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163.Грамматика английского языка с королями рок-н-ролла учебно-методическое пособие

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Рязанский государственный университет имени С.А. Есенина»
___________________________________________________________________
ROCK-N-LEARN:
Teaching English Through Music
Учебно-методическое пособие
Автор: Гордова М.В.,
ассистент кафедры иностранных языков
факультета истории и международных отношений
Рязань, 2012
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Печатается по решению
редакционно-издательского совета
РГУ имени С.А. Есенина
Грамматика английского языка с королями рок-н-ролла: Rock-n-Learn:
Teaching English Through Music. Учебно-методическое пособие. / Автор М.В.
Гордова, – Рязань: изд-во РГУ, 2012 – 95 с.
Учебно-методическое пособие содержит готовые планы-конспекты
уроков
для
отработки
употребления
ряда
грамматических
структур
английского языка. Простота подачи материала, в том числе иллюстрация
каждого правила примерами из аутентичных источников, которыми являются
тексты песен англоязычных исполнителей, делает его максимально доступным
и легко запоминающимся для обучающихся.
Пособие адресовано студентам первого года обучения неязыковых
специальностей вузов.
Ключевые слова: грамматика, английский язык, музыка.
Ответственный редактор
Рецензенты:
Воевода Е.В., канд. пед. наук, доц. (МГИМО(университет))
Чернявская Е.С., канд. фил. наук, доц. (РВВДКУ им. генерала армии
Маргелова В.Ф.)
Сухова Е.Е., канд. пед. наук, доц. (РГУ имени С.А. Есенина)
© Издательство Рязанского
государственного университета
имени С.А. Есенина, 2012
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CONTENTS
Section
Grammar and Topics.
Page
Введение ....................................................................................................... 4
Section 1:
The Imperative Mood. Don’t Let Me Down! ........................... 5
Section 2:
Present Indefinite. Part 1. Eight Days a Week .......................... 8
Present Indefinite. Part 2. Happiness ........................................ 12
Section 3:
Present Continuous. Hey, What Is Going On Here? ................
19
Section 4:
Past Indefinite. Part 1. Yesterday .............................................
24
Past Indefinite. Part 2. All You Need Is Love .......................... 27
Section 5:
Past Continuous. I Was Crying When I Met You ....................
30
Section 6:
Future Indefinite. Part 1. I’ll Tell You Something! .................. 34
Future Indefinite. Part 2. I’ll Follow the Sun ............................ 38
Section 7:
The Construction to be going to do. You’re Going to Lose
That Girl ...................................................................................
41
Section 8:
Conditional Sentences, Type 1. Rights and Responsibilities.... 46
Section 9:
Wish Clause. Wish You Were Here …………………………. 51
Section 10: Normal and Abnormal Behaviour. Nowhere Man ...................
57
Appearance and Fashion. Shining, Streaming, Gleaming,
Flaxen, Waxen………………………………………………..
60
War and Peace. Eve of Destruction ………………………….
67
Welcome back home again! Back in the USSR .......................
72
Section 11: Video Lesson. Across the Universe………………………….
74
Справочная литература и электронные источники ................................... 78
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Введение
Как сделать урок по грамматике интересным? Как помочь учащимся
легко запомнить грамматические структуры? Как удержать внимание
аудитории на протяжении всего занятия по грамматике? Такими вопросами
задаются, пожалуй, практически все учителя английского языка. В
дошкольном образовании и младшей школе они не стоят так остро благодаря
разнообразным творческим игровым методикам, на которых в основном и
построено обучение языку. Что же касается учащихся старших классов и
учебных заведений послешкольного образования, то здесь существенную
помощь может оказать музыка.
Во-первых, музыка положительно влияет на любую деятельность,
которой занят человек в момент ее прослушивания. Во-вторых, музыка как
вид искусства обладает богатейшим образовательным потенциалом: с одной
стороны – служит для воспитания сложной, гармоничной и разносторонней
личности учащегося, с другой – позволяет упростить процесс изучения
отдельных предметов школьной или университетской программы, делая их
содержание более доступным для учащихся и формируя у них необходимые
навыки и умения. Использование музыкальных композиций на занятии
является, с одной стороны, необходимым для учащихся перерывом в работе, а
с другой стороны – средством мотивации их к последующему познанию.
Кроме того, тексты музыкальных произведений исполнителей англоязычных
стран могут представлять собой богатейший лексический и грамматический
материал для изучения, который, благодаря своей форме, не сложен в
восприятии и запоминании. Важно также, что использование музыкальных
композиций в образовательном процессе дает возможность разнообразить
тематику занятий, например, по одной и той же грамматической теме, что
сделает изучение грамматических структур интереснее и прояснит, в каких
ситуациях общения они применимы.
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие содержит планы-конспекты
для отработки употребления некоторых грамматических явлений английского
языка, а именно: “The Imperative Mood”, “The Present Indefinite Tense Form
(Present Simple)”, “The Present Continuous Tense Form”, “The Past Indefinite
Tense Form (Past Simple)”, “The Past Continuous Tense Form”, “The Future
Indefinite Tense Form (Future Simple)”. В дополнение к этому, в разделе
«Приложение» в качестве примера приведены поурочные разработки
тематических занятий (“Normal and Abnormal Behavior”, “Appearance and
Fashion”, “War and Peace”, “Welcome Back Home Again”), включая видеоурок
по музыкальному фильму “Across the Universe”.
Пособие предназначено для студентов первого года обучения
неязыковых специальностей вузов.
Все предложенные поурочные разработки могут быть использованы как
самостоятельно, так и наряду с другими грамматическими справочниками в
качестве дополнения к основному учебнику.
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SECTION 1: The Imperative Mood
Don’t Let Me Down!
Today you will learn how to make people do what you want them to do.
1. To give an order or to make a request you should learn to use the Imperative
Mood.
Imperative sentences may be AFFIRMATIVE and NEGATIVE.
Note that affirmative imperative sentences are formed with the infinitive of a main
verb without the particle “to”.
E.g.: Stand still. Be happy. Give me the book.
Note that negative imperative sentences are formed
with the negative form of the auxiliary verb “to do”
placed before a main verb without the particle “to”.
Remember:
there is NO explicit
subject in imperative
sentences.
E.g.: Don’t speak up. Don’t be silly.
2. Read the text of the song “Hey, Jude!”. Find imperative sentences: first read
out and translate into Russian affirmative then negative ones. Reproduce the
verse.
Hey Jude, don’t make it bad!
Take a sad song and make it better,
Remember to let her into your heart,
Then you can start to make it better.
Hey Jude, don’t be afraid!
You were made to go out and get her,
The minute you let her under your
skin, then you begin to make it better.
And anytime you feel the pain, hey,
Jude, refrain!
Don’t carry the world upon your
shoulders.
For well you know that it’s a fool who
plays it cool,
By making his world a little colder.
Hey, Jude, don’t let me down!
You have found her, now go and get
her,
Remember to let her into your heart,
Then you can start to make it better.
So let it out and let it in, hey, Jude,
begin!
You’re waiting for someone to perform
with,
And don’t you know that it’s just you,
hey, Jude, you’ll do,
The movement you need is on your
shoulder.
Hey, Jude, don’t make it bad!
Take a sad song and make it better,
Remember to let her under your skin,
Then you’ll begin to make it better.
The BEATLES
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3. a) Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box in the Imperative Mood
(affirmative and negative sentences) to complete short dialogues.
1) - ____ your time!
- But it’s my day off! ____ me alone!
- Your room is a terrible mess. ____ it! ____ lazy-bones!
- What a day!
2) - ____ me this black blouse, please!
- There is no your size, sorry. ____ this one!
- Ok. ____ it to the fitting-room.
3) - ____ in! Please, ____ down!
- I don’t have much time. ____ me the form to fill in.
- Here you are. ____ the pen.
- ____, I have mine.
4) - ____ me some more coffee!
- The coffee-pot is on the table. ____ yourself!
- ____ a rest and ____ me!
- ____ me! ____ a minute! I’ll finish soon.
to have
to come
not to be
to show
to leave
to pour
not to worry
to take
to help
to bring
not to waste
to give
to join
to try on
to wait
to sit
not to disturb
to clean
b) Work in pairs and act out the dialogues.
4. a) Sometimes people have to give orders fulfilling their functions at work.
What do these people usually say? Think of as many examples as possible.
1) a policeman to a lawbreaker
6) a librarian to readers
2) a teacher to students
7) a coach to sportsmen
3) parents to a disobedient child
8) a boss to a secretary
4) a doctor to a patient
9) an editor to reporters
5) a custodian to visitors
10) a president to ministers
b) What will you say? Give order (advice) or make a request using imperative
sentences.
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1.
Your best friend is crying bitterly because her boyfriend has abandoned her.
You say: ……………………………………………………………………………
2. Someone spilt a glass of red wine on his/her white shirt. You say:
……………………………………………………………………………………….
3. Your younger brother/sister is playing with your belongings. You say:
……………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Your friend has fallen ill but she/he doesn’t know what to do. You say:
……………………………………………………………………………………….
5. Your parents are choosing a present for their friends’ teenage daughter/son.
They don’t know what to buy and are phoning you to ask for suggestions. You say:
……………………………………………………………………………………….
6. You are explaining how to cook your favorite salad. You say:
……………………………………………………………………………………….
7. A passer-by is going to run into you. You are trying to prevent the incident. You
say: …………………………………………………………………………………..
8. You are explaining a freshman how to get from the dorm to the Uni / school
you study at. You say: ………………………………………………………………
9. You think that one of your fellow students spends too much time on her/his
studies. You want to amuse her/him from loads of books and endless homework.
You say: ……………………………………………………………………………
c) Review the text of the song in assignment 2. Jude has found himself in some
situation and he is given advice. What is the situation these pieces of advice
can be applied to? What would you tell him to do?
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SECTION 2: Present Indefenite
Eight Days a Week…
Today you will speak about things you do periodically.
1. To say that something happens usually, always, often, sometimes, at the
weekends, rarely, on occasion, never, seldom, every day etc. you should learn
to use Present Indefinite.
Present Indefinite is used to say about …
a)
permanent
or
long-lasting
c) facts, universal truths;
situations;
E.g.: The Earth revolves round the
E.g.: They study at University.
Sun.
She lives in New York.
Water boils at 100 degrees.
b) regular habits and daily routines;
d) timetables and schedules.
E.g.: I usually get up at 7 o’clock.
E.g.: The plane leaves at 4 p.m.
She often goes to the cinema.
The shop opens at 10.00 and
closes at 18.00.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in an affirmative sentence “+”
I/WE/YOU/THEY + 1форма глагола без to
HE/SHE/IT + 1форма глагола без TO+ S (-ES)
I go to school every day.
He goes to school every day.
2. Read the text of the song “Penny Lane”. Find sentences in Present
Indefinite and translate them into Russian. Reproduce the verse.
In Penny Lane there is a barber
showing photographs
Of every head he’s had the pleasure
to have known,
And all the people that come and go
Stop and say hello.
On the corner is a banker with a
motorcar.
The little children laugh at him
behind his back.
And the banker never wears a mac
In the pouring rain – very strange.
Penny Lane is in my ears and in my
eyes;
There beneath the blue suburban
skies.
I sit, and meanwhile back.
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In Penny Lane there is a fireman with
an hourglass,
And in his pocket there is a portrait of
the Queen.
He likes to keep his fire engine clean
– It’s a clean machine.
Penny Lane is in my ears and in my
eyes;
Four of fish and finger pies
In summer, meanwhile back.
Behind the shelter in the middle of a
roundabout
A pretty nurse is selling poppies from
a tray,
And though she feels as if she’s in a
play. She is, anyway.
In Penny Lane the barber shaves
another customer.
We see the banker sitting waiting for
a trim.
Then the fireman rushes in
From the pouring rain – very strange.
The BEATLES
3. Match the parts of the sentences to get true utterances about you, your
family and friends and things you do from time to time. Pay attention to the
time expressions provided and their place in the sentences.
A.
At the weekend
Sometimes
Every week
Every day
Every weekend
Every year
Every …
On Sundays(…)
…
my family
my mother (father)
my brother(s) / sister(s)
my cousin(s)
my granny(ies) / grandfather(s)
my nephew(s) / niece(s)
I
my friend(s)
…
come(s) around.
spend(s) a day outdoors.
attend(s) a gym.
cook(s) delicious pancakes.
watch(es) DVD.
arrange(s) parties (picnics).
go(es) shopping.
… (add whatever you want)
B.
My family
My mother (father)
My brother(s) / (sister(s)
My cousin(s)
My granny(ies) / grandfather(s)
My nephew(s) / niece(s)
My friend(s)
I
…
always
never
seldom
usually
often
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do(es) the washing-up.
go(es) camping.
play(s) cards.
read(s) detectives (novels, poetry).
keep(s) to a diet.
travel(s) by air(car, bus, train).
eat(s) at restaurants.
take(s) photos.
… (add whatever you want)
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4. a) E. works for a company X. It
has its fixed rules of behavior each
worker must observe. But as a rule
things are different especially when
the head of the office is away. Look
through the comic timetable the
workers of the firm established and
restore a usual working day of E. Start with: The office opens at 9 a.m. but E. is
not in a hurry. He …
b) Tell your fellow students about your usual timetable on weekdays and at
the weekends.
5. Review the text of the song in assignment 2. Make up a summary of the text
enumerating things that always happen in Penny Lane. Go on speaking
describing a usual day in your street.
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Present Indefinite. Part 2.
Happiness
Today you will try to find out what makes people happy.
1. Read and translate into Russian the text of the song “The Wonder of You”.
Learn it by heart and reproduce.
When no-one else can understand me,
When everything I do is wrong
You give me hope and consolation,
You give me strength to carry on.
And you’re always there to lend a hand in everything I
do.
That’s the wonder – the wonder of you.
And when you smile the world is brighter,
You touch my hand and I’m a king,
Your kiss to me is worth a fortune,
Your love for me is everything.
I’ll guess I’ll never know the reason why you love me
like you do.
That’s the wonder –the wonder of you.
ELVIS PRESLEY
2. Study the information about questions and negative sentences in Present
Indefinite. Note that you need the auxiliary verb “DO” or its form “DOES”
(for the 3rd person singular) in Present Indefinite negatives and questions.
Mind that if you use the auxiliary verb “DOES” the main verb loses “-s”(“-es”)
ending.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a negative sentence “-”
I/WE/YOU/THEY+DO+NOT+1форма глагола без to
I don’t go to school.
HE/SHE/IT+DOES+NOT+1форма глагола без to
He doesn’t go to school.
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PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a question “?”
DO+ I/WE/YOU/THEY+1форма глагола без to?
Do you go to school?
DOES+ HE/SHE/IT+1форма глагола без to?
Does he go to school?
WHERE+DO+ I/WE/YOU/THEY+1форма глагола без to?
Where do you go?
WHERE+ DOES+ HE/SHE/IT+1форма глагола без to?
Where does he go?
Pay attention to the use of the verb
PAY ATTENTION TO THE
“BE” in Present Indefinite.
WORD ORDER in an affirmative
sentence (“+”) with “to BE” in the
Remember:
Present Indefinite:
I – am
I+ AM ..……………………………
He/ She/ It -is
YOU/WE/THEY+ARE .…………..
You (ты/вы)/ They/ We - are
HE/SHE/IT+IS…..…..…………….
PAY ATTENTION TO THE
WORD ORDER in a negative
DON’T FORGET THAT THE VERB
sentence (“-”) with “to BE” in the
“BE” DOESN’T NEED ANY
Present Indefinite:
AUXILIARY VERBS!
I+ AM+NOT…………………………
YOU/WE/THEY+ARE+NOT ………
a) Read the text about happiness. HE/SHE/IT+IS+NOT……..…………
PAY ATTENTION TO THE
While reading open the brackets
WORD ORDER in a question (“?”)
using Present Indefinite (affirmative
with “to BE” in the Present
Indefinite:
or negative sentences). Translate the
AM+I……………………………?
text into Russian.
ARE+ YOU/WE/THEY…………?
Happiness ____ (to be) a state of
IS+ HE/SHE/IT …..…………….?
WHERE+AM+I……………..…...?
mind or feeling characterized by
WHERE+ARE+YOU/WE/THEY.?
contentment,
love,
satisfaction,
WHERE+IS+ HE/SHE/IT …..…?
pleasure or joy. A variety of biological,
psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches ____ (to define) happiness
and ____ (to identify) its sources.
Researches ____ (to present, not) direct measurement of happiness. For
example, positive psychology researchers ____ (to use) theoretical models that ____
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(to include) describing happiness as consisting of positive emotions and positive
activities. They ____ (to define, not) it as a simple phenomenon. The theory ____
(to describe) three kinds of happiness: pleasure, engagement, and meaning.
Moreover a psychological research ____ (to identify) a number of attributes that
____ (to correlate) with happiness: relationships and social interaction, extraversion,
marital status, employment, health, democratic freedom, optimism, endorphins
released through physical exercise and eating chocolate, religious involvement,
income and proximity to other happy people.
Philosophers and religious thinkers ____ (to share, not) psychologists’ idea
completely. They often ____ (to define) happiness in terms of living a good life, or
flourishing, rather than simply as an emotion.
Some researchers, such as David T. Lykken, ____ (to state) that about 50% of
one’s happiness ____ (to depend) on one’s genes, based on studying identical twins,
whose happiness is 50% correlated even when growing up in different houses.
About 10% to 15% ____ (to be) a result of various measurable life circumstances
variables, such as socioeconomic status, marital status, health, income, sex and
others. The remaining 40% ____ (to be, not) known factors and the results of
actions that individuals deliberately ____ (to engage) in to become happier.
Michael Argyle ____ (to present) the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire as a
broad measure of psychological well-being. Many researchers ____ (to take, not)
seriously this method and ____ (to criticize) it as an aggregate of self-esteem, sense
of purpose, social interest and kindness, sense of humor and aesthetic appreciation.
Though it ____ (to be, not) possible to achieve any comprehensive measure of
happiness objectively, some physiological correlates to happiness can be measured
through a variety of techniques. Stefan Klein, in his book «The Science of
Happiness», ____ (to link) the dynamics of neurobiological systems to the concepts
and findings of positive psychology and social psychology.
b) Write the questions to suit the given answers based on the text above.
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1) _____________________________________________________
- Psychological approaches do.
2) _____________________________________________________
- They use theoretical models to describe happiness.
3) ____________________________________________________
- It is characterized by a number of things: contentment, love, satisfaction, pleasure
or joy.
4) ____________________________________________________
- No, they don’t. They state that happiness can be of three kinds.
5) ____________________________________________________
- According to some researchers such things as relationships and social interaction,
extraversion, marital status, income and so on correlate with happiness.
6) ____________________________________________________
- Both philosophers and religious thinkers don’t.
7) ____________________________________________________
- Only 50% of one’s happiness depends on one’s genes.
8) ____________________________________________________
- Because it is just an aggregate of self-esteem, sense of purpose, social interest and
kindness, sense of humor and aesthetic appreciation.
9) ____________________________________________________
- No, it isn’t. It is impossible.
c) There are loads of definitions of the term happiness and only some of them
are mentioned in the text above. Do you agree with any of the points of view
presented in the text? Or with any you’ve read or heard about? Why? Provide
your own definition of happiness. Begin with: Happiness is ……
3. Now that definitions of happiness have been given turn to a more detailed
study of its components.
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a) Match the parts of the sentences to get statements about what makes/doesn’t
make people happy. Go on speaking explaining each particular case.
E.g.: Holidays away from home make people happy because it helps to draw away
from everyday problems and worries and have a rest.
Tasty meal
Expensive presents
Relatives’ love and understanding
A sunny day
A new CD of a favorite singer
Strong coffee in the morning
Reading a good book
Meeting the best friend
Travelling abroad
Spending time with a family
Shopping
… (add whatever you want)
don’t make
doesn’t make
people happy
because …
make
makes
Fill in the scheme with the results of your research work.
b) Review the text of the song in the first assignment. What makes the singer
happy? Why? What makes you happy? What are the components of your
happiness? Filling in the scheme from task 3a may help to answer the question.
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c) How happy are you? Answer the questions from the Oxford Happiness
Questionnaire by Dr. Steve Wright (see the supplement). Find out how happy
you are, share your results with the group and the teacher and say whether you
agree with them or not (explain why).
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Supplement
Oxford Happiness Questionnaire
by Dr. Steve Wright
Instructions: Below are a number of statements about happiness. Indicate how
much you agree or disagree with each by entering a number in the blank after each
statement, according to the following scale:
1 = strongly disagree
2 = moderately disagree
3 = slightly disagree
4 = slightly agree
5 = moderately agree
6 = strongly agree
Read the statements carefully, because some are phrased positively and others
negatively. Don’t take too long over individual questions; there are no “right” or
“wrong” answers (and no trick questions). The first answer that comes into your
head is probably the right one for you. If you find some of the questions difficult,
please give the answer that is true for you in general or for most of the time.
The Questionnaire
1. I don’t feel particularly pleased with the way I am. I _____
2. I am intensely interested in other people. _____
3. I feel that life is very rewarding. _____
4. I have very warm feelings towards almost everyone. _____
5. I rarely wake up feeling rested. I _____
6. I am not particularly optimistic about the future. I _____
7. I find most things amusing. _____
8. I am always committed and involved. _____
9. Life is good. _____
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10. I do not think that the world is a good place. I _____
11. I laugh a lot. _____
12. I am well satisfied about everything in my life. _____
13. I don’t think I look attractive. I _____
14. There is a gap between what I would like to do and what I have done. I _____
15. I am very happy. _____
16. I find beauty in some things. _____
17. I always have a cheerful effect on others. _____
18. I can fit in (find time for) everything I want to. _____
19. I feel that I am not especially in control of my life. I _____
20. I feel able to take anything on. _____
21. I feel fully mentally alert. _____
22. I often experience joy and elation. _____
23. I don’t find it easy to make decisions. I _____
24. I don’t have a particular sense of meaning and purpose in my life. I _____
25. I feel I have a great deal of energy. _____
26. I usually have a good influence on events. _____
27. I don’t have fun with other people. I _____
28. I don’t feel particularly healthy. I _____
29. I don’t have particularly happy memories of the past. I _____
Calculate your score
Step 1. Items marked I should be scored in reverse:
If you gave yourself a “1,” cross it out and change it to a “6.”
Change “2″ to a “5″
Change “3″ to a “4″
Change “4″ to a “3″
Change “5″ to a “2″
Change “6″ to a “1″
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Step 2. Add the numbers for all 29 questions. (Use the converted numbers for the 12
items that are reverse scored.)
Step 3. Divide by 29. So your happiness score = the total (from step 2) divided by
29.
It is recommended to record your score and the date. Then you’ll have the option to
compare your score now with your score at a later date. This can be especially
helpful if you are trying some of the exercises, and actively working on increasing
your happiness.
Interpretation of score
1-2 : Not happy. If you answered honestly and got a very low score, you’re probably
seeing yourself and your situation as worse than it really is.
2-3 : Somewhat unhappy.
3-4 : Not particularly happy or unhappy. A score of 3.5 would be an exact numerical
average of happy and unhappy responses.
4 : Somewhat happy or moderately happy. Satisfied. This is what the average person
scores.
4-5 : Rather happy; pretty happy.
5-6 : Very happy. Being happy has more benefits than just feeling good. It’s
correlated with benefits like health, better marriages, and attaining your goals.
6 : Too happy. Yes, you read that right. Recent research seems to show that there’s
an optimal level of happiness for things like doing well at work or school, or for
being healthy, and that being “too happy” may be associated with lower levels of
such things.
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SECTION 3: Present Continuous.
Hey, What Is Going On Here?
Today you will learn to describe the events going on at the time of speaking.
1. To speak about an action happening
exactly now, you need to learn how to
use the Present Continuous Tense.
The Present Continuous tense is made
with the forms of the verb BE (AM, IS,
ARE) and a base verb with the ending
“-ing”.
E.g.: Look! Dave is running away from
our neighbour’s dog.
I’m very busy at the moment. I’m
How to make “-ing” forms:
E.g.: to work – working; to clean
– cleaning; to play – playing etc.
Pay attention to the following
cases:
1) to stop — stopping; to plan —
planning; to run - running etc.
Note that this exception DOES
NOT apply when the last syllable
of the base verb is not stressed.
E.g.: to open – opening.
2) to lie – lying; to die – dying etc.
3) to come – coming; to mistake –
mistaking etc.
preparing for my last exam.
Listen! Kate and Jack are swearing
at each other again.
Note that the Present Continuous is also
Remember:
I – am
He/ She/ It -is
You (ты/вы)/ They/ We - are
used for an action happening around now.
It may not be happening exactly now, but
it is happening just before and just after
DON’T FORGET THAT THE
VERB “BE” DOESN’T NEED
ANY AUXILIARY VERBS!
now, and it is not permanent or habitual.
E.g.: She is staying with her parents until she finds an apartment.
He is learning to drive a car.
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PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in an affirmative sentence “+”
I+AM+1форма глагола без to+ING
Listen! I am singing.
WE/YOU/THEY+ARE+1форма глагола без to+ING
Listen! They are singing.
HE/SHE/IT+IS+1форма глагола без to+ING
Listen! He is singing.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a negative sentence “-”
I+AM+NOT+1форма глагола без to+ING
Can’t you see! I am not singing.
WE/YOU/THEY+ARE+NOT+1форма глагола без to+ING
Can’t you see! They are not singing.
HE/SHE/IT+IS+NOT+1форма глагола без to+ING
Can’t you see! He is not singing.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a question “?”
AM+I+ 1форма глагола без to+ING? (E.g.: Am I singing?)
ARE+WE/YOU/THEY+ 1форма глагола без to+ING? (E.g.: Are you singing?)
IS+HE/SHE/IT+ 1форма глагола без to+ING? (E.g.: Is he singing?)
WHAT+AM+I+ 1форма глагола без to+ING? (E.g.: What am I singing?)
WHAT+ARE+WE/YOU/THEY+ 1форма глагола без to+ING? (E.g.: What are
you singing?)
WHAT+IS+HE/SHE/IT+ 1форма глагола без to+ING? (E.g.: What is he
singing?)
2. Read the text of the song “Tom’s Diner”. Find sentences in the Present
Continuous Tense Form and translate them into Russian. Reproduce the
verse.
I am sitting in the
morning
At the diner on the
corner.
I am waiting at the
counter
For the man to
pour the coffee.
And he fills it only
halfway.
And before I even
argue
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He is looking out the
window
At somebody coming in.
“It is always nice to see
you!”Says the man behind
the counter
To the woman who has
come in.
She is shaking her
umbrella.
And I look the other
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As they are kissing
their
hellos
I’m pretending not to
see them
And instead I pour the
milk
I open up the paper.
There’s a story of an
actor
Who had died while he
was drinking,
It was no one I had
heard of.
And I’m turning to the
horoscope.
And looking for the
funnies
When I’m feeling
someone watching me,
And so I raise my head.
There’s a woman on
the
outside
Looking inside.
Does she see me?
No, she does not really
see me
‘Cause she sees her
own reflection.
And I’m trying not to
notice
That she’s hitching up
her skirt
And
while
she’s
straightening her
stockings
Her hair has gotten
wet.
Oh, this rain it will
continue
Through the morning
as I’m listening
To the bells of the
cathedral
I am thinking of your
voice...
And of the midnight
picnic
Once upon a time
Before the rain began...
I finish up my coffee.
It’s time to catch the
train.
SUZANNE VEGA
3. What is going on? A) Try to guess what your family and friends are occupied
with at the moment. Match the parts of the sentences to get true utterances.
I
My friend(s)
My classmate(s)
My mother / father
My brother(s) / sister(s)
My cousin(s)
My granny(ies) / grandfather(s)
My nephew(s) (niece(s))
am
is
are
working hard.
driving to the country.
trying on a new dress.
dyeing her hair.
making a report.
cooking dinner.
playing golf.
… (add whatever you want)
b) Look into a classroom. What are the students doing? Work in pairs: ask
your partner a question and let him/her answer. Use the expressions given in
brackets and follow the pattern below.
E.g.: Jane (to read/ to comb one’s hair)
– Is Jane reading? – No, she isn’t. Jane isn’t reading. She is combing her hair.
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1) Anna (to answer
teacher’s questions /
to look at her watch)
2) Olga and Iris (to
act out a dialogue / to
laugh)
3) Irene (to make a
report / to smile)
4) Sveta and Liza (to
chat / to learn a rule)
5) Julia (to interpret a
text / to do nothing)
6) the girls (to write a test / to enjoy
8) Ann (to yawn/ to try to behave
oneself)
oneself)
7) Liza (to sit straight / to lean on
9) Sveta (to wear a stripy sweater / to
wear a chequered chemise)
Julia)
4. There are some verbs that we DO NOT normally use with continuous tenses.
Remember:
Note that with these verbs

there is no real action or

activity. We usually use them
believe, imagine, know, mean, realize,
recognize, remember, suppose, understand
with Indefinite tenses only.

E.g.: I don’t hear anything.
hate, like, love, need, prefer, want, wish
belong, concern, consist, contain, depend,
involve, matter, need, owe, own, possess
It doesn’t belong to him.

appear, resemble, seem,

He seems to be a nice man.
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Note that some verbs have two different meanings.
E.g.:
MEANING 1.
To think –полагать
He thinks we’d better go home. It’s
late.
To see – видеть
I see his coat but don’t see his shoes.
MEANING 1 doesn’t have any real action,
Remember:
if you have a doubt about
a particular verb, ask
activity. It is called “stative”. In this case you must use
an Indefinite tense ONLY.
In MEANING 2 there is a kind of action, a kind
yourself the question:
"Is there any real action
or activity?"
MEANING 2.
To think – размышлять, обдумывать
1) Hush! Be quiet! I’m thinking.
2) Don’t worry! I’ll think about it later.
To see – встречаться
1) I can’t speak right now. I’m seeing my
old friend. Call back later.
2) Jane sees her Granny every week.
of activity. It is called “dynamic”. You can use BOTH
a Continuous and Indefinite tense, depending on the
context and the idea you want to communicate.
a) Once again look through the text of the song given in assignment 2. Single
out the sentences the rule above can be illustrated with. Read them out and
explain each particular case.
b) The verbs “to admire”, “to have”, “to look”, “to expect”, “to taste”, “to feel”,
“to smell” can also be used both in the Present Indefinite and Present
Continuous, depending on the meaning. Check out the verbs in a dictionary
and think of sentences to comment upon their stative and dynamic meanings.
E.g.: He thinks we’d better go home. It’s late. – Hush! Be quiet! I’m thinking.
c) Open the brackets using the Present Continuous where possible. Don’t forget
about the Present Indefinite tense with non-continuous verbs.
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1. Suzy ____ (to have) breakfast.
2. The waiter ____ (to see) his old friend.
3. The woman ____ (to want) to know about the future.
4. It ____ (to rain) outside.
5. She ____ (to miss) her boyfriend.
6. The woman ____ (to try) to be polite.
7. Suzy ____ (to sit) at a diner not far from a chapel.
8. The man ____ (to pour) coffee for her.
9. She ____ (to want) to cheer up.
10. Something ____ (to go wrong) with her clothes.
11. The woman ____ (to feel) embarrassing.
d) Turn back to assignment 2. Ask WHY-questions to the sentences in the
Present Continuous and match them logically with possible answers from the
previous task. If you are not satisfied with the answers offered or you have any
special idea you are free to substitute your own sentences for the given ones.
E.g.: - Why is Suzy waiting at the counter? – She is waiting at the counter because
the man is pouring coffee for her.
5. Sketch people in the course of doing something. Let your fellow students
guess the activity.
E.g.: - Ben is dissatisfied with his employees. His face is red. His tie is loosened.
He looks very angry. (Ben is swearing/shouting at his workers.)
- Tony is an athlete. His face is lined with sweat. His muscles are strained. (He is
setting a new record.)
- Simon and Lucy are at the cinema. They are scared to death. Lucy’s hair has stood
on end. (They are watching a horror film.)
6. What about you? What are you doing at the moment? Be very observant and
describe everything and everybody around the way Suzanne Vega did in her
song “Tom’s Diner”.
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SECTION 4: Past Indefinite. Part 1.
Yesterday All My Troubles Seemed
So Far Away…
Today you will learn to speak about the events that took place some time ago.
1. To speak about events that took place some time ago (yesterday, in 1989
(some other date), last year (month, summer….), ago, the day before
yesterday etc.) you should learn to use the Past Indefinite Tense Form.
In English the Past Indefinite
tense denotes:
a) an action fixed in the past. We
know for sure WHEN the action
took place:
E.g.: I met him yesterday. – Я
встретил его вчера.
He finished school in 1995. –
Он окончил школу в 1995 году.
b) something that happened many
times in the past.
E.g.: We went to the country
every week that summer. –
Каждую неделю тем летом мы
ездили за город.
Remember:
There are regular and irregular verbs in
the English language.
1) The Past Indefinite of regular verbs is
usually formed by adding the ending “-ed”
to the verbs.
E.g.: to work – worked;
to clean – cleaned;
to start – started etc.
Pay attention to the following cases:
To study — studied; to marry — married;
to stop — stopped; to plan — planned.
2) The Past Indefinite of irregular verbs
ISN’T formed with “-ed” ending. The Past
Indefinite of irregular verbs is their second
forms from the table.
E.g.: to go – went; to swim – swam;
to run – ran; to come – came etc.
c) a sequence of actions in the past, showing in what order the events took place.
E.g.: Yesterday I woke up, went to the bathroom, took a shower and had
breakfast.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in an affirmative sentence:
I\WE\YOU\THEY \HE\SHE\IT + 2форма глагола (или глагол с окончанием -ed)
I went to school yesterday. He played chess in the yard 2 days ago.
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2. Read the text of the song “Yesterday”. Find sentences in the Past Indefinite
tense and translate them into Russian. Reproduce the verse.
Yesterday,
All my troubles seemed so far away,
Now it looks as though they’re here
to stay,
Oh, I believe in yesterday.
Suddenly,
I’m not half the man I used to be,
There’s a shadow hanging over me,
Oh, yesterday came suddenly.
Why she had to go I don’t know, she
wouldn’t say,
I said something wrong, now I long
for yesterday.
Yesterday,
Love was such an easy game to play,
Now I need a place to hide away,
Oh, I believe in yesterday.
The BEATLES
3. Match the parts of the sentences logically.
I
My friend
We
Bill and John
He
Janet
She
Ms. Jones
They
The Simpsons
You
The family
played
swam
went
drove
sang
liked
read
started
met
asked
told
…
to the South
him the truth
an old friend
in the river
the piano
him about his study
to the country
to sunbathe
to write the first book
a beautiful song
her letter
…
yesterday.
last summer.
when I was 22.
yesterday evening.
last year.
2 hours ago.
when she was a child.
when they went to the
last year.
last month.
the day before yesterday.
…
4. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box in the Past Indefinite tense.
to clean
to rain
to enjoy
to smoke
to happen
to start
to finish
to stay
1. Yesterday evening I ____ television.
2. I ____ my teeth three times yesterday.
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to open
to want
to play
to watch
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3. Bernard ____ 20 cigarettes yesterday evening.
4. The concert last night ____ at 7.30 and ____ at 10 o’clock.
5. The accident ____ last Sunday afternoon.
6. When I was a child, I ____ to be a doctor.
7. We ____ our holiday last year. We ____ at a very good hotel.
8. Today the weather is nice, but yesterday it ____.
9. It was hot in the room, so I ____ the window.
10.
The weather was good yesterday afternoon, so we ____ tennis.
5. Meet Julia, a secretary, Eliza and Alice, shop assistants, and Kevin, a
zookeeper. Every day they have to perform certain duties. Read about their
everyday routine and say what they did yesterday. Don’t just rewrite the texts
in the Past Indefinite tense. Pick out activities you need and add necessary
time expressions. Make your stories logical!
a)
Julia is a secretary. She maintains an office. Every day she does multiple
tasks. In the morning she greets people in a pleasant manner. During the day she
gives correct information, takes messages when needed, and transfers calls to the
right people in the office.
Julia deals with all sorts of correspondence. She composes and types many
types of office correspondence. She sends, opens and sorts mail. Julia gathers and
analyzes data. She compiles information from sources given into a well defined
report. That means she works on a computer much of the time.
Julia often uses a copier machine. She makes the copies of paperwork in the
office. She also sends out faxes and keeps track of faxes that are sent into the
office. Then she distributes them.
b)
Eliza and Alice are shop assistants. They often work long hours and
weekends. They promote new products to potential buyers. First of all they
determine customers’ needs and do everything within their power to service them.
They advise a customer on the color, size or applicability of a given product and
suggest possible alternatives.
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Every day Eliza and Alice also field telephone inquiries from the general
public, price goods on shelves, keep stock levels at optimum levels and unpack and
store new deliveries in an appropriate fashion. They perform minor cleaning duties
such as picking up discarded receipts or tidying up messy displays.
Eliza and Alice often deal with queries relating to unavailable products and
contact suppliers to make an order to redeem stocks if necessary.
c)
Kevin is a zookeeper. He likes animals and takes care of them. He prepares
food, feeds, waters, brushes, bathes, and exercises animals. He plays with them and
is their friend. He checks to see if they are sick or hurt. He also cleans and fixes
their cages.
Kevin also answers questions from visitors about the animals. He enjoys
working with them and helping them. Sometimes the work is hard and not so nice.
Kevin lifts heavy things like animals or bales of hay. He works outdoors in all
kinds of weather. He often works on weekends.
6. Now write what you did yesterday. If there was nothing interesting in your
life tell your fellow students the hot news! What happened yesterday?
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Past Indefinite. Part 2.
All You Need Is Love
Today you will speak about love: you will tell your fellow students about your first
love and ask them about theirs.
1. Read and translate into Russian the text of the song “Bye-Bye, Baby!”
Learn it by heart.
Woke up thinking about you today.
Why does it have to be this way?
We drove each other crazy.
Bye-bye, babe, Bye-bye, baby.
Well I guess it’s over and it’s done.
We had some good time and we had fun.
We drove each other crazy,
I’ll always love you, baby.
Bye-bye, baby. Babe, bye-bye.
Bye-bye, baby. Don’t you cry (2 times).
The R.A.M.O.N.E.S.
2. Study the information about questions and negative sentences in the Past
Indefinite Tense Form. NOTE that you need the auxiliary verb “DID” in Past
Indefinite negatives and questions. Mind that if you use the auxiliary verb
“DID” the main verb loses “-ed” ending (if it is a regular verb) or the second
form (if it is an irregular verb).
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a negative sentence (“-”):
I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/SHE/IT + DID NOT + 1форма глагола без частицы “to”.
I didn’t go to school yesterday.
He didn’t play chess in the yard 2 days ago.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a question (“?”):
DID + I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/SHE/IT + 1форма глагола без частицы “to”?
Did you go to school yesterday?
Did he play chess in the yard 2 days ago?
WHY + DID + I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/SHE/IT + 1форма глагола без частицы “to”?
When did you go to school?
Where did he play chess 2 days ago?
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Pay attention to the use of the verb
PAY ATTENTION TO THE
WORD ORDER in an affirmative
sentence (“+”) with “to BE” in the
Past Indefinite:
YOU/WE/THEY+WERE …………
I/HE/SHE/IT+WAS……………….
PAY ATTENTION TO THE
WORD ORDER in a negative
sentence (“-”) with “to BE” in the
Past Simple:
YOU/WE/THEY+WERE+NOT ……
I/HE/SHE/IT+WAS+NOT…………
PAY ATTENTION TO THE
WORD ORDER in a question (“?”)
with “to BE” in the Past Simple:
WERE+ YOU/WE/THEY………?
WAS+I/HE/SHE/IT …………….?
WHERE+WERE+YOU/WE/THEY?
WHERE+WAS+I/HE/SHE/IT ……?
“BE” in the Past Indefinite Tense Form.
Remember:
I/He/ She/ It -was
You (ты/вы)/ They/ We - were
DON’T FORGET THAT THE VERB
“BE” DOESN’T NEED ANY
AUXILIARY VERBS!
E.g.: Last year she was 22, so she is 23
now.
We were tired after the journey but
we weren’t hungry.
Where were you at 3 o’clock
yesterday afternoon?
Was the weather good when you
were on holiday?
a) Read an extract from the story “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry. While
reading open the brackets using the Past Indefinite Tense Form (affirmative or
negative sentences). Translate the text into Russian.
ONE DOLLAR AND EIGHTY-SEVEN CENTS. THAT ____ (to be) ALL.
Three times Della ____ (count) it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the next
day would be Christmas. She ____ (to want, not) to do anything but to flop down on
the shabby little couch and to howl. So Della ____ (to do) it. Della ____ (to finish)
her cry and ____ (to attend) to her cheeks with the powder rag. She ____ (to come)
to the window and ____ (to look) out dully at a grey cat walking a grey fence in a
grey backyard. She ____ (to have, not) anything but one dollar and eighty-seven
cents to buy her husband a present and she ____ (to know, not) what to do with it.
Suddenly she ____ (to whirl) from the window and ____ (to stand) before the glass.
Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its colour. There ____ (to be)
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two possessions of their young family in which they both ____ (to take) a mighty
pride. One ____ (to be) Jim’s gold watch that had been his father’s and his
grandfather’s. The other ____(to be) Della’s hair. Rapidly she ____ (to pull down)
her
hair
and
____
(to
let)
it
fall
to
its
full
length.
So now Della’s beautiful hair ____ (to fall) about her, rippling and shining like a
cascade of brown waters. She ____ (to want, not) to do it but she ____ (to
determine) to sell her hair to buy a present for Jim.
b) Now read the text once again and ask as many questions as possible. Don’t
forget that you should use the Past Indefinite tense.
c) Do you think Della did right? Why? Do you think it was a real love? What
does love mean to you? Give a short definition. Begin with: Love is………
d) Work in pairs. Make a dialogue between Jim and Della after she gave him
the present. Jim wants to know why Della cut her hair (he should ask
questions). Della should explain her deed. Use the text, it will help you. You are
also free to invent some facts.
3. Review the text of the song in the first assignment. What happened to the
young man? Why did it happen? What did he do right and wrong?
Reconstruct his love story as a chain of events from the fist meeting and till the
day of their break. Don’t forget that it was in the past.
Begin your sentences in the following way: Once I saw a girl ….We went (didn’t
go)…. I bought (didn’t buy) her …. She loved (didn’t love) …. He/ She was
(wasn’t)… etc.
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4. Tell your fellow students about your first love. These questions will help you:
When did you fall in love for the first time? Was it love at first sight? Where
did you meet? Was your love mutual? When did you make a break with
him/her? Why did you make a break with him/her? etc.
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SECTION 5: Past Continuous.
I Was Crying When I Met You…
Today you will learn how to speak about a long action in the past.
1. To say what one was in the middle of doing something at a particular
moment in the past you need to learn how to use the Past Continuous Tense
Form.
The Past Continuous Tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The
action had started before that moment but didn’t finish at that moment.
E.g.: They were playing football at 6 p.m.
yesterday.
He was playing the guitar at a night
Remember:
I/He/ She/ It -was
You (ты/вы)/ They/ We - were
club at 11 p.m. last night.
The baby was sleeping when I came
home.
Note that the Past Continuous Tense is
KEEP IN MIND THE RULES OF
MAKING “-ING” FORMS!
(see “The Present Continuous
Lesson Plan”)
often used with the Past Indefinite Tense.
The Past Continuous Tense expresses a
long action when the Past Indefinite Tense
expresses a short action that happens in the
DON’T FORGET THAT THE
VERB “BE” DOESN’T NEED
ANY AUXILIARY VERBS!
middle of the long one. To join the two
ideas “when” and “while” are used.
E.g.: The students were writing a test
when the door opened and the headmaster
KEEP IN MIND
NON-CONTINUOUS VERBS!
(see “The Present Continuous
Lesson Plan”)
entered the classroom.
John fell asleep while he was reading a book.
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PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in an affirmative sentence “+”
I/HE/SHE/IT +WAS +1форма глагола без to+ING
WE/YOU/THEY+WERE+1форма глагола без to+ING
I was singing at 6 o’clock yesterday.
You were singing at 6 o’clock yesterday.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a negative sentence “-”
I/HE/SHE/IT +WAS+NOT+1форма глагола без to+ING
WE/YOU/THEY+WERE+NOT+1форма глагола без to+ING
I was not singing at 6 o’clock yesterday.
You were not singing at 6 o’clock yesterday.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a question “?”
WAS+I/HE/SHE/IT + 1форма глагола без to+ING?
WERE+WE/YOU/THEY+ 1форма глагола без to+ING?
Was he singing at 6 o’clock yesterday?
Were you singing at 6 o’clock yesterday?
WHEN+WAS +I/HE/SHE/IT + 1форма глагола без to+ING?
WHEN+WERE+WE/YOU/THEY+ 1форма глагола без to+ING?
Where was he singing?
Where were you singing?
2. Read an extract from the text of the song “Crying”. Find sentences in the
Past Continuous tense and translate them into Russian. Reproduce the verse.
There was a time
When I was so brokenhearted,
Love wasn’t much of a friend of mine.
The tables have turned, yeah,
‘Cause me and those ways have parted.
That kind of love was the killing kind.
Listen! All I want is someone I can’t resist.
I know all I need to know by the way that I got
kissed.
I was crying when I met you,
Now I’m trying to forget you.
Love is sweet misery!
I was crying just to get you,
Now I’m dying ‘cause I let you
Do what you do down on me!
The AEROSMITH
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3. a) Open the brackets using the Past Continuous tense.
1. Sarah ____ (to put on make-up) at 5 p.m. yesterday evening. She ____ (to get
ready) to go out with her husband.
2. Fred and Alice ____ (to watch a film) at the cinema from 9.15 p.m. to 10.55 p.m.
last Sunday.
3. Mary ____ (to drive) back home at 6 p.m. yesterday.
4. Peter and Anna ____ (to live) in Greece last July. They ____ (to stay) at their
pen-friend’s place.
5. It ____ (to snow) the whole morning yesterday.
6. Mrs. Jones ____ (to peel) onions at 4 p.m. yesterday.
7. James ____ (to ski) from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. He ____ (to have) a great time.
8. Last Saturday at 10 p.m. we ____ (to enjoy) ourselves at Pat’s birthday party.
9. I ____ (to try) to finish my research work the whole evening yesterday.
10. The students ____ (to listen) to a lecture from 7.45 a.m. to 9.15 a.m. last
Wednesday.
b) Match the sentences you’ve got with those in the Past Indefinite tense given
below substituting the latter for the time expressions to get logical utterances.
To join the two parts of a sentence use “while” or “when”.
E.g.: It was snowing the whole morning yesterday. We did all the housework. –
While it was snowing, we did all the housework.
1. We did all the housework.
7. Her little brother broke a couple of
2. Suddenly the lights went on.
plates and spilt rose punch on a brand
3. The phone rang and the boss asked
new carpet.
her to do some extra work.
8. Someone sneezed loudly.
4. The accident happened.
9. He twisted his ankle.
5. Accidentally she cut her finger.
10. They learnt the language.
6. Tom invited me to dinner.
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c) Complete the sentences with your own ideas. Use both affirmative and
negative sentences in the Past Continuous tense.
E.g.: A thief stole Mr. Black’s silverware when the guests were not looking his
way.
Alan composed a new song when he was touring in Spain.
1. Sam lost his keys………………………………………………………………….
2. Carol broke a nail ………………………………………………………………
3. Sue and Jane saw dolphins ……………………………………………………….
4. Arthur lost his way ……………………………………………………………….
5. Linda and Sharon blushed ……………………………………………………….
6. Geoff got a black eye …………………………………………………………….
7. George and Kate met each other …………………………………………………
8. Margaret fell in love with a stranger …………………………………………….
9. Charles wrote his first novel …………………………………………………….
10. Don asked Mary to marry him …………………………………………………
4. a) Read the story “An Embarrassing Incident”. While reading fill in the
gaps with the verbs from the box in the correct form, Past Continuous or Past
Indefinite (affirmative or negative sentences). Translate the text into Russian.
to be (4)
to read
to jump up
not to do
to fly
to pull away
to stop
to walk (2)
to come out
not to know
to look at
to sit
to see
to meet
to take
to eat
to land
to talk
to try
not to laugh
to pull
One day last summer I ____ through the local park. It ____ a hot day and I ____ an
ice cream. As I ____ past the boating lake, I ____ my friends, Carol and Jim. They
____ their dog for a walk. When we ____, we ____ for a chat. While we ____, the
dog suddenly ____ and ____ to get my ice cream. I ____ my hand away and
unfortunately the ice-cream ____ of the cone. Now there ____ a bald man behind
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me. The poor man ____ any harm. He just ____ on a bench and ____ a newspaper.
Well, when I ____ my hand, the ice cream ____ through the air and it ____ on the
man’s head. I ____ whether to laugh or to cry. When I ____ my friends, they just
____, they ____ in hysterics. But I ____ terribly embarrassed.
b) Ask different types of questions to the sentences from the text in the Past
Continuous tense.
c) Have you ever found yourself in such a situation? Share your experience: in
detail tell your fellow students about your embarrassing incident. The story
you’ve just read may serve as an example. Use Past Indefinite and Past
Continuous.
5. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue and act it out. Choose one of the given
situations.
a) Last night a shop was robbed. A detective is questioning a suspect. He is
interested in what the latter was doing at the time of the robbery. The suspect is
convincing the detective of his innocence telling him that he was busy with
something else rather than the robbery.
b) Parents are back from a weekend in the country and want to know what their
daughter/son was doing last night as their neighbours have complained of much
noise. The teenager insists on nothing forbidden.
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SECTION 6: Future Indefinite. Part 1.
I’ll Tell You Something!
Today you will learn to speak about events that may happen in the future.
1. To speak about events that may happen in the future you need to learn to
use the Future Indefinite tense.
The Future Indefinite tense is used
a) when there is NO PLAN or DECISION to do
something before we speak. We make the decision
spontaneously at the time of speaking.
E.g.: Hold on. I’ll get a pen.
We will see what we can do to help you.
Maybe we’ll stay in and watch television
Remember:
when there is a PLAN or
INTENTION
to
do
something in the future, the
Present Continuous Tense
or the structure “to be
going to” are usually used.
tonight.
In these examples, there is no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at
the time of speaking.
b) with the verbs “to think”, “to expect”, “to be sure”, “to wonder” and with the
word “probably” before it:
E.g.: I think I’ll go to the gym tomorrow.
Don’t worry about the exam. I’m sure you’ll pass.
I wonder what will happen.
I expect she’ll phone this evening.
I’ll probably be home late this evening.
c) to make a PREDICTION about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are
saying what we think will happen.
E.g.: It will rain tomorrow.
People won’t go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.
Who do you think will get the job?
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d) when the main verb is “to be” even if there is a firm plan or decision before
speaking.
E.g.: I’ll be in London tomorrow.
He will be at work tomorrow.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in an affirmative sentence “+”
I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/SHE/IT + WILL + 1форма глагола без to…..
I/we/you/they/he/she/it will go for a walk tomorrow.
2. Read an extract from the text of the song “I Want to Hold Your Hand”.
Find sentences in the Future Indefinite tense and translate them into Russian.
Reproduce the verse.
Oh yeah, I´ll tell you something,
I think you´ll understand,
Then I’ll say that something,
I want to hold your hand.
Oh, please, say to me
You´ll let me be your man
And, please, say to me
You´ll let me hold your hand.
Now let me hold your hand,
I want to hold your hand.
And when I touch you
I feel happy inside,
It´s such a feeling
That, my love, I can’t hide.
The BEATLES
3. Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs from the box in the Future Indefinite
tense. Act out dialogues in pairs.
to set out
to make
to do
to accompany
to be ready
to ask
to save
to go
to wait
to be
to pack
to stay in
to be glad
to pick up
to take
to buy
a) – I have two tickets to the theatre. But I have nobody to go with.
- I ____ you! Is that all right?
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- Fine! Then I ____ you at 6 p.m.!
- 6 is too early. I ____ by 6.30 p.m. Of course you may come at 6 but then you
____ for me.
- It’s not a problem. I ____ for a walk with your dog.
- That’s very nice of you! See you in the evening!
- Bye!
b) – Good morning! Do you have any plans for today?
- No, I don’t. I’m free. Perhaps I ____ some shopping or ____.
- Oh, no! Don’t stay at home! The day is gorgeous. I ____ you to the country. We
____ some fruit and juice and ____a picnic.
- Sounds great! I ____ at your place in 30 minutes. And we can set out at once.
- Fine! I ____ all necessary things. Hurry up!
c) – When is our flight? Is it a 9.45 plane?
- Exactly! I think we ____ at 6 not to be late! Have you ordered a taxi?
- Not yet.
- Then I ____ Peter to give us a lift. We ____ some money.
- Good idea! Moreover, he ____ to see you. You haven’t seen each other for ages!
- Right.
4. What will you do in these situations?
E.g.: You are invited to a party next Saturday but you don’t want to go. – I’ll
apologize and pretend that I’ll be very busy at the weekends.
a) You are asked to help your younger brother or sister with Maths but you are not
good at the subject either.
b) It’s your turn to clean the flat but you’ve just polished your nails.
c) You should finish your research work by the end of the month but you haven’t
even started it.
d) You arranged to meet with your friends at 7 p.m. It’s 6.45 p.m. and you aren’t
ready yet.
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e) You need your PC badly to make a slide show for tomorrow’s class but it has
broken.
f) It’s the first night of a new blockbuster. Of course you want to witness it but there
are no tickets left.
g) You borrowed your friend’s best dress (suit) to go to a very expensive restaurant
with your colleagues but accidentally you spoilt it.
5. Present Continuous vs. Future Indefinite to express futurity.
a) Choose the form of the verb that is more correct in these sentences.
- I don’t know what to do at the weekends. Perhaps I will stay/am staying at home or
will go/am going to the country with my friends.
- Kate will leave/is leaving for New York next week. She has already bought tickets.
- Yesterday Monica got a job. She will start/is starting next Monday.
- I will give/am giving you a lift to the station if you want.
- He will stay/is staying at this hotel for 6 days. He has his room booked.
- I don’t think it will snow/is snowing tomorrow.
- Don’t give him a watch – he will break/is breaking it.
- Do you want to go out tonight? – No, I will do/am doing my homework.
- I’m sure you will read/are reading this book with pleasure. It will produce/is
producing an unforgettable impression on you.
- John will tell/is telling me something very important tomorrow. We have made an
appointment. We will meet/are meeting at our favorite café.
b) Provide the given sentences with context to comment upon the use of Present
Continuous and Future Indefinite to denote actions in the future.
E.g.: Look out! The floor is slippery. I will hold your hand not to let you fall down.
It’s my daughter’s wedding tomorrow. I’m holding her hand as she is going to
the chapel.
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a) Peter will lend you some money. – Peter’s lending you some money.
b) I’ll cook an apple pie at the weekends. – I’m cooking an apple pie at the
weekends.
c) She’ll wear a new dress tomorrow. – She’s wearing a new dress tomorrow.
d) We’ll leave next week. – We’re leaving next week.
e) Dad will play tennis with you in 20 minutes. – Dad is playing tennis with you in
20 minutes.
f) They’ll take part in the competition next year. – They are taking part in the
competition next year.
g) I’ll come back late at night. – I’m coming back late at night.
6. Work in pairs. Make your own dialogue by the example of the dialogues in
assignment 3 but twice longer. Choose one of the given situations.
a) you are discussing your visit to your friend’s place next weekend;
b) you are arguing about the way to spend your summer vacation;
c) you are trying to decide what dress to buy;
d) you are choosing a place for the first date;
e) you are convincing the jury of the contest “Do It Yourself” of the necessity of
your invention.
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Future Indefinite. Part 2.
I’ll Follow the Sun…
Today you will try your hand in predicting weather.
1. Read and translate into Russian the text of the song “I’ll Follow the Sun”.
Learn it by heart and reproduce.
One day you’ll look to see I’ve gone,
For tomorrow may rain so I’ll follow the sun.
Some day you’ll know I was the one,
But tomorrow may rain so I’ll follow the sun.
And now the time has come and, my love, I must go,
And though I lose a friend in the end you will know, oh.
One day you’ll find that I have gone,
But tomorrow may rain so I’ll follow the sun.
And now the time has come and, my love, I must go,
And though I lose a friend in the end you will know, oh.
One day you’ll find that I have gone,
But tomorrow may rain so I’ll follow the sun.
The BEATLES
2. Study the information about questions and negative sentences in the Future
Indefinite tense. Note that you DON’T need any additional auxiliary verb to
ask about future or deny some actions to come as there is one (“WILL”) in the
structure of the tense form under discussion.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a negative sentence “-”
I/WE/YOU/THEY/ HE/SHE/IT +WILL +NOT+1форма глагола без to.
I will not go for a walk tomorrow.
PAY ATTENTION TO THE WORD ORDER in a question “?”
WILL+ I/WE/YOU/THEY/ HE/SHE/IT +1форма глагола без to?
Will you go for a walk tomorrow?
Will you go for a walk or to the theatre tomorrow?
WHERE+WILL+ I/WE/YOU/THEY/ HE/SHE/IT +1форма глагола без to?
Where will you go tomorrow?
Who will go for a walk tomorrow?
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a) Restore the word order in the given sentences.
- will/ rain/ not/ it/ tomorrow.
- long/ will/ last/ how/it?
- the/ rise/ will/ temperature?
- wind/ change/ will/ the.
- be/ the/ will/ sunny/ day.
- the/ week/ as/ will/ rest/ its/ be/ of/ good/ the/ as/ beginning?
- it/ at/ think/ stop/ weekends/ will/ I/ not/ the.
- the/ will/ weather/ not/ the/ after/ change/ day/ tomorrow.
- in/ will/ a/ cloud/ sky/ you/ single/ see/ not/ the.
- cause/ will/ it/ what?
- probably/ be/ the/ not/ temperature/ less/ will/ 30/ above/ than/ degrees/0.
- weather/ next/ we/ what/ have/ will/ week?
- will/ of/ pour/ end/ bring/ with/ it/ drizzle/ will/ it/ the/ and/rain/ by/ week/ the/
first.
b) Now put the sentences you’ve got into the correct order to make a dialogue.
Act it out with a partner.
3. a) Read the weather forecast. While reading open the brackets using the
Future Indefinite tense (affirmative or negative sentences). Translate the text
into Russian.
The southeastern Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands ____ (to have,
not) calm weather at the weekends as Hurricane Tomas ____ (to be) over the place
tonight.
At 5 p.m. Hurricane Tomas was located about 90 miles east of Guantanamo,
Cuba, or 70 miles northwest of Port au Prince, Haiti, and had top winds near 75
miles per hour. This makes Tomas a category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson
Hurricane Wind Scale. Tomas ____ (to move) to the northeast near 14 miles per
hour, and ____ (to speed up) its forward motion over the next couple of days.
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The main threat from Tomas ____ (to be) heavy rainfall that ____ (to cause)
life-threatening flash flooding and mudslides over Haiti and the Dominican
Republic. Rainfall ____ (to stop, not) until its totals are around between 5 to 10
inches in these countries, with rainfall amounts near 15 inches possible in isolated
spots.
There ____ (to be, not) such rainfall amounts in the Turks and Caicos Islands,
and the southeastern Bahamas. Strong winds ____ (to affect) the southern Bahamas
and there ____ (to be) windy conditions in the central Bahamas. The weather ____
(to improve, not) for the next few days. Hurricane warnings are posted in Haiti, the
southeastern Bahamas, the Turks and Caicos Islands.
b) Ask different types of questions to the sentences in the Future Indefinite
tense from the text.
4. Try your hand in predicting weather changes and tell your fellow students
what you will/will not wear or do in each particular case. Let your group mates
ask you questions to get more information.
Begin with: I think…..; I don’t think ……..; We expect ………; Probably it ……..;
I suppose ……..; I’m sure ……… and so on.
Use for weather: sunny, rainy, snowy, windy, cloudy, cool, hot, humid, boiling,
foggy, scorching, stifling, chilly, close, sleet, blizzards, slush, downpour, drizzle,
haze, snow, rain, thunder, lightning etc.
Use for clothes: to put on, to take off, to carry, an umbrella, a hat, a cap, a jacket, a
sweater, a pullover, a shirt, a T-shirt, trousers, jeans, a skirt, sunglasses, boots,
shoes, a coat, a fur coat, a blouse etc.
Use for activities: to go for a walk, to watch TV, to spend time outdoors, to go
shopping, to stay in, to go swimming, to sunbathe, to play hockey, to skate, to do
gardening, to sky, to sit down near a fireplace, to play snowballs, to knit, to go
hiking, to go to a café, to meet friends etc.
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E.g.: I think it will rain tomorrow. I won’t go for a walk but I’ll stay at home. I’ll
put on my old warm sweater. Then I’ll make tea and will knit. – Will the rain be
heavy? Will you drink black or green tea? etc.
5. Review the text of the song from the first assignment. How do you
understand the line “… I’ll follow the Sun …” (mind the context)? What will
one do if he/she wants to follow the Sun?
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SECTION 7: The Construction
to be going to do
You’re Going to Lose That Girl…
Today you will learn to speak about the events that are planned to happen in the
future. You will also look into the mysterious world of love affairs.
1. The construction to be going to do something is used …
a)
when
there
INTENTION
is
to
an
do
something. Note that one has
already
made
a
decision
before speaking about it.
E.g.: I have won $1,000. I
Remember:
to make the construction negative or to ask a
question review the way it is done in the Present
Continuous.
E.g.: We are not going to see my mother
tomorrow.
When are you going to go on holiday?
am going to buy a new TV.
b) to make a PREDICTION about the future.
Note the prediction is based on evidence.
One is saying what seems sure to happen.
E.g.: The sky is very black. It is going to
snow.
It’s 8.30! You’re going to miss the
Remember:
for prediction when one has no
real evidence the Future Indefinite
Tense is used.
E.g.: It will rain tomorrow.
(It's my feeling but I can't be
sure.)
train!
Note: In colloquial speech (especially of less educated people) the construction may
sound as “sb is gonna do sth” as in the song “You’re Gonna Lose That Girl” by the
Beatles. It is NOT RECOMMENDED to use this variant!
2. Read the text of the song “You’re Gonna Lose That Girl”. Find, read out
and translate into Russian the sentences with the “to be going to” construction.
Reproduce the verse.
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You’re gonna lose that girl (2 times).
If you don’t take her out tonight,
She’s going to change her mind.
And I will take her out tonight
And I will treat her kind.
You’re gonna lose that girl (2 times).
If you don’t treat her right, my friend,
You’re going to find her gone.
Cause I will treat her right, and then
You’ll be the lonely one.
You’re gonna lose that girl (2 times).
I’ll make a point of taking her away
from you,
The way you treat her what else can I
do?
If you don’t take her out tonight,
She’s going to change her mind.
And I will take her out tonight
And I will treat her kind
You’re going to lose that girl (3 times).
The BEATLES
3. a) Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box to complete short dialogues.
Use “to be going to do something” construction (general questions, affirmative
and negative sentences).
1. Jack’s friend envies him because he has a new girlfriend who is both beautiful
and intelligent....
to get married
not to tell
to make
Fred: Hi, Jack, haven’t seen you for ages! How’s everything going?
Jack: Not bad! At least I’m still alive.
Fred: Just alive? I guess you’re a lucky guy. ____ you ____ me about your new
girlfriend?
Jack: Where did you get that idea?
Fred: Oh, come on! Everyone knows about your Jane. They even say you ____ a
proposal.
Jack: You’re right. Jane is a very nice girl, someone you meet only once in a
lifetime. I’m not boasting but she is really as beautiful as she is intelligent. And
that’s true that we ____.
Fred: Well, I really envy you for having found such a nice girl.
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2. Mike has recently broken up with his girlfriend because....
to find
to get back
not to see
Ryan: Hi, Mike! Haven’t seen you for a while! How is Cathy?
Mike: We ____ each other any more.
Ryan: What has happened? Have you broken up?
Mike: Yeah. I’m sick and tired of her nagging all the time.
Ryan: Oh, I’m sorry. Maybe, you were just too emotional at the moment. ____
you ____ together?
Mike: You know there’s plenty of fish out there in the sea. I ____ someone else.
3. Ryan has found a new job in New York and is about to move there. He doesn’t
want his friendship with Adriana to drift apart. He wants to keep in touch…
to keep (2)
to move
to miss
Adriana: They say you ____ to New York.
Ryan: Yes, I am. I’ve got an offer in upstate New York.
Adriana: Oh, that’s great! But I ____ you.
Ryan: Me, too. ____ you ____ in touch with me?
Adriana: Yeah. Don’t forget to drop me a line when you settle down.
Ryan: Trust me. I won’t. I ____ you posted.
Adriana: All right! I look forward to hearing from you soon. Good luck!
b) Work in pairs. Act out the dialogues you’ve got.
4. a) Read the text “The Blind Date”. While reading open the brackets using
“to be going to do something” construction or the Future Indefinite tense
(questions or affirmative sentences). Translate the text into Russian.
It’s Saturday, 2 p. m. Paul is a bit nervous. It’s natural. It’s his first blind
date! Tonight he ____ (to meet) Greta, Hans’s cousin, “a beautiful stranger”, as he
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calls her to himself. Greta comes from Bonn but now she is living in Bristol with a
British family. She does light work in the house and helps with the children in
return for learning English. She asked Hans to introduce her to one of his friends.
It’s Greta’s first visit to Oxford, so Paul ____ (to show) her around and then
____ (to go) to a disco to dance. He thinks it ____ (to be) O. K. for a start. But
what if she doesn’t like dancing? Perhaps she ____ (to listen) to jazz. Well, no
problem. He ____ (to take) her to a jazz club instead. But what if she doesn’t like
jazz either? Where else ____ they ____ (to go)? Sabine ____ (to give) a party
tonight. Why not go there? Paul always enjoys her parties. Sabine is a wonderful
hostess. But what kind of girl is Greta? Well, if she feels uncomfortable, they ____
(to leave). What ____ he ____ (to wear)? Paul opens his wardrobe and looks at his
“collection” of clothes. He prefers usual clothes– jeans, T-shirts and trainers. The
nicest and oldest thing he has is a black jacket. He ____ (to feel) good if he wears
it. Paul wants to look especially nice and attractive. He ____ (to wear) grey
trousers, black shoes, a white shirt with a striped tie and of course the jacket (for
luck!). Paul looks at the clock. My God! It’s well past 4! He promised to pick up
Greta at 5! Paul gets dressed, looks at himself in the mirror, combs his hair and
leaves the house.
At 5 o’clock he knocks on Hans’s door. The door opens and Paul sees a tall
slim blonde girl. She is smiling. “Paul?” – “Greta?” – “Hello!” Paul is no longer
nervous. He likes the girl at first sight. Greta looks wonderful. She is wearing dark
blue jeans, a rosy silk blouse and a long cardigan. “Well, where ____ we ____ (to
go) first?” she asks still smiling. “I ____ ( to take) you on a tour around Oxford”,
Paul says and adds” and after that we ____ (to go) to a disco, to a club or to a
party.” “Sorry, Paul. But I’m afraid I’m too tired tonight to go anywhere else.
Let’s take a long walk and talk about ourselves. We ____ (to enjoy) Oxford night
life some other time.” “O. K. How about tomorrow?” “Why not go to France on a
day trip?” Paul agrees. What a girl! She is very special!
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b) Think of the questions to suit the given answers based on the text above.
1. ________________________________________________________________
- He is going to go out with Greta.
2. ________________________________________________________________
- First they are going to walk around, then Paul is going to take her to the disco.
3. ________________________________________________________________
- They will go to a jazz club.
4. ________________________________________________________________
- Sabine is.
5. ________________________________________________________________
- They will leave it for some other place.
6. ________________________________________________________________
- He is going to put on jeans, T-shirt and trainers.
7. ________________________________________________________________
- They will enjoy it next time.
c) What is your attitude to a blind date? Is it a good way to meet your
beloved? Do you think a blind date can lead to strong relations? Have you
ever had a blind date? Share your experience. If you haven’t, would you like
to have one? Why / why not?
5. To build up strong and harmonious relations is not always easy. Lovers
swear: “I take this Man/Woman to be my Husband/Wife till death due us part?”
But family life is not a bed of roses sometimes.
a) People experience hardships in the relations with their dates or spouses.
What are they going to do in the situations described below? Note that they
are going to do their best to avoid a split up or divorce. Use both affirmative
and negative sentences (add not less than 3 sentences to each point).
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E.g.: Kathy is a housewife. She is emotionally abused and her emotional needs are
not been met. She feels frustrated and unfulfilled. Her husband is a control freak,
abusive and dominating. Kathy is going to apply for a job and become a successful
business lady. She is going to restore relations with her schoolmates and university
fellow students and make friends with new people. She is not going to be a
browbeaten homebody.
a) Amy’s husband has broken her trust more than once by resorting to cheating on
her.
b) Kevin and Maggie are not getting what they want from the relationship. They
are forced to give up their aspirations and dreams. Both the partners are not
benefiting from each other.
c) Sarah’s boyfriend is a jealous kind. Sarah is forced to keep a distance or totally
cut off from her good male friends.
d) Mike and Maria have fallen out of love and do not have the same feelings they
had for each other anymore.
e) Laura is in the habit of comparing her boyfriend, Sam, with others and is
constantly trying to change him.
f) There is too much tension and dispute between Anna and Bill.
g) Kent, Bella’s husband, has got addictions (like alcohol and gambling) that he is
not willing to let go.
h) Your partner is not taking up his part of responsibilities seriously.
b) Review the text of the song from assignment 2. What is going to happen to
all the characters of the drama? Put yourself in the main character’s place.
What are you going to do not to lose the girl? Now put yourself in the girl’s
place. What are you going to do in such a situation?
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6. Do you have a beloved person? If you do, what are you going to do to
maintain your relations with each other (to make her/him happy, to make
her/him be your spouse …)? If you haven’t been lucky to meet your date so
far, what are you going to do to find one?
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SECTION 8: Conditional Sentences,
Type 1.
Rights and Responsibilities.
Today you will learn to speak about an action that is likely to happen in the future
if a certain condition is fulfilled.
1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (also known as “Conditional Clauses” or “If –
Clauses”) TYPE I are used to express that an action in the main clause is likely
to happen in the future if a certain condition in the subordinate clause is
fulfilled. In brief: there is a CONDITION in the subordinate clause and there is a
RESULT in the main clause.
SUBORDINATE
CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
condition
result
The Present Indefinite
Tense
The Future Indefinite
Tense
If the weather is good
tomorrow,
we will go hiking.
Remember:
the SUBORDINATE
CLAUSE is
introduced into a
sentence with
conjunctions (e.g.:
if), when the MAIN
CLAUSE isn’t.
Note that the main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. If that’s the
case, DON’T use a comma.
E.g.: I’ll send her a card if I find her address. VS. If I find her address, I’ll send her
a card.
Remember:
to make the main and/or subordinate clause negative review the way it is done in
the Future Indefinite and Present Indefinite accordingly.
E.g.: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
If you tell me a secret, I will not (won’t) betray it.
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2. Read the text of the song “Taxman”. Find Conditional Sentences of Type I
and translate them into Russian. Reproduce the verse.
‘Cause I’m the taxman, yeah, I’m the
taxman.
Don’t ask me what I want it for,
If you don’t want to pay some more.
‘Cause I’m the taxman, yeah, I’m the
taxman.
Now my advice for those who die,
Declare the pennies on your eyes.
‘Cause I’m the taxman,
Yeah, I’m the taxman.
And you’re working for no one but
me.
The BEATLES
2. Everyone has his/her rights and responsibilities.
Let me tell you how it will be;
There’s one for you, nineteen for me.
‘Cause I’m the taxman, yeah, I’m the
taxman.
Should five per cent appear too small,
Be thankful I don’t take it all.
‘Cause I’m the taxman, yeah, I’m the
taxman.
If you drive a car I’ll tax the street;
If you try to sit I’ll tax your seat;
If you get too cold I’ll tax the heat;
If you take a walk I’ll tax your feet.
a) A RIGHT is a thing one is allowed to do according to the law. Match the
parts of the conditional sentences (type I) logically to illustrate one’s civil
rights. Open the brackets observing the rule studied.
CONDITION
1. If prisoners ____ (to behave)
themselves,
2. If Jimmy ____ (to have) a day off
tomorrow,
3. If a husband ____ (to be) unfaithful to
his wife,
4. If a family couple ____ (not to have)
a baby,
5. If a customer ____ (not to be)
satisfied with the quality of goods,
6. If Betty ____ (to fall) ill,
7. If teenagers ____ (not to want) to
work,
8. If you ____ (to write) a novel,
9. If Kate and Philip ____ (not to share)
inheritance with their younger sister,
10. If you ____ (to pass) all the exams
successfully,
RESULT
doctors ____ (to treat) her for free.
you ____ (to get) scholarship.
the judge ____ (to cut) down their jail
term.
parents ____ (not to make) them do this.
she ____ (to consult) with a lawyer.
it ____ (to be) copyright.
he ____ (to rest).
they ____ (to adopt) a girl or a boy.
she ____ (to divorce) him.
a seller ____ (to replace) them with
better ones.
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b) A RESPONSIBILITY is a job or duty one must do. Match the parts of the
conditional sentences (type I) logically to illustrate one’s responsibilities. Open
the brackets observing the rule.
RESULT
1. Jamey ____ (to discharge) more
functions
2. Your boss ____ (to dismiss) you
3. Kelvin ____ (to move) his car to
another place
4. Everyone ____ (to show) the contents
of his/her suitcase to a customs officer
5. A fashion house ____ (to cancel) a
contract
6. Tommy ____ (to take) his new pet for
a walk
7. You ____ (to be) on overtime
8. Jane and Ann ____ (to run) their
household together
9. The coach ____ (not to allow) an
athlete to take part in the competition
10. An employer ____ (to pay) for all
travel expenses
CONDITION
if you ____ (to have) some extra work
to do.
if they ____ (to share) a flat.
if a worker ____ (to make) a business
trip.
if a model ____ (to gain) weight.
if you ____ (to be) late for work again.
if he ____ (to ask) him/her to.
if he ____ (not to set) new personal best.
if his parents ____ (to present) him with
a dog.
if she ____ (to be) promoted next
month.
if a traffic police officer ____ (to ask)
him to.
3. Any violation of one’s rights or someone’s evasion of responsibility can be
considered as a crime. Each crime is followed by punishment. What will
happen if the breaches of the law described below occur? Think of a possible
outcome of each particular case using Conditional Sentences of Type I and
word combinations given.
E.g.: You bought a new mobile phone. In a month it stopped working. You want to
get your money back. If you want to get your money back you will go to the store
you bought your mobile phone at. A shop assistant will pay you back for the failed
device or offer to choose another one, if you have a bill.
You: to want to get money back, to go to the store, to have a bill.
A shop assistant: to pay back, to offer to choose another device.
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a) Mr. Simon is driving his car. He is late for work. He needs to speed up. If he
__________________________________________________________________
Mr. Simon: to speed up, to break highway regulations.
A policeman: to stop, to fine.
b) Mrs. Wilson is a teacher. She is annoyed with one of her pupils making much
noise. She is going to slap a naughty boy. If she _________________________
Mrs. Wilson: to slap the boy.
The boy: to complain to his parents.
The parents: to know, to tell the headmaster.
The headmaster: to punish, to dismiss.
c) An unemployed young man needs a huge sum of money to pay out his gamblingdebt. He is thinking over a bank robbery. If he __________________________
The young man: to rob a bank,
The police: to seize.
The jury: to try the case, to return guilty, to put into prison.
d) A celebrity has found out that a local rag spreads vague rumours about her. She is
going to punish the offender. If she ___________________________________
The celebrity: to want to punish, to retain a lawyer, to gain the suit at law.
The lawyer: to bring an action against the rag.
The rag: to recoup the celebrity for the caused moral damage.
e) Two teenagers being intoxicated with some beer broke a shop window of a flower
shop. They don’t want their parents to know about the incident. If they _______
The teenagers: not to want the parents to know, to pretend to be at the cinema, to try
to convince of their innocence.
A policeman: to catch, not to believe, to tell the parents.
The parents: to know, to denude of pocket money, not to allow to go out.
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4. Michael is a law-abiding American. He’s never violated the law and knows
his rights perfectly. Read and translate into Russian “Top Five Rules” you
must observe when talking to a police officer during a traffic stop. What will
Michael do in such a situation? Use Conditional Sentences of Type I to speak
about the way he will act. Begin with: If a police officer stops Michael, he will
pull over to a safe place. If Michael wants to be safe, he will stay in his car and keep
his hands on the steering wheel. If he wants to build trust with the police officer, he
……If he doesn’t want any problems, he …… If the police officer asks Michael to
tell his name and address, he ……etc.
Rule 1 - Safety. The first thing is your safety! You want to put the police officer at
ease. Pull over to a safe place, turn off your ignition, stay in the car and keep your
hands on the steering wheel. At night turn on the interior lights. Keep your license,
registration, and proof of insurance always close by. Build a trust with the police
officer, be a “good citizen”, be courteous, stay calm, smile and don’t complain.
Show respect and say things like “sir and no sir.” Never bad-mouth a police officer,
stay in control of your words, body language and your emotions. Never touch a
police officer and don’t run away!
Rule 2 – Never Talk To A Police Officer. The only questions you need to answer
is your name, address and date of birth and nothing else! Instead of telling the police
officer who you are, simply give him your driver’s license or I.D. card. All the
information the police officer needs to know about you can be found on your
driver’s license. Don’t volunteer any more information to the police officer. If he
ask you any other questions, politely say “Am I free to go?” and then don’t say
another word.
Rule 3 – “I’m Going to Remain Silent”. The Supreme Court has made a new
ruling that you should never talk to a police officer without an attorney, but there’s a
catch! Before you’re allowed not to talk to a police officer, you must tell the police
officer “I’m Going to Remain Silent” and then keep your mouth shut! Anything you
say or do can and will be used against you at any time by the police.
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Rule 4 – NO to Police Searches. If a police officer didn’t need your permission to
search, he wouldn’t be asking. Never give permission to a police officer to search
you or your car. If a police officer does search you, don’t resist and keep saying “I
don’t consent to this search.”
Rule 5 –“Am I Free to Go?” As soon as the police officer ask you a question ask
him “Am I free to go?” You have to ask if you’re “free to go,” otherwise the police
officer will think you are voluntarily staying. If the police officer says that you are
being detained or arrested, say to the police officer “I’m Going to Remain Silent”.
5. a) Review the text of the song from assignment 2. Read out the lines
illustrating the taxman’s functions and enlarge upon the list. What’s the
author’s attitude to the taxman? Is he objective or subjective describing the
taxman in such a way? Will you agree with him? Why/why not? Are the
functions of a Russian taxman different from those listed? If they are,
enumerate them.
b) Speak about yourself. Tell your fellow students about your rights and
responsibilities at home. What will you do if your mother asks you to go
shopping (your father wants you to go fishing with him; your room is a terrible
mess; your little sister wants you to read a fairy tale for her … etc.)? What will
your folks do if you fail the first exam (come back home late at night; don’t
take your dog for a walk; break neighbours’ window … etc)?
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SECTION 9: Wish Clause.
Wish You Were Here.
Today you will learn to speak about your wishes and regrets. You will also learn
about things that people either dream or regret about.
1. To express desire and request “wish” clause is used. It looks different
depending on what time one is referring to.
- When one refers to the present, the main verb is used in the Past Indefinite.
E.g.: I’m shorter than I want to be. I wish I were taller.
It’s too cold in New York. I wish it weren’t so cold.
- When one regrets events in the past, the main verb is used in the Past Perfect.
E.g.: I wish I had told him how mush I loved him.
- When one expresses a desire for future events, the main verb is used in the
Future in the Past.
E.g.: We came to the mountains to ski, and there is no snow. I wish it would snow.
My brother and sister are fighting over the computer. I wish they would come
to an agreement.
Note that in “wish” clauses most verbs can go alongside “would”. However there
are two verbs which do not: “to be”, “to have”.
2. Read the text of the song “January”. Find, read out and translate into
Russian all the “wish” clauses. Reproduce the verse.
I know you told me this before.
I know you told me this a million
times.
You say you don’t know how you feel.
You don’t know if you even love me
anymore.
If she was a good kisser
Then I know how much I miss her.
January came;
By April you have stayed;
June I was in heaven;
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I wish I wasn’t such a wishy-washy
prick,
I wish I said just how I felt.
If I was a good listener
Maybe you would still be here.
The GOLDFINGER
July was just the same;
September rolled around;
October wore a frown;
By Christmas we were through.
I wish I didn’t say I’m sorry.
I wish you loved me still the same.
3. Match the sentences logically to get complete utterances expressing one’s
regret or desire concerning the given situations. Practice back translation of
the utterances you’ve got with your deskmate.
1. I’m soaked to the skin.
2. This pullover was really cheap.
3. I like your school.
4. I must get in touch with Rose.
5. This bus is very slow!
6. I’m disappointed with this camera.
7. I answered three questions well.
8. I can’t understand anything Jane says.
9. I wasn’t very attentive to what
the teacher was saying, so now I can’t do
my homework.
10. Cathy painted her room green, but
she doesn’t like it.
11. This is a very puzzling problem!
12. It’s cold and miserable here in
winter.
13. I can’t repair my bike because I don’t
have any tools.
14. I’m worried about my baseball team.
Perhaps they won’t win!
15. You promised not to tell anyone my
secret, but you did.
16. I’m hungry!
17. Enjoy your holiday!
18. This is a lovely place!
19. It’s a pity you live so far away.
20. Frances is a boss dancer!
a) I wish I had a sandwich in my pocket.
b) I wish we had come here before.
c) I wish I could dance as well as her.
d) I wish I went there too.
e) I wish I knew the answer.
f) I wish had finished the whole text.
g) I wish I had brought an umbrella.
h) I wish I had listened to my teacher.
i) I wish I hadn’t bought it.
j) I wish we lived in a warm place.
k) I wish you lived in my street.
l) If only I had a screwdriver.
m) I wish I spoke French.
n) I wish I had bought two of them.
o) I wish I knew her phone number.
p) She wishes she had painted it blue.
q) I wish I hadn’t told you.
r) I wish I had my holiday too.
s) I wish we had taken a train instead.
t) I wish they played well.
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4. a) Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets
(affirmative or negative). Translate the sentences you’ve got into good Russian.
1. Bruce wishes he ____ (have) more money so he could buy a new sweater.
2. I wish I ____ (be) taller so that I could be in a basketball team.
3. I wish you ____ (stop) watching television while I am talking to you.
4. I wish you ____ (do) that. It annoys me.
5. I wish the holidays ____ (come) so we could go off to the seaside.
6. Of course Tom wishes he ____ (come) with us to Paris, but he has to stay here.
7. I wish we ____ (go) to the match on Saturday but we’re visiting my uncle.
8. I wish you ____ (keep) your mouth shut yesterday. Now Mary knows everything.
9. I wish I ____ (lose) all my money. Now I’m broke.
10. Peter is always late. If only he ____ (turn up) on time for a change!
b) Complete the sentences using the given clues.
1. It’s a pity I can’t go to the stadium tonight. I wish_________________________
2. I want to see Sara more often but I can’t. I wish___________________________
3. I live in Malta and I don’t like this. I wish_______________________________
4. It’s a pity Mary is not here. I wish______________________________________
5. My sister doesn’t know how to dance. I wish_____________________________
6. My best friend isn’t here. I wish _______________________________________
7. Why can’t you come to my birthday party? I wish_________________________
8. I’m not watching the news. I wish_____________________________________
9. She has got a lot of problems with her husband. She wishes _________________
10. Alex can’t speak English fluently. He wishes____________________________
c) Look at the picture. Meet the students: (from the left to the right) Sofia, Yana,
Kate, Irene, Liza, Julia, Helen, Sveta, Ann, Iris, Dima. What are they thinking
about during the lesson? Rewrite the given sentences using “wish” clauses.
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It’s a pity I
don’t speak
Chinese.
I don’t have
anything to
say. I’m
ashamed.
My car has
broken down.
I can’t stop
thinking
about it.
I’ve left all
my
textbooks at
home.
It would be
better if it
stopped
raining. I hope the
teacher
won’t ask
me today.
I don’t
have any
free
time.
Some of my
groupmates
are not
ready for
the class
again.
The girls are
chattering
again. That
annoys me.
We aren’t
old enough
to go to the
pub.
5. a) You have already found out that we use “wish” clauses to speak about our
regrets. Read the text “Survey: Your Biggest Regrets, and How to Make Them
Work for You” by Meredith Melnick (see the supplement) and sum it up
pointing out people’s most frequent regrets.
E.g.: “The most commonly cited regrets involved romance (18%) — lost loves or
unfulfilled relationships.” – 18% of people wish they hadn’t split up with their dates.
18% of people wish they weren’t single. 18% of people wish they had a date.
b) Review the text of the song from assignment 2. Does the main character fall
into one of the categories described in the text you’ve analyzed earlier? Which
category? Prove your idea enumerating his wishes and regrets.
Begin with: The young man falls into …... because he wishes ….
c) What about you? Which category do you belong to? Prove your idea sharing
your wishes and regrets with your fellow students. Do you think the
classification of “the biggest regrets” is complete? Would you add any category
to it? Why / why not?
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Supplement.
Survey: Your Biggest Regrets, and How to Make Them Work for You
by Meredith Melnick
Regret is as universal an emotion as love or fear, and it can be nearly as
powerful. So, in a new paper, two researchers set about trying to figure out what
the typical American regrets most.
In telephone surveys, Neal Roese, a psychologist and professor of marketing
at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, and Mike
Morrison, a doctoral candidate in psychology at University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, asked 370 Americans, aged 19 to 103, to talk about their most notable
regret. Participants were asked what the regret was, when it happened, whether it
was a result of something they did or didn’t do, and whether it was something that
could still be fixed.
The most commonly cited regrets involved romance (18%) — lost loves or
unfulfilled relationships. Family regrets came in second (16%), with people still
feeling badly about being mean to their siblings in childhood. Other frequently
reported regrets involved career (13%), education (12%), money (10%) and
parenting (9%).
Roese and Morrison’s study, which is slated to be published in Social
Psychological and Personality Science, is significant in that it surveyed a wide
swath of the American public, including people of all ages and socioeconomic and
educational backgrounds. Previous studies on regret have focused largely on
college students, who predictably tend to have education-focused regrets, like
wishing they had studied harder or chosen a different major. The new survey
shows that in the larger population, a person’s “life circumstances —
accomplishments, shortcomings, station in life — inject considerable fuel into the
fires of regret,” the authors write.
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People with less education, for instance, were more likely to report education
regrets. People with higher levels of education had the most career regrets. And
those with no romantic partner tended to hold regrets regarding love.
Broken down by gender, more women (44%) than men (19%) had regrets
about love and family — not surprising, since women “value social relationships
more than men,” the authors write. In contrast, men (34%) were more likely than
women (27%) to cite work-related regrets, wishing they’d chosen a different career
path, for instance, or followed their passion. Many respondents also reported
wishing they had worked less to spend more time with their children.
There was an even split between regrets about inaction and action. But, like
previous studies, the current research found that some regrets are more likely than
others to persist over time: people tend to hang on longer to the regret of inaction
— wishing they’d taken the opportunity to do something or do it differently;
meanwhile, regrets of action — wishing you could take back something you did —
tend to be more recent. As Mark Twain once said, “Twenty years from now you
will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do than by the ones you did
do.”
Further, researchers found, regrets that involved higher stakes, like divorce
or death in the family, were stronger than those involving mild loss, such as an
argument with a spouse or bad day at work, especially if the regret stemmed from
people’s actions, rather than a missed opportunity. Interestingly, although the
researchers expected to find more regrets springing from problems that could still
be fixed rather than those about which nothing can be done, they found the
opposite to be true: “individuals regret lost opportunities the most,” particularly
when they’ve failed to achieve a sense of closure following the past event. The
authors write: “For example, a doctor who loses a patient on the operating table
due to fatigue might always regret the experience and cannot reverse the outcome.
Nevertheless, valuable lessons might be gleaned, perhaps lowering the chances of
future similar mishaps. In this way, insights obtained from lost opportunities may
in time lead to closure.”
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So the question for the rest of us is, how do we best overcome our own
regrets, or at least use them as a positive influence in our lives? Healthland asked
Roese to share some of his best advice:
#1: Move On. It’s hard to avoid regret unless you discard your hopes, dreams and
personal standards, or unless you become totally perfect! Regret seems to be an
inevitable part of life, and your brain registers it instantly as the discrepancy
between what has occurred and what you intended to occur. A good strategy,
however, is to recognize that although regret is a common part of life, you don’t
need to dwell on it. Turn your attention to new activities, strategies, pursuits. Take
a class, join a book club, get out and do something different. Re-orient your
attention to future possibilities.
#2: Get Closure. Studies have shown that regret disappears faster if it involves a
situation that is done, or closed down, or finished. Yet, many times people make
decisions in such a way that they leave the door open to changing their mind later
— like buying things that you know you can return. If you burn the bridges behind
you, and have no chance to go back and change things, it pushes you to come to
terms with what you have, accept it and move on.
#3: Make It Work for You. There are several positive aspects of regret. One is
that it can help you put things into context. The more that you see how alternatives
might have unfolded, the more you can come to appreciate what has actually
happened. Another is that regret can help preserve relationships, in the sense that if
you feel deeply that you have screwed up, you are more likely to make amends.
Further, regret, along with other negative emotions tend to motivate us to new
action. Regret kicks your thinking processes into a higher gear, so that you more
actively seek out new fixes.
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SECTION 11:
Normal and Abnormal Behaviour.
Nowhere Man.
Today you will define the terms “normal” and “abnormal” and find out what
behavior is considered to be normal and abnormal nowadays. You’ll also try your
hand at analyzing pieces of literature, music and other works of art in order to
single out characteristic features of normal and abnormal behavior typical of
various epochs.
1. Read the following words and word combinations you’ll come across in the
tasks below with good English sounds and proper stress. If necessary check
out their transcriptions and translations in a dictionary.
to conduct – conduct
to deviate – deviation
to depart – departure
to define – definition
written – unwritten
decent – indecent
normal – abnormal
male – female
to retaliate – retaliation
to behave – behavior
to dignify – dignity
criterion – criteria
2. Read and translate into Russian an extract from the song “Nowhere Man”.
Learn it by heart and reproduce adding a sentence or two to explain its
connection with the topic under discussion (share your suppositions).
He’s a real Nowhere Man,
Sitting in his Nowhere Land,
Making his nowhere plans
nobody.
Doesn’t have a point of view,
Knows not where he’s going to,
Isn’t he a bit like you and me?
……………………………….
He’s as blind as he can be,
Just sees what he wants to see,
Nowhere man, can you see me at all?
Doesn’t have a point of you,
Knows not where he’s going to,
Isn’t he a bit like you and me?
for
The BEATLES
3. Complete the text with the words from the box or their derivatives in the
correct form. Sum it up in not more than 2 sentences and provide your own
definition of the terms “normal” and “abnormal”.
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departure
witness
perceive
place
break
dignity
criterion
deviate
see
illegal
conduct
gender
standard
Deviation from social norms defines the ____of an individual, from
society’s unwritten rules (norms). For example if one was to ____ a man jumping
around, nude, on the streets, the man would be ____ as abnormal, as he has ____
society’s norms about wearing clothing, not to mention one’s self ____.
There are also a number of ____ for one to examine before reaching a
judgment as to whether someone has ____ from society’s norms. The first of these
criterion being culture; what may be ____ as normal in one culture, may be seen as
abnormal in another. The second criterion being the situation & context one is
____ in; for example, going to the toilet is a normal human act, but going in the
middle of a supermarket would be seen as highly abnormal, it is ____ as a
misdemeanor act of indecent public ____. The third criterion is age; a child at the
age of three could get away with taking off his/her clothing in public, but not a
man at the age of twenty. The fourth criterion is ____: a male responding with
behavior normally reacted to as female, and vice versa, is retaliated against, not
just corrected. The fifth criterion is historical context; ____ of normal behavior
change in some societies, sometimes very rapidly.
4. It seems that the terms “normal” and “abnormal” have existed for ages.
a) Prove this idea pointing out the characteristic features of normal and
abnormal behavior typical of certain historical periods. Work in small groups.
Make your own research on the topic analyzing the following works of
literature and cinema.
 Ch. Bronte “Jane Eyre”;
 J.D. Salinger “The Catcher in
 F.S. Fitzgerald “The Great
the Rye”;
 The film “Forest Gump”.
Gatsby”;
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Make a presentation of your findings.
Begin with: “In the 1920s/1930s etc. it was normal/abnormal to …”.
Illustrate your report with examples from the book or film you’ve chosen.
Name the representatives of the two groups. Use the substitution table to
arrange your speech:
…..
is considered to be
is supposed to be
seems to be
appears to be
tends to be
is (un)likely to be
is said to be
is believed to be
normal
because ...
abnormal
b) Can you single out features that are common for all the periods presented?
Is the understanding of the notions “normal” and “abnormal” absolutely
different in different epochs? Explain why.
c) Make a sketch of our modern society depicting things and activities that are
supposed to be normal or abnormal nowadays. Try to take into account all
possible spheres of human life: family, education, work, army service, leisure,
hobby, religion etc. Is it easy to give a definite answer to the question? Why?
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5. Each epoch has people who are considered to be abnormal by their
contemporaries. In most cases they are rebels who rebel against the established
order and government, set rules and common ideals. One example of the 1960s
is John Lennon who was called “a working class hero” by his associates and “a
nowhere man” by officials and people who didn’t share his views. Review the
verse from assignment 2 where J. Lennon depicted other people’s attitude to
him. In a word that is what he usually heard about himself from his aunt at
home and from the headmaster and teachers at school. Can the word
“nowhere” be substituted by the word “abnormal”? Why? What is the message
of the verse? Does the singer advise us anything? Think about other examples.
Tell your fellow students who you’ve managed to remember commenting upon
his/her biography and reasons to be called abnormal.
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Appearance and Fashion.
Shining, Streaming, Gleaming,
Flaxen, Waxen…
The aim of the lesson is to define the term “fashion” and to find out advantages and
disadvantages of following current fashion trends. You will also analyze styles of
different people (your fellow students and celebrities) and decide whether they have
any sense of taste.
1. Read and translate into Russian the text
of the song “Style”. Learn it by heart and
reproduce adding a sentence or two to
explain its connection with the topic under
discussion.
Some people dress 'cause they dress
when they dress,
But he gets dressed to get dressed.
It's only a hunch but I bet you a bunch.
He wears suspenders, a belt and a
vest,
From the tip of his toes to his head,
He looks like an unmade bed.
With mother of pearl kind of buttons,
You look like the Astors and Huttons.
You either got or you haven't got class,
How it draws the applause of the
masses.
You've either got, or you haven't style.
Style and charm seem to go arm in
arm.
A flower's not a flower if it's wilted,
A hat's not a hat till it's tilted.
You've either got or you haven't got
style.
If you got it, you stand out a mile,
Got it you stand out a mile.
You've either got or you haven't got
style, got or you haven't got.
FRANK SINATRA
You've either got or you haven't got
style.
If you got it, you stand out a mile.
A flower's not a flower if it's wilted,
A hat's not a hat till it's tilted.
You either got or you haven't got class.
How it draws the applause of the
masses.
You either got, or you haven't got,
Got or you haven't got style.
You've either got or you haven't got
style.
If you got it, it stands out a mile.
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2. Fashion is a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially
in clothing, foot wear or accessories.
a) In order to review topical vocabulary, solve the crossword puzzle provided
below.
b) Consult your dictionaries to enlarge upon the wordlist you’ve got having
solved the crossword puzzle above. Fill in the table with the words and word
combinations you’ve found. Choose 5 items and write their definitions. Read
them out and let your fellow students guess the objects (don’t forget to specify
the number of letters).
CLOTHING
FOOT WEAR
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3. a) Read the text about the history of Western fashion (see the supplement).
Sum it up expressing your own attitude to the style of each particular epoch.
Go on speaking providing some information about fashion trends of the 21st
century. What kind of clothes is in fashion now (use words and word
combinations from the list you compiled earlier)? What fashion trends that you
see today will be out of fashion within a year or two and what fashion trends
will remain? What are the strangest fashions you have ever seen?
b) Is it important to be in fashion? Are you fashion conscious? How does it
reveal itself? Have you ever heard of the term “fashion victim”? Who does it
refer to? Do you know anyone who is a fashion victim (relatives, friends,
celebrities etc.)? What’s your attitude to such people?
4. In Hollywood they often have “10 Best Dressed” and “10 Worst Dressed”
celebrities of a year. Make up your own list of the worst and best dressed celebs
(pop and rock stars, actors and actresses, politicians, showmen and etc.). Choose
two of them (one from the best and one from the worst list) and speak about their
style in detail.
5. Tell your fellow students about what you tend to wear most often and let
them decide whether you have a sense of taste or not. If you disagree with their
judgements stand up for your choice.
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Supplement
The History of Western Fashion
from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The history of Western fashion is the story of the changing fashions in
clothing for men and women in Western Europe and other countries under its
influence from the 12th century to the present.
XII CENTURY.
Costume during the 12th century in Europe was simple and differed only in
details from the clothing of the preceding centuries. Men wore knee-length tunics
for most activities, and men of the upper classes wore long tunics, with hose and
mantles or cloaks. Women wore long tunics or gowns. A close fit to the body, full
skirts, and long flaring sleeves were characteristic of upper class fashion for both
men and women.
As in the previous centuries, two styles of dress existed side-by-side for men:
a short (knee-length) costume deriving from a melding of the everyday dress of the
later Roman Empire and the short tunics worn by the invading barbarians, and a
long (ankle-length) costume descended from the clothing of the Roman upper
classes and influenced by Byzantine dress.
A new French fashion for both men and women was the bliaut or bliaud, a
long outer tunic with full skirts from the hip and sleeves that fitted tightly to the
elbow and then flared into a trumpet shape.
XIII CENTURY.
Costume during the 13th century in Europe was very simple for both men and
women, and quite uniform across the continent. Male and female clothing were
relatively similar, and changed very slowly, if at all. Most clothing, especially
outside the wealthier classes, remained little changed from three or four centuries
earlier.
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The century saw great progress in the dyeing and working of wool, which was
by far the most important material for outer wear. For the rich, colour was very
important. Blue was introduced for the first time, and became very fashionable.
XIV CENTURY.
Fashion in 14th century Europe was marked by the beginning of a period of
experimentation with different forms of clothing. The mid-14th century marks the
emergence of recognizable “fashion” in clothing. The draped garments and straight
seams of previous centuries were replaced by curved seams and the beginnings of
tailoring, which allowed clothing to more closely fit the human form. Also, the use
of lacing and buttons allowed a snugger fit to clothing.
In the course of the century the length of female hem-lines progressively
reduced, and by the end of the century it was fashionable for men to omit the long
loose over-garment of previous centuries altogether, putting the emphasis on a
tailored top that fell a little below the waist—a silhouette that is still reflected in
men’s costume today.
A fashion for mi-parti or parti-coloured garments made of two contrasting
fabrics, one on each side, arose for men in mid-century, and was especially popular
at the English court.
XV CENTURY.
Fashion in 15th century Europe was characterized by a series of extremes and
extravagances, from the voluminous gowns called houppelandes with their
sweeping floor-length sleeves to the revealing doublets and hose of Renaissance
Italy. Hats, hoods, and other headdresses assumed increasing importance, and were
swagged, draped, jewelled, and feathered. As Europe continued to grow more
prosperous, the urban middle classes, skilled workers, began to wear more complex
clothes that followed, at a distance, the fashions set by the elites. National variations
in clothing seem on the whole to have increased over the century.
Contemporary chroniclers identify the source of the fashion for slashing
garments (to reveal a lining or full undergarment beneath) to the actions of Swiss
soldiers in the aftermath of the Battle of Grandson in 1476. Supposedly the Swiss
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plundered the rich fabrics of the Burgundian nobles and used the scraps to patch
their tattered clothes. The fad for multiple slashings spread to German Landsknechts
and thence to France, Italy, and England, where it was to remain a potent current in
fashionable attire into the mid-seventeenth century.
The second result of the defeat at Grandson was the decline of Burgundy as a
fount of culture and fashion. The French nobility were introduced to the fabrics and
styles of Italy, which would combine with German influence to dominate fashion in
France (and later, England) in the first half of the sixteenth century.
XVI CENTURY.
Fashion in the period 1500–1550 in Western Europe is marked by voluminous
clothing worn in an abundance of layers. Contrasting fabrics, slashes, embroidery,
applied trims, and other forms of surface ornamentation became prominent. The tall,
narrow lines of the late Medieval period were replaced with a wide silhouette,
conical for women with breadth at the hips and broadly square for men with width at
the shoulders. Sleeves were a center of attention, and were puffed, slashed, cuffed,
and turned back to reveal contrasting linings.
Regional variations in fashionable clothing that arose in the 15th century
became more pronounced in the sixteenth.
Linen shirts and chemises or smocks had full sleeves and often full bodies,
pleated or gathered closely at neck and wrist. The resulting small frill gradually
became a wide ruffle, presaging the ruff of the latter half of the century.
Fashion in the period 1550–1600 in Western European clothing is
characterized by increased opulence, the rise of the ruff, the expansion of the
farthingale for women, and, for men, the disappearance of the codpiece.
The severe, rigid fashions of the Spanish court were dominant everywhere
except France and Italy; black garments were worn for the most formal occasions.
Regional styles were still distinct though.
Linen ruffs worn at Court grew from a narrow frill at neck and wrists to a
broad “cartwheel” style that required a wire support by the 1580s. Later ruffs were
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made of delicate reticella, a cutwork lace that evolved into the needlelaces of the
seventeenth century.
Clothing was fastened with buttons or tied with cord or ribbon points.
By the end of the period, a sharp distinction could be seen between the sober
fashions favored by Protestants in England and the Netherlands, which still showed
heavy Spanish influence, and the light, revealing fashions of the French and Italian
courts; this distinction would carry over well into the seventeenth century.
XVII CENTURY.
Fashion in the period 1600–1650 in Western European clothing is
characterized by the disappearance of the ruff in favour of broad lace or linen
collars. Waistlines rose through the period for both men and women. Other notable
fashions included full, slashed sleeves and tall or broad hats with brims. For men,
hose disappeared in favour of breeches.
The silhouette, which was essentially close to the body with tight sleeves and
a low, pointed waist to around 1615, gradually softened and broadened. Sleeves
became very full, and in the 1620s and 1630s were often paned or slashed to show
the voluminous sleeves of the shirt or chemise beneath. Waistlines rose.
Spanish fashions remained very conservative. The ruff lingered longest in
Spain and Holland, but disappeared first for men and later for women in France and
England.
The social tensions leading to the English Civil War were reflected in English
fashion, with the elaborate French styles popular at the courts of James I and his son
Charles I contrasting with the sober styles in sadd or somber colours favoured by
Puritans and exported to the early settlements of New England.
In England, embroidered linen jackets fastened with ribbon ties were
fashionable for both men and women from 1600–1620, as was reticella tinted with
yellow starch. Gowns with split sleeves (often trimmed with horizontal rows of
braid) were worn by both men and women.
Fashion in the period 1650–1700 in Western European clothing is
characterised by rapid change. Following the end of the Thirty Years’ War and the
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Restoration of England’s Charles II, military influences in men’s clothing were
replaced by a brief period of decorative exuberance which then sobered into the
coat, waistcoat and breeches costume that would reign for the next century and a
half. In the normal cycle of fashion, the broad, high-waisted silhouette of the
previous period was replaced by a long, lean line with a low waist for both men and
women. This period also marked the rise of the periwig as an essential item of
men’s fashion.
XVIII CENTURY.
Fashion in the period 1700–1750 in European and European-influenced
countries is characterized by a widening silhouette for both men and women
following the tall, narrow look of the 1680s and 90s. Wigs remained essential for
men of substance, and were often white; natural hair was powdered to achieve the
fashionable look.
Distinction was made in this period between full dress worn at Court and for
formal occasions, and undress or everyday, daytime clothes. As the decades
progressed, fewer and fewer occasions called for full dress which had all but
disappeared by the end of the century.
Fashion in the 1750–1795 in European countries and North America was
characterised by greater abundance, elaboration and intricacy in clothing designs,
inspired by the Rococo artistic trends of the period. For women, as the hoop skirts of
earlier on where replaced with larger panniers, dresses, especially in the aristocracy,
became highly ornate, colourful and rich in decoration, inspired by the French court
fashion of the times.
Hairstyles were equally elaborate, with long and florid wigs being popular.
Nevertheless, towards the late-1780s and 1790s fashion started to become simpler
and less elaborate, leading to the more neoclassically-styled fashions of the late1790s and early 19th century. For men, on the other hand, waistcoats and stockings
of previous decades continued to be fashionable.
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XIX CENTURY.
The Empire style, associated in early 19th-century France with Josephine, was
an attempt to recapture classic simplicity. Women wore a thin muslin dress with a
high waist, a low round neck, and puffed short sleeves. Men wore a short-waisted
cutaway coat with tails, a high collar, and large lapels and military boots; plaincolored wools became predominant. The whole male appearance was strikingly
military. After 1815 women, emphasizing their fragility, achieved an hourglass
shape with an extremely tight corset. Their dresses had wide collars, sloping
shoulders, leg-of-mutton sleeves, and full skirts. Men wore the frock coat, which
was fitted and had a skirt that reached the knees, and trousers were introduced and
generally adopted. After 1840 Victorian women wore layers of decorative crinoline
and after 1855 the hoop; sleeves were bell-shaped, and waist and necklines were
pointed. Though men still wore the tailcoat and frock coat, the sack coat, sometimes
worn without the vest, was becoming popular for everyday wear. In general, men’s
clothes were becoming looser and more tubular and were predominantly of somber
broadcloth. After 1865 the bustle became fashionable for women; at this time, too,
women first wore a tailored jacket with collar and lapels—the forerunner of the suit.
The growing emphasis on sports, especially tennis and golf, was beginning to
affect costume. Knee breeches, called knickerbockers or knickers, came into fashion
for men, and sweaters became popular. After 1890 women most often wore the suit
or the shirtwaist with balloon sleeves and wasp waist: the dress of the Gibson girl.
Men’s suits had square shoulders and straight waists and were usually of serge or
tweed; the tuxedo was used for formal wear.
XX CENTURY.
After 1910, as women’s feet and legs began to be exposed, shoes were
colored to match the outfit. The nightgown, for women, gave way for a time to
pajamas. The popularity of sportswear for men increased; the open-necked shirt was
worn and trousers were cuffed and creased. Women's dress after 1914 was
characterized by straight lines, e.g., the floor-length hobble skirt and the flapper's
boyish, short-skirted costume and matching accessories were popular in the 1920s.
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The following decades produced radical changes in women's wear, from the flowing
skirts of the 1930s and the box-jacketed suits of the 40s to the sack dress of the early
60s. Since then the fluctuating hemline has been a predominant concern of fashion.
The abbreviated miniskirt has vied for popularity with the full-length maxi and the
calf-length midi in coats, skirts, and dresses. Women's clothing has become less
restrictive and more casual than in previous eras. During the 1960s men's clothing
underwent revolutionary changes in color and fabric, becoming flamboyant for the
first time in the 20th cent. The flaring of trouser cuffs in the 1970s was a major
modification in shape.
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War and Peace.
Eve of Destruction.
Today we will find out whether you are good at history discussing the problem of
war and peace.
1. Read and translate into Russian the
text of the song “Eve of Destruction”.
Reproduce the verse.
And you tell me, over and over and
over again, my friend.
Ah, you don't believe we're on the eve
of destruction.
Yeak, my blood's so mad feels like
coagulating,
I'm sitting here just contemplating.
I can't twist the truth, it knows no
regulation,
Handful of senators don't pass
legislation,
And marches alone can't bring
integration
When human respect is disintegrating,
This whole crazy world is just too
frustrating.
And you tell me, over and over and
over again, my friend.
Ah, you don't believe we're on the eve
of destruction.
Think of all the hate there is in Red
China,
Then take a look around to Selma,
Alabama.
Ah, you may leave here for four days
in space,
But when you return it's the same old
place,
The pounding of the drums, the pride
and disgrace.
The Eastern world, it is exploding,
Violence flaring, bullets loading.
You're old enough to kill, but not for
voting,
You don't believe in war – but what's
that gun you're toting?
And even the Jordan River has bodies
floating.
But you tell me, over and over and
over again, my friend.
Ah, you don't believe we're on the eve
of destruction.
Don't you understand what I'm trying
to say,
And can't you feel the fears I'm feeling
today?
If the button is pushed, there's no
running away,
There'll be no one to save, will the
world in a grave.
Take a look around you, boy, it's
bound to scare you, boy.
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You can bury your dead, but don't
leave a trace.
Hate your next-door neighbor, but
don't forget to say grace.
And tell me, over and over and over
again, my friend.
You don't believe we're on the eve of
destruction (2 times).
BARRY MCGUIRE
2. a) Are you good at history? Look through the list of well-known people
from ancient and modern history. Get ready to say a few words about each of
them emphasizing the way their names are connected with the topic under
discussion.
1. Plato
2. Ronald
Reagan
6. Albert
7. Voltaire
Einstein
11. John F.
12. Ernest
Kennedy
Hemingway
16. Abraham
17. Emperor
Lincoln
Hirohito
21. Harry S. Truman
3. Jacques
Chirac
8. Benjamin
Franklin
13. Cicero
18. Oscar
Wilde
22. Josef Stalin
4. Martin
5. Mahatma
Luther King,
Gandhi
Jr.
9. Mother
10. Winston
Teresa
Churchill
14. Mao
15. Oliver
Zedong
Cromwell
19. George
20. Napoleon
Washington
Bonaparte
23. Adolf Hitler
b) Match the quotations on the subject of war with the people from the box
above (the background knowledge you gained having done the previous task may
help you). Translate the quotes into good Russian.
a) There never was a good war or a bad peace.
b) A soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of colored ribbon.
c) All men are brothers, like the seas throughout the world; so why do winds and
waves clash so fiercely everywhere?
d) - An eye for an eye only makes the whole world blind.
- What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless,
whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the
holy name of liberty and democracy?
e) An unjust peace is better than a just war.
f) As far as I'm concerned, war always means failure.
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g) As soon as war is looked upon as wicked, it will always have its fascination.
When it is looked upon as vulgar, it will cease to be popular.
h) Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive
out hate; only love can do that.
i) God is not on the side of the big battalions, but on the side of those who shoot
best.
j) History teaches that war begins when governments believe the price of
aggression is cheap.
k) I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV
will be fought with sticks and stones.
l) If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each
other.
m) It is only the dead who have seen the end of war.
n) Kings had always been involving and impoverishing their people in wars,
pretending generally, if not always, that the good of the people was the object.
o) - Mankind must put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind.
- War will exist until that distant day when the conscientious objector enjoys the
same reputation and prestige that the warrior does today.
p) To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.
q) - Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a
crime. Ask the infantry and ask the dead.
- They wrote in the old days that it is sweet and fitting to die for one's country.
But in modern war, there is nothing sweet nor fitting in your dying. You will die
like a dog for no good reason.
r) - Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is politics with bloodshed.
- War can only be abolished through war, and in order to get rid of the gun it is
necessary to take up the gun.
s) Put your trust in God; but be sure to keep your powder dry.
t) Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima . . .
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The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who
brought war to the Far East.
u) The death of one man is a tragedy. The death of millions is a statistic.
v) - The victor will never be asked if he told the truth.
- Their sword will become our plow, and from the tears of war the daily bread
of future generations will grow.
w) - To jaw-jaw is always better than to war-war.
- Victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory however long and hard
the road may be; for without victory there is no survival.
- Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.
- When you have to kill a man it costs nothing to be polite.
c) Which of the quotes presented above sound old-fashioned? Which of the
ideas seem to be up-to-date? Why? Does it mean that people’s attitude to war
(point out what kind of an attitude) has / hasn’t changed in time? Why? Provide
your own definition of the word “war”. Don’t look it up in a dictionary; rely
on your knowledge, experience and feelings.
3. Now when the definition has been given it’s high time we found out “the
roots” of war. First fill in the tables with good and bad reasons to start or to
participate in a war. Then from the lists you’ve got single out the causes for
which nations come into collision with each other nowadays. Which of them
are good and bad? How does it characterize our society? Is/are there any
reason/reasons that could make you fight in a war?
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4. a) Review the text of the song from assignment 1. “Eve of Destruction” is
supposed to be a protest song, a grave warning of imminent apocalypse. It was
dedicated to real events that went down in American history as the Cold War,
Vietnam, the nuclear arms race, and the civil rights movement. Show your
awareness of history and interpret the text of the song in terms of the cultural
realia of the era. Point out the reasons for the conflicts described (the table
from the previous task may help you) and people’s attitude to them.
b) Speak about the reasons, course and consequences of any other military
conflict. Do they differ much from those having been discussed?
5. It’s not a big deal to launch a war, but to make and maintain peace can
require valiant universal effort and take much time. In 1969 John Lennon,
one of the greatest peacemakers ever, wrote a letter addressed “Dear World”
as a part of his crusade for peace. His main goal was to appeal to the rest of
the world population to express its longing for peace.
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Years have slipped by, but J. Lennon’s appeal still sounds urgent. Write a
similar letter describing the world you’d like to live in and suggesting ways to
make peoples live their lives in peace.
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Welcome back home again!
The aim of the lesson is to diagnose your phonetics, grammar and vocabulary
skills discussing your summer holidays.
1. Read and translate into Russian an extract from the song «Back in the
USSR». Reproduce the verse.
Flew in from Miami Beach,
BOAC.
Didn't get to bed last night.
On the way the paper bag was on
my knee.
Man, I had a dreadful flight.
I'm back in the USSR.
You don't know how lucky you
are, boy,
Back in the USSR.
Been away so long I hardly knew
the place.
Gee, it's good to be back home.
Leave it till tomorrow to unpack my
case.
Honey, disconnect the phone.
I'm back in the USSR.
You don't know how lucky you are, boy,
Back in the US, back in the US,
back in the USSR.
The BEATLES
2. Students usually look forward to their summer holidays and are upset when
they are over in autumn. Give your ideas using the table.
E.g.: I love summer for the feeling of joy it puts in everything. I can’t stand
autumn because it is so changeable.
I
like
enjoy
adore
love
dislike
hate
can’t stand
can’t bear
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summer
because …
autumn
for …
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3. The summer has gone. Let’s try to sum up what it was like. What is it
associated with? Comment upon your point of view. So, what was …
- the song of the summer?
- the most popular way to
- the film of the summer?
rest?
- the most popular person?
- the most tragic event?
- the most popular clothes?
- the most pleasant event?
- the most popular colour?
4. How did you spend the summer? Provide a slide show (prepared at home)
with your holiday photos to support your report. The time limit is 2 minutes.
5. Now you’re back to University. Are you ready to study hard and behave
well? There is a good line in the song you’ve learnt today: «… disconnect the
phone…». It sounds like a rule you should observe during your English classes.
What other rules can you recollect in your memory? Say what you may (may
not)/can (can’t)/should (shouldn’t)/must (mustn’t) do at your classes.
E.g.: - We should disconnect our phones. We shouldn’t use our phones.
6. Analyze the text of the song given in the first assignment and share ideas
about yourself.
- What does the singer feel coming back home?
- Do you usually have the same feeling in such like cases?
- Can you call your University (your department, group etc.) «home»?
- What do you feel now having come back to University?
- What do you expect from the new academic year?
- What is the «program-maximum» for you?
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SECTION 11: Video Lesson.
Across the Universe
The aim of the lesson is to teach you to analyze works of art (music in this
particular case) belonging to a certain epoch in order to single out its
characteristic features and to describe the way people felt and lived those days.
1. The song “All You Need is Love” was chosen among 34 other Beatles’ songs
to finish the film and its name became a slogan of the movie. Read, translate
into Russian and learn the verse by heart. Reproduce it adding a sentence or
two to explain the choice mentioned above.
There’s nothing you can do that
can’t be done.
Nothing you can sing that can’t be
sung.
Nothing you can say but you can
learn how to play the game. It’s
easy.
Nothing you can make that can’t be
made.
No one you can save that can’t be
saved.
Nothing you can do but you can
learn how to be you in time. It’s
easy.
Ch.: (2) All you need is love.
All you need is love.
All you need is love, love.
Love is all you need.
Nothing you can know that isn’t
known.
Nothing you can see that isn’t
shown.
Nowhere you can be that isn’t where
you’re meant to be.
It’s easy.
The BEATLES
2. Reconstruct the plot of the film from the following separate scenes.
Scene
№
Max drops out of school and he and Jude move into a bohemian enclave in
Greenwich Village, living with the singer Sadie and her guitarist Jojo.
Being attracted to Sadie and getting depressed when Sadie and Jojo begin a
relationship Prudence locks herself in a closet and has to be coaxed out by
her friends, then disappears after wandering off during a peace rally.
Jude meets his father, who is a janitor at Princeton University and befriends
Lucy's brother, Max.
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Lucy becomes increasingly involved in the anti-war movement and spends
much time with the "Students for a Democratic Republic".
The police arrest protestors at an anti-war demonstration at Columbia
University, Jude tries to help Lucy but winds up arrested.
Jude thinks that Lucy is dead, but upon learning from Max that she is alive he
arranges to return to New York legally.
Daniel is killed in Vietnam, Lucy decides to visit Max in New York before
starting college.
Jojo and Sadie reconcile and put on a rooftop concert, with Prudence as a
member of their band.
Jude, Lucy, Jojo, and Max drink punch laced with LSD and, having
embarked with Doctor Robert on his "Beyond" bus, end up stranded outside
the compound of Dr. Frank Geary.
Jude is deported back to England.
Sadie agrees to her manager's demand that she drop her backing band,
leading to a bitter breakup and musical split between herself and Jojo.
Max brings Jude home with him for Thanksgiving and Jude becomes
attracted to Lucy.
Lucy discovers that Paco is making bombs and leaves the SDR. One of them
explodes, killing Paco and destroying the SDR offices.
Jude suspects that SDR leader Paco is attempting to seduce Lucy. He storms
into the SDR office and points out the hypocrisy of the group's actions,
leading to an argument with Lucy in which she leaves him.
Lucy and Jude gaze at each other across opposite rooftops as the
performance.
Prudence leaves an abusive boyfriend, hitchhikes to New York and joins
Jude and Max.
Jude, Lucy, Jojo, and Max are reunited with Prudence, who has become a
circus performer.
She and Jude fall in love, while Max is drafted into the army.
Max is wounded in Vietnam and sent home, psychologically scarred and
dependent on morphine.
Max is deployed to Vietnam.
Jude sings "All You Need Is Love".
Jude enlists in the Merchant Navy and jumps ship in New Jersey.
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Extra task for a real Beatles fan: reconstruct the correct order of the songs as
they occur in the film (the summary may help you) and name the performers.
"All My Loving" "Girl" "Hold Me Tight" "Helter Skelter" "It Won't Be Long"
"All You Need Is Love" "Because" "With a Little Help from My Friends"
"I Want to Hold Your Hand" "I Am the Walrus" "Across the Universe" "Let It Be"
"I've Just Seen a Face" "Come Together" "Flying" "Revolution" "If I Fell"
"I Want You (She's So Heavy)" "Why Don't We Do It in the Road?"
"Don't Let Me Down" "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!" "Dear Prudence"
"Blue Jay Way" "Strawberry Fields Forever" "Hey Jude"
"While My Guitar Gently Weeps" "Oh! Darling" "Happiness Is a Warm Gun"
“Something" "A Day in the Life" "Blackbird" "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"
3. The main characters of the film are six young people from different corners
of the Unites States and England who were brought together in New York.
a) Sketch the characters pointing out their strains. The table below may help
you arrange the answer. Express your own attitude to each of them.
Name
Jude
Age Wherefrom Occupation
Lucy
Max
Prudence
Sadie
Jojo
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Appearance
Character
slender, ill-made,
(un)attractive,
good-looking,
charming, curlyhaired, unshorn,
sloppy,
slim,
spare,
sturdy,
handsome,
perfect,
bony,
pale,
florid,
swarthy,
pasty,
with
expressive
(etc.)
eyes,
walking with a
slop,
bearing
oneself
well,
looking wretched,
looking one’s age,
stubby
(unshaven),
wearing
falling
downwards curls
etc.
vigorous,
weak,
ordinary,
sloppy,
cool, proud, selfdenying,
trustworthy,
ambitious,
broad
(narrow) – minded,
smart, witty, wise,
gifted,
sophisticated,
simple-hearted,
dull, blunt, daring,
feeble,
steady,
flexible,
strong
(weak) – willed,
cautious, hesitant,
lost,
frank,
suspicious, merciful
(less),
reliable,
open, hot-tempered,
jealous,
egoistic,
dignified etc.
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b) Why was New York
chosen as a scene of the
action? What were the
fears and troubles the
young people ran away
from? What did they
long to find in the Big
Apple? What was the
main
goal
of
the
pilgrimage for each of
them?
4. Together with many other films, “Across the Universe” told us about the
most exciting, contradictory, rebel, outspoken and fascinating epoch, the
1960s. But it seemed to be more truthful than any other movie when
describing the age. They say it is due to the material the film is based on. The
Beatles’ songs that are the works of art created by the people who witnessed
the epoch can teach you history better than any historian.
a) Sketch the epoch pointing out its
characteristic features. Illustrate your
answer with the examples from the
film.
b) Will you agree that the theme of
war is a burden of the film? Why did
the director mark it out as the most
distinctive feature of the 1960s? Was
he right to do it? Why (not)?
Enumerate military conflicts touched
upon in the film and account for their impact on the lives of people. Was there
a single person war hadn’t concerned?
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Extra task for a real Beatles fan: several allusions to the Beatles and events
closely connected with the band cannot go unnoticed in the film. What are
they?
5. Express your opinion:
a) “Across the Universe” was nominated for both a Golden Globe and an
Academy Award but didn’t win any. Why? Would you have awarded any
prize to the film? Why/why not?
b) The film may seem not to be very popular among our contemporaries. The
youth can consider it to be rather old-fashioned mainly due to the music used.
Do you belong to the mentioned above group? What is your impression of the
film? Explain your point of view.
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Справочная литература по грамматике английского языка:
1. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press, 2001. 350p.
2. Swan M., Walter C. How English Works. A Grammar Practice Book. With
Answers. - Oxford University Press, 2001. 358 р.
3. Thomson A.J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University
Press, 2009. – 383p.
4. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.englishclub.com
Словари:
1.
Кембриджский
словарь
английского
языка.
URL:
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/default.asp
2. Многоязычный онлайн словарь. URL: http://www.multitran.ru
3.
Онлайн-версия
электронного
словаря
“Lingvo”.
URL:
http://www.lingvo.ru/lingvo
4. Словари издательства Longman. URL: http://www.longman.com/dictionaries
Прочее:
1. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.en.wikipedia.org
2. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.ehow.com
3. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.healthland.time.com
4. Интернет ресурс URL: http:// www.lyricskeeper.com
5. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.meaningandhappiness.com
6. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.online-literature.com
7. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.policecrimes.com/police.html
8. Интернет ресурс URL: http://www.weather.com
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