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195.Английский язык Учебное пособие Андреева Е.А., Ильдуганова, Москалёва Д.Р. – Казань КИ РГТЭУ, 2013. – 80 с. (1)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Российский государственный торгово-экономический университет»
Казанский институт (филиал)
Кафедра Иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие
КАЗАНЬ - 2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Рекомендовано к печати Учебно-методическим советом
Казанского института (филиала) ФГБОУ ВПО «РГТЭУ»
Авторы-составители:
Андреева Е.А., к.филол.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Казанского института (филиала) РГТЭУ;
Ильдуганова Г.М., к.пед.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Казанского института (филиала) РГТЭУ;
Москалёва Д.Р., старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков
Казанского института (филиала) РГТЭУ.
Рецензенты:
Мазитова
Яхина
Ф.Л., к.филол.н., профессор, заведующая кафедрой
иностранных языков КИ (ф) РГТЭУ;
Р.Р., к.филол.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Казанского национального исследовательского технического
университета им. А.Н. Туполева (КНИТУ-КАИ).
Английский язык: Учебное пособие /Андреева Е.А., Ильдуганова,
Москалёва Д.Р. – Казань: КИ РГТЭУ, 2013. – 80 с.
Учебное пособие «Английский язык» предназначено для студентов всех факультетов
дневного и заочного отделений экономического вуза, а также для широкого круга
обучающихся, в том числе слушателей курсов английского языка и всех тех, кто желает
усовершенствовать свои знания по английскому языку, получить лингвострановедческую
информацию о странах изучаемого языка, закрепить знания по грамматике английского
языка. Основная цель учебного пособия – обучение основам повседневного общения и
овладение базовой экономической лексикой.
Учебное пособие включает 12 тем: «Российская Федерация», «Москва»,
«Республика Татарстан», «Казань», «Великобритания», «Лондон», «США», «Вашингтон»,
«Спорт в Великобритании», «Английский язык – язык международного общения»,
«Качества хорошего предпринимателя», «Выдающиеся люди России».
В разделе «Тексты для дополнительного чтения» представлена подробная
информация о Татарстане и его столице – городе Казани (географическое положение,
история, экология, культура, архитектура, традиции и обычаи, праздники, национальная
кухня).
Базовые тексты дополняются заданиями на отработку лексического материала и
диалогами. Задания к текстам разрабатывались авторами-составителями.
© Казанский институт (филиал) РГТЭУ, 2013
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RUSSIA
Russia (the official name – the Russian Federation) is the largest country in
the world. It occupies about one seventh of the earth’s surface. It covers the
eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 mln
sq km. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and
the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan,
Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic
States, Belorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
The country has a great variety of flora and fauna. There are numerous
forests, plains and steppes, taiga and tundra, highlands and deserts in our land.
The highest mountains are the Altai, the Urals, and the Caucasus. The largest
mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia. There are two great plains
in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are
over 2 mln rivers in the Russian Federation. The longest of them are the Volga, the
Ob’, the Yenisei, the Lena and the Amur. Our land is also rich in various lakes.
Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.
Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the
European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the Russian territory there are 9 time zones. The climate conditions are
rather different: from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle
of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
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Our country is one of the richest in natural resources countries in the
world: oil, natural gas, coal, different ores of ferrous and non-ferrous metals
and other minerals. It is one of the highly developed agro-industrial powers in
the world. The main industrial branches are machine building, aircraft,
aerospace, automobile, textile, chemical and others.
The Russian Federation is a multinational state. It comprises many national
districts, several autonomous republics and regions. The population of the
country is about 150 mln. More than 100 different nations live in the Russian
Federation. Russian is the official language of the state. The national symbols of
the Russian Federation are the state white-blue-red flag and a 2-headed Eagle. The
Russian Federation is a constitutional state headed by the President. The country
government consists of 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The
legislative power belongs to the Council of Federation (upper chamber) and the
State Duma (lower chamber). Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. The
executive power belongs to the Government (the Cabinet of Ministers) headed by
the Prime Minister. The judicial power belongs to the system of Courts
comprising the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and federal courts.
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The foreign policy of the Russian Federation is that of international
cooperation, peace and friendship with all nations of the Globe irrespective of
their political and social systems.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is a big political, economic, commercial
and cultural center. Other Great Russian cities are Saint Petersburg, Kazan, Nizhny
Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg, Omsk etc.
Vocabulary
aerospace
agro-industrial powers
aircraft
automobile
autonomous republic
chemical
climate conditions
coal
continental
desert
district
earth's surface
executive
federal court
ferrous metal
foreign policy
highland
industrial branches
irrespective of
judicial
legislative
machine building
mineral
multinational
natural gas
natural resources
non-ferrous metals
numerous
official language
oil
ore
rich
temperate
textile
аэрокосмический
агропромышленная мощность
воздушные суда
автомобиль
автономная республика
химический
климатические условия
уголь
континентальный
пустыня
район
общая площадь земли
исполнительный
федеральный суд
черные металлы
иностранная политика
возвышенность, высокогорье
промышленные отрасли
независимо от
юридический
законодательный
машиностроение
минерал
многонациональный
природный газ
природные ископаемые
цветные металлы
многочисленные
официальный язык
нефть
руда
богатый
температура
текстиль
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the Arctic ocean
the Atlantic ocean
the Cabinet of Ministers
the Constitutional Court
the Council of Federation (upper
chamber)
the Great Russian Plain
the Pacific ocean
the Prime Minister
the State Duma (lower chamber)
the Supreme Court
the West Siberian Lowland
time zones
total area
variety
various
сourt
to belong
to be washed
to border
to cover
to comprise
to develop
to occupy
to separate
Северный Ледовитый океан
Атлантический океан
Кабинет Министров
Конституционный суд
Совет Федерации (верхняя палата)
Восточно-Европейская равнина
Тихий океан
Премьер министр
Государственная Дума (нижняя палата)
Верховный суд
Западно-сибирская низменность
часовые пояса
общая площадь
разнообразие
различный
суд
принадлежать
омываться
граничить
охватывать
включать в себя
развивать
занимать
разделять, отделять
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. What’s the total area of the Russian Federation?
2. What are the highest mountains of the country?
3. How many rivers are there in the Russian Federation? What are the longest
ones?
4. Where are forests concentrated?
5. What are the climate conditions in different parts of Russia?
6. How many nations live in the Russian Federation?
7. What are the national symbols of the Russian Federation?
8. What are the three branches of the country government?
9. What’s the foreign policy of the Russian Federation?
10. What great Russian cities do you know?
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2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. The climate conditions are rather different: from arctic in the north to
subtropical in the south.
2. The country government consists of 3 branches: legislative, executive and
judicial.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. largest, Russia, world, is, the, the, country, in.
2. Europe, the, northern, eastern, part, it, of, covers, and, the, Asia, part, of.
3. variety, country, fauna, a, great, of, flora, and, the, has.
4. Russia, has, one-sixth, of, the, world’s, forests.
5. in, middle, the, the, country, of, continental, the, temperate, climate, is,
and.
6. our, countries, is, of, the, in, natural, country, richest, in, the, one,
resources, world.
7. Russian, the, symbols, of, the, Federation, state, the, flag, and, a, two,
white-blue-red, headed, national, Eagle, are.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
agro-industrial
Court
autonomous
zones
climate
building
machine
language
natural
metals
non-ferrous
powers
official
conditions
Constitutional
republic
time
resources
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5. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
Russia / My country
 What area does the Russian Federation occupy?
 It occupies the area of some 17,000,000 square kilometres.
 What ocean is the country washed by?
 The country is washed by the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and the Atlantic
Ocean.
 What countries does the state border on by sea and by land?
 Russia has a land border with China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia
and Azerbaijan in the south, Norway, Finland, the Baltic States (Latvia,
Lithuania, Estonia), Poland, Byelorussia and the Ukraine in the West. Russia
has a sea-border with the USA and Japan.
 What is the most important river in Russia?
 The Volga is the longest and the most important river of Russia. It flows into
the Caspian Sea. Many rich and significant industrial cities stand on Volga.
 What resources is Russia rich in?
 Russia is rich in gas, oil, coal, non-ferrous metals such as aluminium, nickel and
lead, in iron ores. Russia is also rich in natural resources such as timber, fish
and fresh water.
 What kind of state is Russia?
 Russia is now a parliamentary republic.
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 What is political structure of the country?
 There are three branches of power: the legislative branch, the executive branch
and the juridical branch. The legislative power is executed by the President and
the Federal Assembly, the executive power is executed by the President and the
Cabinet of ministers, and the juridical power is executed by the Constitutional
Court and lower courts.
 Are there many political parties in Russia?
 Yes, there are. We have many parties. That helps democracy. Everyone can find
a party to his/her taste or organize his/her own party. The parties struggle for
power and in order to win they attract voters promising to improve our life and
increase salaries, to solve different vital issues and so on. Not to lose voters,
they really have to do so.
 What are national symbols of our Motherland?
 The flag has three equal stripes: white, blue and red. The state anthem is "The
Anthem of Russia" by Mikhalkov. The state coat of arms represents the twoheaded eagle.
 How can you characterize the climate of the state?
 The country lies in several different zones that's why there are several types of
climate, including the monsoon climate of the Far East, the continental climate
of Siberia and the subtropical climate of the south.
 What are the main industries of Russia?
 Oil, gas and coal extracting industries are developing now. The food industry
supplies the population with food and drinks in abundance. The machinebuilding industry produces modern machinery.
 What can you say about Russian culture?
 Russian culture is famous for its masterpieces. Nowadays composers, dancers
and artists continue the traditions of their ancestors.
 Is Russian school system different from that of the USA and the UK?
 Yes, it differs a lot. The main distinctions are the age of entering the school, the
national curriculum, the number of years spent at school and the way of getting
higher education.
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MOSCOW
Moscow, the capital of Russia, is both the most important political centre of
the country and one of the world's greatest centres of science, culture and art. It
was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted
the year of 1147 as the start of Moscow's history. Gradually the city became more
and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the center of the struggle of
Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under
Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though
Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the
heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack.
Three-quarters of the city were destroyed by fire during Napoleon's occupation,
but by the mid-19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the
October revolution Moscow became the capital again.
There are a lot of places of interest in Moscow. No wonder а lot of tourists,
businessmen and people of all walks of life соmе to see Moscow, its famous
buildings, theatres, rich museums and art galleries. The heart of Moscow is the
Kremlin, а wonderful example of Russian architecture. Its cathedrals and palaces
are remarkable museums which help foreign tourists get to know the history of
the Russian people. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the
Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses, the Tsar-Cannon and the
Tsar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.
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Red Square is part of the Kremlin. Visitors come here to see the Lenin
Mausoleum, the monument to Minin and Pozharsky and the famous St. Basil's
Cathedral, а masterpiece of old Russian architecture built in the mid-16th century
in memory of the victory over Kazan.
Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi
Opera House.
The new building of Moscow University is situated on the Vorobyev Hills. It
attracts а lot of visitors too. In fine weather they can enjoy а beautiful view of the
city that opens out from on the Vorobyev Hills.
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the centre of political life
of the country.
Vocabulary
completely restored
gradually
liberation
masterpiece
powerful
remarkable
target
tartar yoke
united
walks of life
to accept
to destroy
to struggle
полностью восстановленный (отреставрированный)
постепенно
освобождение
шедевр
мощный, могучий
замечательный, удивительный
цель
Татарское иго
объединенный
образ жизни
признавать, принимать
разрушать
бороться
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. When was Moscow found?
2. When did Moscow become the capital of the new united state?
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3. When and by whom was the capital moved to St Petersburg?
4. When was the city destroyed by fire?
5. What are the main places of interest in Moscow?
6. What can you tell about Moscow Kremlin and its architecture?
7. What are the Vorobyev Hills famous for?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Moscow, the capital of Russia, is both the most important political centre
of the country and one of the world's greatest centres of science, culture
and art.
2. No wonder а lot of tourists, businessmen and people of all walks of life
соmе to see Moscow, its famous buildings, theatres, rich museums and art
galleries.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. start, accepted, Moscow’s, historians, the, year, have, history, of, 1147, as,
the, of.
2. more, the, city, more, gradually, powerful, and, became.
3. united, Moscow, the, new, capital, the, became, of, state.
4. is, why, Napoleon’s, it, of, became, main, that, target, the, attack.
5. of, are, a, Moscow, lot, places, of, there, in, interest.
6. Moscow, people, no, а, lot, businessmen, of, and, tourists, of, of, life,
соmе, to, see, all, walks, wonder.
7. Russian, the, of, Moscow, is, the, а, example, heart, of, wonderful,
architecture, Kremlin.
8. its, help, people, tourists, cathedrals, and, are, museums, foreign, to, know,
which, the, history, of, the, remarkable, palaces, Russian, get.
9. the, centre, Moscow, is, seat, country, of, the, Parliament, and, the, of, life,
of, the, Russian, political.
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4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
political
life
tartar
centre
completely
known
united
view
places of
yoke
best-
restored
walks of
interest
beautiful
state
5. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
Moscow
 Have you ever been to Moscow?
 Yes, I have been there twice.
 What is your impression of the city?
 It is large and noisy on the one hand, but really beautiful on the other hand.
There are many parks, wonderful buildings and churches. But the traffic is very
heavy. The prices are higher than here.
 When was the capital founded?
 The first settlement appeared many centuries ago, but 1147 is accepted by the
historians as the year of the foundation of Moscow. It was reinforced by Prince
Dmitry Dolgoruky.
 What monuments in Moscow do you know?
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 There are many monuments to famous people. The Tsar Bell and the Tsar
Cannon are monuments to the skillful Russian craftsmen who cast such
enormous pieces. The monument to Minin and Pozharsky, the organizers of the
struggle against the Polish invaders at the beginning of the 17th century. The
monument to Pushkin and his wife Natalie stands in Arbat where they lived
right after their marriage (Arbat, 53). There are monuments to Chekhov (it is
against the building of the Moscow Art Academic Theatre named after A.P.
Chekhov), to Pushkin (in Pushkin square), to Krylov and the characters of his
fables (Monkey, Elephant and Pug-dog), to Peter the First, M.I. Kutuzov (who
gave Moscow to Napoleon to save the lives of Russian soldiers in order to
continue the struggle against the French troops), to Lomonosov (in front of the
State University, organized on his initiative) and to Yury Dolgoruky (against
Mayer's residence).
 What can you say about the Red Square?
 The Red Square is the heart of Moscow. It was formed in the 15th century and
named «the Red Square» because of its beauty (at that time «red» meant
«beautiful»). Since the 16th century it has been used for parades and
ceremonies. The Cathedral of Basil the Blessed was erected in the 16th century
and since then has been a jewel of Russian architecture. The monument to
Minin and Pozharsky was opened in 1818, right after the reconstruction of the
Red Square after the Fire of 1812. In the 19th century the building of the
Historical Museum was constructed. During 1924-1930 the Lenin's Mausoleum
was being built near the Kremlin wall. The Red Square is the point from which
all distances in Russia are measured. It is also the place for official ceremonies
and parades.
 What places of interest on the territory of the Kremlin do you know?
 The Cathedrals of Assumption, of Annunciation, of Archangels, of Twelve
Apostles. There are Oruzheynaya Palata, the Granovitaya Palata (where war
victories were celebrated) and others.
 What can you tell about the Kremlin?
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 The Kremlin as walls and towers of white stone was erected in 1367. In 1485- 1
495 it was rebuilt in red brick. The towers of the Kremlin assumed their present
look in the 17th century.
 What can you say about the State Tretyakov Gallery?
 There you can see the best examples of Russian art. There are 7 main
departments in the museums - Painting and Sculpture of the XVIII-first half of
the XIX centuries, Painting and Sculpture of the second half of the XIX
century, Painting and Sculpture of the border between the XIX and the XX
centuries, Drawings, the Treasure-House Ancient Russian Art and TempleMuseum. There you can see the famous portrait of Pushkin by Kyprensky, the
self-portrait by Brullov, the «Appearance of Christ» by Ivanov, the «Unequal
Marriage» by Pukirev, many landscapes by Savrasov, Kumdgy, Shishkin,
Levitan,
seascapes
by
Aivasovsky
famous
canvases
by
Vasnetsov
(«Alyonushka», «The Bogatyrs») Suricov, Repm, Polenov, Vrubel, RSrikh. The
gallery was started as a private collection, but afterwards granted to the State.
 Why did Moscow seize being the capital in 1712?
 Peter the Great moved the capital to the newly-built St-Petersburg which had
been constructed as a European city with the participation of many famous
architects. Peter did not like Moscow because of the so called «Old Order», the
old way of life in Moscow. He wanted to reform the style of life as well as the
architecture and the design of dresses.
 Why was Moscow made the capital after the October Revolution?
 After the Revolution St-Petersburg was too close to Finland (which chose to be
an independent state after the Revolution) and could be easily conquered. The
young Soviet state would be in great danger in this case. That’s why it was
moved back to Moscow.
 What is Arbat?
 It is a street in Moscow with many adjoining lanes. Since 1986 the street has
been open for pedestrians only. Here one can see all architectural styles. In this
street you can see many houses famous for the writers, painters and other
celebrities who used to live there, and some monuments. Arbat is the place for
informal singers painters, and other people interested in non-conformist art.
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TATARSTAN
Tatarstan is situated in the central part of Russia. It covers the area of
68,000 sq km at the junction of two big rivers – the Volga and the Kama.
The population of the republic is over 3.7 million people. The main
nationalities that inhabit the republic are the Tatars (48%) and the Russians
(43%), and 9% are the people of other nationalities.
The capital of Tatarstan is Kazan. The largest cities of Tatarstan are
Naberezhnye Chelny, Almetyevsk, Bugulma, Chistopol. Lorries, cars, watches,
medical equipment are produced there. Chemical industry is developed in
Nizhnekamsk.
Tatarstan is very rich in natural resources such as coal and gas. The chief
mineral wealth of the republic is oil. Tatarstan is a highly industrialized republic.
Agriculture of the republic is also of great importance. In rural parts of the
country farmers produce meat and milk, grow fruit and vegetables. Tatarstan is
self-sufficient in basic food production.
There are no high mountains in Tatarstan, but there are a lot of hills, lakes
and rivers in the republic. The largest and biggest rivers are the Volga, the Kama
and the Kazanka. The nature of the country is very picturesque and beautiful. The
climate of Tatarstan is moderate continental: sometimes it is very hot in summer
and very cold in winter.
Tatarstan is a sovereign state with its president at the head. In 1990, on
August 30 the Superior Council of the republic signed the Declaration of
Independence. Since that time this day is celebrated as the Day of Foundation of
the Republic of Tatarstan.
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Vocabulary
agriculture
area
basic food production
chemical industry
chief
coal
Declaration of Independence
foundation
importance
junction
lorry
main
medical equipment
moderate continental
nationality
natural resources
oil
picturesque
rural
self-sufficient
sovereign state
Superior Council
watches
wealth
to be developed
to be produced
to be rich in
to be situated
to celebrate
to cover
to grow
to inhabit
to produce
to sign
сельское хозяйство
площадь, территория
основные продукты питания
химическая промышленность
основной, главный
каменный уголь
Декларация о суверенитете
основание
значение, важность
слияние
грузовик
основной, главный
медицинское оборудование
умеренно континентальный
национальность
природные ресурсы
нефть
живописный
сельский
самодостаточный
суверенное государство
Верховный совет
часы
богатство, достояние
быть развитым
производиться, выпускаться
быть богатым (чем-л.)
быть расположенным, находиться
праздновать, отмечать
покрывать, занимать (территорию)
расти; выращивать
населять
производить, выпускать
подписывать
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. Where is Tatarstan situated?
2. What is the population of the republic?
3. Why is agriculture so important for the republic?
4. What’s the climate of Tatarstan like?
5. When did Tatarstan become a sovereign republic?
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2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. In rural parts of the country farmers produce meat and milk, grow fruit and
vegetables.
2. In 1990, on August 30 the Superior Council of the republic signed the
Declaration of Independence.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. is, coal, very, in, such, natural, gas, Tatarstan, resources, as, and, rich;
2. is, a, its, sovereign, at, head, state, Tatarstan, with, president, the;
3. republic, main, that, inhabit, the, the, are, the, and, the, Russians, Tatars,
nationalities;
4. picturesque, is, nature, the, very, and, of, country, beautiful, the;
5. cars, produced, watches, equipment, are, lorries, there, medical.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
industrialized
mountains
sovereign
wealth
rural
resources
mineral
equipment
natural
industry
high
parts
chemical
state
medical
republic
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to be rich
meat and milk
to produce
the Declaration of Independence
to grow
in natural resources
to sign
fruit and vegetables
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6. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
 Where is Tatarstan situated?
 Tatarstan is situated in the central part of Russia at the junction of the Volga
and the Kama.
 What area does Tatarstan cover?
 It covers the area of 68,000 square kilometres.
 What are the most important cities in Tatarstan?
 The largest and most important cities of Tatarstan are Naberezhnye Chelny,
Almetyevsk, Bugulma, Chistopol.
 What resources is Tatarstan rich in?
 Tatarstan is very rich in natural resources such as coal, gas and oil. Agriculture
of the republic is also of great importance. Tatarstan is self-sufficient in basic
food production.
 How can you characterize the climate of the republic?
 The climate of Tatarstan is moderate continental: sometimes it is very hot in
summer and very cold in winter.
 What kind of a republic is Tatarstan?
 Tatarstan is a sovereign republic with its president at the head. In 1990, on
August 30 the Superior Council of the republic signed the Declaration of
Independence.
 What are the national symbols of Tatarstan?
 The flag has three horizontal stripes: green, white, and red. The state anthem
was composed by Tatar composer Rustem Yakhin. The Coat of Arms of the
Republic of Tatarstan was adopted by the Supreme Council on February 7,
1992. It is in the form of a round shield. The central image of the coat of arms is
a winged snow leopard.
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KAZAN
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan. With the
population of more than one million people it is the 8th most populous city in
Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and the Kazanka in European
Russia.
In 2005 Kazan celebrated its millennium. This multi-ethnic city is famous
for Muslims and Christians living side-by-side in peace.
In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand
itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia. In 2009, it was also chosen the "Sports
capital of Russia". The city is the place for 2013 Summer Universiade, 2015 World
Aquatics Championships and 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Kazan is one of the largest industrial and financial centres of Russia, and a
leading city of the Volga economic region. The main industries of the city are:
mechanical engineering, chemical, petrochemical, light and food industries. An
innovative economy is represented by the largest IT-park in Russia which is one of
the largest of its kind amongst Eastern Europe science parks.
The city has a citadel, the Kazan Kremlin, which was declared a World
Heritage Site in 2000. Major monuments in the Kremlin are the 5-domed 6columned
Annunciation Cathedral (1561-62) and the mysterious leaning
Suyembike Tower, named after the last queen of Kazan and regarded as the city's
most conspicuous landmark. Also of interest are the towers and walls, erected in
the 16th and 17th centuries but later reconstructed; the Qol-Sharif mosque, which is
already rebuilt inside the citadel; the Governor’s House (1843-53), designed by
Konstantin Thon, now the Palace of the President of Tatarstan.
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Vocabulary
крепость
слияние, место слияния
заметный, видный
легкая промышленность
машиностроение
тысячелетие
многонациональный
патентное бюро
нефтехимическая промышленность
густонаселенный
быть названным в честь …
citadel
confluence
conspicuous
light industry
mechanical engineering
millennium
multi-ethnic
Patent Office
petrochemical industry
populous
to be named after
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. Where is Kazan situated?
2. When did Kazan celebrate its millennium?
3. What are the industries in Kazan?
4. What are the famous places of interest in Kazan?
5. When was Kazan chosen the "Sports capital of Russia"?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and the Kazanka in European
Russia.
2. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand
itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. the, Kazan, city, a, citadel, the, has, Kremlin;
2. Eastern, the, IT-park, Kazan, is, of, the, of, its, amongst, Europe, science,
of, parks, largest, one, largest, kind;
3. millennium, its, 2005, Kazan, in, celebrated;
4. city, populous, it, the, 8th, most, in, Kazan, Russia, is;
5. Kazan, in, the, Site, Kremlin, was, a, Heritage, 2000, declared, World.
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4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
basic food
centre
petrochemical
landmark
innovative
Universiade
most populous
industry
mechanical
production
Summer
economy
financial
city
conspicuous
engineering
5. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
 Have you ever been to Kazan?
 Yes, I have. I was there last summer.
 What is your impression of the city?
 It is a beautiful city, full of history. There are many parks, ancient buildings in
Kazan.
 When was Kazan founded?
 In 2005 Kazan celebrated its millennium, although the date of the «millennium»
was fixed rather arbitrarily.
 What are the places of interest in Kazan?
 There are many places of interest in Kazan. The city has a citadel, the Kazan
Kremlin, which was declared a World Heritage Site in 2000. There are many
parks, museums, theatres, monuments to famous people in Kazan.
 What places of interest on the territory of the Kremlin do you know?
 Major monuments in the Kremlin are the Annunciation Cathedral and the
leaning Suyembike Tower, the Qol-Sharif mosque, which was rebuilt inside the
citadel, the Governor’s House.
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THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND NORTHERN IRELAND
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in
Western Europe. It is surrounded by the North Sea, the English Channel and the
Atlantic Ocean. Great Britain, now sometimes called simply Britain, is the
geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, and includes the
mainland nations of England, Wales and Scotland. In total it is estimated that the
UK is made up of around 1,098 small islands.
The United Kingdom is made up of four “parts”: the nations of England,
Scotland and Wales, and the province of Northern Ireland. All four “home nations”
have historically been divided into counties.
The primary language spoken in the UK is English. Other languages include
the Celtic languages: Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Cornish and Irish Gaelic.
The climate of the British Isles is mild. It is never too hot in summer or too
cold in winter.
The United Kingdom contains two of the world’s most famous universities,
the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford, and has produced many
great scientists and engineers, including Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin.
Many people believe that a great number of important sports originated in
the United Kingdom, including: football (soccer), golf, boxing, rugby, and
billiards. British playwright William Shakespeare is the most famous writer in the
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world; other well-known writers include the Bronte sisters (Charlotte, Emily and
Anne), Jane Austen, Agatha Christie, and Charles Dickens. Important poets
include Lord Byron, Robert Burns, and Thomas Hardy. The UK and the USA were
two countries in which rock and roll developed. The UK was the home country for
some of the most famous bands, including The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The
Led Zeppelin, and many others.
Vocabulary
группа
кельтский
корнуоллский
графство, округ
ирландский
материк, большой остров
мягкий
нация, народ, государство
шотландский
пролив Ла Манш
валлийский, уэльский
быть разделенным
состоять из
быть окруженным
возникать, брать начало
band
Celtic
Cornish
county
Irish Gaelic
mainland
mild
nation
Scottish Gaelic
the English Channel
Welsh
to be divided
to be made up of
to be surrounded
to originate
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. Where is the UK situated?
2. What parts is the UK made up of?
3. What is the primary language spoken in the UK?
4. What British writers do you know?
5. What are the most famous universities in the UK?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Many people believe that a great number of important sports originated in
the United Kingdom.
2. In the UK it is never too hot in summer or too cold in winter.
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3. Составьте предложения:
1. spoken, the, language, in, UK, is, English, primary, the;
2. a, the, Kingdom, of, Britain, Northern, is, in, Western, Great, Europe,
United, Ireland, and, country;
3. famous, world, British, the, William, is, most, writer, in, Shakespeare, the,
playwright;
4. mild, Isles, climate, of, British, is, the, the;
5. small, the, up, made, UK, is, of, 1098, islands, around.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
Scottish
of Oxford
the English
Ireland
famous
name
mainland
Channel
great scientists
universities
geographical
Gaelic
Northern
nations
the University
and engineers
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to be surrounded
playwright
to be made
in the UK
to originate
by seas
to be a famous
into counties
to be divided
up of islands
6. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
 Is England the name of that country?
 No, it isn’t. It’s called Great Britain, or simply Britain. England is a part of it.
 Really? So, I’m sorry, I’m mistaken.
 In my opinion you simply mix the names.
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 And what about the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or
the United Kingdom? That sounds more official, doesn’t it?
 Yes, it’s the official name of that country. But you shouldn’t forget that though
in everyday speech Britain is used to mean the United Kingdom, it’s the name
of the island which is made up of England, Scotland and Wales.
 Thanks, I’ve guessed at last.
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LONDON
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and financial
centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world. Traditionally it
is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.
They are very different from each other.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous
banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the
Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million
people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within
the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of
English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The
Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and rebuilt by William the
Conqueror in 1066. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace, a prison and a justice
court. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the historic, governmental part of London. Westminster
Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all
English kings and queens were crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen,
scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer,
Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is
Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British
Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big
hour bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the
Queen.
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The West End is the richest and the most beautiful part of London. It is the
symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and
theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging
to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in
memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall
Nelson’s Column stands in the middle of the square. On the north side of Trafalgar
Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is
situated the British museum – the biggest museum in London. It contains a
priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous
for its library.
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The East End traditionally was the poorest district of London. There were a
lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets were narrow, the buildings
were unimpressive. The East End was densely populated by working class
families. But comparatively not so long ago it was reorganized. By now a lot of
new buildings have been constructed there. Nowadays it’s becoming modern and
beautiful.
Vocabulary
ancient
densely
justice court
luxury
Old Bailey
outstanding statesmen
priceless
splendid
Stock Exchange
striking
unimpressive
workshops
to be buried
to be crowned
древний, старинный
плотно, густо, компактно
суд
роскошь
Центральный уголовный суд
выдающиеся государственные деятели
бесценный
великолепный, роскошный
Фондовая биржа
поразительный, замечательный
блеклый, невзрачный
мастерская, цех
быть похороненным
быть коронованным
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. What is the capital of Great Britain?
2. What are the famous places of interest in London?
3. Why was Westminster Abbey so important in English history?
4. What museums are there in London?
5. What is the geographical centre of London?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. The British museum contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts,
coins, sculptures.
2. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London.
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3. Составьте предложения:
1. Westminster, road, across, the, from, Abbey, is, Palace, Westminster;
2. part, beautiful, the, is, the, and, the, most, West, of, London, richest, End;
3. ancient, buildings, are, famous, within, the, some, City, there;
4. of, was, East, the, End, the, district, London, traditionally, poorest;
5. part, the, Westminster, of, is, governmental, London, historic.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
Stock
populated
densely
Gallery
the National
collection
the battle
buildings
outstanding
palace
priceless
of Trafalgar
ancient
statesmen
a royal
Exchange
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to be
a priceless collection
to be built
to wealthy people
to become
crowned
to contain
in the 17th century
to belong
modern and beautiful
6. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
 So, what are you going to do today?
 Frankly speaking, I have no idea. What would you advise?
 Why not visit Hyde Park? It’s one of the most picturesque places in London.
Besides you look slightly tired and a day in the open air will do you no harm.
 Yes, you’re quite right. I’m tired of shopping. Wait, I heard something of the
place... Hyde Park... Please, remind me of it.
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 Oh, I see you’re really too tired if you forget about the best-known park in
London! Hyde Park together with Kensington Gardens and Regent’s Park are
still called Royal because many centuries ago the kings of England usually
hunted there. Now these places are the most favourite ones for a lot of people.
You can walk on the grass or even lie down there if it’s warm enough.
 Great! Let’s go there immediately! As far as I remember visitors can also go
horse-riding. I’m fond of riding! Don’t you mind, Susan?
 I don’t. I want to go there too.
 How can we get there?
 We’ll drive there by car. It’ll take us about half an hour, if we don’t get into the
traffic jam.
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The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after
Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and
stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the
north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine
and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Canada in the north and
on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea border with Russia.
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The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special
federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The
population of the country is about 270 million.
There are lowlands and mountains in the USA. The highest mountains are
the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. America’s largest
rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The
Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the
north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is
continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the
Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much
warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the world’s leading
producer of copper and oil and the world’s second producer of iron ore and coal.
Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles,
radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up of
nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
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Vocabulary
вооружение
граничить с
континентальный
медь
самый глубокий
высоко развитый
по происхождению
производство
гора
коренные американцы
вытягиваться, тянуться
субтропический
округ Колумбия
Великие озера
Мексиканский залив
Скалистые горы
тайфун
правительство
состоять из
armaments
borders on
continental
copper
deepest
highly developed
in origin
manufacturing
mountain
native Americans
stretch
subtropical
the District of Columbia
the Great Lakes
the Gulf of Mexico
the Rocky Mountains
typhoon
government
to be made up of
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. Where are the United States of America situated?
2. What’s the total area of the USA?
3. What are the borders of the USA?
4. What are the highest mountains of the country?
5. What are the longest rivers of the USA?
6. What are the climate conditions in different regions?
7. For how many states is the USA divided into?
8. What’s the population of the country?
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9. What are the main US industries?
10. What are the largest cities of the country?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the
Sierra Nevada. America’s largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri,
the Rio Grande and the Columbia.
2. The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special
federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. southern, it, North, of, the, occupies, part, America;
2. lowlands, in, there, mountains, are, USA, and, the;
3. country, the, the, of, climate, greatly, varies;
4. is, part, continental, the, of, the, climate, central;
5. a, subtropical, climate, has, the, south;
6. Pacific, the, the, Atlantic, of, much, coast, that, climate, is, warmer, along,
than, the, coast.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
total
industries
square
sets
subtropical
Mountains
manufacturing
area
District
kilometers
highly
developed
television
climate
Rocky
of Columbia
5. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
A. Hi Bob, is that you?
B. Yes, that's me.
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А. Listen, I've got some problems with English. Could you help me?
В. I'm not sure my help would be of any use to you.
A. Why not? I have to compose a story about one of the big American cities, New
York, maybe, or Chicago, Boston, Los Angeles, and you spent a whole year in
USA.
B. Yes, of course, but first, I lived in Washington, not one of those big cities, and
second, I started speaking American, not English, and my teachers don't approve of
that. I even had some problems at the university because of that, though I went to
USA on student exchange program.
A. OK, let it be Washington.
B. It's not that big a city. Its population is about 3.5 million, and in New York
there's more than million.
A. Yes, lots of people think that New York is the capital of USA, being its biggest
city.
B. It isn't so in every country. And do you know which state is Washington in?
A. There are 50 states in the USA, that I do know, but that's all. I don't even know
the capitals of our republics that well.
B. Yes, geography is out of fashion, strange as it is. I'd call it geographical idiocy.
Oh well; Washington is not in any of the states. A special district was created for
the city, district Columbia. Washington was built in 1790 and made federal capital
ten years later. It was laid out according to a uniform plan made by the French
engineer Pierre L'Enfant.
A. Cool! They ripped off Peter I, that was his idea.
B. What do you mean?
A. Peter decided to build not just a city, but a capital according to a uniform plan.
В. I never thought about that; it's really almost the same. Americans built their
capital on European model.
A. And why is the city called Washington?
B. You seem to have big problems with history, not only with geography. George
Washington was the first President of the USA.
A. But what else is this city interesting for, besides being a capital?
B. Oh, it's one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the USA.
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A. Why unusual?
B. Mostly because it's a one-industry city. And that industry is government. White
House where the President lives and works, the Capitol where the Congress meets,
the Supreme Court. Most of the population works for the government.
A. So, why is it beautiful? It must be full of offices and nothing but offices.
B. This city without skyscrapers is full of greenery. It's difficult to find a park, a
square or an open place without a monument or memorial. National Air and Space
Museum and National Gallery are there, and the White House is open for the
visitors.
A. Well, it's not so surprising for us.
B. No, it's really a beautiful city. I'll show you a photo where my friends and I are
on a lawn near the White House and you'll understand what I mean.
A. And what about modern houses? You say there are no skyscrapers in the city.
B. It's prohibited to build higher than 40 meters in Washington so that they
wouldn't hide the city's monuments from view.
A. Yes, it's interesting. Come show me the photos.
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WASHINGTON, DC
Washington is the capital of the United States of America. It is situated in
the District of Columbia and is like no other city of the USA. It’s the world’s
largest one-industry city. And that industry is government. The White House,
where the US President lives and works, the Capitol, the home of the US
Congress, and the Supreme Court, are all in Washington.
Washington was named after the first US President George Washington.
He selected the place for the capital and Pierre L’Enfant, a French engineer,
designed the city. Washington was settled in 1790 and since 1800 it has been the
federal capital.
Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United
States. In the very center of it rises the huge dome of the Capitol – a big white
dome standing on a circle of pillars. The 535 members of the Congress meet here
to discuss the nation’s affairs. Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress,
the largest library in the States. It contains more than 13 million books, more than
19 million manuscripts, including the personal papers of the US Presidents.
The White House is the official residence of the US President. He works in
the Oval Office.
One can hardly find a park, a square or an open area in Washington without
a monument or a memorial. The most impressive and the best known ones are the
Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. There are some important
museums in Washington where you can see all kinds of things: famous paintings
and sculptures, the dresses of Presidents’ wives, the original of the Declaration of
Independence, the largest blue diamond in the world etc.
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There are 5 universities in Washington. There are no skyscrapers in
Washington, because they would hide the city’s many monuments from view. No
building in the city may be more than 40 meters tall.
Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of
the USA come to see their capital.
Vocabulary
diamond
hide
huge dome
impressive
in the very center
manuscript
one-industry
pillar
select
skyscraper
the Capitol
the Declaration of Independence
the Oval Office
unusual
US Congress
to be named after
to be settled
алмаз
прятать
огромный купол
впечатляющий
в самом центре
рукопись, оригинал документа
единственное производство
колонна
выбирать
небоскреб
Капитолий
Декларация о независимости
Овальный кабинет
необычный
Конгресс США
быть названым в честь
быть основанным
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. What is the sole industry of Washington?
2. What is the maximum height of city buildings?
3. How many members are there in the Congress?
4. What is the official residence of the US President?
5. What are the most impressive and the best known monuments in
Washington?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Washington was settled in 1790 and since 1800 it has been the federal
capital.
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2. There are no skyscrapers in Washington, because they would hide the
city’s many monuments from view.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. largest, it’s, the, world’s, city, one-industry;
2. was, President, named, the, first, US, after, Washington;
3. is, the, cities, Washington, beautiful, and, United, States, one, of, unusual,
in, the, most;
4. residence, the, is, the, US, President, official, White, House, of, the;
5. one, without, can, a, park, a, square, monument, in, Washington, a, or, a,
memorial, find, hardly;
6. Washington, there, some, are, museums, important, in.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
District
Office
Supreme
of Independence
official
residence
Oval
Court
Declaration
of Columbia
5. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
Washington DC
 How do you do, Paul. Is it your first visit to the States?
 No, I was there many years ago. It was a brief visit.
 You didn’t see much of America then, did you?
 Very little, I’m afraid. This time I believe I’ll be able to visit Pennsylvania,
Illinois, Kansas and Utah, the Mormon state.
 I’m sure you’ll find that we have an interesting, varied and beautiful country.
America is full of different peoples, scenery and customs. No doubt, you’ll have
an exciting experience.
 Is Washington well planned?
 Yes, of course. In the centre of Washington you can see the Capitol connected
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with the White House by Pennsylvania Avenue.
 Is the street long?
 It’s a mile and a half long.
 The Capitol is the highest building in the US capital, isn’t it?
 Sure.
 Is there any monument to President Washington in the capital?
 Certainly. It's in the Potomac Park, it was opened to public in 1888.
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SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAIN
Sport is a very important part of life in Great Britain. Thousands of people
devote their leisure time to outdoor and indoor games, athletics, cycling,
mountain climbing, boxing and other sports. Horse-racing, dog-racing and
motor-racing are among the most popular sports in Britain. They gather many
spectators. Outdoor games played in Great Britain are team games such as
football, cricket and hockey, and games in which individuals or couples try their
skill, for example, lawn-tennis and golf. The number of participants and
spectators shows that the most popular of the team games are football and cricket,
and the most popular individual game is lawn-tennis.
Snooker (billiards), pool and darts are the next most popular sports among
men. Aerobics (keep-fit exercises) and yoga, squash and cycling are among the
sports where participation has been increasing in recent years.
Scottish Highland Games, at which sport and dancing competitions take
place, attract large numbers of spectators from all over the world.
These meetings are held every year in different places in the Scottish
Highlands. The features common to Highland Games are Highland dancing
competitions and the performance of heavy athletic events – some of which are
Highland in origin. All competitors wear Highland dress. Several events take place
at the same time: dancers perform on a platform; athletes put the weight, throw the
hammer, and wrestle. There is also a competition for the best-dressed Highlander.
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Many kinds of sport originated from England. The Englishmen have a
proverb, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy". They do not think that play
is more important than work; they think that Jack will do his work better if he
plays as well. Sport helps the people to be healthy, and good health is above
wealth!
Vocabulary
leisure time
participant
performance
spectator
wealth
horse-racing
mountain climbing
to attract
to devote
to take place
to throw the hammer
to wrestle
свободное время
участник
представление
зритель
богатство
скачки
альпинизм
привлекать
посвятить
состояться, происходить
метать молот
бороться
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. What sports are popular in Great Britain?
2. What games are called outdoor games?
3. What can you say about Scottish Highland Games?
4. What do Scottish Highland Games include?
5. Why do the Englishmen do sports?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Sport is a very important part of life in Great Britain.
2. Several events take place at the same time.
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3. Составьте предложения:
1. Scottish, Games, to attract, over, Highland, the, numbers, of, large,
spectators, all, world, from;
2. Highlander, there, also, competition, for, to be, the, a, best-dressed.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
indoor
years
recent
games
several
numbers
large
health
good
events
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to wear
spectators
to perform
leisure time
to take
on a platform
to devote
Highland dress
to gather
place
6. Прочитайте, переведите и выучите диалоги:
About sport
 What sports do you go in for?
 I go in for swimming.
 Are you good at sport?
 I am not good at sport. You know, I do not want to go in for professional sport
because it requires much time and energy. But I can swim or play such games
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as basketball, badminton, beach volleyball or table tennis. It is pleasant
especially in summer. We go to the lake and make races.
 What unusual sports do you know?
 Parachuting, mountaineering, windsurfing, yachting.
 What Russian national sports do you know?
 Lapta, fisticuffs.
 What sports are the most popular among the teenagers in Britain and the USA?
 They are cycling, football, tennis (in Britain) and baseball and cycling (in the
USA). But at school British children play cricket and football.
 What outstanding sportsmen and sportswomen do you know?
 Britain: Charleton (football), Hill (car-pilot). The USA: Michael Tyson (box),
Charles Louis (athletics, runner) Russia: Svetlana Khorkina (gymnastics),
Alexander Popov (swimmer), Rodnina and Zaitsev (figure skating).
 What winter sports do you know?
 Skiing, skating, ice hockey, biathlon.
 What water sports do you know?
 Swimming, windsurfing, yachting, diving, sailing.
 Do you enjoy watching sports events?
 I enjoy watching some events. I like the contests of figure-skaters and divers.
 When did you last visit a stadium?
 It was in 1999. It was a football match.
 What was the score?
 During the first time the home team Zenit scored three goals, but in the second
time the visitors scored three goals as well. So you see, it was a drawn game.
The referee set the additional time. During it the visitors scored one more goal,
and the score became 4 to 3 to Spartak.
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Sport and healthy way of life
 What does it mean to you to be healthy?
 I think to be healthy means that every organ works well. I don't think being
healthy means being beautiful or muscular.
 Is it important to be healthy?
 Yes, it is. If you are healthy, you are happy, you can work and rest well. Sick
people usually have bad characters; they are never pleased or satisfied. They are
not easy to deal with.
 What can you do to be healthy?
 I could give up bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol, eating at night, eating fat
food) if I had them. I should exercise, go on a diet and watch my weight.
 Is going in for sport important for being healthy?
 -Yes, it is. Exercise makes us strong and healthy because our muscles work well
and get enough food.
 Why are people so much concerned about vitamins?
 The word «vitamin» comes from the Latin word «life». There are vitamins that
men and animals do not produce in their bodies and must take. People can take
vitamins in pills and from fruit and vegetables. If people do not take vitamins
with fruit or in pills, they can die.
 What can smoking cause?
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 Smoking can cause cancer and other lung problems. Your teeth become yellow
if you smoke. People, who do not smoke but are close to a smoker, breathe in
smoke and can ruin their health, too. So, smoking is bad not only for the
smokers, but also for the non-smokers who are around.
 Can pills and creams help you to be healthy?
 Now there are a lot of adverts on TV and in newspapers which offer us pills and
creams for losing weight, skin-lifting and other problems. Some creams and
pills can help if you take them under a doctor's control, for example, vitamins.
But the problem is most of them help you to look healthy, not be healthy and
can cause bad problems.
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ENGLISH IS THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE
Of the 2,700 languages spoken in the world today, only English is a truly
global language. English is more widely spoken and written than any other
language has ever been. It has become the language of the planet.
Of all the world's languages, English is the richest in vocabulary, containing
some 500,000 standard words (listed in the Oxford English Dictionary) and
another half million technical and scientific terms remain uncatalogued.
English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of
languages. It is spoken as a native language by around 377 million and as a second
language by around 375 million speakers in the world. Speakers of English as a
second language will soon outnumber those who speak it as a first language.
Around 750 million people are believed to speak English as a foreign
language. English has an official or a special status in 75 countries with a total
population of over 2 billion.
Modern English is the dominant language or in some instances even the
required international language of communications, science, business, aviation,
entertainment, radio and diplomacy.
The domination of the English language globally is undeniable. English is
the language of computer technology, media and Internet. As English was used to
develop communication, technology, programming, software, etc, it dominates the
web. 70% of all information stored electronically is in English.
Seventy-five percent of the world's mail, its telexes and cables are written in
English. It is the language of technology from Silicon Valley to Shanghai with
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ninety percent of the world's electronically stored information in English. As a
point of fact, the majority of the 50 million Internet users communicate through
the medium of English. Likewise, more than half of the scientific and technical
journals and periodicals published worldwide are printed in English.
In Europe, where there are as many different languages as there are
countries, nearly a half of all business deals is conducted in English.
English is the language of sports and glamour: the official language of the
Olympics and the Miss Universe competition. English is the official voice of the
air and of the sea. Finally, five of the largest broadcasting companies in the world
(CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC and CBC) transmit in English to audiences that exceed
one hundred million people.
Vocabulary
отделение, ветвь
телекомпания
сделка
конкурс
господство
большинство
аудитория
население
родной
научный
проводить
развивать
превышать
превышать число
оставаться незарегистрированным
передавать
бесспорно
во всем мире
branch
broadcasting company
business deal
competition
domination
majority
audience
population
native
scientific
to conduct
to develop
to exceed
to outnumber
to remain uncatalogued
to transmit
undeniable
worldwide
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. Why is English a global language?
2. How can you explain the domination of English?
3. How is English connected with technology?
4. Why is a half of all business deals conducted in English?
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5. Why is English the official voice of the air and of the sea?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Modern English is the dominant language.
2. Around 750 million people speak English as a foreign language.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. in, 75 countries, English, to have, status, special, a;
2. to become, language, the, of, planet, English.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
broadcasting
users
scientific
technology
official
terms
technical
language
computer
journals
Internet
companies
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to conduct
English
to remain
a special status
to speak
communication
to have
uncatalogued
to develop
business deals
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6. Прочитайте, переведите и выучите диалоги:
About learning English
 Are you enjoying the course?
 Yes, we are doing a new programme. It's called "Accelerate Your Learning". It
combines a video, books and teaches you to read information faster and study
more efficiently. The only problem is that there is too much homework.
 But that's a good thing, isn't it?
 Not for me, because I work in a restaurant in the evening and don't have time to
do it. What about you? How is your English?
 We've got a new English teacher. And now we see more English films. She
advises us to read English newspapers and magazines, but you know they are
not sold in town.
 I can send some to you.
 Thanks. That'll be great!
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English in the future
Question: Lynne, I’d like to ask you first, at what age do people start learning
English these days?
LYNNE: Well, in many countries children start learning English when they go to
school. But I think in some countries they’re starting to teach English too much
younger children, and I think this will become more and more common around the
world.
GREG: That’s certainly true ’cause I know that in some countries they’re even
having English lessons for six-year-old children, so they’ll certainly be learning as
soon as they start school, if not before.
Q: And do you think that English will soon be the universal language?
LYNNE: Oh, I think most adults already speak some English, even if it’s only a
word or two here and there because English is very common and very useful.
Q: What about you Greg?
GREG: Well, I think that’s right. Because already there are so many words that are
in English and that are used internationally, for example, «radio, television,
football», these are all international words – English words though. So, I think in
years there’ll be very few people who don’t speak English.
Q: And do you think, Lynne, that teachers will start using English to teach other
subjects, for instance, geography or science, and that it’ll be used in schools all
over the world?
LYNNE: Yes, I do. I think that teachers will start experimenting with that. I think
in many ways it’s the best way of learning English.
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GREG: I’m not sure about that actually; I don’t think that’s right. I think some will
be in English certainly, for example, lessons in science, say. But I think quite a lot
won’t be in English – other lessons.
Q: Now, what about British and American life and habits, institutions, do you think
that it’s important to know about those?
GREG: I think you have to understand the culture of a country, simply because
there are some words that mean different things to different people depending on
what country they’re in, for example, the word ‘tea’ can be a drink to some people
in one country and in another country it means an entire meal.
Q: And finally, do you think that English will ever become more important than
the language of the native speaker?
LYNNE: Well, no. I think obviously English is important, but I think your own
language and your own culture and traditions are more important to you and I think
it’s good to respect those and to hold on to them.
GREG: Yes, I agree. I think it would be very arrogant to think that English would
be more important than your own language, ’cause your own culture and your
personal identity and your national identity are, after all, far more important, aren’t
they?
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TRAITS OF A GOOD BUSINESSMAN
Majority of people all over the world are involved in business. There are
businesses that last long and there are those that only last for a couple of months or
years. The business' success depends on the character of the businessman himself.
There is a very great chance that the business will succeed if managed by a good
businessman. Businesses that are managed poorly will most likely fail.
Knowledge. Businessman should be knowledgeable about the business he is
in. Knowledge of trade, marketing, stock market, finance, mercantile laws and
banking is the most important. He should also have great knowledge of math and
economics.
Honesty. No one would ever want to make business with a person if he does
not have this character. A business that one can trust and will never stab them on
their backs is something that is valued by many. An honest person with little
knowledge of marketing is preferred by businessmen than those who are good in
business but can't be trusted.
Promptness. Another trait that a good businessman should have is being
punctual. In every aspect of our lives, time is of the essence. A single second that
has passed by can't be taken back. Same as business, being late in a business
meeting may cause a decline in business offer or a loss in your money.
Leadership. The faithfulness and cooperation of each employee in the
company are important for a business to succeed. The employees mainly look up to
their boss, and what their boss is doing greatly affects how their workers are
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performing. A company therefore, should have someone who possesses the
leadership skills so it can be productive and successful.
Ability in Finance. Finance is another great important factor in running a
successful business. No business can run smoothly without a proper finance. The
larger the capital invested on a business the bigger the business is and the bigger
the volume of income will be.
These are the traits that a good businessman should have. Running your own
business isn't something that can be taken lightly. Hard work is a must in this field.
Vocabulary
chance
decline
faithfulness
loss
majority
must
employee
essence
offer
proper finance
trait
volume of income
knowledgeable
mercantile laws
smoothly
to affect
to cause
to depend on smth.
to fail
to involve
to manage
to possess
to prefer
to stab
to succeed
to trust
to value
шанс
снижение
верность
потери
большинство
долг
сотрудник
сущность
предложение
надлежащее финансирование
черта
объем доходов
осведомленный
торговое законодательство
гладко
влиять
вызывать
зависеть от чего-л.
потерпеть крах
вовлекать
управлять
обладать
предпочитать
ударить ножом
добиться успеха
доверять
зд.: ценить
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1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. What is necessary for business success?
2. What are traits of a good businessman?
3. What is more important in business: honesty or knowledge?
4. What does leadership mean?
5. What does ability in finance mean?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. The businessman should have great knowledge of math and economics.
2. Finance is another great important factor in running a successful business.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. people, the, a, person, honest, little, with, knowledge, marketing, of, to
prefer;
2. good, a, businessman, should, to be, punctual.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
all over
factor
great
work
an honest
in business
a decline
person
an important
chance
hard
the world
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to last
honesty
to depend on
the leadership skills
to manage
business
to be
the character
to prefer
long
to look up to
the boss
to possess
knowledgeable
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6. Прочитайте, переведите и выучите диалог:
Choosing your future profession
 Have you chosen your future profession?
 Yes, I want to be a guide or an interpreter.
 Why have you chosen to work in this field? What are your criteria?
 These professions are well-paid, interesting, and useful. These are the jobs
which let you learn something new every day. I find it interesting and
challenging to solve new problems. At the same time I shall work with English
and Russian, the languages I like. I shall also have a wide range of opportunities
to see foreign countries and to communicate with native speakers.
 Do you have the needed traits of character?
 Well, I’m industrious, I think this is a very important trait of character. I am
also good at languages and communicative. My father says I am organized,
reliable and practical.
 Would you like to be a programmer, for instance?
 No. This job requires knowledge of mathematics and computers, but I am not
good at these sciences.
 Many boys and girls want to be famous in their future. What about you?
 I don’t think about being famous. If I am famous, I shall be glad. I think most of
all I want to have a good job and be a good specialist.
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 Where would you study to prepare for your future profession?
 I shall try to enter the Philology Department of the State University. If I fail to
enter, I shall take courses.
 When did you begin to think about your future profession?
 When I was a child. Then I knew my father was a technologist and I wanted to
become a technologist, too. But later I understood that I could make a terrible
technologist since I am bad at chemistry and such subjects.
 Who helped you to decide what you want to be?
 My parents supported me a lot, especially my mother. She helped me to
understand myself.
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OUTSTANDING PERSONALITIES OF RUSSIA
In a comparatively short period of time a giant leap has been made in
science and technology. Much was done by people to reach the present state of
human development. The world knows the names of many great scientists:
chemists, biologists etc.
Great contribution to the development of world science was made by
Russian scientists and inventors. Their names are world-known. It is almost
impossible to name a branch of science in the development of which the Russian
scientists haven’t played the greatest role.
Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) was one of the most
educated men in Europe. He was an outstanding innovator
both in the humanities and sciences. He founded the first
Russian University.
The Great Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev (18341907) discovered the Periodic Law of Elements. All future
discoveries in the field of chemistry and physics have been
based on this law. His discovery made it possible to find 38
new chemical elements to fill the empty spaces left in the
Periodic table.
Alexander Popov (1859-1906) invented radio. Ivan Sechenov (1829-1905)
and Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) were the world’s greatest physiologists.
Russia is called the mother of aviation and interplanetary navigation. The
greatest event of the 20th century was the first man’s flight into space.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) is the father of
rocket flying. He worked out the theory of cosmic flights.
Tsiolkovsky believed that Mankind would not remain on Earth
forever. With Gagarin’s flight his dreams came true.
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Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945) is considered to be one
of the founders of geochemistry and biochemistry. He made a
detailed study of the Earth and chemical processes going on in
its crust, including the migration of chemical elements.
Vernadsky was one of the first scientists to recognize the tremendous
potential of radioactivity as a source of energy, and he was also one of the first to
put forward the idea that radioactivity is vital to many processes of the Earth’s life.
Russia gave the world a lot of great writers, artists, musicians, philosophers,
sportsmen, and politicians. People in many countries admire paintings, portraits
and landscapes created by Surikov, Levitan, Repin.
Works of our writers and poets are translated into many languages.
Alexander
Sergeyevich
Pushkin (1799-1837) is
considered to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder
of modern Russian literature.
Critics consider many of his works masterpieces,
such as the poem The Bronze Horseman and the drama
The Stone Guest.
Pushkin himself preferred his verse novel Eugene Onegin, which he wrote
over the course of his life, starting a tradition of great Russian novels. Pushkin’s
works also provided a fertile ground for Russian composers. Glinka’s Ruslan and
Lyudmila is the earliest important Pushkin-inspired opera, and a landmark in the
tradition of Russian music. Tchaikovsky’s operas Eugene Onegin (1879) and The
Queen of Spades (1890) became perhaps better known outside of Russia than
Pushkin’s own works of the same name.
Mussorgsky’s monumental Boris Godunov (two versions, 1868-9 and 18712) ranks as one of the very finest and most original of Russian operas. Other
Russian operas based on Pushkin include Dargomyzhsky’s Rusalka and The Stone
Guest; Rimsky-Korsakov’s Mozart and Salieri, The Tale of Tsar Saltan, and The
Golden Cockerel; Tchaikovsky’s Mazeppa; Rachmaninov’s one-act operas Aleko
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and The Miserly Knight; Stravinsky’s Mavra. This is not to mention ballets and
cantatas, as well as innumerable songs set to Pushkin’s verses.
One of the greatest Russians is Pyotr Ilyich
Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), an outstanding composer.
He created 10 operas, 3 ballets, 6 symphonies, 7 large
symphonic poems and many other musical pieces.
The name of Gabdulla Tukay (1886-1913) is
known not in Tatarstan only but also far beyond its
borders. He was a poet and a publicist, a literary critic
and a public figure. He did as much for the
development of the Tatar poetry and culture as Pushkin
for the Russian poetry and culture.
The name of Tukay has been awarded to the State Philharmonic Hall, to the
Prize awarded for the best literary works and works of art. A street in Kazan has
also been named after Tukay.
Musa Jalil (1906-1944) is a Tatar poet. When the
Great Patriotic War began, Musa was drafted to the
military service. He got into an ambush of fascists. He
wrote 115 works of poetry in prison. His notebooks
with verses were kept by his friend, the imprisoned
anti-fascist Andre Timmermans from Belgium.
After the war Timmermans gave them to the Council of the Soviet Union
and the poems were returned to Motherland. Musa Jalil was awarded Lenin Prize
posthumously for the “Moabit Notebook” poetic cycle in 1957.
Galiaskar Kamal (1878-1933) and Karim Tinchurin (1887-1938) were Tatar
playwrights and actors. Salikh Saidashev (1900-1954) and Farid Yarullin (19141943) were talented composers. Baky Urmanche (1897-1990) was an artist, a
sculptor and a great graphic artist who created hundreds of works in various
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genres.
Among scientists who lived and worked in Kazan are Alexander Arbuzov
(1877-1969), Alexander Butlerov (1828-1886), Nikolay Lobachevsky (17921856), Karl Fuks (1776-1846), Evgeny Zavoisky (1907-1976), Vladimir Bekhterev
(1857-1927).
Kazan has been awarded the title of the sports capital of Russia and is
known for its sportsmen: Zinatulla Bilaletdinov, Kurban Berdiev, Alina Kabayeva,
Leisan Utyasheva and many others.
Vocabulary
ambush
biologist
branch of science
chemist
composer
contribution
crust
discovery
fertile
founder
giant
graphic artist
ground
humanities and sciences
innovator
inventor
interplanetary navigation
inventor
landmark
Periodic Law of Elements
physiologist
playwright
posthumously
present state
public figure
science
scientist
study
technology
The Bronze Horseman
The Golden Cockerel
засада
биолог
отрасль науки
химик
композитор
вклад
земная кора
открытие
плодотворный
основатель, основоположник
гигантский, громадный
художник-график
почва
гуманитарные и естественные науки
новатор, рационализатор
изобретатель
межпланетная навигация
изобретатель
веха, поворотный момент
периодическая система элементов
физиолог
драматург
посмертно
современное состояние
общественный деятель
наука
ученый
исследование
технология, техника
Бронзовый всадник
Золотой петушок
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Скупой рыцарь
Пиковая дама
Каменный гость
Сказка о царе Салтане
огромный, громадный
жизненно важный, существенный
всемирно известный
сбываться
призвать (в армию)
вдохновлять (на создание)
The Miserly Knight
The Queen of Spades
The Stone Guest
The Tale of Tsar Saltan
tremendous
vital
world-known
to come true
to draft
to inspire
1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:
1. What is Dmitri Mendeleyev known for?
2. Who is considered to be one of the founders of geochemistry and
biochemistry?
3. Whose dream came true with Gagarin's flight?
4. Who is the author of the “Moabit Notebook” poetic cycle?
5. What scientists lived and worked in Kazan?
2. Задайте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. Tsiolkovsky worked out the theory of cosmic flights.
2. Vernadsky put forward the idea that radioactivity is vital to many
processes of the Earth’s life.
3. Составьте предложения:
1. gave, after, Council, of, the, Soviet, war, Timmermans, poems, to, the, the,
Union;
2. greatest, Pyotr, one, the, Russians, Tchaikovsky, is, Ilyich, of;
3. military, the, Musa, was, to, service, drafted;
4. interplanetary, Russia, is, the, of, aviation, and, navigation, called, mother;
5. Kazan, has, named, a, in, also, Tukay, been, street, after.
4. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
migration of
potential
interplanetary
of science
humanities
figure
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tremendous
service
Moabit
chemical elements
branch
and sciences
public
navigation
military
Notebook
5. Найдите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:
to fill
an ambush
to be drafted
hundreds of works
to work
the empty spaces
to get into
to the military service
to create
out the theory
6. Прочитайте и выучите диалог:
Outstanding people
 What people are outstanding to your opinion?
 I think this word means unusual, above average level. Outstanding people can
be sportsmen, politicians, artists, military men etc.
 Can you tell us about an outstanding American personality?
 John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963), 35th president of the USA (1961-63),
faced a number of foreign crises, especially in Cuba and Berlin, but managed to
secure such achievements as the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and the Alliance for
Progress. In 1960 the Democratic Party nominated Kennedy as its official
candidate for presidency. He was young and ambitious, people believed that he
would open a new era in the American history. Kennedy won the election and
in 1961 he became the president of the United States. His slogan was “Let’s get
this country moving again”. Kennedy was an immensely popular president, at
home and abroad. At times he seemed to be everywhere at once, encouraging
better physical fitness, improving the morale of government workers, bringing
brilliant advisers to the White House, and beautifying Washington, D.C. In
1963 John Kennedy was killed.
 Who glorified Great Britain?
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 Great Britain is proud of its writers such as William Shakespeare, Daniel Defoe,
Robert Burns, George Gordon Byron, Walter Scott, Charles Dickens, Oscar
Wild, John Galsworthy. James Cook, William Harvey, Michael Faraday,
Edward Jenner, Isaac Newton, George Stephenson, James Watt glorified Great
Britain too.
 What are they famous for?
 In 1628 William Harvey discovered the circulation of blood and this led to great
advances in medicine in the study of human body. James Cook discovered
Australia and New Zealand, and sailed round the world three times. Isaac
Newton formulated the law of gravitation. Michael Faraday is famous for his
work in electricity, he is known as the father of electric motor. James Watt
invented the universal steam-engine. The name of George Stephenson is
connected with the first railway, he is often called the “Father of Railways”.
 What outstanding politicians from Britain do you know?
 There are many outstanding people, for example, Sir Winston Churchill,
Margaret Thatcher.
 What made them so famous?
 Churchill led Britain through two world wars, was one of the men who
developed the principles of life in the post-war Europe. He was not only a
strong, thoughtful, hard-working politician, but also a man of different talents;
he was also a painter and received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953.
Margaret Thatcher was the leader of the Conservative Party starting from 1975,
and the Prime Minister starting from 1979. She was the only woman Prime
Minister in Great Britain. She kept the post for a very long time. Margaret
Thatcher was the ideologist of the party. Her input in Britain’s life is great. She
balanced the budget, solved the problems of British economy, made the
economy more effective. The traits of her character helped her a lot.
 What traits of character helped them become famous?
 They were devoted to their country and their aim, had strong wills, were very
clever, hard-working and industrious.
 Do you think it is important to learn about outstanding people of Russia?
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 Yes, I do. First of all, it is very interesting to learn their biographies, because
sometimes it seems that it is very simple to become an outstanding person. But
such biographies teach us that talent is only 1% and hard work is 99% of
success. Second, when you learn about difficulties they have come through, you
feel proud of them, of our Motherland and even of yourself being a Russian.
 What about English / American outstanding people?
 I think that studying their biographies helps understand the history of their
countries, the psychology of their peoples.
 Do you think that the lives of outstanding people are full of happiness and joy?
 No, I do not think so. Their lives are usually tragic and full of struggle. They are
not like other people that’s why they suffer from envy, jealousy and
misunderstanding. They have to prove their right to do what they want and the
way they want. They usually have many problems because they feel responsible
not only for themselves, but for the people around them and their country.
 Do you want to be famous in your future?
 On the one hand, I want to be famous because I want my parents and my
country to be proud of me. On the other hand, being an outstanding person is a
great responsibility and it is very difficult. So, I do not really know if I want to
be famous.
 Do you think that an outstanding person can be a good example to follow?
 Well, some of them are really good examples. But I’m not sure. I can’t follow
the examples of sportsmen and politicians who gave all their lives to their
careers. I don’t think that one’s career is everything.
 Are there many outstanding people in Russia?
 Yes, there are many. I especially admire...
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ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ
ONLY FACTS:
 There are more than 1,000 small rivers in Tatarstan.
 The longest river in Europe – the Volga (3,690 km) – flows across our country
for 200 km long here.
 The territory of the republic is 678,362 square km.
 The republic runs 290 km from north to south and 460 km from west to east.
 16.2% of the total area is covered with forest.
 The average temperature is -13°C in January, +25°C in July.
 90% of the territory is 200 m above sea level.
TATARSTAN
The Republic of Tatarstan is a subject of the Russian Federation. The
Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic was signed on the 30 th of August,
1990. The names “Republic of Tatarstan” and “Tatarstan” are equivalent.
The official languages are Tatar and Russian.
Tatarstan is one of the largest socio economic, scientific and political centres
of the Volga Region. It is located at the center of the Russian Federation. It
connects East and West, North and South of the country. The republic has rich
natural resources and a developed industry. The industrial complex is very
important in the republic.
Tatarstan is a multireligious republic. During its history Tatarstan has
accumulated the richest experience of peoples of various nationalities, ethnic and
religious groups. More than 100 nationalities live friendly in the republic. The
important national values are tolerance, consensus and compromise.
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PEOPLE IN TATARSTAN
The population of the Republic of Tatarstan is around 3.8 million people.
2.7 million people live in towns and cities. One million people live in the
countryside. Tatarstan takes the eighth place in the Russian Federation (after
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Bashkortostan, Moscow region, Krasnodar region, Rostov
region, Sverdlovsk region). There are 19 cities and towns and more than 3,000
settlements in Tatarstan. The largest cities are: Kazan, Naberezhnye Chelny,
Niznekamsk, Almetyevsk, Zelenodolsk and Bugulma.
During the last few years the number of Azerbaijanians, Armenians, Tajiks,
Uzbeks has increased. Most of them have organized their own cultural centres. For
example, there are German and Jewish cultural clubs, the «Ogus» Azerbaijanian
society, the Kazakh society, the Chuvash, Bashkir and Mari centres. There are also
Tatar national parties and movements and a few Slavic societies in Tatarstan. It is a
multicultural society and people of all nationalities live in peace and harmony.
Tatarstan is a multinational republic. People of 115 nationalities live there.
The two main nationalities are the Tatars (52.9 percent or more than 2 million
people) and the Russians (39.5 percent or 1.5 million people). The third place is
taken by the Chuvashes – 3.4 % or 126.5 thousand people. There are some
nationalities in Tatarstan, the population of which is over 10 thousand people.
Among them are the Udmurts, Ukrainians, Mordvinians, Maris, Bashkirs and
others.
THE WILDLIFE IN TATARSTAN
The wildlife in Tatarstan is highly varied. The anonymous author of “The
history of Kazan” wrote: “It is a beautiful place … rich in fields for herds and for
bees. They bring forth all types of grasses. The place is rich in fruit. The place is
full of animals, fish and of all sorts of worldly goods. You can not find another
place like it for beauty and wealth in the whole of the Russian land with such
riches that I am not sure any foreign lands have”.
Tatarstan is famous for a large variety of species of animals and birds. There
live hundreds of them. Some of them are in the Red Book. The main task of the
population of Tatarstan is to protect them for our future generations.
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Protected natural territories play an important role.
There are more than 100 zapovedniks in Russia. There are such natural
zones in Tatarstan as well. They are called “specially conserved natural territories”.
They cover an area of 136 thousand hectares or 2 % of the area of the Republic of
Tatarstan. Among them are the Volzhsko-Kamski state natural biosphere
zapovednik, the “Nizhnyaya Kama” national park, the Cedar Park, RussianGerman Switzerland, the “Dubki” nature monument, 24 state natural zones, natural
parks, protected natural territories.
USING WATER IN TATARSTAN
Tatarstan, like no other republic or region, is rich in rivers. There are also a
lot of lakes and underground sources of water. Huge water resources are found in
the 2 biggest reservoirs – the Kuibyshevskoye and the Nizhnekamskoye. Now,
let’s find out how we use these resources.
56,5% of water is used in industry. Machines use water. We transport things
by water. Ships travel on the rives and lakes. In our republic we use water to
produce electricity.
33,4% of water is used for domestic purposes. People need to drink clean
water every day. Taking a regular shower or a bath is a part of our life. We also use
water to wash the dishes, clean our clothes and the house.
If you want to cook some pasta or rice you need water. Preparing salad? You
wash it in water. Boiling potatoes? You need water again!
Like humans animals need to drink water to survive. Plants need water too.
So, farmers use it to help their crops to grow. With water the land can produce
crops. 5% of water is used in agriculture.
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KAZAN
Kazan is on of the oldest and most beautiful cities in the Volga region.
Kazan is a thousand-year-old city with rich and unique history. In 2005 the people
of Tatarstan, Russia and whole world celebrate its millennium anniversary.
Kazan is located in a very picturesque place. Two rivers – the Volga river
and the Kazanka river, which played an important role in the history of the peoples
of the country – meet here.
Thick forests with lots of animals, vast fields, big and small rivers and deep
lakes with lots of fish make the nature of the Kazan area beautiful.
Lake Kaban, unique in its nature, “a mirror of clear water”, is in the centre of
Kazan. There are a lot of legends and mysteries connected with this lake.
Some of them are sad. The Bulak river (known as the Bulak canal) is very
short. It is only 2 km long and stretches from Lake Kaban to the Kazanka river.
Archaeologists are trying to find out more about the past and reconstruct the
picture of the great city, to find out the information about the ways the people
lived, about their customs and traditions.
Kazan is one of the most important economic centres of the Russian
Federation. Large enterprises produce planes, helicopters, compressors, computer
systems, optic, chemicals, clothes, consumer goods and so on. It is one of the
largest river ports on the Volga and also a large railroad, an automobile road and
an air route centre.
Kazan is open to guests from all over the world. It is great fun to visit
Kazan.
THE SYMBOL OF KAZAN
The Kazan Kremlin is a symbol of the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan –
Kazan. The most unusual structure in the Kremlin complex is the Suyumbike
Tower. It has become the architectural symbol of Kazan and is famous a long way
from the Republic of Tatarstan. It is dear to our city. Like the Bell Tower of Ivan
the Great to Moscow, the Statue of Liberty to New York or the Eiffel Tower to
Paris.
The Kazan Kremlin reminds us of the role Kazan played in the long stormy
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history not only of Tatarstan and Russia, but of the Eurasian continent.
The Kazan Kremlin has seen various changes and has always played the
central role in the region. In the 10th century it was a small settlement. Its military
and commercial role was developed from the 10th to the mid-13th century, when it
became a fort. From the 13th century the Kremlin became the centre of the Kazan
khanate.
It remained politically independent until 1552 when Ivan the Terrible
recaptured Kazan. The old Tatar fortress was rebuilt as a Russian Kremlin. From
1708 the Kremlin became the centre of the first Kazan district of the Russian
Empire. Kazan was then called “the third capital of Russia”, “the fairest and best
city of all Russia after Moscow and Saint Petersburg”.
The Kremlin is of some interest from the archeological point of view. The
remains of stone and wooden public houses have been discovered in the oldest
northern part, together with everyday and religious things from the time of the
Golden Horde and the Kazan khanate. Parts of the archeological remains of the
Khan’s palace have been discovered and are preserved. Some buildings survived.
They became parts of the new structures at the northern end of the Kremlin. The
Governor’s Palace was built in 1848-1852 by the architect K.A. Ton. Suyumbike
Tower and the Palace Church are connected to the Governor’s Palace by a gallery.
They form a complex.
THE SYNTHESIS OF TATAR AND RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE
The Kazan Kremlin is unique because historically and architecturally it
continually discovers history, the interchange of values between several cultures
and civilizations. The Kazan Kremlin is not the only ancient urban fort on the bank
of the Volga river. It is the only monument to the lost culture of the Kazan khanate.
It is the only surviving Tatar fortress.
It is an example of the synthesis of Tatar and Russian architecture. It
combines various styles and historical epochs.
Inside the Kremlin complex we can clearly see the influences of Volga
Bulgaria, the Golden Horde and the Kazan khanate. The Kremlin developed under
the influence of two religions – Christianity and Islam.
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Nowadays the Kazan Kremlin symbolizes the nation’s history, its culture
and traditions. In the course of many years Russian and Tatar cultures developed
side by side. This can be easily seen in the Kazan Kremlin. Magnificent golden
crosses of the Annunciation Cathedral harmonize with ornate minarets of Kul Sharif Mosque.
In 2000 the Kazan Kremlin became a monument of UNESCO Word
Heritage.
NATIONAL CUISINE
What kind of food is popular in Tatarstan? Why?
National cuisine is an event.
Tatar cuisine is a result of the historical development of the nation and its
geographical location. Long relationship between the local people and their
neighbours, trade partners influenced the people’s taste. The Bulgars were good
cattlemen, hunters, fishermen and farmers. This is the basis of the food traditions
in modern Tatarstan.
Meat is widely used in Tatar national dishes: beef, lamb and horseflesh. As a
rule, the Tatars don’t cook pork.
The Tatars like the pastries of all kinds very much. One of their favourite
ones is, perhaps, “echpochmak”. It is a triangle-shaped pie with chopped peppered
meat, potatoes and some onion. It is baked in the oven and served hot. It’s very
tasty and, of course, it’s worth trying.
“Peremyach” is also a meat pie, but it is round, filled with peppered meat
and little bits of onion, and it is usually fried. It is served hot, usually with a cup of
broth. It’s very tasty!
Plov is one of the favourite dishes the people in Tatarstan choose to eat. It
has meat, rice, onions, carrots and a lot of spices. Some hostesses like raisins and
dried apricots in the plov.
If you like soups, you will probably like noodle: hostess usually cuts very
thin noodles and makes the meat dumplings (pelmeni). A good hostess usually cuts
very thin noodles and makes the meat dumplings herself.
The most popular drink in Tatarstan is tea. The Tatars like tea with milk,
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with lemon or with dried apricots. And, no doubt, sweet pastries: “chuk-chuk”,
“kosh tele”, “talkysh keleve” and much more! On the table you can always see
honey and jam. So, if you have a sweet tooth, you are really lucky!
But the main thing about the Tatar cuisine is not only that it’s varied and
very delicious. It is more than only food. It’s a meal that unites family and friends.
IF ONLY STONES COULD SPEAK
The history of Kazan is really surprising and full of mysteries. There are
many legends about the name of the city.
One of the legends is very popular. A Bulgar khan dropped a gold cauldron
into the river. As “cauldron” in the Tatar language is “kazan”, the river was called
“Kazanka”.
Another says that the name of the city might come from the shape of the
Kremlin hill, which looks like an upturned cauldron.
There are also legends about the symbol of the city. One of them says that a
terrible two-headed winged snake lived in a large cave near the Kremlin hill. Every
day it flew to Lake Kaban to drink water. The monster horrified the local people.
They called it “Dzhilan” (which means “snake”). Later the snake was called Zilant
and the place he lived in – the Zilantov Hill.
At last Zilant was killed. The Kazan khan ordered to make its image the
symbol of the city. Later it became the official coat of arms of Kazan.
The history of the Kazan Kremlin is also full of mysteries. Some legends are
about the Suyumbike Tower. The tower was built on the ruins of the Kazan khan’s
palace.
Moscow tsar Ivan the Terrible knew about the beauty of the Tatar Queen. He
wanted to marry her. He built a beautiful tower for her. Another legend says that
the Kazan people called the tower after Suyumbike who said “no” to the Moscow
tsar. It was very hard for Suyumbike to leave Kazan and become the Russian
tsarina. She went to the top of the tower, looked around for the last time and threw
herself down on the sharp stones…
As Kazan is an ancient city, its history is really full of mysteries and
legends. Almost any place could tell us a lot about its history, dates and people.
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The Republic of Tatarstan has a very rich artistic and cultural heritage.
Kazan, its capital, is a large cultural centre. The cultural life in Kazan is diverse
and many-sided.
Annual festivals present various styles and schools in arts: Opera festival
named after F.Shalyapin, R.Nuriyev’s festival of classical ballet, K.Tinchurin
Theatre festival, Jazz Crossroads festival and the festival of concertina music.
Traditionally, the international festival of modern music «Europe-Asia» takes
place here as well. Talented singers and ballet dancers come to Kazan from
different theatres of Russia and other countries of the world. Our theatres make
tour performances to Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Norway,
Bulgaria, the Netherlands and many other countries, as well as to the regions of
Russia.
There are 100 state museums of history, literature and arts in Tatarstan.
Nowadays the National Museum of Tatarstan (the City Museum) is a historical and
cultural complex. The Museum has more than 700,000 items. There are different
ethnographic collections, documents of many centuries, handwritten books and
papers of famous people. You can see a rich collection of national clothes of the
people of the Volga region, drawings and photographs of Kazan, postcards,
posters, works of local painters and sculptors.
The State Museum of Fine Arts is one of the leading museums in Russia. It
has a remarkable collection of paintings, sculptures, graphic art, theatrical design,
Russian icons and pieces of applied art. There are about 13,000 works of fine art of
native and foreign artists.
SABANTUY
Sabantuy is, perhaps, the most popular festival in Tatarstan. It is “a
celebration of the plough” (in the Tatar language “saban” means “plough” and
“tuy” means “festival”). This holiday takes place at the beginning of summer, after
the first haymaking. During this festival there are a lot of spectacular competitions.
The most exciting are the horse races. (The Bulgars’ ancestors lived a nomadic life,
had horses and were good riders.)
Another popular competition is the national wrestling. At the end they
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choose a winner. He is usually given a good prize.
There are also a lot of funny competitions and sport games, for example,
egg-races, “running-in-sacks” races. Climbing up a high pole is rather difficult, but
very funny. The prize is a big cock, sitting on the top! In the villages young women
usually make presents for the winners. Everyone tries to show his / her skills and
talent.
NAURUZ
“Nauruz” means the “New Year Day”. It is a very old festival.
This festival takes place on the 21st of March. On this day the daytime is as
long as night. Days become longer and nights become shorter. This holiday
symbolizes the end of darkness and the victory of the light over the evil. It is a
bright and unforgettable festival. People choose the most beautiful girl. She is
called “Nauruz-bikeh”. She drives throughout the town in a coach, decorated with
flowers, bright ribbons and bells. Everywhere people greet her cheerfully. People
sing songs and dance.
MASLENNITSA
Maslennitsa is a traditional Russian holiday. Maslennitsa takes place at the
end of winter. In old times Slavic people believed in different Gods and Yarilo was
the main of them. In his honour people fried a lot of pancakes – hot and round like
the sun and put much butter on them. The holiday lasted a week. During the
holiday people played snowballs, made snow castles and rode a sledge. They
visited each other and celebrated this holiday together.
Nowadays it is one of the most favourite holidays and it is very popular with
people of all nationalities.
SPORTS IN TATARSTAN
Millions of people all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport is
very popular in Tatarstan too.
The Bulgars were nomadic tribes, so horse-riding is a tradition for Tatarstan.
Kazan hippodrome celebrated its 137th birthday in 2006.
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Early Tatars were brave people. They were strong and well-trained in
running, shooting, horse-riding and wrestling.
Today Tatarstan is the land of well-developed sportsmen, famous athletes,
the Olympic champions known all over the world.
Rashid Nezhmetdinov (1912-1974) was among them. He became a chess
champion of Tatarstan and Russia. His name was world-famous. He was the first
who wrote books on chess in the Tatar language. Today youth chess championship
named after R. Nezhmetdinov are held in Russia every year.
In 2002 the men's team of hockey on grass "Dynamo" became the owner of
the Cup of Russia and bronze prize winner for the first time.
In 2004 the team "UNICS" became a silver prize winner of the
championship of Russia.
The sportsmen of Tatarstan showed high spots results in the 27th summer
Olympic Games (Svetlana Demina – a silver medal in sports gymnastics, Denis
Kapustin – a bronze medal in athletics).
The Kazan "Ak Bars" is the most popular ice-hockey team in Tatarstan. It
has become one of the best ice-hockey teams in Russia. The Kazaners are always
happy to go to their matches. The "Ak Bars" fans wear T-shirts and caps with the
colours of the "team": green, white and red. These colours are symbolic for
Tatarstan as they are the colours of our state flag.
So, you see sport is well-developed in our republic.
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ЛИТЕРАТУРА:
1. Бухарова Г.П. Английский язык. Справочник по грамматике, устные темы
и контрольные задания: учебное пособие. – Ульяновск: УлГТУ, 2009. –
158 с.
2. Занина Е.Л. ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы. – М.: 2010. – 272 с.
3. Иванова Л.Ф., Сабирова Д.Р., Гарипова Ж.Н. English welcome to Tatarstan.
Student’s book. – Казань: Изд-во ТАИ, 2007. – 103 с.
4. Кисунько Е.И., Музланова Е.С. Английский язык. Устные темы для
подготовки к ЕГЭ. – М.: 2008. – 480 с.
ИНТЕРНЕТ-РЕСУРСЫ
http://www.kcn.ru
http://kitaphane.tatarstan.ru
http://lengish.com
http://www.english-easy.info
http://www.bestreferat.ru
http://nota.triwe.net
http://www.engwebcountry.ru
http://festival.1september.ru
http://wearelinguists.narod.ru
http://online-teacher.ru
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.fanpop.com
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Russia
Moscow
Republic of Tatarstan
Kazan
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
London
United States of America
Washington, DC
Sports in Great Britain
English is the international language
Traits of a good businessman
Outstanding personalities of Russia
Тексты для дополнительного чтения
Литература
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Андреева Елена Анатольевна
Ильдуганова Гульнара Миншакировна
Москалёва Дина Рамилевна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие
Компьютерная верстка и корректура
Скляр А.Д.
Подписано к печати 26.12.2012
Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16 Бумага офсетная
Гарнитура «Times New Roman»
Тем. план 2013 г. Объем 5,2 п.л. Тир. 50 экз.
Отпечатано в минитипографии КИ РГТЭУ
420111, г. Казань, ул. Кремлевская д. 25/22
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Андреева Е.А., Ильдуганова Г.М., Москалёва Д.Р.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие
Казань – 2013
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