait if he comes. 13. I’ll leave
the door ajar in case you call. 14. If the weather should change, they will
go boating. 15. If you should change your mind, let me know. 16. If I see
her, I will give her your love. 17. If you finish on time, you will go to the
movies. 18. The match will be cancelled if it rains. 19. You will be late
if you don’t hurry up. 20. If you are going to skip school, you certainly
won’t pass your exams. 21. If you finish your work, you can go out and
play. 22. If I arrive early, I might give him a call. 23. Provided (that) he
finishes his studies, he will find an excellent job. 24. If you eat too much
sweet stuff, you will get overweight. 25. If you skip your classes, you
are going to fail.
Exercise 2. Read the text and explain the use of the first type of
conditional sentences. Translate the texts.
1. And if you save yourself
You will make him happy
He’ll keep you in a jar
And you’ll think you’re happy.
2. If you ever find yourself stuck in the middle of the sea,
I’ll sail the world to find you,
If you ever find yourself lost in the dark and you can’t see,
I’ll be the light to guide you…
3. Cause all I see is your face
You really blow me away
With all that you do
And if I see you again
I’ll take you into my hands…
4. If you don’t already know
This life you see is so different on the inside
If you
Come with me
So let me know…
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5. If you leave I won’t cry
I won’t waste one single day
But if you leave don’t look back
I’ll be running the other way…
6. I’ll never be the same if we ever meet again
Won’t let you get away if we ever meet again…
7. If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:
If you can dream – and not make dreams your master;
If you can think – and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build’em up with worn-out tools:
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: «Hold on!»
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings – nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And – which is more – you’ll be a Man, my son!
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Exercise 3. Use the verb in a correct form.
1. James answered Stan that if he (see) Mary, he (inform) her about
the meeting with Pamela. 2. Maybe if he (be) free tomorrow, he (join)
her. 3. «What a horrible weather!» exclaimed Pete. Sam objected,
«Don’t give up. If we (hurry), we (be) so wet.» 4. If they (not / pass)
their exam, their teacher (be) sad. Unfortunately, Mrs. Richardson
will do everything to assure that boys won’t pass. 5. If it (rain) tomorrow, you (stay) at home? You can catch a cold and won’t be able to take
part in the Chris’ party. 6. If you (ring) me up, I (tell) you something
concerning the investigation. But hurry up: maybe bandits are keeping their eyes on us. 7. If you (hear) her singing, you (be) impressed
by her voice. 8. The dog (be) happy when it (see) its master. 9. When
this museum (be) open, we (go) for an excursion there. 10. I (inform)
Mary if I (see) her. Prepare to make your explanations. 12. What you
(do) if it (rain) tomorrow? You aren’t going to take anything to brave
the weather. 13. If you (save) her, I (discuss) the promotion with your
boss. 14. She (be) happy if she (invite) at the party. 15. If you (not /
tell) me about the dangers, I (not / participate) in this competition.
16. If she (know) about your decease she (manage) to help you at the
hospital.
Exercise 4. Translate from English into Russian.
1. If we do not protect wild animals, they will become extinct.
2. Where they will move the rhinos to if they run out of space in the
reserve? 3. If the bears survive, he will release them into the wild. 4. If
he is not careful, the bears will attack him. 5. If the charity receives
enough money, it will open another bear sanctuary. 6. How will you
change your life should you be famous? 7. What will you do if the
weather is bad this weekend? 8. What will you do if your best friend
tells you lie? 9. What will you do in case you have some free time tonight? 10. What will you do should you not to go to school? 11. What
laws will you pass should you be the Prime Minister? 12. If Jack doesn’t
have any money, will he work in his uncle’s shop? 13. If I have some
more money, I will buy this red jacket. 14. If he accepts Mr. Dumpster’s
advice, he will work for him. 15. If he plays basketball, he will not have
any trouble of gaining the victory for his team.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Если ты купишь журнал, у тебя не будет денег на новую игру.
2. Если все делать правильно и не отвлекаться, то найти правиль83
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ное решение можно довольно быстро. 3. Позвони ему, как только
освободишься. 4. Если вечеринка не состоится, у Клер будет истерика. 5. Если вдруг у меня появится миллион долларов, я открою
свое дело. 6. Не решишь задачу в ближайшие три часа – сам знаешь, что будет. 7. Случись так, что Стив поедет в турне по Европе,
я присоединюсь к нему. 8. Если книга не будет сдана в ближайшие
два часа – тебя заставят выплатить штраф, причем немалый – ведь
это раритет! 9. Случись так, что он будет прикован к постели, кто
ему поможет? 10. Я уверен, что если мне дадут премию, мы этим
летом поедем в Пекин. 11. Если это он называет «неполадками»,
тогда что же он назовет катастрофой? 12. Случись так, что его обвинят в этом, нам всем придется нелегко. 13. Будто бы сомневаясь,
Мэри дала согласие, хотя все прекрасно знали, что она поддержит
Фиби даже в самой сложной ситуации. 14. Делать прогнозы пока
рано, но если финансирование продолжится, то нас ждет новое
изобретение. 15. Случись так, что он застрянет в этом городе, он
сможет найти хорошую гостиницу.
Exercise 6. Choose the correct form.
1. If she (doesn’t / won’t) tell you the truth, she (will suffer / is
suffering) the consequences. 2. Should he (wins / win) in a lottery,
are you sure you (are jealous / will be jealous)? 3. If you (will play /
play) noisy games, you (will be stopped / would be stopped). 4. He is
known for his ability to make something out of nothing, but what he
(would do / will do) if he (will fail / fails)? 5. I wonder if all that (is /
will be) organized by him is to make himself more powerful. 6. How
your opinion will change, if it (will become / becomes) colder? 7. If he
(has / will have) a couple of free days, he (will join / joins) his family
in dacha. 8. Should he be healthy, he (will not suffer / doesn’t suffer)!
9. Should we lose or win, it (ends / will end) here. 10. If the weather
(will be / is) wet, we (will run / run) upon grass on bare foot. 11. If
Jane (buys / will buy) this nice dress, it is possible that she (is invited /
will be invited) to the James’s party. 12. What (will you do /do you do)
if your results (will be / are) lost? 13. If we (fight / will fight) as one,
we (will manage / manage) to defeat them, though their team is better
that ours. 14. Something is wrong: if all guests (are not going to come /
won’t come)? 15. If they happen to come to town, we (will meet /
meet) them.
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Условные предложения второго типа  
(Conditional Sentences of the Second Type)
Время
Придаточное предложение (условие)
Настоя- If (unless) + V2
щее или
будущее If I saw him
If he were here
Главное предложение (следствие)
should / would /
could / might + V1
I should ask him to
bring the book.
he would help us.
Перевод
Сослагательное наклонение
Если бы я увидела
его (сегодня, завтра),
я попросила бы его
принести книгу.
Если бы он был здесь,
он помог бы нам.
Во втором типе условных предложений, если действие относится к будущему времени, то для подчеркивания малой доли вероятности предположения в придаточном предложении используются
глаголы should, were (для всех лиц и чисел):
If I should see him (If I were to
Если бы я увидела его, я бы
see him) I should give him your
передала ему вашу записку.
note.
If he should do it I should be
Если бы он это сделал, я бы
very surprised.
очень удивилась.
Наиболее частотным союзом в предложениях первого и второго типа является if, наряду с ним употребляются союзы in case,
suppose, unless (имеет отрицательное значение):
In case I don’t find this book in
В случае, если я не найду эту
the library, I’ll order it on the
книгу в библиотеке, я закажу
net.
ее по Интернету.
I’d go there if he gave me apoloЯ бы пошла туда, если бы он
gies.
принес мне извинения.
I shan’t give him a credit, unless
Я не поставлю ему зачет, если
he accounts for all his debts.
он не сдаст мне все долги.
Suppose a millionaire proposed
Предположим, миллионер сдеto you, would you agree?
лал бы Вам предложение, Вы
бы согласились?
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences from English into
Russian.
1. If I were you, I would discuss this question with your boss. 2. She
would be happy if she were invited to the party. 3. If I got rich, I should
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travel round the world. 4. If it were possible, I should do it. 5. If you
worked hard, you would succeed. 6. If we had a car, we should go to
the country. 7. What would your father do if he heard you say that? 8. If
I knew her telephone number, I could phone her. 9. If we had more time,
we could wait for him. 10. If I saw him tonight, I might speak to him
about this. 11. If he could, he would help us. 12. If I could earn a lot,
I could buy a house. 13. If he could paint he might find a job. 14. Were
she at home, she would ring me up. 15. Had I time, I would help you.
16. Would you mind if I opened the window a little?
Exercise 8. Read the sentences and explain the use of the second
type of conditional sentences. Translate them from English into Russian.
1. I should be much obliged if you agree to take part in the concert.
2. This might seem to be unreal unless I saw it with my own eyes.
3. In case the state of the patient became worse he would be taken to
a hospital. 4. If I were you, I would change into another dress. 5. You
wouldn’t be talking that way unless you were hurt. 6. What would one
of her own people do if called a coward and a cad her father, her brother,
Uncle Adrian? What could they do? 7. It was clear to him that she could
not take it seriously, and would go back on the whole thing if given half
a chance. 8. If he were here, he could do it. 9. We could buy this house
if we had money. 10. He wouldn’t lend me any money if I asked him.
11. Would you call me if I stayed in the town for one more day? 12. If
you listened carefully, you would understand. 13. If she were asked to
come, she would certainly come. 14. If he should see you here, he would
be surprised. 15. If I were to choose one of these books, I should take
the first.
Exercise 9. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Если бы я выбирал одну из этих книг, я бы взял первую.
2. Если бы она была здесь, она зашла бы к нам в институт. 3. Если бы вы слушали внимательно, вы бы все понимали. 4. Если бы
она сейчас увидела вас, она бы удивилась. 5. Что стало бы с Землей, если бы она перестала вращаться? 6. Если бы он приехал, мы
бы пошли сегодня вечером в театр. 7. Если бы весь текст был написан в стихах, я бы, возможно, обрадовалась. 8. Если бы он был
умным, он бы сейчас не вел себя так. 9. Я бы с удовольствием сегодня посетила музей с друзьями, если бы не необходимость быть
дома. 10. Для дальних походов ему нужны солдаты, которые были
бы готовы идти куда угодно, при условии, что им заплатят. 11. Ес86
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ли бы наш алфавит был более совершенным, чем он есть, мы бы
имели один символ для каждого отдельного звука. 12. У гостей завтрашней выставки создалось бы неполное впечатление, если бы
ни шедевры барочной скульптуры и живописи католической Европы. 13. Он себе даже представить не может, что было бы, если
бы завтра команда выиграла этот матч и заняла бы первое место.
14. Чтобы Вы сказали, если бы я пригласил его к нам на обед в
субботу? 15. На Вашем месте я бы не стала с ним обсуждать этот
вопрос, так как он все равно ничего не поймет: он слишком далек
от наших проблем.
Exercise 10. Use the verb in a correct form.
1. What would you do if you (find) this rare book? 2. All this, were
it to happen to me now, (seem) perfectly natural and normal. 3. If I (be)
you, I (not speak) about it at all. 4. If a complete list were prepared of
the dates at which words were created or borrowed, a picture of the
slow and unceasing development of our civilization (unroll). 5. He
would take no money in exchange for his hospitality, and he made me
come to him I ever (be) in those places again. 6. If one (take) the trouble
to count up all the words in the dictionaries, one (reach) a total running into six figures – the hundreds of thousands. 7. Could I but see that
thing myself, I (believe) in its existence. 8. If we were to tie ourselves
down to only those words that the Anglo-Saxons used, our vocabulary
(be) poor indeed. 9. If you (come back) to life two hundred years from
now, you (find) not only the world and its activities transformed, but
also its languages. 10. If we were to consider the changes of meaning
that have occurred along with the introduction of new terms, the imperfect picture which the mere growth of vocabulary presents (colour and
shadow). 11. … they (not like) each other; they (not spend) so much time
together. 12. If there (be) armaments on one side, there (be) armaments
on other sides. 13. If the recommendations of the Committee on Sports
(accept and act upon) by the Government, they (mark) a big step in the
right direction. 14. If the time ever (come) when a third World War is
fought between East and West, which God forbids, there is only one
race under Heaven which (stand) between the Western world and utter
destruction in such a crisis.
Exercise 11. Choose the correct form.
1. If you were a bird you (could / were to) fly. 2. If he (should hear /
heard) of your marriage, he would be surprised. 3. He wouldn’t do it un87
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less you (ordered / would order) him to do it. 4. Even if she (tried / might
try), she wouldn’t be able to do it. 5. If you (should be passing / pass)
my house, you might return the book you borrowed from me. 6. If you
were to start early tomorrow morning, you (would be / were) at your
destination by evening. 7. Supposing he (accepted / should accept) this
offer, what would she say? 8. He (wouldn’t be / weren’t) in difficulties if
he were not so foolish. 9. If you (went / would go) to London you might
see the Queen. 10. If he took his doctor’s advice he (might / could) soon
be well again. 11. She (couldn’t promise / promised) to be there (even if
she wished to be with them). 12. It seems to me that if he (were / would
be) rich, he wouldn’t work at all. 13. She said that if she had more time,
she (would attend / attended) all symphony concerts. 14. If you met the
president, what you (would do / did)? 15. If I were as young as you are,
I (would make / made) a journey round the world.
Третий тип условных предложений  
(Conditional Sentences of the Third Type)
Время
Придаточное предложение (условие)
Прошед- If (unless) +
шее
had + V3
If I had seen him
yesterday
Главное предложение (следствие)
Перевод
should/would/could/ Сослагательное
might + have + V3
наклонение
I should have asked Если бы я видела его
him to bring the
вчера, я попросила
book.
бы его принести
книгу.
Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences from English into
Russian. Explain the use of the third type of conditional sentences.
1. If he had warned me about the danger, I should not have participated in this competition. 2. If I had known about her disease I should
have visited her at the hospital. 3. If I had been free the day before yesterday, I should have joined them. 4. If I had left earlier, I should have
caught the train. 5. If she hadn’t put on such a short skirt, she wouldn’t
have attracted such attention. 6. If I had learned English before, I could
have found a good job long ago. 7. If he had driven the car more carefully yesterday, he wouldn’t have met with an accident. 8. Had I seen this
film I’d have told you. 9. Had he been here, he could have done it easily.
10. If I hadn’t woken you, you’d have lain there for the whole fortnight.
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11. They would have been playing their part well unless they had been
stiff with fright. 12. I might have persuaded him to change his mind if
he had not been so obstinate. 13. If the book had been published they
could have taken a copy in the library. 14. Could he not have missed the
train if he had been detained by the director? 15. Hadn’t it been for his
blunders, he would have finished the work in three days.
Exercise 13. Use the verb in a correct form.
1. If he (learn) the rule, he (get) an excellent mark. 2. If Jane (not
forget) to wind up her watch, she (not be late) for the interview. 3. If
she (explain) him seriously the true position last night, he (believe) her.
4. I (act) differently if I’d known you were on the way. 5. If you (invite)
them, they would have come. 6. If you (work) harder, you would have
passed the exam. 7. If I (win) that award, my life (change). 8. If she
(study) science, she (find) a better job. 9. If he (know), he could have
helped you. 10. You might have finished the assignment on time, if you
(plan) more carefully. 11. If you hadn’t prepared, you (tell) the professor. 12. If it had not been for our savings, we (be able to) make the payments. 13. If it hadn’t been raining, I (go) to the game. 14. If she (want)
to talk she (ring up) yesterday. 15. If he (have) enough money, he (buy) a
larger house. 16. If she had not gone to the summer camp, she probably
never (know) the secret.
Exercise 14. Choose the correct form.
1. Her health (would have been improved / would have improved)
if she (had slept / slept) longer. 2. We (would have been / would be)
pleased to see you if you (would have arrived / had arrived) last summer. 3. If we (had been able / could) come on Sunday, we (should have
come / had come). 4. I (should have understood / had understood) him
yesterday if he (had spoken / would have spoken) slowly. 5. We (should
not have gone / had not gone) by ship unless there (had not been / would
have been) no other way. 6. If you (would not have given / had not given) him good meals, he (would not have been able / had not been able)
to work hard. 7. If anyone (had been able / would have been able) to
tell me his telephone number yesterday, I should have easily settled the
matter with him the same day. 8. He had never phoned you if I (hadn’t
reminded / should not have reminded) him to do that. 9. If the fisherman
had been less patient, he (wouldn’t have been able / had not been able)
to catch so much fish. 10. If you (had put / should have put) the icecream into the refrigerator, it (would not have melted / had not melted).
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11. If the country (had thrown away / would have thrown away) the opportunity it (might have been / had been) long before it got another anything like so favorable. 12. The Foreign Secretary (would have been /
would be) in a stronger position to complain if his own nuclear policy
(had been / were) any more sensible or any less dangerous than America’s. 13. If our cannon balls (had been / would have been) all as hot as
your head, and we had enough of them, we (should have conquered /
had conquered) the earth, no doubt. 14. If a choice (had been / would
have been) necessary, the populace of an American city (had chosen /
would have chosen) kindness over honesty, as the nation’s enduring
Tammany’s attest.
Exercise 15. Form the conditional sentence beginning with if (I, he, …).
1. The travellers had no camera with them, so they could not take
photos of the beautiful scenery. 2. There was no sugar left, so we had to
go to the shop late in the evening. 3. You did not ring me up, so I did not
know you were in trouble. 4. You left the child alone in the room, so he
hurt himself. 5. It rained heavily, so we got drenched to the skin. 6. Why
didn’t you watch the cat? It ate all the fish. 7. He had no idea that she
had left a pot of soup on the stove, and was quietly watching a football
match. 8. We stayed at home, as the weather was terrible: a strong wind
blew and it was snowing hard. 9. He could not but answer the opponent,
because he thought that knew the subject much better. 10. She probably
would never have told them the truth, but she knew that they were leaving and there wouldn’t be any possibility to talk with them.
Exercise 16. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Если бы они не были варварами, они бы не уничтожили Римскую цивилизацию. 2. При условии, что экспериментаторы двигались бы по этому пути, они могли бы добиться успеха в выполнении этой сложной задачи. 3. Если бы ни тот морской бой, о котором говорил Геродот, то корабли из Ионических городов должны
были бы в нем участвовать. 4. Если бы данные грамматические
категории отсутствовали в древнем языке, то значения, передаваемые ими, должны были быть выражены лексически. 5. Если бы
он был жив, он бы отметил свой шестидесятый день рождения.
6. Если бы вопрос, поднятый на прошлом собрании, был важным,
они не сняли бы его с повестки дня. 7. Если бы он полностью реализовал свой талант писателя, он бы создал более сотен сказок,
а не четыре. 8. Похоже, что первыми поселенцами острова были
так называемые «пещерные люди». Но сам факт их существова90
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ния в этих местах ставится под сомнение. Если бы это было так,
то остались бы следы от их жилищ, и предметы труда и утвари,
принадлежащие к самой примитивной стадии развития культуры.
9. Если бы он объехал весь мир, он бы видел знаменитый Родосский Колосс. 10. Если бы что-то пошло не так во время демонстрации нового прибора в прошлую пятницу, об этом немедленно бы
доложили ректору. 11. Если бы вы добросовестно отнеслись к выполнению этого задания, то Вашим однокурсникам не пришлось
бы оставаться всю прошлую неделю после занятий, чтобы исправить ситуацию. 12. Если бы М.Ю. Лермонтов не ушел так рано
из жизни, он бы написал еще много произведений, отражающих
глубь исторической жизни, жизни народной, изобразив непростой
характер русского героя. 13. Если бы только тогда она не узнала
о его предательстве, она могла бы попасть в такую страшную ситуацию, от одной мысли о которой ее бросало в дрожь. 14. Если
бы тогда кто-нибудь допросил его, предъявив все найденные доказательства, то, возможно, он и сказал бы, куда делись деньги и
предметы искусства. 15. Если бы она тогда не испугалась и рассказала бы, что с ней произошло на самом деле, ей бы не пришлось
столько времени всех обманывать, придумывая нелепые рассказы.
Смешанный тип условных предложений 
(Conditional Sentences of Mixed Type)
Смешанные условные предложения могут быть двух типов.
В первом случае подчеркивается результат в настоящем времени
при условии в прошедшем времени. Во втором случае подчеркивается результат в прошедшем времени при условии в настоящем
времени. Таким образом, смешанные типы условных предложений
состоят из элементов второго и третьего типов.
Придаточное предложение (условие)
Главное предложение
(следствие)
1. Безотносительно ко Относится к прошед­
времени / относится к шему времени (III тип)
настоящему времени
(II тип) If +V2
should/would/could/might
+ have + V3
If he knew English
He would have translated
this article yesterday.
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Перевод
Сослагательное
наклонение
Если бы он знал
английский (вообще),
он бы перевел эту
статью вчера.
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Окончание таблицы
Придаточное предложение (условие)
2. К прошедшему
времени (III тип)
If + had+ V3
If you had taken these
pills yesterday
Главное предложение
(следствие)
Относится к настоя­
щему времени (II тип)
should/would/could/might
+ V1
You would feel much
better now.
Перевод
Сослагательное
наклонение
Если бы вы приняли
эти таблетки вчера,
то сегодня вы чувствовали бы себя намного лучше.
Exercise 17. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Если бы я выпила чай с лимоном вчера, у меня не болело
бы горло сегодня. 2. Если бы вы (уже) видели фильм, мы могли
бы сейчас его обсудить. 3. Если бы мы не опоздали на поезд, мы
были бы сейчас дома. 4. Если бы он был умен, он бы не сказал
этого. 5. Ты смог бы справиться без посторонней помощи, если бы
не был таким ленивым. 6. Если бы я много зарабатывал, я бы уже
давно купил машину. 7. Если бы я позавтракал, я бы сейчас не был
голоден. 8. Если бы они не забыли дома фотоальбом с летними фотографиями, то показывали бы их сейчас своим однокурсникам.
9. Если бы вчера она испекла пирог, сегодня у нее было бы чем
угощать друзей. 10. Если бы она не потеряла ключ от квартиры,
то не стояла бы сейчас под дверями. 11. Если бы он выучил весь
материал вчера, то не краснел бы у доски сейчас. 12. Если бы он
знал английский, то помог бы нам перевести эту статью вчера.
13. Если бы он умел плавать, то пошел бы вчера с друзьями в бассейн. 14. Если бы она не была такой нерешительной, они давно бы
познакомились. 15. Если бы у нее вчера были деньги, сегодня она
щеголяла бы в новой блузке.
ЗАПОМНИ:
a) выражение если бы не + существительное (местоимение) соответствует английскому выражению but for + существительное
(местоимение):
But for the rain we should go for
Если бы не дождь, мы бы пошa walk.
ли погулять (II тип).
But for your help we shouldn’t
Если бы не ваша помощь, мы
have finished the work in time.
бы не смогли завершить работу вовремя (III тип).
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But for the moon it could be very
dark now.
Если бы не луна, сейчас могло
бы быть очень темно (II тип).
б) выражение если бы не + существительное (местоимение) соответствует английскому выражению if it were not (had not been)
for + существительное (местоимение):
If it were not for his carelessness,
Если бы не его рассеянность, он
he would not forget everything.
бы ничего не забывал (II тип).
If it hadn’t been for his call, I
Если бы не его звонок, я бы вчеshould have overslept my exam
ра проспал экзамен (III тип).
yesterday.
Exercise 18. Read the sentences and explain the use of conditions.
Translate the sentences.
1. But for you, I don’t know where I’d be now. 2. But for him, Ann
wouldn’t go to Paris. 3. But for the rain, I’d be in the country. 4. But
for the storm, I’d have been home before eight. 5. But for your help, I
wouldn’t have passed the exam. 6. If it hadn’t been for his blunders, he
would have finished the article in three days. 7. But for a bad cold he
would go fishing. 8. But for the work he had to do he could have seen
the play. 9. But for his wife he wouldn’t have gone to the doctor. 10. But
for the operation he would have died. 11. But for the bad weather we
would have had a very good time. 12. But for a certain lack of concentration you could do it. 13. But for a good guide he would not have seen
a lot of places of interest. 14. But for the good ice we could not have set
a new record. 15. But for your kindness and understanding I couldn’t
have done it all in such a short time.
Exercise 19. Read and translate the sentences. Explain the rules for
the use of verbs in the main and subordinate clauses.
1. If I could only draw and know how to paint, I could make a lovely
sketch of that old wall, I’m sure. 2. If you had wanted rest and change,
you wouldn’t have beaten a sea trip. 3. She would not have been obstinate if I had not been weak. 4. If father paid attention to me, I wouldn’t
have left Boston and headed for New York yesterday. 5. If anything
had happened, it would surely have been the first item on the news.
6. If Professor Snape should forget about it, we’ll manage to talk to
Slughorn. 7. He closed his eyes again, looking decidedly reptilian, and
said: «But for his robust health he wouldn’t have outlived such a serious
poisoning.» 8. «Basil,» cried Dorian Gray, «if Lord Henry Wotton goes,
I shall go, too». 9. If it were not for Dorian’s youth, he would not be so
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stupid. 10. But for the moonlight, they would be in completely darkness.
11. If you would just step upstairs and tell her I’m home, I should be
much obliged to you. 12. Mr. Bantry wouldn’t have called the doctor,
if everything had been all right with his wife. 13. But for the taxi, Mrs.
Marple would have missed. 14. If you (see) Mary today, please ask her
to call me. 15. In case I (not find) this book in the library, I’ll order it on
the net.
Exercise 20. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1. If I (do), I should try to take it. 2. If you (forewarn) you will be
the more ready to make allowances. 3. If my expedition had no other
results it still (be) noteworthy, but a curious incident occurred to me
while there which opened up an entirely fresh line of inquiry. 4. If it
(be) an Indian we could set it down as evidence of some pigmy race
in America, but it appears to be a European in a sun-hat. 5. Indeed, it
was a waste of energy, for if you were going to be angry with this man
you (be) angry all the time. 6. You can say, among other things, that if
he (send) anyone else to intrude upon me I shall call upon him with a
riding-whip. 7. If you are clever and know your business you (fake) a
bone as easily as you can a photograph. 8. I don’t know what is inside
this envelope, but, unless it (be) something pretty definite, I shall be
much tempted to take the next downriver boat and catch the Bolivia at
Para. 9. If he were cleverer, he (never say) such silly things. 10. But for
the cribs he (not pass) the exam. 11. If he (study) more, he would have
been able to pass the exam. 12. But for the moon we (losе) in the forest
yesterday. 13. Unless he (come), we (not go) to the country. 14. If the
wind (blow) from the west, it (rain). 15. Suppose he (work) hard, he (finish) his work on Thursday.
Exercise 21. Translate from English into Russian.
1. If I found 1000 dollars in the street, I would keep it. 2. They would
be rather angry, if you didn’t visit them. 3. What would you do, if somebody gave you a lot of money? 4. If we caught the 10.20 train, we would
arrive too early. 5. If I knew the number, I would telephone her. 6. If
you didn’t live so far away, we would visit you more often. 7. Even if
he had offered her his help yesterday, she would have refused it. 8. If
I had known that you were ill last weekend, I would have gone to see
you. 9. If she had been hungry, she would have eaten something. 10. If
he had learnt the rule, he would have got an excellent mark. 11. If I were
you, I thought I should feel very much as you do. 12. If he had trained
enough last years, he would be a first-class sportsman now. 13. If I
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went to the bed now, I wouldn’t sleep. 14. If he were guilty yesterday,
he would confess now. 15. If I had a leisure time, I would have visited
Spain long ago.
Exercise 22. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Если бы ты мне этого не сообщил, я бы, наверное, никогда не
догадался. 2. Если бы у нас и было столько одежды, мы все равно
не успели бы ее привезти. 3. Если бы ты прочел книги, которые
хранятся в библиотеке, они бы все тебе объяснили, не оставив ни
малейшего сомнения. 4. Если бы все было так, то ему пришлось
бы поступать вопреки этому. 5. Если бы мы не были на лишенном
воды и воздуха астероиде, мы могли бы затопить шахту. 6. Если
бы не два часа беспокойного забытья, они так бы и не спали. 7. Как
только за ним закрылась дверь, она с ужасом подумала о том, что
если бы не ее чувство юмора, положение вещей выглядело бы куда более печально. 8. Но как только он упустит этот шанс, он уже
не будет играть никакой роли в этой сделке. 9. Но если я поведаю
им истину, они признают свою поражение. 10. Если бы только
они ушли сейчас, она, возможно бы, обрела душевное равновесие.
11. Если бы она сказала хоть одно ласковое слово, девочка, возможно, полюбила бы ее. 12. Если бы он знал английский, он бы
мог давно уехать в Лондон. 13. Если об этом узнают, им придется
плохо. 14. Если бы вы работали с этим роботом, вы, вероятно, знали бы его лучше других. 15. Если бы она промолчала вчера, сегодня бы все было как раньше.
Exercise 23. Choose the correct form of the verb.
1. She never (would notice / would have noticed) if it hadn’t been for
Sid. 2. Even if you (give/gave) me much more I (wouldn’t be satisfied /
wouldn’t have been satisfied). 3. If he (had not run out / has not run out)
of whitewash he would have bankrupted every boy in the village. 4. But
if they (were offered / offered) wages for the service, that would turn it
into work and then they would resign. 5. He believed his soul would be
instantly destroyed if he (did / has done) such a thing while the prayer
was going on. 6. If he came into court with that argument, his aunt
(would pull out / will pull out) it and that would hurt. 7. He (wouldn’t
have / wouldn’t have had) a wart on him if he’d known how to work
spunk-water. 8. If he only (had / has had) a clean Sunday-school record
he could be willing to go, and be done with it all. 9. If you (had buried /
buried) a marble with certain necessary incantations, and (had left /
left) it alone a fortnight, and then (opened / had opened) the place with
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the incantation he had just used, you would find that all the marbles
you had ever lost had gathered themselves together there, meantime, no
matter how widely they had been separated. 10. If we keep perfectly
still, maybe they (won’t notice / wouldn’t have noticed) us at all. 11. He
supposes that they will buy the house if it (is / were) in good condition.
12. If Mr. Harbison owned a slave named Bull, Tom (would have spoken / has spoken) of him as «Harbison’s Bull». 13. Muff Potter will hang
for this if they (catch / will catch) him. 14. Potter (would have fallen /
would fallen) if they had not caught him and eased him to the ground.
15. If it (was/were) to do over again I would hug him and bless him for it.
Exercise 24. Choose the right variant.
1. … beforehand, we … the catastrophe.
A. did we know, would prevent
B. would we know, had prevented
C. had we known, would have prevented
D. should we know, had prevented
2. She couldn’t remember his dying. But would everything … different if he hadn’t died?
A. be
B. has been
C. have been
D. had been
3. If you … the medicine the doctor prescribed you, you … much
better now.
A. had taken, would feel
B. took, would feel
C. would take, would feel yourself
D. had taken, would have felt
4. If you … the article I recommended you, you … how to answer
such questions.
A. had read, had known
B. read, would know
C. would have read, would know
D. had read, would know
5. I must be off now. If it … not so late, I … a little longer.
A. were, would have stay
B. were, would stay
C. had been, would have stayed
D. wouldn’t be, stayed
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6. Unless I м the story from his own lips I … that he was capable of
such an action.
A. had heard, would never believe B. have heard, would never believe
C. had heard, would have never believed
D. have heard, would have never believed
7. I … to your place with pleasure if nothing … me.
A. will come, prevented
B. will come, prevents
C. would come, prevented
D. would have come, would prevent
8. You never did anything good to anyone. If you … you … more
support now.
A. did, would have
B. did, would have had
C. had done, would have had
D. had done, would have
9. If we … this question earlier, our demands … .
A. had raised, would have been met
B. raised, would be met
C. would raise, would be met
D. would have raised, had been met
10. If she … the last conference, she never … her old friend Ban,
whom she had not seen for years.
A. had not attended; would meet
B. had not attended; would have met
C. did not attend; would meet
D. did not attend, wouldn’t have met
11. If you … Mary today, please ask her to call me.
A. should see
B. will see
C. sees
D. see
12. If we … to that concert, we … the autographs of all the stars.
A. went, could get
B. had gone, could have got
C. had gone, could get
D. went, could have got
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13. I … a note with the address of the hotel and the boy’s name into
his pocket … he … his way.
A. have put, provided, will lose
B. will put, providing, will have lost
C. have put, in case, loses
D. will have put, when, have lost
14. I … with them yesterday, if I … at the conference tomorrow.
A. should have gone, had not had to make a report
B. would go, did not have to make a report
C. would go, was not have to make a report
D. would have gone, did not have to make a report
15. If you … him yesterday, you … him.
A. met, wouldn’t recognize
B. would have met, wouldn’t have recognized
C. had met, wouldn’t have recognized
D. should have met, wouldn’t recognize
Exercise 25. Chose the proper form of the conditional mood. Translate
the following sentences, analyze and explain the form.
1. You would speak better if you (be) more attentive. 2. If he (understand) that situation he would have acted differently. 3. But for the
moon we (loose) in the forest yesterday. 4. If he (be) present, this (never
occur). 5. If I were you, I (never act) with such stupidity. 6. If he (not
explain) me everything then I (never forgive) him. 7. If he were cleverer, he (never say) such silly things. 8. If I were you, I (ask) Victor
yesterday to help me. 9. If I (know) how to paint, I could make a lovely
sketch of that old wall. 10. But for his health he (outlived) such poisoning (интоксикация). 11. But for his youth, he (not be) so stupid. 12. He
(not call) the doctor, if everything (be) all right with his wife. 13. But
for the taxi, she (miss) the train. 14. If we (ask) this question earlier, our
demands (be meet). 15. If I (be) you, I (keep) an eye on her.
Exercise 26. Translate the following sentences from Russian into
English.
1. Если бы мы подняли этот вопрос раньше, наши требования
были бы удовлетворены. 2. Если ты не сможешь прийти, то я знаю
того, кто сможет. 3. Я бы убедил его пойти со мной, если бы я был
уверен, что никто не посмеет поднять тревогу, пока я буду возиться с дверью. 4. Я лучше умру, чем вернусь обратно. 5. Если бы вы
были осторожнее, вы не разбили бы вазу. 6. Я бы лучше подумал о
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том, что ты будешь делать. 7. Когда вы услышите, что он вошел в
эту комнату, откройте окно и поставьте на него лампу. 8. Если бы
не шум дождя, было бы совсем тихо. 9. Если бы вы не пропустили
так много занятий, то не делали бы сейчас так много грамматических ошибок. 10. Я была бы очень довольна, если бы могла убедить вас приехать. 11. Если бы он меня увидел, об этом сразу бы
узнали мой дядя или тетя. 12. «Если бы я была на вашем месте, я
бы не сводила глаз с этого мальчика», – проворчала мисс Эндеби.
13. Если бы мне представился этот шанс снова, я бы им воспользовался. 14. Если бы не его работа в библиотеке, он бы никогда не
нашел этой книги. 15. Если бы не его улыбка, я бы ничего не заподозрила.
Случаи употребления сослагательного I  
(The Use of the Subjunctive I)
1. В придаточных изъяснительных (в функции подлежащего):
annoying
desirable
imperative
It is (was) + important + that sb V1 sth
impossible
necessary
strange
It is necessary that you be here
tomorrow.
It was desirable that he help us.
Необходимо, чтобы вы были
здесь завтра.
Было желательно, чтобы он
помог нам.
2. В дополнительных придаточных предложениях, зависящих
от глаголов, выражающих приказание, предложение, решимость,
договоренность:
to advise
to agree
to command
to decide
+ that sb V1 sth
to demand
to insist
to order
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I proposed that we join them.
Я предложил, чтобы мы к ним
присоединились.
He suggested that she be sent to
Он предложил, чтобы ее отthe conference in May.
правили на конференцию в мае.
3. В придаточных предложениях цели, после союза lest (in case):
lest
sb may V sth
do sth + in case + sb V sth 1
1
Take the book lest you forget it.
Возьми книгу, чтобы не забыть ее.
ЗАПОМНИ:
1. Глагол to be имеет форму be для всех лиц единственного и
множественного числа.
2. Глаголы в 3-м лице единственного числа не имеют окончания -s.
Во всех вышеперечисленных случаях наряду с Subjunctive I используется сочетание should (для всех лиц и чисел) + инфинитив:
It is necessary that you should be
Необходимо, чтобы Вы были
there in time.
здесь вовремя.
He suggests that we should leave
Он предлагает, чтобы мы неimmediately.
медленно ушли.
Take the book lest you should
Возьми книгу, чтобы не заforget it.
быть ее.
4. В слоганах: Long live the Queen! Long live heroes!
5. В проклятиях, клятвах, ругательствах: Far be it from me to
spoil the fan! Far be it from me to talk back!
Exercise 27. Open the brackets and use the necessary form.
1. The teacher suggested that her students (write) a composition
on their experiences with ESP. 2. He insisted that his brother (read)
the text twice. 3. He demanded that the money (be paid) at once. 4. It
is necessary that the apparatus (be operated) at maximum efficiency.
5. It is important that the new instrument (be used) instead of the old
one. 6. She was afraid lest he (learn) about her dating with Mr. Darcy.
7. Take the book lest he (forget) it. 8. He suggested that she (be sent) to
the conference. 9. I propose that he (join) them. 10. It was necessary that
he (help) us. 11. It is impossible that he (be) here tomorrow. 12. Long
live our Motherland! 13. The teacher ordered that we hand in our testpapers in time. 14. It’s strange that he (do) it. 15. She was anxious that
he (come) up to her and ask this question.
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Exercise 28. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Он предложил, чтобы я поехал с ним. 2. Управляющий посадил у дверей официанта, чтобы я не сбежал, не заплатив. 3. Было
необходимо, чтобы ему сделали операцию немедленно, т.к. его состояние становилось все хуже и хуже. 4. Странно, что они поссорились. 5. Невозможно, чтобы Пэт отказалась от своих прекрасных планов. 6. Им кажется странным, что он отказался. 7. Кто-то
предложил послать за доктором. 8. Я настаиваю, чтобы мы остались здесь. 9. Его отец решил, что он должен изучать литературу.
10. Я спрятала письмо, чтобы он не увидел его. 11. Я предлагаю,
чтобы вы попробовали снова завтра. 12. Было важно, чтоб Кристин ответила ему как можно скорее. 13. Он потребовал, чтобы с
ним немедленно расплатились. 14. Он запер газету в стол, чтобы
ее никто не увидел. 15. Я настаиваю, чтобы мы остались здесь.
16. Она отвела глаза, чтобы он ничего в них не прочел.
Случаи употребления сослагательного II 
(The Use of the Subjunctive II)
1. В придаточных изъяснительных после глаголов, выражающих страх, сомнение, обеспокоенность: to be afraid, to be anxious,
to be fearful, to be in terror, to be terrified, to be troubled, to dread, to
fear, to tremble, to worry используется две формы в зависимости от
союза, вводящего придаточное предложение:
that (if) + might +V1
They feared (that) he might find
Они боялись, что он найдет
the secret files.
секретные файлы.
They were afraid if he might miss
Они испугались, что он может
the train.
опоздать на поезд.
lest + should + V1
She was afraid lest he should
Она боялась, что он узнает
learn about her dating with Mr.
о том, что она встречалась
Darcy.
с Мистером Дарси.
2. В придаточных обстоятельственных цели после союзов that,
so that, in order that, so используется форма may (might) + infinitive
или can (could) + infinitive. Если действие придаточного предложения относится к прошедшему времени, то используются формы
might/could. Однако если действие относится к настоящему и будущему времени, то возможны обе формы:
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He explains you this rule, so that
you may understand the whole
material.
She left the keys at her
neighbours in order that he might
open the door and get into.
Он объясняет Вам это правило, чтобы Вы лучше поняли
весь материал.
Она оставила ключи у соседей,
чтобы он смог открыть дверь
и войти.
3. В восклицательных предложениях, начинающихся с If only,
для выражения сожаления используются формы: could + indefinite /
perfect infinitive; глагол в форме Past Indefinite / Past Perfect в зависимости от времени совершения действия (относится ли оно к
настоящему, будущему или прошедшему времени):
If only I had had more money to
Если бы только у меня было
buy it!
больше денег, чтобы это купить (тогда).
If only she didn’t snore!
Если бы только она не храпела
(сейчас)!
4. В дополнительных придаточных предложениях, зависящих
от глагола to wish:
sb were
I wish (ed) + sb V
2
sb had V3
Если действие придаточного предложения относится к настоящему и будущему времени, то используются формы Past Indefinite
или were, а если действие относится к прошедшему времени, то
Past Perfect:
I wish I were wise.
Как бы мне хотелось быть
мудрой.
I wish I had taken his advice.
Жаль, что я не послушала его
совета.
5. Для выражения пожеланий, относящихся к будущему времени, используется глагол would (для всех лиц и чисел) + инфинитив:
I wish I would go there.
Я хотела бы поехать туда.
6. В придаточных предложениях сравнения, начинающихся с
союза as if (as though):
to be
sb were
to feel as though
sb had been
to look + as though / as if +f sb V2 sth
sb had V3 sth
to seem
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Например:
You look as if you had not slept.
Вы выглядите так, как будто
бы не спали.
Он говорил так, как будто бы
он учитель.
He spoke as if he were a teacher.
7. В придаточных предложениях уступки:
Even if it were raining I should
Даже если будет дождь,
leave.
я уйду.
8. В гипотетических выражениях:
Whatever you may say, you are
Что бы ты ни сказал, ты не
not right.
прав.
Wherever he may go, he always
Куда бы он ни поехал, он всегда
thinks about home.
думает о доме.
Whenever I might apply for him,
Когда бы я к нему ни обратиhe was always ready to help.
лась, он всегда готов помочь.
Whoever the man may be, he
Кто бы ни был этот человек,
isn’t a match for you.
он тебе не пара.
Exercise 29. Translate the following sentences, analyze and explain
the form of the subjunctive mood.
1. If only he were here! 2. She prepared them some bread and butter
in order that they could have a bite in between. 3. Whatever I might do
or say, I will be her best enemy. 4. Your words sounded as if I had hurt
you badly. 5. I give you this task so that you might experience it. 6. She
was staring at me as if she didn’t recognize me. 7. I wish we hadn’t gone
to this restaurant. If we had known the prices we would have never
gone there. 8. He was afraid lest she should call his mother and tell
her everything. 9. Mr. Hurley really feared lest somebody should learn
about it. 10. I wish you had come a little earlier. 11. I wish I knew what
it was. 12. You look so disappointed as if you weren’t glad to get it!
13. He behaves as if nothing had happened. 14. However hard he might
try he couldn’t make her come back. 15. He knew his duty and stuck to
it however painful it might be.
Exercise 30. Paraphrase an extract from the novel «To Kill a
Mocking Bird» by Harper Lee, using the subjunctive mood.
Being Southerners, it was a source of shame to some members of the
family that we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the Battle of
Hastings. All we had was Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from
Cornwall whose piety was exceeded only by his stinginess. In England,
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Simon was irritated by the persecution of those who called themselves
Methodists at the hands of their more liberal brethren, and as Simon
called himself a Methodist, he worked his way across the Atlantic to
Philadelphia, thence to Jamaica, thence to Mobile, and up the Saint
Stephens. Mindful of John Wesley’s strictures on the use of many words
in buying and selling, Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this
pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was
not for the glory of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. So
Simon, having forgotten his teacher’s dictum on the possession of human
chattels, bought three slaves and with their aid established a homestead on
the banks of the Alabama River some forty miles above Saint Stephens.
Exercise 31. Insert the appropriate form of the verb.
1. He sat looking at the horse’s ears as if he (see) something new
there. 2. He (describe) this country as if he (be) there himself. 3. He
(wish) he (be) us now. 4. If I (to be) you I (to do) my hair rather differently. 5. Whenever I (see) them it looked as though they (to be) on very
good terms with one another. 6. A hypersonic craft will require complicated measures lest it (burn). 7. The President must reject this proposal
lest it (cause) strife and violence. 8. I dreaded lest any stranger (notice)
me and (speak) to me. 9. He was anxious that everything (be) ready by
5 o’clock. 10. I only wish that you (come) with me, Watson, but I (fear)
that it (do). 11. It seemed as if we (be) all on holiday again. 12. Whatever
obstacles (arise), we (give) in. 13. If I (to be) twenty-seven again I suppose I (to be) as big a fool as I was then. 14. His tanned, smooth skin
looked as though a razor never (to touch) it. 15. «I wish I (not to cry) so
much,» said Alice trying to find her way out.
Exercise 32. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. They looked at me as if they didn’t know me. 2. Aircraft designers
tend to substitute conventional metal alloys by new composite materials
in order that an aircraft structure should be lighter. 3. If only that were
true! But challenges abound, and this is no time to take the future for
granted. 4. He was anxious he might come up to her and ask this unpleasant question. 5. I felt as if the visit had diminished the separation
between Adwa and me. 6. If it were not for the pleadings of my granddaughter, you would be dead already. 7. Whoever you may be, Sir, I am
deeply grateful to you. 8. She feared that she might be blamed. 9. I only
wish it had lasted twice as long. 10. Liz stood upon the causeway that her
father might see her. 11. He was not as well-dressed as Robert, who always looked as though he had stepped out of a shop-window, but he wore
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his old clothes as though it didn’t much matter what one wore. 12. If only
everything was as reliable as a Corolla. 13. I worked to tire myself, so
that I should sleep late into the morning. I was living always for the next
day. 14. He was afraid lest they wouldn’t follow him like a lot of sheep.
15. She is looking at her mother as if she doesn’t recognize her.
Exercise 33. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Жаль, что мы потратили так много времени напрасно. 2. Даже если бы он заговорил с другими, его бы поняли неправильно.
3. Напрасно он не посвятил свою жизнь математике. Это его любимый предмет с детства. 4. Если бы он только мог заставить других
прочувствовать увиденное. 5. Мы возвращались из театра с таким
чувством, как будто побывали на большом и светлом празднике.
6. Томас выглядит так, как будто провинился в чем-то. 7. Он выглядел опрятным, чистым, даже если его одежда была изрядно поношена. 8. Почему вы смотрите на меня так, словно я говорю неправду? 9. Мне бы не хотелось, чтобы вы расстраивались из-за таких пустяков. 10. Даже если бы вы узнали меня, не подавайте вида.
11. Хоть бы ей кто-нибудь сказал, что это невежливо. 12. Казалось,
как будто бы реформа была проведена знатью и для знати. 13. Она
беспокоилась о том, что Скарлетт узнает о ее разговоре с Реттом
Батлером. 14. Похоже, что все уже ушли. 15. Ее нежные веки покраснели, как будто бы она проплакала половину ночи.
Exercise 34. Choose the right variant.
1. He looked at me as though he (wanted / wants) to ask me something. 2. However badly he (may have behaved / may has behave) to you
in the past he is still your brother. 3. I wish she (feels / felt) as I do. 4. She
fears lest she (should be blame / should be blamed). 5. Whatever Doreen
(say / might say), it was a sign that the winter was nearly over and that
spring was coming. 6. «My God,» the doctor said. «You make me feel
as if I (were living / was living) through it.» 7. It was as if she (was /
were) angry with him. 8. She left the keys at her neighbours in order
that he (might open / opens) the door and get into. 9. I wish you (come /
would come) oftener to see us. 10. It was as if she (was / were) angry
with him. 11. She looked steadily at her coffee lest she also (begin /
should begin) to cry, as Anna was doing already. 12. Remember, the
truth, however ashamed of it you (may be / were) is better than any lie.
13. The house looked as though it had been deserted for weeks. 14. She
wishes she were free and could follow them. 15. He got up, cautiously,
so that he (might not wake / wakes) the sleeping boy.
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Test paper
Task 1. Choose the right variant.
1. I feel so tired that I can’t move my legs. It is as if they … to the floor.
A. were stuck
B. are stuck
C. have stuck
2. The champagne has frozen. It’s your entire fault! If you … about
it, it … to ice.
A. wouldn’t forget; didn’t turn
B. hadn’t forgotten; wouldn’t have turned
C. had forgotten; would turn
3. I wish my authority, popularity and power … never decrease.
A. could
B. will C. would
4. Henry talks to his dog as if it … him.
A. understands
B. understood
C. will understand
5. I propose that he … them.
A. join
B. will join
C. joins
6. If he … English well, he … the article without difficulty yesterday.
A. had known, would have translated
B. knew, would have translated
C. knew, translated
7. He insisted that his brother … the text twice.
A. read
B. reads
C. had read
8. It is high time you … on business.
A. get
B. got
C. will get
9. If … my passport, I’ll be in trouble.
A. I lost
B. I should lose
C. I would lose
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10. If the bus to the airport … so late, we … the plane.
A. weren’t be, caught
B. hadn’t been, would have caught
C. wasn’t, would catch
11. But for your words, he would have helped us.
A. Если бы не Ваши замечания, он бы помог нам.
B. Но это не относится к Вашим замечаниям, чтобы он
помог нам.
C. Но ради Ваших замечаний, он поможет нам.
12. Важно, чтобы она взяла у него интервью.
A. It is important that she interview him.
B. It was important that she interviewed him.
C. It is important that she interviews him.
13. Случись так, что он встретит его, он попросит его перезвонить тебе.
A. If he should meet him he will ask him to ring you back.
B. If he meets him he will ask him to ring you back.
C. If he would meet him he would ask him to ring you back.
14. Если бы не его рассеянность, он бы ничего не забывал.
A. If it were not for his carelessness, he would not forget everything.
B. If it was not for his carelessness, he would not have forgotten
everything.
C. If it were not for his carelessness, he would have not forget
everything.
15. He knew his duty and stuck to it however painful it … .
A. may have been
B. can be
C. might be
16. It was strange that they … .
A. quarreled
B. was quarrelling
C. quarrel
17. He thought how hard the wind was blowing and how the cold
sharp rain … in his face at that moment, if he … comfortably at home.
A. would be beating, were not sitting B. had beaten, were not sitting
C. beat, was not sitting
18. But for his health he … such poisoning (интоксикация).
A. hadn’t outlived
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B. wouldn’t outlive
C. wouldn’t have outlived
19. Если бы Вы вчера встретили его, Вы бы его не узнали.
A. If you had met him yesterday, you wouldn’t have recognized
him.
B. If you met him yesterday, you wouldn’t recognize him.
C. If you would have met him yesterday, you wouldn’t have recognized him.
20. But for the cribs he … the exam.
A. would not have passed
B. did not pass
C. will not pass
21. It was most important that he … to the dean before leaving for
his vacation.
A. speaks
B. spoken
C. speak
22. It was suggested that Pedro … the material more thoroughly
before passing the exam.
A. study
B. will study
C. studies
23. If you … Mary today, please ask her to call me.
A. should see
B. will see C. sees
24. Take the book lest he … it. A. forgets
B. forget
C. would forget
25. … he would have signed his name in the corner.
A. If he painted that picture
B. If he had painted that picture
C. If he would have painted that picture
26. She wished her brother … with them during the trip, when they
faced such great problems.
A. was
B. were
C. had been
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27. If she … the last conference, she never … her old friend Ban,
whom she had not seen for years.
A. had not attended; would meet
B. had not attended; would have met
C. did not attend; would meet
28. Elizabeth feared that he … to the house.
A. will return B. might return
C. would have return
29. It was very desirable that Lady Russell … no longer deceived.
A. was
B. were
C. be
30. If we … this question earlier, our demands … .
A. had raised, would have been met B. raised, would be met
C. would raise, would be met
31. No matter how he … he couldn’t make her come back.
A. might try B. would try
C. tried
32. Find them out, wherever they … .
A. were
B. may be
C. are
33. But for his youth, he … so stupid.
A. wouldn’t be
B. weren’t
C. hadn’t been
34. But for the moonlight, they … in completely darkness.
A. would be B. will be C. would have been
35. She was afraid lest he … about her dating with Mr. Darcy.
A. would learn B. might learn C. should learn
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Неличные формы глагола 
(NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB)
К неличным формам глагола в английском языке относятся инфинитив (Infinitive), причастие (Participle) и герундий (Gerund).
По выполняемым в предложении функциям они близки к именным частям речи; за исключением инфинитива, который несколько отличается от других неличных форм. Следует отметить, что в
основном их сочетаемость (кроме причастия второго) во многом
близка к глаголу, так как все эти формы способны выступать в
предложении с прямым дополнением и могут определяться наречием. Глагольным свойством является и то, что, кроме причастия
второго, все эти формы имеют категорию вида. Категория лица
и числа у них отсутствует; категория времени как таковая также
отсутствует: они не способны помещать действие в тот или иной
временной отрезок, а лишь указывают соотношение времени обозначаемого ими действия с действием глагола-сказуемого (одновременность или предшествование ему). Таким образом, можно
говорить только об относительном характере выражения категории времени.
В то время как личные формы глагола способны выполнять
только одну синтаксическую функцию – быть простым сказуемым предложения, неличные формы способны замещать ряд
синтаксических позиций, за исключением функции простого
сказуемого. Их отличительной чертой является способность образовывать синтаксические комплексы, т.е. сочетания с существительными или местоимениями, эквивалентные по значению
придаточным предложениям и выступающие в предложении в
функции сложных членов предложения (сложного дополнения,
сложного подлежащего, сложного определения или сложного обстоятельства).
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Инфинитив  
(the Infinitive)
Инфинитив – наиболее отвлеченная форма глагола, в основном
разряде действительного залога только называющая действие. Инфинитив, как и остальные представители неличных форм, может
реализоваться в формах вида и залога. Для действительного залога существуют все четыре формы, для страдательного – только основной разряд и перфект.
Форма
Indefinite
Значение
Действи­
тельный
залог
Страда­
тельный
залог
Действие, одновременное с дейст­
вием сказуемого в личной форме
to + V1
to be + V3
Действие в процессе его развиConti­nuous тия одновременное с действием to be + Ving
ска­зуемого в личной форме
Perfect
–
Действие, которое предшествует
to have been
действию, выраженному сказуе- to have + V3
+ V3
мым в личной форме
Действие, продолжавшееся в течение определенного периода
Perfect
to have been
времени и предшествовавшее
Continuous
+ Ving
действию, выра­женному сказуемым в личной форме
–
Инфинитив употребляется без частицы to в следующих случаях:
1) после вспомогательных глаголов: I don’t know him. Did he
know the new timetable? We shall be in time.
2) после модальных глаголов (кроме ought to, have to, be to): You
must do it immediately. He can speak French.
3) после глаголов побуждения (to make / to cause (заставлять,
вынуждать), to have, to bid): She’ll have you do it at once. He made
me come to that conference.
Hо: She was made to come to the conference. (Passive)
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4) после глаголов чувственного восприятия (to see, to hear,
to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel): I saw her enter the house. He
heard him lock the flat.
Hо: She was seen to enter the house. (Passive) He was heard to lock
the flat. (Passive)
5) после глаголов to let, need, dare (сметь, осмелиться) в модальном значении: Need I do it? Who let you take the jam? He daren’t tell
me what happened.
6) после выражений had better, would rather, would sooner, do
anything but, do nothing but, cannot but, couldn’t but: I had better
watch a good film. I would rather walk in the garden. I can’t but stay
at home.
7) в эллиптических вопросах с why: Why speak about nonsense?
Why not ask him about it?
8) после than, rather than, but, except: Rather than speak about it,
I shall watch it. I cannot but smile. Better try than speak.
9) в обороте с I won’t have: I won’t have this cat play on my bed!
Если в предложении употребляются два инфинитива, соединенные союзом and или or, частица to перед вторым инфинитивом также опускается: We wanted to find the boy and persuade
him to return home. His plan was to ring her up at once, or even call
on her.
Инфинитив может выполнять в предложении функции какоголибо члена предложения или входить в состав какого-либо члена
предложения:
1) подлежащее: To check his knowledge was the duty of mine. What
to do next was our main problem.
2) часть составного именного сказуемого: Our task is to write the
composition in time. His plan was to ring her up at once.
3) часть составного глагольного сказуемого: He should come
back on Sunday. Now I begin to understand you.
4) дополнение: She wants to organize the party. I hoped to have
found him at home.
5) определение: The conference to be held on in Moscow is
postponed for a week. I am sure he will be the first to come to the
meeting.
6) обстоятельство: Our students came to learn their marks. The results achieved were so significant as to affect the final conclusions.
7) вводный член предложения: To tell the truth, it’s a surprise
for me.
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Инфинитив в некоторых случаях образует ряд устойчивых конструкций (оборотов). К ним относятся Complex Subject (сложное
подлежащее), Complex Object (сложное дополнение) и оборот «for +
инфинитив».
Оборот Complex Subject (cложное подлежащее) переводится
придаточным изъяснительным предложением с союзом что (реже
чтобы), причем подлежащим придаточного предложения становится при переводе подлежащее всего предложения, а сказуемое
соответствует инфинитиву:
Не is said to come soon.
Говорят, что он скоро придет.
Случаи употребления Complex Subject:
1) c глаголами to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice, to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to
imagine, to find, to trust, to assume, to say, to report, to state в страдательном залоге:
They are known to be very popuИзвестно, что они очень попуlar among young people.
лярны среди молодежи.
He was expected to return today,
Ожидалось, что он приедет
but there came a note saying that
сегодня, но пришла телеграмhe would be back only in a week.
ма о том, что его приезд откладывается на неделю.
2) c сочетаниями to be likely (вероятно), to be unlikely (вряд ли),
to be sure, to be certain (быть уверенным, наверняка):
I’m unlikely to go to the party toВряд ли я пойду сегодня на веnight.
черинку.
He is sure to complete this task.
Он обязательно выполнит это
задание.
He is likely to be selected for this
Наверняка его выберут для
research.
проведения этого исследования.
3) с глаголами to seem (казаться, по-видимому), to happen (случаться), to prove (оказывается), to turn out (оказываться) в действительном залоге:
He appeared to be right.
Оказалось, что он прав.
He happened to be the witness of
Он, оказалось, был свидетелем
the accident.
происшествия.
Отрицательная форма в обороте Complex Subject с инфинитивом после глаголов to seem, to appear, to prove, to turn out, to
happen, to chance имеет следующую структуру: do (have, will)+
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not + seem (appear, prove, turn out, happen, chance) + to + infinitive.
Например:
He didn’t prove to be a good
Он оказался не очень хорошим
friend.
другом.
Оборот Complex Object (сложное дополнение) переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением с союзами что, чтобы,
как, подлежащее которого соответствует существительному в общем падеже (или местоимению в объектном падеже), а сказуемое
соответствует инфинитиву этого оборота:
They want him / my friend to
Они хотят, чтобы он / мой
come tonight.
друг пришел сегодня вечером.
I saw him enter the garden.
Я видела, как он вошел в сад.
После глаголов чувственного восприятия в обороте Complex
Object употребляется только форма Indefinite Infinitive Active. Если
же значение пассивно, то используется причастие второе:
I saw the fire slowly conquered.
Я видел, как пожар постепенно потушили.
После глаголов to think, to consider глагол to be может опускаться:
I consider him to be a good stuЯ считаю его хорошим студенdent. I consider him a good stuтом.
dent.
Оборот «for + инфинитив» (The for-to-infinitive construction)
состоит из предлога for, существительного или личного местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива, может стоять в предложении в разных местах и переводится на русский язык неопределенной формой глагола или придаточным предложением, причем
существительное или местоимение этого оборота становится подлежащим придаточного предложения, а инфинитив – глаголомсказуемым. При этом инфинитив в обороте выражает действие,
которое должно быть выполнено лицом / предметом, обозначенным существительным или местоимением, стоящим после предлога for. Этот оборот представляет собой один член предложения
и может служить:
1) подлежащим (обычно начинается с вводного it и очень редко
ставится перед сказуемым):
good
It + is (was) + necessary + for sb to do sth
easy
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It is easy for you to read «Gone
Вам будет легко прочитать
with the Wind» in Russian.
«Унесенные ветром» на русском.
It is essential for the classrooms
Для классных комнат важно,
to have plenty of light.
чтобы в них было много света.
2) дополнением (конструкция может быть использована в функции косвенного дополнения, если зависит от определенных глаголов to ask, to watch и прилагательных anxious, eager, impatient,
sorry, willing и др.):
to arrange
а) to be anxious + for sb to do sth
to wait
I’m waiting for him to write to me.
Я жду, что он напишет мне.
I’m anxious for my friends to visЯ с нетерпение жду, что мои
it me on Sunday.
друзья навестят меня в воскресенье.
 to
make
difficult
b)
+ for sb to do sth
to think + it + easy
He made it difficult for me to love
Он сделал все так, чтобы мне
him.
было трудно любить его.
3) определением (в этой функции оборот определяет существительное или неопределенное, отрицательное, универсальное (определительное) местоимение):
is
the right
+
а) It +
+ noun + for sb to do sth
was
the only
It was the only thing for him to
Это было единственное, что
do.
он мог сделать.
It was the right decision for him
Он принял правильное решение.
to take.
is
somebody
+
b) There +
+ for sb to do sth
was nobody
There is somebody for me to
Здесь есть с кем поговорить.
speak to.
There was nobody for her to play.
Ей не с кем было играть.
4) обстоятельством цели (в отличие от инфинитива, данная конструкция в этой функции может быть размещена только после сказуемого):
to do sth for sb to do sth
I gave him a call for him to know
Я позвонил ему, чтобы он узнал
it.
это.
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5) обстоятельством следствия или результата (вытекающего из
содержания главного предложения):
clever
а) too + old
+ for sb to do sth
young
He is too young for them to play
Он слишком молод, чтобы они
active games with him.
занимались с ним подвижными
играми.
He is too clever for her to exОн слишком умен, чтобы объplain the idea in simply words.
яснить ей эту мысль простыми словами.
clever
old
b)
+ enough + for sb to do sth
stupid
young
He had said enough for me to get
Он сказал достаточно, чтобы
alarmed.
я забеспокоилась.
6) предикативом (именная часть составного именного сказуемого). Составное именное сказуемое состоит из глагола-связки to
be в личной форме и предикатива. Предикатив обозначает какойлибо признак подлежащего, а глагол-связка служит для связи подлежащего и предикатива и выражает лицо, число, время и наклонение. При этом глагол to be никогда не опускается. Кроме глагола
to be, в качестве глагола-связки могут употребляться и другие глаголы:
That is not for me to decide.
Не мне решать.
What it all means remains for an
Что все это значит – решать
expert to say.
(делать выводы) экспертам.
ЗАПОМНИ:
1. После выражений to be glad, to be happy, to be sorry, to
be surprised, it is clever (kind, silly) of you часто употребляется
перфектная форма инфинитива:
I’m glad to have met you.
I was sorry to have said it.
2. После глаголов to seem, to appear, to pretend в основном используются формы Continuous Infinitive и Perfect Infinitive:
She pretended to be sleeping.
Она притворялась спящей.
You seem to have lost weight.
Кажется, ты похудела.
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3. Сочетание used + инфинитив с частицей to переводится на
русский язык прошедшим временем несовершенного вида, часто с
наречием обычно:
Last month I used to spend a lot
В прошлом месяце я много вреof time in the reading-room.
мени проводила в читальном
зале.
4. Сочетание to be used to + герундий переводится на русский
язык как «привыкать»:
He is used to driving on the left
Он привык ездить по левой
because he has lived in Britain
стороне, так как живет в Веfor 5 years.
ликобритании 5 лет.
5. Устойчивые выражения с инфинитивом:
needless to say – нет необходимости говорить
so to speak – так сказать
to be (quite) frank – честно
to be more precise – точнее говоря
to be sure – чтобы быть уверенным
to begin with – начнем с того
to crown all – завершая, подводя итог
to cut a long story short – короче говоря
to make matters worse – что еще хуже
to put it mildly – мягко выражаясь
to say nothing of – не говоря уже о
to say the least of it – по меньшей мере
to tell the truth – сказать по правде
The book leaves much to be desired. – Книга оставляет желать лучшего.
He is hard to please. – Ему трудно угодить.
She is difficult to deal with. – C ней трудно иметь дело.
She is pleasant to look at. – На нее приятно смотреть.
Exercise 1. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of the
infinitive.
1. I don’t want to be a burden, but I wonder if you have three or four
gallons of water handy. 2. You can take the horse to the water, but you
cannot make it drink. 3. He was well enough known in the theatrical
world for her to be flattered by the compliments he paid her, and when
he asked her to have dinner with him next day, she accepted. 4. If you
haven’t got the gift no one can give it to you, but if you have it you can
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tleman. 6. I’d rather marry him and be a failure than be a success and
married to somebody else. 7. Her articulation was so distinct that, without raising her voice, she could make you hear her every word even if
you were in the last row of the gallery. 8. I had nothing to do but work.
9. Please, God, make him think I am still pretty. 10. This girl seems to
have made a big mistake. 11. Why not get job for Joan in your theater?
12. I can’t but think of the girl who has taken him from me. 13. She
pretended to be sick not to be disturbed. 14. Julia had never felt surer of
herself, she was glad to have taken vengeance on her for all sufferings.
15. Finally I watched him jump from the armchair and bounce off out of
the room to meet her.
Exercise 2. Open the brackets, pay attention to the form of the infinitive.
1. Mr. Darcy is reported (to leave) London. 2. And the landlord
seems (to hear) something. 3. Caesar, like, in later years, Elizabeth,
seems (to stop) everywhere: only he was more respectable than good
Queen Bess; he didn’t put up at the public-houses. 4. It’s enough for
a man (to understand) his own business, and not (to interfere) with
other people’s. 5. They reported his car (to see) in Eastbound. 6. It
was not easy for him (to acquaint) with Elizabeth. 7. I want you (to
understand) me at last. 8. It was difficult for him (to understand) why
Mr. Darcy came so often to the Parsonage. 9. He is unlikely (to sit) at
home now. 10. She didn’t know the jewels (to ensure) by the National
Fidelity of California. 11. Harry felt himself (to go) red. 12. Mother was so sorry for me (to drop out). She made a big stink about it.
13. The first person (to enter) was Mrs. Evans, her face white, her
dark frightened eyes avoiding his. 14. Johnny pretended (to sleep)
15. He loved (to photograph) and thought he looked best with his
mouth spread from ear to ear.
Exercise 3. Open the brackets, pay attention to the use of the particle
with the infinitive.
1. He paused (to stub out) his cigarette. 2. He seems (to prepare) for
such obstinacy. 3. He couldn’t afford (to take) risks. 4. If I don’t ring
you she must (to go) at once to 155A Fulmar Road and (to give) this box
to Miss Heeder. 5. Don’t make me (to feel) any more tired. 6. I need an
umbrella (to keep) off the rain. 7. Why was he filled with gladness when
he heard them (to give) each other Merry Christmas? 8. If we let him
(to go on) we’ll all bust. 9. I would like (to say) with the check of Mr.
Sloane and the contribution of the handsome young Greek. 10. I was
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blushing so furiously that I felt the blood in my face must (to raise) the
temperature of the room like a huge infra-red lamp. 11. To go through,
the Mane must (to ride). 12. This made a rough sea, against which it was
almost impossible (to pull) the boat. 13. Kit had learned how (to throw)
his weight on an oar, but… 14. You’d better (to drink) a bottle of milk.
15. Why did the Professor like to hear me (to talk) nonsense? 16. They
heard the front door bell (to ring). 17. Why not (to go) to the party with
him. 18. She felt her heart (to beat) with joy. 19. I would rather (to set)
fire to my flat than (to sit) in it with Becker.
Exercise 4. State the form and function of the infinitive.
1. To go on with this discussion is to waste time. 2. Oh, I’m sorry to
have taken so much of your time. 3. It all sounds too good to be true.
4. We assembled to discuss and arrange our plans. 5. He was the first
to raise the question. 6. I didn’t come here to be shouted at. 7. The plan
will be discussed at the meeting to be held on May. 8. You are a bachelor with no family to take care of. 9. I think him to be present at the
meeting. 10. She wanted the child to behave better. 11. We wish our son
to master his English. 12. I believe him to be a good pianist. 13. I expect
my sister not have missed the train. 14. They wanted the operation to be
performed as soon as possible. 15. The student wanted the dictionary to
be given to him at the examination.
Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with «to» if necessary.
1. I like … play the piano. 2. My brother can … write poems. 3. We
had … put on our overcoats because it was cold. 4. They wanted …
cross the river. 5. It is high time for you … go to bed. 6. They heard a
girl … cry out with joy. 7. You look tired. You had better … go home.
8. It is time … get up. 9. Let me … help with your homework. 10. How
dare you … stare at me! 11. I’d like … speak to you. 12. I think I shall
be able … solve this problem. 13. What makes you … think you are
right? 14. She made me … repeat my words several times! I hate it.
15. He said that he would not let her … go away. 16. That funny scene
made me … laugh. 17. The guy helped us … find the way to the station.
18. He would sooner … die than … betray his friend. 19. Why not …
start now? We can’t … wait for the rain … stop. 20. There are hundred
things … be done. 21. We had better … make haste. 22. I’d rather …
look through the cases myself. 23. He was made … obey the rules.
Exercise 6. Use the correct form of the infinitive.
1. I hope (to see) you soon. 2. We expected (to be) back in two days.
3. The woman pretended (to read) and (not to hear) the bell. 4. He be119
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gan writing books not because he wanted (to earn) a living. 5. Anyone
would hate (to make use of) and then (to discard) like that. 6. She was
sorry (to ignore) the warning. 7. The children seem (to enjoy) the show.
8. I’m terribly sorry (to keep you waiting). 9. You should (to insist) upon
her attending your seminars. 10. The only sound (to hear) was the ticking of the grandfather’s lock downstairs. 11. He hated (to bother) with so
many questions when he was busy. 12. The idea was too complicated (to
express) in just one sentence. 13. He seems (to understand) your joke.
14. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he
is said (to learn) them while travelling. 15. It seems (to rain) since we
came here.
Exercise 7. Translate from English into Russian.
1. The water is warm enough to swim. 2. He was very curious to
open the letter. 3. She was the first person to enter university. 4. I saw
him go out the room. 5. I hope to see you soon. 6. I am saving up to
buy a flat. 7. They he is too ill to work today. 8. He took off his boots in
order not to make any noise. 9. He is the first man to have called today.
10. They sent me to shop to buy some fruit. 11. They hear a child be
singing a song. 12. I am glad to have done all work on time. 13. I hope
not to miss a train. 14. He is too old to sale alone. 15. We expect to
come back in couple of minutes. 16. The first person to arrive was Mrs.
Cold, as usual. 17. My sister was the only person to realize the problem.
18. I saw him be playing the piano and it was splendid. 19. They came
to stay with us for week-end. 20. He read a lot so as to pass exam.
Exercise 8. Open the brackets and use the Complex Object.
1. Do you want (they, stay) at the hotel or with us? 2. I’d like (the professor, look through) my report. 3. Do you want (I, show) you the sights
of the city? 4. We expect (he, arrange) everything by the time we come.
5. I want (she, tell) me the news in brief. 6. He expected (the meeting,
hold) in the Red Room. 7. I would like (they, fix) an appointment for me
for Tuesday. 8. We want (she, introduce) us to the president. 9. I don’t
want (they, be late) for dinner. 10. He expected (she, invite) to the party by
the Smiths. 11. I’d like (the dress, buy) by Saturday. 12. I don’t want (she,
treat) like Alice. 13. We considered (he, be) an honest person. 14. I don’t
like (she, prevent) me from doing it. 15. I suspect (he, help) by her.
Exercise 9. Replace the group of words by the infinitive: I saw that he
crossed the road. – I saw him cross the road; It seems that he is busy. –
He seems to be busy.
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1. I stayed at home and did my homework. My mother said so.
2. I don’t smoke indoors because my wife does not like. 3. He is an
honest boy. I know it. 4. We don’t eat ice-cream before dinner because
mother has forbidden it. 5. The officer saw that you got off the train.
6. No one had expected that she would marry him. 7. I heard that they
were arguing. 8. Do not shout so! Do you want that the whole house
will know what has happened? 9. She asked if she might leave the room.
10. It seems that it is impossible. 11. Helen was told that she must not
dirty her frock. 12. He was sorry when he heard of your departure.
13. I am sorry that I have left so early. 14. The weather was so hot that
we could not go out. 15. He is very tall and can touch the ceiling. 16. He
was so angry that he could not speak to me. 17. I asked if I could see
this film. 18. I know that the student lives in Gagarin Street. 19. I know
that she has bought a TV. 20. Everybody knows that he is a good
man. 21. It is a safe way out, I believe. 22. We believe it is a mistake.
23. It seemed that he expected to move to Moscow. 24. It seems that the
boy has been forbidden to leave the house. 25. This costume is too formal. I will not wear it.
Exercise 10. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Complex
Subject with the infinitive.
1. It happened that they met that very day. 2. It seems that the play
has made a deep impression on him. 3. It proved that he was a very
experienced engineer. 4. It appears that the house was built in the 8th
century. 5. It happened that there was a doctor there at that time. 6. It
seems that there are different opinions on the subject. 7. It is known that
he has a great collection of pictures. 8. It may be said that the cathedral
is the most beautiful building in the city. 9. It was reported that the brig
had arrived in London. 10. It can’t be considered that the results of the
experiment are poor. 11. It is expected that many people will attend the
elections. 12. It is believed that there is hope of reaching the agreement.
13. It is said that the expedition has reached Cyprus. 14. It is considered that this mine is the most profitable. 15. It can be expected that the
weather will improve soon. 16. It is said that there are many difficulties
in solving this problem.
Exercise 11. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Ты выглядишь уставшим. Почему бы не отдохнуть? 2. Казалось, он подыскивал слова, чтобы выразить свою мысль. 3. Хранить свой секрет – мудро, но ждать, что его будут хранить другие – глупо. 4. Принимать вещи такими, какие они есть, значит
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не испытывать враждебности по отношению к другим. 5. Короче
говоря, мы не знали, какую дорогу выбрать. 6. Мой отец, мягко
выражаясь, не хотел, чтобы я был его наследником. 7. Последнюю оставшуюся пуговицу, пуговицу из желтого рога, наверняка
оторвали. 8. Если ты не можешь сделать что-нибудь как следует,
лучше не делать это совсем. 9. Чтобы мне ждать тебя все эти годы без какой-либо надежды! 10. Он последним покинул горящий
дом. 11. Он был очень расстроен, чтобы сказать те же самые слова по-другому. 12. Лиза первая узнала, что герцог продал свой замок. 13. Он скорее продаст дом и все свое имущество, чем совесть.
14. Кажется, она никогда не пробовала этот фрукт. 15. Конечно, он
очень молод, но его отец и я подумали, что было бы неплохо, если
бы он провел несколько месяцев за границей перед тем, как поступать в Кембридж.
Exercise 12. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Зачем быть несчастной и одинокой, если Питер хочет быть
со мной? 2. Я никогда не видела, чтобы он так плохо выглядел.
3. Мне бы хотелось поехать, но я не уверена, что смогу себе это
позволить. 4. Сейчас уже слишком поздно, чтобы Даниель позвонил. 5. Вам будет очень просто найти меня, если я буду необходим.
6. Я не хочу, чтобы Вы думали, что я – кто-то, кто попытался обмануть Вашего отца. 7. В выражении его лица было что-то такое,
что сразу же заставляло доверять ему. 8. Позвольте мне подумать
или лучше позвольте мне попытаться не думать. 9. Как ужасно несправедливо с твоей стороны задавать мне подобные вопросы: ты
не понимаешь, что значит дружба. 10. Но большинство людей так
ленивы и трусливы, что предпочитают поощрять мошенничество,
поддаваясь ему, вместо того, чтобы проявить известную твердость
и пресечь его раз и навсегда. 11. Зачем показывать мне это, если
для меня нет спасения. 12. Они хотели, чтобы я заказал билеты
заранее. 13. Слишком холодно, чтобы купаться. 14. Она слишком
красива и добра, чтобы не иметь друзей. 15. Они встали рано, чтобы успеть на самолет.
Exercise 13. Choose the right variant.
1. The rain seems … Call the children in. I don’t want them … .
A. to be, to be got wet through
B. to be starting, to get wet through
C. to have started, to have got wet through
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2. Look, they are likely … to the news. They seem … .
A. to be listening, to be excited
B. to listen, to be excited
C. to have been listening, to have excited
3. He is sure … a liar. Everybody heard him … that in so many words.
A. to be, to say
B. be, say
C. to be, say
4. When I came in, the discussion seemed … to an end. They
appeared … patience because they turned out … for it.
A. to have been coming, to have been losing, be ready
B. to be coming, to be losing, not to be ready
C. to come, to lose, to be ready
5. Jack, you seem … too fast. The speed is already 100 miles. I am
afraid. I want you … the speed till 40 miles.
A. to have driven, slow down
B. to drive, to slow down
C. to be driving, to slow down
6. The doctor wanted the patient … .
A. to examine
B. to be examined
C. being examined
7. There are a lot of people who expect your country … the same as
their own.
A. not to be
B. not being
C. not be
8. Did you hear the chairman … an announcement?
A. to make
B. to have made
C. be made
9. When I was waiting in the hall, I saw a girl … with a file in her
hand.
A. came out
B. to come out
C. come out
10. Nobody expected the president of the company … to the party.
A. have come
B. to come
C. come
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11. I saw him … round the corner and … .
A. turn, disappear
B. to turn, to disappear
C. to have turned, disappear
12. She noticed the children … behind the tree but pretended to see
nothing.
A. to have hidden
B. to hide
C. hiding
13. I want his article … in November.
A. to publish
B. to be published
C. to have published
14. We did not want his speech … .
A. to interrupt
B. to be interrupted
C. interrupt
Герундий  
(The Gerund)
Герундий – неличная форма глагола, выражающая название
действия и обладающая как свойствами существительного, так и
свойствами глагола. В русском языке аналогичная форма отсутствует. Герундий обозначает действия, процессы, состояния и образуется прибавлением суффикса -ing к основе глагола.
Форма
Indefinite
Perfect
Значение
Действие, одновременное
с действием, выраженным
сказуемым или будущее
по отношению к нему
Действие, закончившееся
ранее действия, выражен­
ного сказуемым
Действительный залог
Страдательный залог
Ving
being + V3
having + V3
having been + V3
Функции герундия во многом сходны с функциями инфинитива, также сочетающего свойства существительного со свойствами
глагола. Герундий, однако, имеет больше свойств существительного, чем инфинитив.
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Функция
в предложении
Пример
Перевод
Подлежащее
Listening to music is my Слушать музыку – мое
hobby.
хобби. (Прослушивание
музыки – мое хобби.)
Именная часть
составного
сказуемого
My wish is understanding Мое желание – понимать
fluent oral English.
разговорный
английский.
Дополнение
He likes watching TV.
Определение
There are many ways of
doing this task.
After watching this film,
he advised me to watch it
as soon as possible.
Он любит смотреть телевизор.
He dreamt of visiting India Он мечтал посетить Ин­
and seeing Taj Mahal with дию и увидеть Тадж Маhis own eyes.
хал собственными глазами.
Часть составного He began writing a compo- Он начал писать сочинеглагольного
sition.
ние.
сказуемого
Обстоятельство
Есть много способов выполнения этого задания.
После того как он посмот­рел (просмотрев) этот
фильм, он посоветовал
мне посмотреть его как
можно скорее.
Герундий употребляется после:
1) глаголов:
to avoid – избегать
to burst out – начать внезапно или бурно что-то делать
to deny – отрицать, отвергать
to delay – откладывать, задерживать
to enjoy – получать удовольствие, наслаждаться
to excuse – извиняться, просить прощение
to fancy (в повелительных и восклицательных предложениях) –
представлять себе, воображать
to finish – заканчивать
to forgive – прощать
to give up – оставить, переставать, бросать
to go on – продолжать
to keep on – продолжать
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to leave off – переставать делать
to mention – упоминать, ссылаться на
to mind (в отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях) – возражать, иметь что-либо против
to need – нуждаться, иметь надобность
to postpone – откладывать, отсрочивать
to put off – откладывать, отсрочивать
to require – требовать
to suggest – предлагать
to think – думать
cannot help – нельзя удержаться не сделать что-то
2) фразовых глаголов:
to accuse of – обвинять
to agree to – соглашаться
to approve of – одобрять
to complain of – жаловаться
to depend on – зависеть
to feel like – быть склонным, хотеть
to insist on – настаивать
to look like – быть похожим
to object to – возражать, быть против
to persist in – настаивать
to prevent from – предотвращать
to rely on – полагаться
to speak of – говорить о
to succeed in – преуспевать, удаваться
to suspect of – подозревать
to thank for – благодарить
to think of – думать
to give up the idea of – отказываться от мысли
to look forward to – с нетерпением ждать чего-либо
not to like the idea of – не нравиться
to miss an opportunity of – не воспользоваться возможностью
3) предикативных групп с предлогом или без предлога:
to be afraid of – бояться
to be angry for – быть злым, рассердиться на
to be aware of – знать, отдавать себе отчет
to be bored with – надоесть
to be busy in – быть занятым
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to be capable of – быть в состоянии делать что-либо
to be clever at – быть способным
to be engaged in – быть занятым чем-либо
to be fond of – увлекаться, любить
to be grateful for – быть признательным, благодарным за
to be guilty of – быть виновным
to be indignant at – быть в негодовании
to be pleased (displeased) at – радоваться, быть довольным (недовольным)
to be proud of – гордиться
to be slow at – медлить, мешкать
to be surprised (astonished) at – быть удивленным, пораженным
to be worth – стоить, заслуживать
4) существительных с предлогом:
art of – мастерство
chance of – возможность
difficulty in – трудность
experience in – опыт
habit of – привычка
harm of – вред, ущерб
idea of – цель, намерение
importance of – важность
interest in – интерес
means of – средство
mistake of – ошибка
opportunity of – возможность
plan for – план, намерение
point in – точка зрения
preparation for – приготовление
process of – процесс
purpose of – цель
reason for – причина
right of – право
sense of – чувство
skill in – искусство, мастерство
way of – способ, манера
ЗАПОМНИ:
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фектная форма герундия, даже если есть необходимость подчеркнуть предшествование:
I don’t remember watching this
Я не помню, что смотрела эту
comedy before.
комедию раньше.
2) после глаголов to want, to need, to deserve, to require, а также
словосочетания be worth используется герундий в форме действительного залога, несмотря на то что значение пассивное:
My computer needs upgrading.
Мой компьютер нужно обновить.
Exercise 1. Translate from English into Russian.
1. If there was anyone in there, he didn’t want them getting her as
well. 2. I don’t want my being here to bring you to harm. 3. I’ve never
had a child yet who had the proper respect for fire until they put their
hand in it once. No amount of telling is worth doing it once. 4. If I
could do that, would it be worth helping me? 5. He wanted to stand
up and say it was wrong, and that she’d deserved killing for wanting
to harm the Minister and future Sovereign and that it was his duty.
6. He deserves roasting. If I had got this at once, we might all have
been safe in Rivendell by now. 7. It requires invoking the aid of the
spirits to hold the person’s spirit while the web is cast. 8. If his pleasure required seeing to Clarissa’s desires, they did that, too. 9. Every
murderer thinks the victim needed killing. 10. At that moment, Sir William Lucas appeared close to them, meaning to pass through the set to
the other side of the room; but on perceiving Mr. Darcy, he stopped
with a bow of superior courtesy to compliment him on his dancing and
his partner. 11. They need no pedalling; they require no guiding. Give
them their heads, and tell them what time you want to get home and that
is all they ask. 12. A lot of wizards think it’s a waste of time, knowing
this sort of Muggle trick, but we feel they’re skills worth learning, even
if they are a bit slow. 13. The scientists’ names deserve mentioning.
14. You will not thank me for detaining you from the bewitching converse of that young lady, whose bright eyes are also upbraiding me.
15. I remember her bringing me up to a truculent and red-faced old
gentleman covered all over with orders and ribbons, and hissing into
my ear, in a tragic whisper which must have been perfectly audible to
everybody in the room, the most astounding details.
Exercise 2. Read the sentences. Define the gerund and the word,
after which it is used. Translate from English into Russian.
1. I remember your saying once that there is a fatality about good
resolutions – that they are always made too late. 2. You will never ask
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me to dinner again after saying this, I am afraid, Lady Narborough,
but it is quite true. 3. Because you have the most marvelous youth, and
youth is the one thing worth having. 4. As for conversation, there are
only five women in London worth talking to, and two of these can’t be
admitted into decent society. 5. He had been completely under his wife’s
ascendancy, so much so that, on dying, he left the place to her for her
lifetime, as well as the larger part of his income; an arrangement that
was distinctly unfair to his two sons. 6. After these ceremonies were
past, and after all his good things were brought into my little apartment,
we began to consult what was to be done with the prisoners we had; for
it was worth considering whether we might venture to take them with
us or no, especially two of them, whom he knew to be incorrigible and
refractory to the last degree. 7. The house requires painting. 8. Even in
the darkened room I couldn’t help seeing Mrs. Jones face swollen up
with tears. 9. The only conversation they could manage without crying
was an exchange of platitudes. 10. Bill couldn’t be kept from playing
cards. 11. I’m not much good at introducing people. 12. Arriving at the
house, I was really surprised at finding the whole family sitting at the
table. 13. I couldn’t help laughing; he looked such a ridiculous figure.
14. If she wants to divorce me I don’t mind giving her the necessary
grounds. 15. I haven’t given him the opportunity of making himself
useful to me. 16. «Fancy old George talking about work!» he laughed,
«About half an hour of it would kill him». 17. My brother was proud of
having spoken to the famous sportsmen.
Exercise 3. Use the gerund in the correct form.
1. The doctor suggested (take) a long holiday. 2. I hate the idea of
(get) old. 3. She is very good at (solve) problems. 4. I like (invite) by
my friends. 5. John remembers (show) me the book. 6. They painted the
house instead of (go) on holiday. 7. John remembers (show) the book.
8. He is proud of (win) the first place. 9. It’s a nightmare (worry) where
the children might be. 10. I can’t understand him (leave) his wife. 11. He
doesn’t feel like (hear) this story before. 12. Don’t give up without even
(try). 13. It’s difficult (find) your way around in a strange town. 14. She
walked on without (turn) her head. 15. Everything depends upon your
(be) honest with me.
Exercise 4. Choose the correct form of the gerund.
1. I remembered (inviting / having been invited) there last week.
2. Please, stop (being thought / thinking) about your problems. 3. The
girl denied (being / having been) at home then. 4. Excuse my (being /
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having been) late. 5. Avoid (showing / having shown) the animal that
you are afraid of it. 6. He is proud of (winning / having won) the chess
tournament. 7. I was surprised at (being asked / having been asked)
about it last lesson. 8. The young boy thought of (having left / leaving)
his native town. 9. He was accused of (having broken / having been
broken) the law. 10. He was accused of (having been robbed / having
robbed) that house. 11. Forgive my not (doing / having done) this work
in time. 12. These shoes need (being cleaned / cleaning). 13. This film
is worth (watching / being watched). 14. The patient is worth (taking /
being taken) to the hospital. 15. Do you mind (meeting / being met) at
the station by your friends?
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary.
Use the gerund in the correct form.
1. Are you interested … (work) for us? 2. The children are excited
… (go) on vacation. 3. Why hadn’t she thought … (put) on shoes last
night? 4. What are the advantages … (have) a car? 5. John went to work
in spite … (feel) sick. 6. I bought a new bicycle instead … (go) away
on vacation. 7. I don’t feel (go) out tonight. 8. She doesn’t approve …
(smoke). 9. I’m looking … (meet) her. 10. She insisted … (buy) me a cup
of coffee. 11. We decided (move) to California. 12. What did you do after
(leave) school? 13. They accused me … (tell) lies. 14. What prevented
him … (come) to the wedding? 15. Please forgive my (write) to you.
Exercise 6. Use the gerund in the correct form.
1. He is proud of (graduate) from Oxford University. 2. The children
apologized for (not to come) home for Christmas dinner. 3. Little
children like (tell) fairy tales. 4. On (tell) the news we hurried home.
5. I thanked George for (help) me. 6. We are not sure of (sign) this
document. 7. My grandfather hated (laugh) at. 8. Nobody knew of your
(teach) business abroad. 9. Everyone is sure of your friend’s (move) to
the UK. 10. Henry was awfully sorry for (interrupt) you. 11. They were
ashamed of themselves for (leave) the child at home alone. 12. The boys
denied (be) in the cinema. 13. After (check) up the papers the teacher
gave them back to the students. 14. What do you know of my (meet)
with your boss? 15. We do not mind your (come) to our place on Sunday.
Exercise 7. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of the
gerund.
1. Even in the darkened room I couldn’t help seeing Mrs. Jones face
swollen up with tears. 2. The only conversation they could manage
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without crying was an exchange of platitudes. 3. Bill couldn’t be
kept from playing cards. 4. I’m not much good at introducing people.
5. Arriving at the house, I was really surprised at finding the whole
family sitting at the table. 6. I couldn’t help laughing; he looked such a
ridiculous figure. 7. If she wants to divorce me I don’t mind giving her
the necessary grounds. 8. I haven’t given him the opportunity of making
himself useful to me. 9. You seem to like making a fool of yourself.
10. Why hadn’t she thought of putting on shoes last night? 11. If you
don’t stop being such a glutton, you’ll be as fat as the Cuban ladies and
then I’ll divorce you. 12. I think that if you get used to being safe, you’ll
stop seeing this dream. 13. I want you to keep on running the store
and the mills. 14. Why should she mind Melanie’s knowing more than
anyone else? 15. «Fancy old George talking about work!» he laughed,
«About half an hour of it would kill him».
Exercise 8. Define a syntactical function of the gerund.
1. Reading is her favorite occupation. 2. The aim of our students
is mastering English. 3. I’m in the habit of going to the bed very late;
I’m not an early riser. 4. I’m fond of riding. 5. Do you like watching
comedies? 6. Before leaving for Moscow I called on my friend.
7. He improved his composition by changing its end. 8. She left the
room without looking at him. 9. Our friends arrived in Kiev with the
object of conducting the negotiations. 10. You will never speak good
English without learning Grammar. 11. He was the best at gathering
mushrooms. 12. I seemed to remember being told not to grumble by
someone. 13. It’s no use doing things by halves. 14. After that she began
thinking again where to get money from. 15. She changed the style of
her treating the newcomers.
Exercise 9. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Они продолжали приходить к нему так же настойчиво и так
же часто. 2. Она пересекла комнату, не обращая ни на кого внимания. 3. Сьюзи не могла не почувствовать укола ревности. 4. Было много смеха, поцелуев и объяснений в простой, чудесной манере, которая делала эти домашние праздники такими приятными. 5. Мне нравятся его манеры, и он выглядит как маленький
джентльмен, и я не против вашего знакомства, если представится
подходящий случай. 6. Открыв конверт, он обнаружил, к своему
удивлению, что в нем не было ничего, кроме чистого листа почтовой бумаги. 7. Однажды я перестану ловить воров и займусь
выращиванием роз. 8. Когда я спросил, что побудило его стать
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художником, он не захотел ответить мне. 9. Ухаживать за стариком, должно быть, большое испытание. 10. Он продолжал смеяться все время, пока я снимал чемодан с полки. 11. Как только я ее
увидел, мне захотелось на ней жениться. 12. Я испугался, когда он
так неожиданно открыл дверь. 13. Конечно, я пойду. Я пойду куда
угодно, если там будет хоть малейший шанс получить эту работу.
14. Она с таким нетерпением ждала, что ей дадут играть главную
роль, что она была ужасно расстроена, когда ей даже не предложили эту роль. 15. После того как мисс Рэчел отказалась видеть кого
бы то ни было, она к нашему удивлению, вышла к нам по своему
собственному желанию.
Exercise 10. Paraphrase the following sentences using the gerund.
1. I remember that Harry said once that every man who turned himself into an amateur curate for the moment always began by saying that,
and then proceeded to break his word. 2. When he comes home he always has a rest. 3. Thank you that you restrained me just now. 4. I hope
you will forgive that I disturbed you. 5. Excuse me that I have left you
in the dark. 6. I really thank you heartily that you took all this trouble.
7. He likes to read poems by heart and play on the scene. 8. As for conversation, there are only five women in London to be talked to. 9. Thank
you to have come on time. 10. I am not guilty that I have done it.
Exercise 11. Translate from Russian into English. Note the form of
the gerund.
1. Я получаю большое удовольствие от прогулок в лесу. 2. Проведя много лет в Англии, она стала хорошим переводчиком. 3. Она
не любила, когда ее поправляли. 4. Чтобы она разрешила эту поездку!? 5. Ей не нравилось, когда он спорит с нею. 6. Продолжать
бессмысленно. 7. Надеюсь, вы не будете возражать, если я сяду рядом с вами. 8. Поразмыслив над этим, мы решили сказать об этом
маме. 9. Я не мог удержаться от смеха, когда увидел ее. 10. Я не
возражаю против просмотра этой программы. 11. Мой доктор
посоветовал мне прекратить пить пиво. 12. Я никогда не привыкну вставать так рано. 13. Она привыкла жить здесь. 14. Мои туфли следует почистить. 15. Я никогда не перестану думать о ней.
16. Ему не хотелось шутить. 17. Он не способен принимать решения. 18. После того, как эта книга была переведена на многие языки, она стала известна во всем мире. 19. Я против того, чтобы мои
деньги попали к тем, о ком я ничего не знаю.
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Разные случаи употребления инфинитива и герундия  
(Different Cases of the Use of the Infinitive  
and the Gerund)
После глаголов to begin, to start, to continue, to intend, to cease,
to advise, to allow, to permit, to recommend, to hate, to love, to like, to
prefer, to propose, to neglect и выражений can’t bear, can’t stand, it
needs / requires может использоваться как инфинитив, так и герундий, при этом значение не меняется:
I began working. = I began to work.
Я начал работать.
I can’t bear waiting. = I can’t bear
Я ненавижу ждать.
to wait.
Несмотря на то, что разница в значении при употреблении герундия и инфинитива в приведенных глаголах очень незначительна, и в таких случаях герундий с инфинитивом часто могут быть
взаимозаменяемыми, разница все же присутствует. Использование герундия подразумевает, что речь идет о настоящей деятельности, а использование инфинитива подразумевает, что речь идет
о возможной деятельности. Из-за этой незначительной разницы,
герундий и инфинитив не всегда могут быть равнозначными.
Например:
I like speaking French because
Мне нравится говорить на франit’s such a beautiful language.
цузском, потому что это такой
красивый язык (мне нравится сам
процесс, и ощущения, которые я
испытывают при этом).
I like to speak French when I’m
Мне нравится говорить на франin France.
цузском, когда я нахожусь во
Франции (моё предпочтение зависит от места, где я нахожусь).
После глаголов to regret, to remember, to forget инфинитив обозначает действие, которое либо будет иметь место после действия,
выраженного глаголом-сказуемым, либо одновременно с ним; тогда как герундий выражает действие, предшествовавшее действию,
выраженному глаголом-сказуемым:
I remembered to give Nancy a
Я помнил, что должен позвонить
call and I did it.
Нэнси, и сделал это.
I remember perfectly well my
Я прекрасно помню, что звонил
giving Nancy a call.
Нэнси.
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После следующих глаголов инфинитив или герундий употребляется в зависимости от значения глагола, которое нужно передать:
1) mean + infinitive в значении «собираться, намереваться»:
Do you mean to go to the library
Ты собираешься завтра в биtomorrow?
блиотеку?
2) mean + gerund в значении «подразумевать»:
Does your request mean our doВаша просьба подразумевает,
ing it?
что мы должны это сделать?
3) go on + infinitive в значении «перейти, начать что-либо новое»:
He went on to rumour about Mr.
Он начал сплетничать о мисBlack.
тере Блэке.
4) go on + gerund в значении «продолжать»:
He went on chatting.
Он продолжал болтать.
5) stop + infinitive в значении «сделать остановку»:
He stopped to listen to me.
Он остановился, чтобы меня
послушать.
6) stop + gerund в значении «прекращать, переставать»:
He stopped listening to me.
Он перестал меня слушать.
7) need + infinitive обозначает, что действие будет совершаться
субъектом предложения:
I need to speak to you.
Мне нужно поговорить с тобой.
8) need + gerund обозначает, что действие будет совершаться
другим лицом:
My car needs repairing.
Моя машина нуждается в ремонте.
9) be sorry + infinitive в значении «извинение за действие, одновременное с данным глаголом»:
I’m sorry to interrupt you, but I
Извините, что прерываю Вас,
have to tell you some important
но я должен сообщить Вам неnews.
которые важные новости.
10) be sorry + gerund в значении «извинение за предшествующее действие»:
I’m sorry for hurting you. I didn’t
Извините, что я Вас оскорбил.
do it on purpose.
Я не специально сделал это.
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Exercise 13. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of
the infinitive and gerund.
1. He started speaking and kept on for more than an hour. 2. Rather
than answering immediately try to ponder it over. 3. She hates telling
lies. 4. She prefers to stay at home. 5. I don’t remember her answering this question. 6. I forgot to come to the exam yesterday because I
thought that yesterday was Sunday. 7. Try putting some more vinegar –
that might make the taste of the salad better. 8. Every half an hour she
stops working to smoke a cigarette. 9. I hate to tell you this but I have
to. 10. I prefer staying quietly at home and watching TV to going to the
cinema. 11. He began to play football when he was a child. 12. I’ll never
forget taking my first exam. 13. I once tried to learn Japanese. 14. He
welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the institute
regulations. 15. How long do you intend to go on translating this text?
Exercise 14. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of
the infinitive and gerund.
1. После того как он выпил чашечку кофе и позвонил ей, он начал понемногу успокаиваться. 2. Я точно помню, что закрывал
дверь на оба замка. 3. Не забудь закрыть окно, когда будешь уходить. По радио передавали штормовое предупреждение. 4. Простите, что я вышла из себя и накричала на Вас. 5. Необходимо, чтобы
Ваша работа была переделана, она не удовлетворяет требованиям.
6. Она перестала сидеть на диетах после того, как попала в больницу с тяжелой формой истощения. 7. Она остановилась, чтобы прочитать объявление. 8. Она начала нервно теребить край салфетки,
ожидая очередного всплеска его ярости. 9. Он пытался бросить курить много лет подряд, но все тщетно. 10. Мне срочно нужно поговорить с тобой. 11. Мне нужно сшить новое платье. Моя сестра
выходит замуж. 12. Я ненавижу ждать тебя по полчаса. 13. Он начал писать письмо, стараясь не забыть ни одной детали их прошлого разговора. 14. Сколько бы его не просили сохранять тишину, он
продолжал болтать. 15. Что ты собираешься делать после занятий?
Отличие герундия от отглагольного существительного
(The Verbal Noun and the Gerund)
От герундия в форме Indefinite следует отличать отглагольное
существительное (Verbal Noun), которое также оканчивается на
-ing. Отглагольное существительное обладает только свойствами
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существительного и, в отличие от герундия, употребляется с артиклем и может иметь форму множественного числа или определяться прилагательным:
My sister usually takes part in the
Моя сестра обычно принимаsittings of the committee.
ет участие в заседаниях комитета.
Так как отглагольное существительное не обладает глагольными свойствами, то оно не имеет форм времени и не выражает залога. В отличие от герундия, после него так же не может стоять
прямое дополнение:
They started the loading of the
Они приступили к погрузке судship.
на.
Exercise 15. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of
the verbal noun and the gerund.
1. But the cub knew what it was and with a last long wail that had
in it more of triumph than grief, he ceased his noise and waited for the
coming of his mother. 2. Deep in his sad thoughts he took the wrong
turning, and it took him 2 hours to find the way back. 3. I was puzzled
at her not dropping me. 4. He would have liked to give her a good hiding. 5. On going оn, Hargreaves would find a little table set with a decanter, sugar bowl, fruit and a big bunch of fresh green mint. 6. There is
no feeling of her presence. 7. They decided against sending him a telegram. 8. For nothing is evil in the beginning. 9. They were very deep
in the doing. 10. And it would seem like wisdom but for the warning
of my heart. 11. On turning she caught him watching her. 12. Asking
him to help us was useless, because he was not a man to be asked for
help. 13. Two doings at a time provide no success. 14. There were three
paintings on the wall, and it was very strange because the surroundings
were all poor. 15. I like being asked about my last trip down the Volga,
because it was the most wonderful trip I have ever had.
Причастие  
(The Participle)
Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая свойства
глагола, прилагательного и наречия. Причастию в английском
языке соответствует причастие и деепричастие в русском языке.
В английском языке три вида причастий: причастие настоящего времени (Present Participle), причастие прошедшего времени
(Past Participle) и перфектное причастие (Perfect Participle).
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Форма
Present
Participle /
Participle I
Perfect
Participle
Past Participle /
Participle II
Действительный
залог
Ving
having + V3
Страдательный
залог
Значение
Действие, одновременное с действием,
being + V3
выражен­ным сказуемым
Действие, закончившееся ранее дейhaving been + V3
ствия, выра­женного
сказуемым
–
V3
–
Если речь идет о двух действиях, непрерывно следующих одно
за другим, и нет необходимости подчеркивать, что действие, выраженное причастием, является предшествующим действию глагола-сказуемого, то употребляется причастие настоящего времени
(Participle I):
Hearing his voice she went to
Услышав его голос, она пошла
open the door.
открывать дверь.
Arriving at the station we went to
Приехав на вокзал, мы пошли
buy tickets.
покупать билеты.
В этом случае, наряду с причастием, часто употребляется Indefinite Gerund с предлогом on:
On arriving at the station we
Прибыв на вокзал, мы пошли
went to buy tickets.
покупать билеты.
В зависимости от формы причастие выполняет в предложении
функции определения или обстоятельства.
Participle II
Participle I
Функция
Пример
The girl sitting next to me
is my sister.
Обстоятельство Looking through this
maga­zine, he decided
where to go for holidays.
Перевод
Определение
Девушка, сидящая рядом со мной, моя сестра.
Просматривая журнал,
он решил, куда он поедет
от­дыхать.
Определение
The dinner prepared spe- Ужин, приготовленный
cially for us was delicious. специально для нас, был
восхитительным.
Обстоятельство When disturbed he always Он всегда злился, когда
got angry.
его беспокоили.
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Окончание таблицы
Participle Perfect
Функция
Пример
Обстоятельство Having done all her work
and checked all the students’ test-papers she still
wanted to go to the gym.
Перевод
После того как она сделала всю работу и проверила
контрольные
работы студентов, у нее
еще осталось желание
пойти в спортивный
зал.
Причастные обороты (Participial Constructions). Если какаято часть предложения сокращается с использованием причастия,
то такая конструкция называется причастным оборотом. Например: Seeing him, she forgot everything around her. В английском
языке причастные обороты используются главным образом на
письме, для того чтобы ввести больше информации одним предложением. В причастном обороте содержится менее важная часть
предложения. Важная информация должна содержаться в главном
предложении.
Самостоятельный причастный оборот (Absolute Participial
Construction) – сочетание существительного в общем падеже
или (реже) личного местоимения в именительном падеже с причастием (любым), в котором существительное (или местоимение)
выполняет роль подлежащего по отношению к причастию, но не
является подлежащим всего предложения.
Если самостоятельный причастный оборот стоит в начале
предложения, то он переводится обстоятельственными придаточными предложениями, вводимыми союзами когда, если, так как,
после того как:
The question being too difficult
Так как вопрос был слишком
no one could answer it.
трудным, никто не смог на него ответить.
The work having been completПосле того как работа была
ed, we went home.
завершена, мы пошли домой.
Если же оборот стоит в конце предложения, то он переводится
самостоятельными предложениями, вводимыми союзами причем,
и, а, но:
There are some pictures in this
В этой книге есть несколько
book, one being the map of Engиллюстраций, причем одна –
land.
карта Англии.
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То translate this text without a
Перевести этот текст без
dictionary is difficult for him, the
словаря для него трудно, а
text containing too many new
текст содержит слишком
words.
много новых слов.
There are a lot of people in my
В моем доме всегда много люhouse, just few of them being my
дей, но только несколько – мои
true friends.
настоящие друзья.
Объектный причастный оборот (The Objective Participial Construction with Participle) – это существительное в общем падеже
или местоимение в объектном падеже + причастие.
Объектный падеж с причастием I (сложное дополнение) употребляется после глаголов чувственного восприятия и подчеркивает длительный характер действия, то есть действие в процессе
его совершения, переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением с глаголом несовершенного вида:
We watched him entering the garМы наблюдали, как он входил
den.
в сад.
I felt tears running down my
Я почувствовала, как по моим
cheeks.
щекам текут слезы.
Объектный падеж с причастием II употребляется после:
1) глаголов чувственного восприятия – подчеркивает прошедший характер действия и имеет пассивное значение:
I saw the goods carefully packed.
Я видела, как груз бережно запаковали.
I heard his name mentioned sevЯ слышал, как его имя упомиeral times.
нали несколько раз.
2) глагола have – означает, что действие совершается не субъектом, выраженным подлежащим, а кем-то другим для него, за
него:
Я постригла вчера волосы.
Yesterday I had my hair cut.
I want to have my room painted.
Я хочу покрасить свою комнату.
I want to have this dress stitched
Я хочу, чтобы это платье сшили за две недели.
within two weeks.
3) глаголов, выражающих желание:
I wish this translation done toЯ хочу, чтобы этот перевод
day.
был сделан сегодня.
They wanted the books published
Они хотели, чтобы книги были
as soon as possible.
изданы как можно быстрее.
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Exercise 1. Translate from English into Russian. Note the use of the
participle.
1. He had several magazines bought. 2. They were heard quarrelling.
3. The lamp having been lit, she began writing a letter to her cousin.
4. It being pretty dark, we took our candles. 5. He left not saying a
word. 6. He was silent looking at her dancing. 7. I saw him crossing the
river. 8. They were speaking through the locked door. 9. When asked
she gets blushed. 10. Though frightened she managed to find the way
home through the dark forest. 11. On leaving this hospitable family he
gave small gifts to everybody. 12. They were playing in the garden the
whole day yesterday. 13. I have never been to Thailand. 14. Seeing it
she gave a cry of horror. 15. He was looking at me as if waiting for my
decision.
Exercise 2. Open the brackets and use the correct form of the
participle.
1. The girl (stand) at the window is my sister. 2. (Send) to the wrong
address the letter didn’t rich him. 3. He sat in the arm-chair (think).
4. (Impress) by the film, they kept silent. 5. (Lose) the book, the student couldn’t remember the topic. 6. He spent the whole day (read) a
book. 7. She came up to us (breath) heavily. 8. (Write) out all the words,
I started to learn them. 9. (Buy) food, they left supermarket. 10. (Bark)
dog doesn’t bite. 11. She entered the room (smile). 12. (Travel) around
America for a month, she returned to England. 13. (Show) the wrong
direction, the travelers soon lost their way. 14. (Capture) by the traffic
jam we missed the train. 15. Greatly (excite), the children followed her
into the garden.
Exercise 3. Choose the correct variant.
1. We must get our tickets registered / being registered / registering.
2. Written / having written / being written the letter, he called us. 3. He
answered through the locking / being locked / locked door. 4. When
questioned / questioning / had questioned, Ann did not know what to
answer. 5. My answer seemed to her ill-considered / ill-considering /
being ill-considered. 6. The rain having started / started / being started,
they came into the room. 7. All the participants leaving / having left /
left the meeting were shamed. 8. I found the envelopes opened / being
opened / opening. 9. When asking / having asked / asked this question
the student could not answer it at once. 10. Having done / done / doing
this exercise, he found all the mistakes. 11. The fallen / having fallen /
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nished / furnished / having furnished rather simply was large enough.
13. The girl being invited / having been invited / invited by my friends
was charming. 14. The program corrected / being corrected / having
been corrected proved useful. 15. The church having built / built / being
built two hundred years ago need to be repaired.
Exercise 4. Paraphrase the following sentences using participles.
1. The hall was full of people who laughed. 2. The girl who was
singing was about fourteen. 3. I read the book and gave it to Pete. 4. The
large building being built in our street is a new school. 5. The students
left the laboratory after they had finished the experiment. 6. As he was
busy, he postponed his trip. 7. The manuscript was impossible to read
as it had been written long ago. 8. There were many people near the
theatre that were dressed beautifully. 9. The documents that were lost in
the park are of great importance. 10. When he was asked stupid questions, he frowned and answered nothing. 11. As the house had been
built of concrete, there was always cold in winter. 12. We’ve received
a letter that was sent by Peter on the twentieth of November. 13. When
he saw her, he smiled. 14. The flowers that were packed in the beautiful
box looked very lovely. 15. As we had been warned about the possible
dangers beforehand we decided to take with us guns.
Exercise 5. Open the brackets and fill in with the proper participle.
1. He watched Mike (to go) out of the door and (to cross) the street.
2. (To descent) the mountains, they heard a man calling for help. 3. (To
reject) by everybody he became a monk. 4. (To drink) coffee she was
talking to her friend. 5. (To find) the keys, we were able to open the
door. 6. (To make) the report, Tom left the room. 7. (To see) her he
raised his hat. 8. My task (to finish), I went to bed. 9. While (to learn)
the pronunciation of the words we learned their meaning. 10. Then
she decided to send the (write) letter. 11. I found a book (leave) by my
friend. 12. The test (write) now is our final paper work. 13. If (build) of
the local stone, the road will serve for years. 14. The (break) cup was on
the floor. 15. The magazine (buy) by my mother had many articles for
teenagers.
Exercise 6. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Дети были слишком взволнованны, чтобы заметить его.
2. Потеряв ключ, они не могли войти. 3. Книга, обсуждаемая на
уроке, интересна. 4. Написанное письмо лежит на столе. 5. Она
услышала, что упомянули ее имя. 6. Будучи написанным очень
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давно, письмо выглядело очень старым. 7. Он начал читать книгу,
принесенную его старшим братом. 8. Испеченный ко дню рождения торт был очень вкусный. 9. Пропавшее кольцо испортило
мне настроение. 10. Мэри хочет поменять цвет волос. 11. После
того как ребенку дали игрушку, он перестал плакать. 12. Потеряв
бумажник, он не смог купить подарок. 13. Рассортировав письма,
почтальон отправил их адресатам. 14. Будучи обманутой, женщина пошла в полицию. 15. Переведя текст, он начал делать упражнения.
Exercise 7. Find and correct the mistakes if any.
1. When being asked important questions, he frowned and answered
silly things. 2. Frightened by the sudden noise, the deer plunged into
the bush. 3. English is one of the foreign languages teaching at our
Institute. 4. I felt annoyed when he refused to help me. 5. The idea being
stated by the scientist is not of any interest. 6. The girl having been
invited by my friend was charming. 7. Having read the book I gave it
to Ben. 8. Last year I saw a book, written about five hundred years ago.
9. I must have my watch mended. 10. Having finished his work, Harry
was ready for play. 11. The child, having found its mother, was again
happy. 12. Having arrived at the town, they went straight to the hotel.
13. We saw the children playing in the fields. 14. Seated at the open
window, the white-haired grandmother, bowed by her fourscore years,
was watching for the face she most loved. 15. Hastily lifting his hat, the
major entered the carriage, and was driven rapidly away. 16. The ladies
in the galleries, unaccustomed to such displays of eloquence, excited
by the solemnity of the occasion, and perhaps not unwilling to display
their taste and sensibility, were in a state of uncontrollable emotion.
Exercise 8. Translate the sentences and pay attention to the function
of the participle.
1. A group of laughing people came up to us. 2. He stood talking to
her in a soft voice. 3. Not understanding what they wanted he repeated
his question. 4. Travelling all over the world the scientists saw many
interesting things and collected important materials. 5. Mary stopped to
look at the birds singing in the tree. 6. The old man showing them those
pictures lived in our house many years ago. 7. Being tired they decide
to lie down and rest a little. 8. Speaking frankly, I don’t want to go to
the cinema. 9. An airplane was heard flying over the wood. 10. She
was found sitting near the river. 11. Your proposal is very tempting.
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12. I had my watch repaired. 13. When asked about the accident, Tom
began to cry. 14. I’ll soon get my dress done. 15. You seem confused by
his words. 16. She suddenly stopped as if struck by the news.
Exercise 9. Transform the following sentences with the participle I
or II or participial constructions.
1. As Nick came up to Toby he turned and saw that Michael was
watching them from the other side. 2. He found that the old man was
still sitting grim in the darkness. 3. I noticed that now his eyes were
peeping at me over the top of the book. 4. We saw that she was sitting
poring over the book. 5. When the door bell rang Ann rose and left the
room. 6. As the river had risen at night, the crossing was impossible.
7. When dinner was over, he led them into the sitting-room. 8. He likes
to hear his children be praised. 9. I found that the room to be furnished
with a Spartan simplicity. 10. When I called on her I found that she had
gone.
Exercise 10. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Oн купил подержанный автомобиль. 2. Полиция ищет недавно украденный (steal – stole – stolen) автомобиль. 3. Книги, написанные этим молодым автором, читают во всем мире с большим
интересом. 4. Чувствуя себя больным, Джо решил не ездить на работу. 5. Будучи занятым, Джек отказался от приглашения. 6. Поставив машину в гараж, он вспомнил, что не позвонил другу. 7. Он
разглядывал картину, висевшую на стене, ожидая ее ответа. 8. Так
как дверь и окно комнаты были открыты, мы заглянули в нее.
9. Когда вы наконец настроите свой рояль? На нем невозможно
играть! 10. Где вы починили велосипед? 11. Известно, что язык, на
котором говорили эти племена, был германским. 12. Во время похода мы видели стену, построенную много сотен лет назад. 13. Потерянное время больше никогда не найдешь. 14. Будь осторожен
при переходе улицы. 15. Будучи хорошо подготовленным, он сразу
же ответил.
Test paper
Task 1. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Я никогда не видел, чтобы кто-то так наслаждался своим собственным пением. 2. Удивляюсь, как она разрешила эту поездку.
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лять таких женщин, как его сестра, одних. 4. Надеюсь, вы не будете возражать, если я сяду рядом с вами. 5. Избегая думать об этом
неприятном визите, он поймал себя на мысли о том, что размышляет о новой книге. 6. Я не мог удержаться от смеха, когда увидел
ее. 7. Я никогда не привыкну вставать так рано. 8. Единственное,
что остается – это ждать. 9. Я слышал, как она вышла из комнаты
и закрыла двери. 10. Было такое впечатление, что он не слышал,
что она сказала. 11. Все свое свободное время она пела и танцевала. 12. Ему не хотелось шутить. 13. Он не способен принимать
решения. 14. Он закрыл дверь, чтобы им никто не мешал. 15. Они
реставрируют здание, построенное в 18 веке. 16. Так как в комнате
было темно, я не видел его. 17. Попов был первым, кто употребил
радио. 18. То, что он посвятил свою жизнь развитию науки, известно всем. 19. Она не хотела беспокоить его такими глупыми вопросами. 20. Несмотря на то, что он был занят своими мыслями, он
охотно отвечал на мои вопросы.
Task 2. Open the brackets and fill in with the proper verbals
(infinitives, gerunds or participles).
1. (To order) the books we went home. 2. Yes, I remember (to see) the
letter on the mantelpiece. 3. The general never forgot (to take) his boys
out for a drive one Sunday day in June. 4. Don’t forget (to lock) the door
when you decide to go to bed. 5. I regret (to disappoint) you but you
ought to know the facts. 6. I think he was beginning (to doubt) it. 7. He
did not doubt that the information (to receive) by morning mail was of
great interest for his competitors. 8. He pretended (to sleep) when his
mother came into his room to look at him. 9. He prefers (to know) by
the name of John Brown. 10. We stopped in front of the dance hall and
pretended (to look) inside. 11. Excuse my (to take) your seat. 12. Not (to
know) where to go he turned to a passerby. 13. The books (to order) last
month have not arrived yet. 14. I heard my work (to discuss). 15. The
man (to wait) for you has come from Moscow. 16. (To arrive) at the
gallery he paid his shilling and entered.
Task 3. Choose the right variant.
1. The house … by tall trees is very beautiful.
A. hiding
B. hidden
C. having hidden
2. His company is said … some performances in London last month.
A. to give
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B. to be given
C. to have given
3. I don’t really enjoy … novels.
A. reading
B. to read
C. to be read
4. She denied … at the station that evening.
A. having been
B. being
C. to be
5. … home she found out that she had lost her cell-phone.
A. Coming
B. Having come
C. After coming
6. Nobody saw her … the house.
A. to enter
B. enter
C. entered
7. Why not … her?
A. visit
B. to visit
C. to be visiting
8. I don’t remember … her before.
A. seeing
B. having seen
C. to see
9. The crime seems … by a left-handed man.
A. to be committed
B. to have been committed
C. having been committed
10. My task … , I went to bed.
A. having been finished
B. being finished
C. to have been finished
11. There is no hope of … his work by the evening.
A. him to finish
B. him finishing
C. his finishing
12. Let your boat of life … , packed with only what you need.
A. to be light
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B. being light
C. be light
13. We insist … the meeting before any further outbursts take place.
A. on your leaving
B. that you have left
C. that you left
14. To master the language you are to read a lot of books in the original.
A. Чтобы знать язык, надо много читать в оригинале.
B. Чтобы овладеть языком, Вам придется читать много книг
в оригинале.
C. Овладеть языком – значит читать много книг в оригинале.
15. Почему бы ни помочь ему?
A. Why not help him?
B. Why not to help him?
C. Why to help him?
16. He is said to have taken part in the competitions.
A. Говорят, что он принимал участие в соревнованиях.
B. О нем говорят, что он участвовал в соревнованиях.
C. О нем говорят, что он участвует в соревновании.
17. They were seen turning towards home.
A. Видели, как они повернули по направлению к дому.
B. Видели, как они поворачивали по направлению к дому.
C. Их видели поворачивающими к дому.
18. There being cold she put her coat on hurriedly and ran out of the
house.
A. Так как холодно, она набрасывает в спешке пальто и
выбегает из дома.
B. Так как было холодно, она в спешке набросила пальто и
выбежала из дома.
C. Там холодно, она в спешке набрасывает пальто и выбегает
из дома.
19. She was not pleased at … .
A. his coming
B. him to come
C. his having come
20. The officials object to … long dresses for the dance at the country club.
A. them wearing
B. them to wear
C. their wearing
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21. Nobody wants the meeting … .
A. to be postponed
B. being postponed
C. be postponed
22. I saw him enter the garden.
A. Я видела, как он вошел в сад.
B. Я видела, как он входил в сад.
C. Я видела его входящим в сад.
23. I’m waiting for my sister to write to me.
A. Я жду свою сестру, чтобы она написала мне.
B. Я жду, что моя сестра напишет мне.
C. Я жду, что для моей сестры напишут.
24. He stopped to listen to me.
A. Он перестал меня слушать.
B. Он прекратил слушать меня.
C. Он остановился, чтобы меня послушать.
25. Известно, что они очень популярны среди молодежи.
A. They are known to be very popular among young people.
B. It is known they be very popular among young people.
C. Among the young they are very popular, it is known.
26. … in the hall he thought over the problem he was planning to
discuss with the old lady.
A. Waiting
B. Having waited
C. Having been waited
27. … the approaching train, we hurried to the platform.
А. After seeing
B. Having seen
C. Seeing
28. The government has decided … on the resolution now rather
next month.
A. voting
B. having voted
C. to vote
29. Excuse me for … your beautiful vase.
A. breaking
B. having broken
C. break
30. The poem is believed to … in the 17th century.
A. to have been written
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B. to be written
C. to be being written
31. We insist … the meeting before any further outbursts take place.
A. that you left
B. on your leaving
C. that you have left
32. My dress needs … .
A. cleaning
B. being cleaned
C. be cleaning
Task 4. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Никакое зло не является первопричиной. 2. Твой совет показался бы мудрым, но мое сердце предостерегает меня. 3. Воспитывать детей – большая ответственность. 4. Время от времени я оглядывался на Джека, который все еще пытался поместить записку
на окно. 5. Она была уверена, что он не имеет представления, как
глубоко ее ранил. 6. Его семья знает эту медсестру с тех пор, как
она покинула старый госпиталь, чтобы ухаживать за их бабушкой.
7. Мысль о друзьях заставляет его вспомнить исчезнувшего Матхэма. 8. Я не знаю точно, что происходит с ней, так как она настаивает на том, чтобы все держать в секрете, и впадает в бешенство,
если задаешь ей вопросы. 9. Один человек хочет купить замок и
перестроить его в отель, превратив остров в настоящее место отдыха. 10. Мэри настаивала на том, чтобы он все-таки прошел осмотр, но как верующий он полагался на Бога и пытался избежать
посещения врача. 11. Похоже, нам никогда не удастся избавиться
от его преследования. 12. Я был удивлен, что она так быстро ответила на его предложение. 13. В свободное время мы ходили на озеро кататься на лодках. 14. Изучив структуру нашей фирмы, главные акционеры во главе с новым директором решили произвести
реорганизацию. 15. Я не думаю, что ты будешь возражать, если я
покину этот дом навсегда, чтобы занять подобающее своему статусу положение в Пэмберли.
Task 5. Point out participle I, gerund and verbal noun in the following sentences.
1. In the soul of the minister a struggle awoke. From wanting to
reach the ears of Kate Swift, and through his sermons to delve into her
soul, he began to want also to look again at the figure lying white and
quiet in the bed. 2. That was where our fishing began. 3. But she didn’t
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hear him for the beating of her heart. 4. Henry Marston’s trembling
became a shaking; it would be pleasant if this were the end and nothing
more need be done, he thought, and with a certain hope he sat down on
a stool. But it is seldom really the end, and after a while, as he became
too exhausted to care, the shaking stopped and he was better. 5. Going
downstairs, looking as alert and self-possessed as any other officer
of the bank, he spoke to two clients he knew, and set his face grimly
toward noon. 6. He was not by any means an imbecile: he was devoted
to the theatre; he read old and new plays all the time; and he had a flair
for confessing earnestly that he was a religious man, and frequently
found peace by kneeling in prayer. 7. She was delighted with his having
performed for her alone, with his having had her seat removed from the
gallery and placed in his dressing room, with the roses he had bought
for her, and with being so near to him. 8. Something essential had been
absent from his voice when he had made the remark, for the girl replied
by saying she wished she had taken home-making and cooking at
Briarcliff instead of English, math, and zoology. 9. I just wondered how
a painter makes a living. 10. I’ve been painting seriously, as the saying
is, since I was fifteen or so.
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Модальные глаголы  
(MODAL VERBS)
Модальными глаголами в английском языке называются глаголы, которые выражают не действие (состояние), a отношение к
нему: возможность, необходимость или способность совершения
действия, его вероятность и т.п. По своим морфологическим свойствам модальные глаголы, кроме have, be, dare, have got, являются
недостаточными, т.e. не имеют личных форм и в связи с этим не
образуют сложных глагольных форм. Модальные глаголы являются полувспомогательными и употребляются в предложении со
смысловым глаголом в форме инфинитива, образуя сложное модальное сказуемое.
Значение
Форма глагола в настоящем (будущем) времени
Форма глагола в прошедшем времени
1. Обязанность, необходимость:
Must (в случае личной
а) сильная степень
необходимости
чтолибо сделать):
I must work harder.
Had to:
I had to work hard to
pass the 1st Certificate
English exam.
Why did you have to
Have to (в силу общих resit your exam in ecoнорм и правил):
nomics?
To become Doctor of
Medicine every post
graduate has to defend
his thesis.
shouldn’t,
б) более слабая сте- Should,
ought to, (had better):
пень, совет
You should avoid doing
some things contradicting common sense.
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Should, ought to + have
done:
You should have listened
to my advice.
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Продолжение таблицы
Значение
Форма глагола в настоящем (будущем) времени
в) по расписанию или Is (am, are) to:
The train is to arrive at
по договоренности
7 a.m.
2. Запрет
Форма глагола в прошедшем времени
Was (were) to:
He was to come but he
failed.
Must, can, to be to, may:
You mustn’t tell somebody the news. It’s a secret.
You can’t smoke here.
It’s not allowed.
You are not to tell anybody about it.
You may not go swimming.
3. Отсутствие необхо- Don’t have to, needn’t:
Students don’t have
димости
to learn any tables by
heart.
I needn’t go out tonight.
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Didn’t have to:
There is no queue in the
bank this morning so I
didn’t have to wait.
Needn’t + have done
(действие было совершено, хотя в этом не
было необходимости):
You needn’t have bought
the book. We have got
enough copies in the library.
Didn’t need to (do)
(действие не было необходимым, но мы не
знаем, было оно фактически совершено или
нет):
I didn’t need to do any
shopping because I was
invited to a dinner that
night.
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Продолжение таблицы
Значение
Форма глагола в настоящем (будущем) времени
Форма глагола в прошедшем времени
Can, can’t:
She can read English
quickly but she can’t
speak English fluently.
Could:
She could play the piano
when she was three.
Was (were) able to,
managed to (для выражения того, что однажды удалось в прошлом):
A.S. Griboedov was able
to enter Moscow University when he was 13.
5. Разрешение, позво- Can, may, could:
ление
When you’ve finished
you can go home.
May I ask you a question?
Could I use your dictionary for a moment?
Was (were) allowed to:
I was allowed to do
whatever I wanted when
I was young.
6. Вероятность собы- Will, won’t:
тий:
Is that the phone? It’ll be
а) абсолютная
уве- John. He said he’d ring
ренность
around now.
Don’t take the cake out
of the oven. It won’t be
ready yet.
Will (would), won’t
(wouldn’t) + have done:
You say you stayed in a
hotel near the lake? That
would have been my parent’s hotel! What a coincidence!
It won’t have been Peter
you met at the party last
night. He was ill in bed.
Must, can’t, couldn’t:
You must be joking. I
don’t believe you.
She can’t be well today.
She had a sore throat
and high temperature
yesterday.
Must, can’t + have done:
He must have got lost.
He can’t have known the
way.
4. Способность
б) наиболее
логичная
интерпретация
ситуации на основе имеющихся фактов, несколько менее
определенная, чем в
предыдущем случае
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Продолжение таблицы
Значение
Форма глагола в настоящем (будущем) времени
Форма глагола в прошедшем времени
Should, shouldn’t:
We should be moving
into our new house soon
(as long as all the arrangements go smoothly).
Should + have done:
Where’s Henry? He
should have been here
ages ago!
г) невысокая вероят- May, may not:
ность события
We may go to Greece for
our holidays, but we may
not have enough money
to go abroad this summer.
May, may not + have
done:
Where is Ann? She may
have overslept.
д) еще меньшая уве- Might, might not, could:
ренность в предполо- You could (might) be
жении
right but I doubt it.
The American film could
be worth seeing but it
might not be admirable.
Might, might not, could
+ have done:
She might have decided
not to come.
She might not have forgotten.
в) обоснованное ожидание того, что что-то
случится при условии, что все произойдет по плану
7. Просьба
Could, can, would, will:
Can you lend me 5
pounds until tomorrow?
Will you give me a lift?
Could (would) you explain this rule for me?
8. Предложение
Will, would, shall, can,
could, may:
What shall I do for you?
– I want someone to do
a lot of typing for me. –
Will I do?
Can you put the meet in
salted water?
Could you come again
tomorrow?
May I visit him?
Would you mind working
all the time?
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Окончание таблицы
Значение
Форма глагола в настоящем (будущем) времени
9. Намерение, цель
Will, won’t:
I’ll pay back tomorrow.
The car won’t start.
10. Упрек
Might, could, may, shall
(2nd and 3d person), will:
I wrote down the phone
number so that I could
remember it.
Sit here so that I may see
your face more clearly.
It shall be down as you
wish.
I will wash the dishes.
He could be more industrious.
You might at least offer
her help.
11. Удивление
Can, could:
Can he be so old?
Could she be a pianist?
12. Уступка
May:
Try as he may he will
never be top of his class.
13. Приглашение
Must:
You must come and have
dinner with us.
14. Указание
Should, to be to:
Mary should buy it.
He is to return home tomorrow.
15. Угроза, обещание
Shall (2nd and 3d person):
You shall have a scandal!
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Форма глагола в прошедшем времени
Could (might) + have
done:
You could (might) have
done it yesterday.
He could not (might not)
have sent this cable.
Can, could + have done:
Can he have said the
truth?
Could he have gone there?
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Устойчивые выражения с модальными глаголами:
Can this be true? – Неужели это правда?
This can’t be true. – Не может быть, чтобы это была правда.
Cannot/can’t help doing sth. – He могу (удержаться) не делать что-то.
Cannot/can’t but do sth. – Не могу не делать что-то.
One cannot but wonder. – Нельзя не задуматься.
I may/might as well + infinitive. – Я бы пожалуй…
What am I to do? – Что мне делать? Как мне быть?
What is to become of me? – Что со мною станется (будет)?
Where am I to go? – Куда же мне деваться?
You would, would you? – Ax, ты так!
I dare say you are right. – Очень возможно, что вы правы.
You ought to be ashamed of yourself. – Стыдись!
He ought to know. – Уж он-то знает!
How should I know that? – Откуда я знаю?
Exercise 1. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the meaning of
the modal words.
1. «If you don’t sit still, you must be tied down,» said Bessie. «Miss
Abbot, lend me your garters; she would break mine directly.» 2. «Fall!
Why, that is like a baby again! Can’t she manage to walk at her age? She
must be eight or nine years old.» 3. «Sorry indeed to hear it! she and I
must have some talk;» and bending from the perpendicular, he installed
his person in the armchair opposite Mrs. Reed’s. 4. You think I have
no feelings and that I can do without one bit of love or kindness; but I
cannot live so: and you have no pity. 5. I rose reluctantly; it was bitter
cold, and I dressed as well as I could for shivering. 6. But within these
limits we had to pass an hour every day in the open air. 7. We had to
walk two miles to Brocklebridge Church, where our patron officiated.
8. Next day new steps were to be taken; my plans could no longer be
confined to my own breast; I must impart them in order to achieve their
success. 9. Mrs. Fairfax said she should not be surprised if he were to
go straight from the Leas to London, and thence to the Continent, and
not show his face again at Thornfield for a year to come. 10. «Yes, he
said that from mere politeness: I need not go, I am sure,» I answered.
11. Surely she cannot truly like him, or not like him with true affection!
If she did, she need not coin her smiles so lavishly, flash her glances so
unremittingly, manufacture airs so elaborate, graces so multitudinous.
12. «I don’t care about it, mother; you may please yourself: but I ought
to warn you, I have no faith.» 13. Yes, Robert, I shall be ready: it seems
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to me that I ought to go. 14. The passions may rage furiously, like true
heathens, as they are; and the desires may imagine all sorts of vain
things: but judgment shall still have the last word in every argument,
and the casting vote in every decision. 15. Eliza and I went to look at
her: Georgiana, who had burst out into loud weeping, said she dared
not go.
Exercise 2. Put can, may, must in the spaces.
1. The performance … be over as there are many people leaving
the theatre. 2. I don’t believe he said it. He … say such a thing. 3. I am
sure they knew everything about it. Mary … tell them. She … not keep
her word. 4. … you remember our talk? 5. His teacher … help him; his
English is very good now. 6. I am sure she did not do anything of the
kind. They … take her sister for her. 7. It is impossible. They … leave
already. I was watching the door of the house. 8. She … dance now but
she … when I was young. 9. … I use your telephone, please? 10. We
… begin before five, or we shan’t finish in time for our supper. 11. She
… not know that you are here. 12. You … not enter the room until I
say so. 13. Mary … speak English quite well but she … write it at all.
14. You … come and have dinner with us. 15. … you hold on a minute,
please?
Exercise 3. Use the right modal verb.
1. I was tired but I (can / could) not sleep. 2. I (must / had to) go
to the bank yesterday to get some money. 3. I have a big problem you
(must / had to) help me. 4. She got a good job because she (can / could)
speak 5 languages. 5. I (must / had to) go to France. 6. I can’t phone you
today. I’ll (can / be able to) phone you tomorrow. 7. She must (play /
be playing / have been playing) the piano now. 8. All is agreed and
understood between us, so you (needn’t worry / don’t need to worry)
about it anymore. 9. You (needn’t / mustn’t) carry your driving license
with you. 10. It seems to me that he is a hot-temper person and often
flies into a rage because of mere trifles. He should (control / have
controlled) his temper. 11. She (ought to / should) have taken a taxi.
12. She (had to / must) find out everything before starting the work.
Now she must change a lot of things. 13. With your knowledge of the
language you can / are able to read the article. 14. He probably (won’t
come / will not be able to come) today. It’s 8 o’clock already and he was
to have come at seven. 15. You know, time changes people. She (may
have become / might become) quite different.
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Exercise 4. Insert can, could, shall (will) be able to, was able.
S: When John was six. He … swim across the swimming-pool, and
now he … swim from one end to the other. Soon he … swim a quarter
of a mile, and then we … take him out in a sailing boat quite safety.
A: Yes, I … quite understand that.
S: I … not swim until I was fourteen. Children … learn things much
earlier now than when we were children, … they?
A: Yes, they certainly … . And their children … learn even earlier, I
suppose.
S: Last week was John’s birthday. I gave him a bicycle, and he …
ride it already.
A: Oh, good. Then he … go to the swimming-pool on it.
Exercise 5. Choose the right variant.
1. The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody.
A. was able to escape
B. managed to escape
C. could escape
D. could have escaped
2. Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You …
with Barbara.
A. can stay
B. could stay
C. could have stayed
D. was able to stay
3. I’ve lost one of my gloves. I … it somewhere.
A. must drop
B. must have dropped
C. must be dropping
D. must have been dropping
4. Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It … rain later.
A. may
B. might
C. can
D. could
5. There’s plenty of time. You … hurry.
A. don’t have to
B. mustn’t
C. needn’t
D. needn’t have been in
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6. I think all drivers … seat belts.
A. should wear
B. had better wear
C. had better to wear
D. ought to wear
7. The author … extremely ambitious indicating only desirable targets instead of attainable ones.
A. must have been
C. should have been
B. ought to have been
D. was to have been
8. Price restrictions … prevent firms from using the strategies they
consider optimal in achieving their ends.
A. may
B. should
C. must
D. ought to
9. If you have a high blood pressure, you … stop eating salt and go
on a saltless diet.
A. had better
B. are better
C. need better
D. may better
10. «When … we … expect you?» – «Soon after half past five.»
A. are … to
B. – … must
C. do … have to
D. do … need
11. All the samples of new products must be ready by Friday because
the exhibition … on Saturday.
A. is to open
B. has to open
C. should be open
D. should open
12. «I am going to visit Ann.» – «You … to telephone her first.»
A. ought
B. might
C. should
D. must
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13. The Ford theatre where Lincoln was shot … .
A. must restore
B. must be restoring
C. must have been restored
D. must restored
14. If we … succeed, we need to change the structure of our company.
A. have to
B. must
C. should
D. are to
15. If you have a credit card you … carry a lot of cash with you.
A. must not
B. do not have to
C. have not
D. might not
Exercise 6. Translate into English.
1. Он, должно быть, приедет завтра. 2. Он мог бы это сделать на
прошлой неделе. Он был не особенно занят. 3. Он чуть не разбил
окно. 4. Ей пришлось пить чай без сахара. 5. Я думаю, вам следует
проявлять больше уважения к старшим. 6. Уже темно. Сколько же
сейчас может быть времени? 7. Уж он-то учит! 8. Мне жаль, что
ты так плохо обо мне думаешь. 9. Они, наверное, не встретили его
на станции. 10. Вы, возможно, слышали его имя. 11. Неужели они
ждали нас все это время? 12. Новость может напугать ее. 13. Не
стоит задавать таких вопросов. 14. И откуда могло прийти это
письмо? 15. Они, возможно, подумали, что мы не придем в такой
дождь. 16. Не мог бы ты сделать это завтра? 17. Их можно было
принять за родственников. 18. Он был с тобой более откровенен,
чем следовало бы. 19. Расскажи ему, что случилось. 20. Это мой
дом, и я останусь здесь. 21. Просто не может быть, чтобы он видел их. 22. Тебе незачем тратить свои деньги. 23. Что могло с ним
случиться? Представить себе не могу, почему он так опаздывает.
24. Сколько мне заплатить носильщику? 25. Я не вижу оснований, почему они должны сердиться. 26. Все могло бы быть гораздо хуже. 27. Стыдись! Вы чуть не солгали. 28. Пора уходить. Мы
должны встретиться в 6. 29. Он, должно быть, не достал эту книгу.
30. Я, пожалуй, лучше напишу ей сама.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Авраменко Елена Борисовна
Английский глагол  
и его грамматические категории
Учебно-методическое пособие
Редактор А.С. Валькова
Оригинал-макет и дизайн обложки С.В. Пантелеевой
Подписано в печать 18.06.2014. Формат 60×841/16
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