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197.ENGLISH FOR EVERYBODY

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Досковская О. В., Николаева Н. Т.,
Савлюкова Н. Н., Чечикова Л. В.
ENGLISH FOR EVERYBODY
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Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 1курса неязыковых
факультетов
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФГБОУ ВПО «Оренбургский государственный
педагогический университет»
Досковская О. В., Николаева Н. Т.,
Савлюкова Н. Н., Чечикова Л. В.
ENGLISH FOR EVERYBODY
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 1курса неязыковых
факультетов
Оренбург
2012
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УДК 811.111 (075)
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
Д70
Рецензенты:
Комлева Е. В., к.ф.н., доцент, зав. каф. иностранных языков ОГПУ
Кабанова
О.
В.,
к.п.н,
доцент
кафедры
иностранных
естественнонаучных и инженерно-технических специальностей ОГУ.
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языков
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
4
UNIT 1. ABOUT MYSELF
7
UNIT 2. MY WORKING DAY
15
UNIT 3. OUR UNIVERSITY
22
UNIT 4. ORENBURG
27
UNIT 5. RUSSIA
33
UNIT 6. GREAT BRITAIN
41
UNIT 7. LONDON
48
UNIT 8. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
53
UNIT 9. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
61
UNIT 10. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING 65
COUNTRIES
TESTS
68
CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS
72
COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH PHRASES AND IDIOMS
73
НАПИСАНИЕ РУССКИХ ИМЁН СОБСТВЕННЫХ АНГЛИЙСКИМИ 75
БУКВАМИ
ADDITIONAL TEXTS FOR READING
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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Методическое
предназначено
для
пособие,
составленное
студентов-бакалавров
коллективом
первого
курса
авторов,
неязыковых
специальностей. Пособие состоит из десяти разделов, каждый из которых
включает тексты и лексико-грамматические упражнения.
Специфика пособия обусловила выбор тем – универсальных для любой
специальности
страноведческого,
грамматические
университета,
так
и
упражнения
содержащих
общие
общекультурного
направлены
не
сведения
характера.
только
на
как
Лексикоотработку
употребления лексического и грамматического материала, но и на
расширение кругозора студента-бакалавра, на его подготовку к общению в
рамках межкультурной коммуникации.
Кроме того, в некоторых разделах предусмотрены дополнительные
материалы страноведческого характера, позволяющие расширить познания
студентов как в области культуры англо-говорящих стран, так и в сфере
межкультурного общения.
В приложении особое внимание уделяется устоявшимся выражениям,
применяемым на занятиях (Classroom Expressions), идиоматическим и
разговорным выражениям английского языка (Colloquial English Phrases and
Idioms). Также в приложении приводятся несколько тестов, направленных на
проверку уровня владения изученным лексическим и грамматическим
материалом, и тексты для самостоятельного чтения.
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UNIT 1. ABOUT MYSELF
Read, translate and retell the text.
First of all let me introduce myself. My name is … .I’m seventeen years old.
I am a first – year student of the Orenburg State Pedagogical University. There are
two more kids in the family besides me – my elder brother Oleg and my younger
sister Maria. Oleg is twenty-one, he attends a University, he will be a dentist.
Maria is only twelve, she is a schoolgirl. I forgot to mention one more member of
our family. It’s our favorite poodle Tim.
My parents are not old at all. My Mum is forty, she works for newspaper.
My Dad is forty-four, he is an engineer in computers. My parents love their jobs
very much.
I’m doing quite well at the University. My parents are proud of my marks. I
go in for sports. I am good at different sport games but I prefer playing basket-ball.
I take part in different basket-ball competitions. In summer time I like swimming
and boating. In 4 years I will graduate from the University and I will work as a
teacher.
My grandparents are already retired. They like gardening and spend all their
time growing tomatoes, potatoes, onions, strawberries, raspberries.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
to introduce – представлять
let me introduce myself – разрешите представиться
to attend a university – ходить в университет
course – курс
favorite – любимец, любимый
poodle – пудель
to forget – забывать
job – работа
proud – гордый
to be proud of smth. – гордиться чем-либо
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to go in for sports – увлекаться спортом
occupation – занятие, род занятий, профессия
to be retired – быть на пенсии
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1. Do you go to school or Institute?
2. What course are you at?
3. How old are your parents?
4. Are you the only child in the family?
5. Do you have a pet?
6. Are your grandparents still alive?
7. Do you go in for sports?
8. Do you like reading?
9. Do you take part in any competitions?
10. You are a good student, aren’t you?
Ex.2. Fill in the blanks with the required forms of the verb to be in the
Present Tense:
1. I ... twenty.
2. You ... thirty.
3. They ... doctors.
4. She ... a swimmer.
5. He ... a very good friend.
6. We ... very busy in summer.
7. One of my friends ... fond of reading.
8. Football ... the most popular kind of sport.
9. My father … proud of my marks.
10. My friends … good at different sport games.
Ex. 3. Translate the sentences using the verb to be:
1. Мне 17 лет. 2. Его брат – студент. 3. Она из Оренбурга. 4. Её мама –
инженер. 5. Её брата зовут Борис. 6. Сейчас я – студент первого курса. 7. Наш
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корпус очень большой и красивый. 8. Мы – студенты педагогического
университета. 9. Я счастлив. 10. Он устал. 11. Она очень рада.
Ex. 4. Read a letter from an English friend and fill in the table:
Good day,
How are you? I am writing to you hoping that we can become friends.
My name is Jenny Blake. I am 20 years old. I am from Great Britain.
I am looking for pen pals with similar interests and from any country. I live
in a small village near Birmingham in England. There are 9 of us in my family: my
parents, my grandma, my two brothers, my sister-in-law, my nephew, my sister and
me.
My parents Jim and Kate are 49 and 48 years old. They have a small
business.
My granny Emma was a nurse at the local hospital but now she is retired.
She is 75. She takes care of the family and cooks meals.
My elder brother Thomas is 30. His wife is 28 years old. Her name is Betty.
They have a little son Ronald. My parents and Granny adore him. My brother is a
driver and Betty is a housewife.
My brother Andy is 27 years old and he doesn’t live with us. He is a
designer and works for a big company in London. He comes home every year for
Christmas.
My sister Mary is younger than me, she is 16. She goes to our local school.
She is very clever. She is good at biology and chemistry. Her dream is to become a
pharmacist.
As for me I help my parents with their work. But I am also a first year
student at the University of Birmingham. I will be a Computer Engineer. I
participate in an online distance learning program. That means I take classes
online and communicate with my professors and other students through the
Internet. My teachers and fellow students live in different places. But twice a year I
come to Birmingham and take my exams.
I hope after graduating from the university I’ll work as a Software Designer.
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In my free time I go in for sports. I enjoy swimming and tennis. My sister
and I also like riding our bikes. I don’t read a lot. I prefer going to the cinema. I
often listen to the music from my iPod. It is mostly rock but sometimes classical
music.
Now I’m very interested in various cultures and would like to meet people
from other countries.
What is your name? Where are you from? How many people are there in
your family? How old are they? What do they do? What are they like? What do
they look like? What do you like doing in your free time? What are your plans for
the future?
Hope to hear from you soon,
Jenny.
Name
Family status
Age
Job
Jenny
Jim
Kate
Emma
Thomas
Betty
Andy
Mary
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
Read, translate and retell the text:
MY FAMILY
There is a saying that if you want something to be done well, do it yourself.
So, I am following this wise saying and would like to introduce myself.
My first name is Katya, my family name is Smirnova.
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But in the beginning, I would like to represent my family and parents.
Actually my family isn’t large. My family consists of three persons: my father,
mother and sister. Besides there is one more member in our family – our cat Boris.
My father's name is Andrew. He is 41 years, but he looks muсh younger. My
dad is well-educated and well-read. His hobby is fishing. He is fond of it.
My mother’s name is Helen. She is 37. She is a good-looking, blond woman.
I really adore her sense of humor. She is a housewife. It takes her much time and
power to take care of our home. Her hobby is gardening. She can spend long hours
in her spare time in our garden.
I enjoy spending time with my family very much. We often go for walks.
As for me I am a student. I am 17. I can say that I'm friendly, kind, generous
and honest. I have my own likes and dislikes. I never let my friends down.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
to introduce – представить
first name – имя
family name – фамилия
to represent – представить
to consist of – состоять из
blond – блондинка
to be fond of – очень сильно что-либо любить, увлекаться
generous – великодушный
modest – скромный, сдержанный
to let (past let, p.p let) smb. down – подводить кого-либо
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1.
What is my first name?
2.
What is my second name?
3.
What is my family name?
4.
Is my family large?
5.
What are my father's and my mother's names?
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6.
How old is my father?
7.
How old is my mother?
8.
What is my father by profession?
9.
Do I enjoy spending time with my family?
10.
What hobby do I have ?
11.
How old am I?
12.
What people don't I like?
Ex. 2. Translate the sentences using the verb to have:
1. У меня есть семья.
2. У нас есть кошка по имени Пушистик.
3. У моего друга есть сестра и брат.
4. Обычно я обедаю дома.
5. У моего брата есть своя семья.
6. У её папы отличная работа.
7. Как правило, я каждый день встречаюсь с друзьями.
8. У нас в семье есть определенные традиции.
9. Вечерами мы обсуждаем всё, что произошло за день.
10.Каждое лето мы ездим отдыхать на море.
Ex. 3. Fill each gap with a suitable word to complete Tom’s letter to his
pen-friend.
Dear Mike,
Thank you for your letter. It was …………… interesting. And thank you for
the photographs. Your village looks beautiful. Now I would like to tell you a little
about myself and …………… family. I live …………… a town about 40 miles
(that’s about 64 kilometers) from London. I’ve …………… one brother and one
sister and we all …………… to the local school. My mother’s a tourist officer and
she …………… to London …………… the train every day. My father’s a computer
programmer and he often works …………… home.
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At the weekends I often play football with the school team. I sometimes go
…………… at the local pool. …………… is a very good gym at the pool too.
I look forward to your next letter.
Best wishes,
Tom.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the plural form of the following nouns:
year, wife, teacher, family, man, photo, school, mouse, boy, kind, child, city,
exam, goose, foot, student, woman, faculty, shelf, potato.
Ex. 2. Complete these sentences with me, you, her, him, it, us or them:
1. I can’t open this door. Could you open ………. for me, please?
2. Those shoes are really nice. I’d like to buy ………. .
3. “Did you see Jonathon last night?” No, I phoned ………. but he wasn’t there.”
4. I can’t do this homework. Can you help ……….?
5. I asked ………. a question but you didn’t answer ………. .
6. We’re not ready. Please give ………. some more time.
7. I’m sorry about your birthday. I’m afraid I forgot about ………. .
8. She speaks very quickly. I can’t understand ………. .
9. Jill’s a very nice woman. Do you know ……….?
10. My parents are coming this weekend. Would you like to meet ……….?
11. They are not married now. She left ………. a year ago.
12. “Where is your passport?” “I don’t know. I can’t find ………. .”
13. My mother writes to me every week but I don’t write to ………. very often.
14. Were you at the meeting last night? I didn’t see ………. there.
15. We want to help you. Please tell ………. about your problems.
Ex. 3. Translate the word combinations using possessive pronouns:
Его брат, его сестра, наш университет, их учеба, моя книга, твоя мама,
ваши учебники, твой факультет, наши знания, мой выходной день.
Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using a, an or the:
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1. I bought ……… sandwich and ……… piece of cake. ……… sandwich was all
right but cake was horrible.
2. ……… woman and two men were here a few minutes ago. I think ………
woman wanted to see you.
3. They’ve got ……… dog and ……… cat, ……… rabbit and some goldfish but
the children like ……… dog best.
4. He sent me two letters and ……… postcard two days ago. ……… postcard
didn’t say much but ……… letters were very interesting.
5. You can have ……… apple or ……… orange. ……… apples are nice and
sweet.
6. There’s ……… plum tree and ……… peach tree in our garden. ……… peach
tree doesn’t’ produce many peaches but ……… plum tree produces lots of plums
every year.
7. There’s ……… theatre and two cinemas in town but one of ……… cinemas is
closing down.
8. There’s ……… train at 2.00 and one at 3.30. ……… 2.00 train takes two hours
and ……… 3.30 train takes ……… hour and ……… half.
Ex. 5. Complete the sentences using a, an, some or any:
1. Have you got ……… juice in the fridge?
2. There are ……… letters on the floor.
3. I had ……… cup of tea but I didn’t have ……… toast.
4. You need ……… flour and ……… egg.
5. I’d like ……… rice but I don’t want ……… potatoes.
6. Would you like ……… bowl of soup?
7. He gave me ……… tea but he didn’t put ……… sugar in it.
8. There are ……… nice trees in the garden but there aren’t ……… flowers.
9. Can I have ……… glass of orange juice?
10.There are knives and forks on the table but there isn’t ………salt or pepper.
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UNIT 2. MY WORKING DAY
Read, translate and retell the text:
On week days I usually get up at 6 o'clock. I do not like to get up early, but I
have to, because I have a lot of work to do during the day. I do my morning
exercises, make my bed, wash, dress and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. At 7
o'clock I leave home and go to the University. As a rule I come there at a quarter to
8. The classes begin at 8 o’clock. Today we have two lectures, a seminar and an
English lesson. At our English lessons we read texts, ask and answer questions and
do all sorts of exercises. We speak English at the lessons. We speak English a little
now, but we want to speak English well. At about 12 o'clock I generally have
lunch at the canteen. I come home at about 4 o'clock. Sometimes I stay at the
University till 5 or even 6 o'clock in the evening. I go to the library to get ready for
my practical classes or to write a report. As a rule I have no free time on weekdays. So by the end of the week I get very tired.
On returning home I usually start doing my homework. Then I have supper.
After supper I wash dishes, drink coffee or tea and watch TV. I prefer old
comedies and films about travelling. Sometimes I go for a walk in the park or visit
my friends.
I like to read something before going to bed, listen to some music or chat online with my friends. At half past eleven I go to bed.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
have to – быть вынужденным сделать что-либо
a lot of – много
leave home – уходить из дома
as a rule – как правило
generally – обычно
canteen – столовая
get very tired – очень уставать
get ready for smth – готовиться к ч-л.
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have supper – ужинать
write a report – писать доклад
chat on-line – общаться по Интернету
Ex.1. Answer the questions:
1. When do you get up?
2. Where do you go after breakfast?
3. How do you get to the University?
4. How much does it take you to get there?
5. What do you do at the University?
6. How many classes do you have every day?
7. Who usually prepares dinner for you?
8. What do you do in the evening?
9. At what time do you go to bed?
Ex. 2. Tell about your typical day. The following questions will help you:
1. Do you get up early?
2. Is it easy for you to get up early?
3. Do you wake up yourself or does your alarm-clock wake you up?
4. Do you do your morning exercises?
5. What do you prefer: a hot or a cold shower in the morning?
6. How long does it take you to get dressed?
7. What do you usually have for breakfast?
8. Some people look through newspapers or listen to the latest news on the radio
while having breakfast. What about you?
9. When do you usually leave your house?
10. Do you work? If yes, where?
11. How long does it take you to get to your University?
12. Do you go there by bus/trolley-bus or walk?
13. Where do you usually have lunch (dinner)?
14. What time do you come home?
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15. How long does it take you to do your homework?
16. How do you usually spend your evenings?
17. Do you have a lot of free time?
18. Do you play any musical instrument?
19. Are you fond of listening to music?
20. What kind of music do you prefer?
21. Do you collect anything (stamps, records, postcards, coins, matchboxes, etc.)?
22. What time do you usually go to bed?
Ex. 3. Ask questions to the underlined words:
1. He wakes up at 7.
2. After breakfast he goes to his University
3. He gets there by bus.
4. He puts on his coat.
5. I greet my friends.
6. She reads English books.
7. He rests after dinner.
Ex. 4. Ask questions to the Subjects:
1. The teacher asks questions. 2. Ann cleans the rooms after breakfast. 3. We
watch TV after dinner. 4. Nick goes to the library after classes.
Ex. 5. Translate from Russian into English:
a) на столе, в столе, со стола, из стола, в стол, за столом
b) в портфеле, в портфель, из портфеля
c) на урок, на уроке, после урока
d) до обеда, после обеда, во время обеда
e) до занятий, на занятиях, после занятий.
Ex. 6. Translate the questions from Russian into English and answer them
1. Вы встаете рано?
2. Вы встаете в 7 или в 8?
3. Когда вы просыпаетесь?
4. Когда вы завтракаете?
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5. Что вы слушаете во время завтрака?
6. Вы едете в университет на автобусе или на машине.
7. Какие книги вы читаете?
8. Вы обедаете дома?
9. Какой язык вы изучаете в университете?
10.Что вы обычно делаете вечером?
Ex. 7. Write one sentence with each word:
1. usually
2. during the day
3. to begin
4. on Sunday
5. at five o'clock
6. free time
7. to get ready for smth
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
Read, translate and retell the text:
MY DAY OFF
I will not go to my University tomorrow. I’ll have a day off. I hope I’ll have
a good time. I’ll wake up later than usual and do morning exercises. Then I’ll have
breakfast. If the weather is good, I’ll go for a walk after breakfast. If the weather is
bad, I’ll stay at home. I’ll read some books, newspapers and magazines. If the
program is good, I’ll watch TV. In the evening some friends will come to see me.
I’ll be very glad.
Ex. 1. Translate the text. Pay attention to the Future Simple Tense.
Ex. 2 Put the sentences of the text “My day off” into Interrogative and
Negative or Positive forms.
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GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Write sentences with comparative adjectives using words from each
part of the table:
English
heavy
her twelve year old son
Karen
old
buses
My suitcase
long
the Mediterranean
My father
short
planes
Boats
easy
the Statue of Liberty
The Mississippi
fast
Japanese
The Atlantic
cold
cotton
Wool
warm
the Nile
Trains
tall
your suitcase
The Empire State building slow
my mother
1. English is easier than Japanese.
2. Karen…………………………………… .
3. My suitcase…………………………………… .
4. My father…………………………………… .
5. Boats…………………………………… .
6. The Mississippi…………………………………… .
7. The Atlantic…………………………………… .
8. Wool…………………………………… .
9. Trains…………………………………… .
10.The Empire State building…………………………………… .
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using a comparative and than:
1. She’s much ……… her husband. (young)
2. It’s a ……… day ……… yesterday. (warm)
3. The vegetables in this shop are ……… the ones in the supermarket. (fresh)
4. The train is ……… the bus. (expensive)
5. This new TV show is much ……… the old one. (funny)
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6. My office is ……… Helen’s. (near)
7. The traffic is ……… it was last year. (noisy)
8. You have a ……… life ……… I have. (busy)
9. Drivers in this country are ……… drivers in my country. (careless)
10.The exam today was ……… last year’s exam. (difficult)
11.She’s much ……… her sister. (kind)
12.The North is ……… the South. (rich)
13.The students ask ……… questions ……… they did before. (intelligent)
14.Her second book is ……… her first. (interesting)
Ex. 3. Write sentences comparing the Grand Hotel and the Sea View
Hotel. Use the adjectives in the box:
peaceful
big
comfortable
small
lovely
beautiful
expensive
clean
cold
friendly
Grand Hotel
central
cheap
warm
noisy
Sea View Hotel
The Grand Hotel is a beautiful
The Sea View Hotel is a 30-room
hotel in the centre of the town. It is a big hotel about three kilometers from the
hotel with 120 rooms. The rooms are all centre of town. The building is not very
very clean, comfortable and warm but beautiful but the rooms have lovely
they are quite noisy because the hotel is views of the sea and the hotel is nice
on a main road. I found the hotel staff and peaceful. The rooms are not always
polite but not very friendly.
very clean and sometimes they are a bit
This is not the hotel for a cheap cold at night. But the hotel staff is
holiday. The rooms are quite expensive always very friendly and the hotel is
at around £100 per person per night for very cheap. It only costs £ 30 per person
bed and breakfast.
per night for bed and breakfast.
Ex.4. Complete the sentences using there’s, there are, is there or are there:
1. There’s a beach down here.
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2. ………….. four girls and two boys in her family.
3. ………….. a train to Manchester?
4. ………….. a new disco near the college.
5. ………….. a good restaurant in this street?
6. ………….. two hospitals in town.
7. ………….. a lot of children in the pool.
8. ………….. three families in that house.
9. ………….. a television in the flat?
10. ………….. a big grey cloud over there.
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UNIT 3. OUR UNIVERSITY
Read, translate and retell the text:
In 1919 People's National Institute of Education was founded in Orenburg.
There were only two faculties in it: of Natural Sciences and of Mathematics. In
1980 our Institute was decorated with Award Honour Sign. 1996 was the year
when Pedagogical Institute became the Teachers’ State University including 6
faculties and 2 Institutes.
At present it occupies 8 buildings. They are placed in different parts of
Orenburg. There are many chairs and departments in it. Highly qualified lecturers
prepare here the teachers of different subjects: biology and geography, physics and
mathematics, history, primary education, philology, foreign languages, physical
culture. There are many tables, pictures and portraits on the walls of the studyrooms. Our lecture-halls are large and light.
Our University is equipped with the scientific library where students can
look through necessary books and papers.
There are nearly all facilities for doing sport – a swimming pool, a skatingrink, football fields, sport grounds and a tennis-court.
We are proud of our new sports complex where we can train in various kinds
of sport.
Students live in three hostels, the latter one is modern and very comfortable.
There are full time students at our University and we also have students who
study by correspondence. Graduates from our University work in different parts of
our large region and even abroad.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
to found – основать
qualified – квалифицированный
equip – оборудовать , оснащать
portrait – портрет
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physical culture – физкультура
a canteen – столовая самообслуживания
facility – оборудование, приспособление
Ex.1. Answer the questions:
1. When was our University founded?
2. How many faculties are there in our University?
3. What subjects are taught here?
4. Where do our graduates work?
5. What are the facilities for doing sport at our Institute?
6. What can you say about hostels?
7. Where can students prepare for their tests and exams?
Ex. 2. Find English equivalents for:
быть
основанным,
располагаться,
преподаватели,
только
кафедры
быть
и
два
факультета,
факультеты,
оборудованным,
включать
в
себя,
высококвалифицированные
библиотека,
просматривать,
возможности для ч-л, спортивный комплекс, общежитие, аудитории,
студенты-заочники.
Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks:
1. There were only two faculties in Orenburg People's National Institute of
Education: ……… .
2. At present Orenburg Teachers’ State University occupies ……… buildings.
3. Our building is placed ……… .
4. Highly qualified lecturers prepare here the teachers of different subjects:
……… .
5. Our University is equipped with ……… .
6. There are a lot of facilities for doing sport ……… .
7. We can train in various kinds of sport in ……… .
8. Students live in ……… .
9. I’m a ……… time student. My friend study by ……… .
10.Graduates from our University work in ……… .
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Ex. 4. Ask 5 questions to the following sentences:
1. At present it occupies 8 buildings.
2. Students live in three hostels.
3. There are full time students at our University.
Ex. 5. Describe the building you study in.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Complete the sentences using much, many or a lot of. Use a lot of
in the positive sentences only:
1. Have you got ………. work to do?
2. We buy………. fruit but no vegetables.
3. There isn’t ………. information in this book.
4. How ………. children have they got?
5. He’s got ………. problems at the moment.
6. We see ………. beautiful birds on the walk.
7. I don’t know ………. people here. Do you?
8. We can’t go out because I don’t have ………. money with me.
9. There aren’t ………. tourists here this year.
10.I don’t have breakfast before work but I drink ………. tea.
11. Do you smoke ………. cigarettes?
12.How ………. money do you spend?
13.Are there going to be ………. people at the party?
14.She’s ill and she’s not eating ………. food.
Ex. 2. Add do or does to make questions and do, don’t, does or doesn’t to
make short answers:
1. Does she live with her parents? Yes, she does.
2. ….. you like your job? No, I ….. .
3. ….. I speak Italian well? Yes, you ….. .
4. ….. you drive to work? No, I ….. .
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5. ….. they work hard at university? Yes, they ….. .
6. ….. Alan smoke? No, he ….. .
7. ….. your sister visit you very often? Yes, she ….. .
8. ….. we usually give her a birthday present? No, we ….. .
9. ….. you write to your parents very often? No, I ….. .
10. ….. he help you very much? Yes, he ….. .
Ex. 3. A and B meet on the street. Write the conversation, putting the verbs
into the correct form and adding all the other words you need:
-
Hello! / What / you / do / here in Bristol?
-
I / stay / my parents.
-
Oh, that’s nice! And how / be / Cardiff? You / like / it there?
-
Oh, yes, I. It / be / very nice town / but / I / sometimes miss / see / my friends
in Bristol.
-
And what about the job?
-
Oh, that / be / very good. It be / a lot / more / interesting / my last job.
-
Good.
-
Yes. So I definitely / want / stay / Cardiff. / Oh, and I / learn / drive / now too.
But there / be / one problem. / I not got / car.
-
You / buy / one?
-
Well, I can’t. / I not got / money / because I / spend / it all on driving lessons
at the moment.
-
Oh, well. Never mind.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions using last or ago and the words in bracket:
1. When did you speak to Peter? (week)
2. When did they buy that car? (two years)
3. When did we clean the windows? (six months)
4. When did the film start? (five minutes)
5. When did you see your cousin? (three years)
6. When did she stop smoking? (month)
7. When did it stop raining? (two hours)
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8. When did they go to Africa? (year)
9. When did Max phone? (night)
10. When did you find your dictionary? (half an hour)
Ex. 5. Complete the sentences using did, was or were:
1. ………. you working when I rang? No, I ………. not.
2. ………. you see me on television? Yes, I ………. .
3. What ………. you doing when they arrived? I ………. reading the paper.
4. ………. they working hard? No, they ………. not.
5. ………. she crying when you saw her? Yes, she ………. .
6. ………. They speak to you when you met? No, they ………. not.
7. Peter ………. still lying in bed so he ………. hear the doorbell.
8. ………. the police find the man? No, they ………. not. He ………. hiding in an
empty building.
9. We ………. shouting to you. ………. not you hear us?
10.I ………. looking for some photos when you rang but I ………. not find them.
Ex. 6. Mach the sentences together and write ten sentences in the first
conditional:
She won’t get a place at university
you cook the dinner
I’ll do the washing up
I write it in my diary
I’m sure he’ll understand
you go to bed early
I won’t have any money
it rains
I won’t forget the date
I see Sylvia
We’ll eat in the garden
you tell him the problem
You’ll feel better in the morning
the weather’s nice
We’ll stay at home
she fails her exam
I’ll give her your message
you come by train
I’ll meet you at the station
I lose my job
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UNIT 4. ORENBURG
Read, translate and retell the text:
Orenburg is my native town. It is situated on the river Ural which is the
borderline between Europe and Asia. Orenburg was founded in 1743 by Nepluev
as an outpost of Russia. Orenburg has a rich historical past connected with the
names of Pushkin, Dal, Shevchenko, Fadeev, Chkalov, etc. Pushkin traveled
throughout Orenburg region to collect some material about Pugachev’s revolt.
Shevchenko was here in exile.
Today Orenburg is a rapidly growing industrial town. The recent growth of
the town is due to the development of gas and oil fields of Orenburg region. Here
one can find many gas and oil derricks and not far from the town is a big gas plant.
Agriculture is highly developed in our region too. We grow wheat, rye, oats, all
kind of vegetables and some fruits.
Orenburg is a political centre of the region where Municipal and Regional
Dumas and governments sit.
Being a cultural centre Orenburg has a Museum of Natural History, a
Museum of Fine Arts, a Historical and some other museums, many palaces of
culture, concert halls, art galleries. Besides we can visit a Drama Theatre, a Theatre
of Musical Comedy, two Puppet Theatres or a great number of cinemas.
Orenburg is an educational centre. There are three Universities, two
Academies, many Institutes, technical, vocational and secondary schools.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
native town – родной город
borderline – граница
outpost – крепость, форпост
connected with – связано с …
revolt – восстание
exile – ссылка
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rapidly growing – быстро растущий
recent – недавний
due to – благодаря
oil derricks – нефтяные вышки
gas plant – завод по переработке газа
wheat – пшеница
rye – рожь
oats – овес
government – правительство
Museum of Natural History – краеведческий музей
Museum of Fine Arts – музей изобразительных искусств
vocational school – профессиональное училище
secondary school – средняя школа
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1. Where is Orenburg situated?
2. When and who was it founded by?
3. What can you say about famous people who visited Orenburg?
4. The recent growth of the town is due to the development of gas and oil fields of
Orenburg region, isn’t it?
5. Is agriculture highly developed in our region?
6. What do we grow?
7. What has Orenburg being a political centre of the region?
8. Will you name places of culture we can visit in Orenburg?
9. What educational institutions are there in our town?
10.Orenburg is a political centre of the region, isn’t it? Why?
Ex. 2 Translate from Russian into English using words and word
combinations of the text:
1. В моем родном городе много красивых площадей и зеленых парков.
2. Граница между Европой и Азией проходит по Уральским горам.
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3. В музее изобразительных искусств часто проходят выставки оренбургских
художников.
4. Рожь, пшеница и овес – основные сельскохозяйственные культуры нашей
области.
5. Твой брат уже окончил среднюю школу? – Да, теперь он учится в
профессиональном училище.
6. Вчера моя сестра была на экскурсии в краеведческом музее. – Ей
понравилось? – Да, экскурсия была посвящена восстанию Пугачева.
Ex.3. Finish the sentences:
1. Orenburg is situated on the river Ural which is the borderline …
2. Orenburg was founded in …
3. Orenburg has a rich historical past connected with the names of …
4. Today Orenburg is a rapidly …
5. In Orenburg region one can find many …
6. Orenburg is a political centre of the region where …
7. Being a cultural centre Orenburg has …
Ex.4. Imagine that you are a tour guide. Make an excursion about
Orenburg for your groupmates.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Complete these sentences with at, on, in:
1. Do you live ….. Manchester?
2. He was ….. the bus stop for half an hour.
3. Are the plates ….. the cupboard?
4. Look at the example ….. the blackboard.
5. I met my girlfriend ….. a party.
6. Kathy’s not here – she’s ….. work at the moment.
7. Are my books ….. that shelf?
8. My toothbrush isn’t ….. the bathroom. Where is it?
9. I usually go swimming ….. Tuesdays.
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10.There are too many cars ….. the road.
11.We usually take our holiday ….. September.
12. They don’t go out very often ….. the evenings.
13. The children get too many presents ….. Christmas.
14. I got up ….. 7 o’clock this morning.
15. She was born ….. London ….. 1992.
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using to, at, from, onto, on, off, into, in, or out off:
1. I got out ………. the bath when the phone rang.
2. I forgot to send a birthday card ………. Helen yesterday.
3. He was very tired when he got back ………. Australia.
4. We’re going to stay ………. a holiday apartment in Spain.
5. We stopped ………. the traffic lights and the car broke down.
6. He took all the toys ………. the box and left them ………. the floor.
7. Our friends met us ………. the airport when we arrived ………. Berlin.
8. He felt very hot and so he jumped ………. the beautiful clear water.
9. We took our lunch ………. the garden and ate it ………. the grass.
10.When I arrived, I carried my heavy bag all the way ………. the station ……….
the hotel.
Ex. 3. Rewrite these sentences in the correct order:
Model: to the mountains / never / we / go – We never go to the mountains.
1. often / she / write to me / doesn’t
2. play football / the boys / always / on Sunday afternoons
3. late / usually / arrives / the bus
4. go / I / often / bed / to / before 11
5. never / coffee / in / drinks / she / the evening
6. it / in the summer / rain / often / doesn’t
7. slowly / I / always / books / read
8. by / my / usually / father / to / bus / goes / work
9. always / at / go / we / to / the beach / the weekend
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Ex. 4. Complete the conversation, putting the verbs into the present
continuous and completing the short answers with am, is, are (not):
- So what ………. (happen)? ………. (they/have) a party?
- Yes, they ……….
- And what ………. (they/do)?
- Well, a few of them ………. (dance).
- ………. (Mum and Dad/dance)?
- Yes, Mum ………. . But Dad ………. . He ………. (talk) to uncle Jack and they
………. (laugh) a lot.
- Is Aunty Linda there?
- Yes, she ………. . She ………. (dance) with Brian from next door.
- Oh, and Dad ………. (give) everyone a drink now.
- What ………. (they/drink)?
- Coffee, I think. And some of them ………. (drink) juice. Mum ……….
(not/drink) anything.
- What ………. (they/eat)?
- Only crisps and nuts and some cheese.
- And we ………. (not/eat) anything. It’s not fair!
- But they think we ………. (sleep) upstairs.
- Oh, no, they don’t. They ………. (look) this way.
- I think Dad ………. (come) over here.
Ex. 5. Complete the conversation putting the verbs into the Present
Continuous or Present Simple.
- Where ………. (you/come) from?
- Brazil. What about you? Where (you/come) from?
- Italy. I’m in London for one month.
- Yes, me too.
- ………. (you/like) it here in London?
- It’s very exciting but sometimes the people ………. (not/be) very friendly.
- ………. (you/stay) with English people?
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- Yes. I ………. (stay) with an English family, but I ………. (not/see) them very
often. They ………. (be) always busy.
- I ………. in a student hostel. That ………. (be) much better. There are many
different nationalities and we all ………. (speak) English together.
- Oh, that’s good. And ………. (you/study) together in the hostel in the
evenings?
- Yes, sometimes.
- ………. (that/be) your course book?
- Yes, I ………. (do) my homework.
- ………. (your teacher/give) you homework every day?
- Almost every day. What ………. (you/do)?
- I ………. (write) to my parents. I ………. (write) to them every week.
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UNIT 5. RUSSIA
Read, translate and retell the text:
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is
about 17 million square kilometers. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and
Northern Asia. Russia is bordered by Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Litva, Belarus, the
Ukraine, Azerbaijan and China. Our land is washed by 12 seas, most of which are
the seas of three oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a great variety of flora and
fauna can be found as in our land. Our country has numerous forests, plains and
steppes, taiga and tundra, highlands and deserts. Russian Federation is located on
two plains, the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. The longest
mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. Russia's most important
rivers are the Volga, the main Siberian rivers and the Amur. The total number of
rivers in Russia is over two million. The world's deepest lake – Lake Baikal, with
the depth of 1600 meters, is situated in Russia, too. The climate in Russia varies
from the arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. Russia is a highly-developed
industrial and agricultural country. Its vast mineral resources include oil, natural
gas, coal, iron, zinc, aluminum, gold and other non-ferrous metals.
The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of
about 10 million people. The Russian Federation is a multinational state. It
comprises many national districts, several autonomous republics and regions. The
current population of Russia is about 150 million people.
Russia is a constitutional republic with president as Head of State. The
legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of
Federation and the State Duma.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
to be bordered by – граничить с
to be located on – находиться, располагаться
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Great Russian Plain – Великорусская равнина
West Siberian Lowland – Западносибирская низменность
depth – глубина
to vary – изменять, меняться
mineral resources – полезные ископаемые
non-ferrous metals – цветные металлы
legislative power – законодательная власть
to be vested in – передаваться
to consist – состоять
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1. What is the total area of the Russian Federation?
2. How many countries is Russia bordered by?
3. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federation?
4. Is the Russian Federation located on two plains?
5. What are the longest mountain chains?
6. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million, isn’t it?
7. Are Russian flora and fauna various?
8. What is the climate in Russia like?
9. What is the current population of Russia?
10.What does the Federal Assembly consist of?
Ex. 2. Finish the sentences below using words from the text:
1. The Russian Federation is …
2. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and …
3. The longest mountain chains are …
4. The total number of rivers in Russia is …
5. The climate in Russia varies from the arctic …
6. Russia is a highly-developed industrial and …
7. The capital of the Russian Federation is …
8. Russia is a constitutional republic with …
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Ex. 3. Translate from Russian into English
1. Российская Федерация занимает большую часть восточной Европы и
северной Азии.
2. Россия граничит с восемью государствами, включая Финляндию, Латвию,
Белоруссию, Китай и некоторые другие.
3. В Российской Федерации более двух миллионов рек. Самые крупные из
них – Волга, Амур и реки Сибири.
4. Климат Российской Федерации меняется от арктического на севере до
субтропического на юге.
5. Россия – высокоразвитая промышленная и сельскохозяйственная страна.
Ex. 4. Your English friend is planning a visit to Russia. Help him to
choose where to go and what to see in our country. Work in pairs:
Ex. 5. How well do you know your Homeland? What is (are):
• the biggest Russian lake?
• the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts of the Russian
Federation)?
• a city with subtropical climate?
• cities with arctic climate?
• agricultural regions?
• old historical cities?
• places of recreation and tourism?
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
MOSCOW
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky
in 1147. There is a monument to him in the very center of Moscow.
During the whole history of Russia Moscow has occupied the leading place
in its cultural and political life. Now Moscow is a big industrial, cultural and
political centre of the country. Moscow is the large educational and scientific
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center. Moscow University was founded by M. Lomonosov in the 18th century. It is
the highest building in Moscow.
Moscow is beautiful. We admire its fine buildings, magnificent palaces,
architectural monuments, beautiful green parks and squares. The centre of Moscow
is the Red Square. One can see there St Basil's Cathedral, famous for its unique
architecture and coloured domes.
The Moscow Kremlin is one of the world’s largest collections of historical
and art treasures. Situated on the north bank of the Moskva River, it is the
dominant landmark of Moscow. A stone wall up to 21 m in height surrounds this
triangular complex of former palaces, cathedrals, and other monuments. The Great
Kremlin Palace is the most imposing structure within the Kremlin. Other notable
Kremlin palaces are the Granovitaya Palace (1491) and the Terem (1636).
The cultural life of the capital is very rich. There are plenty of cinemas,
theatres, museums and art exhibitions here. We can see world famous pictures by
Russian and foreign artists in the Tretyakov Gallery and in the Pushkin Art
Museum. The Moscow underground is no doubt the best in the world. It is famous
for its marble-walled stations.
Moscow is also called golden-domed because of a great number of churches
and cathedrals with gilded domes, for example the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour,
the Archangel Cathedral and the Cathedral of the Annunciation.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
to found – основать
prince – князь
in the very centre – в самом центре
to occupy – занимать
leading – ведущий
educational – образовательный
century – столетие, век
to admire – восхищаться
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magnificent – великолепный
art – искусство, художественный
treasure – сокровище
plenty of – много, множество
exhibition – выставка
underground – метрополитен
no doubt – без сомнения, несомненно
golden-domed – златоглавая
cathedral – собор
Ex.1. Answer the questions:
1. What is the capital of Russia?
2. Who was its founder?
3. Is Moscow an educational centre? Give some examples to prove it.
4. What places of interest do you know in Moscow?
5. Why can we say that its cultural life is very rich?
6. Can you name the main art galleries in Moscow?
7. What is the quickest means of transport in Moscow?
Ex.2. Translate the words and make up sentences with them:
a) art, artistic, artist, artificial, artful, artless;
b) to lead, leader, leading, leadership;
c) science, scientific, scientist.
Ex.3. Agree or Disagree. Read in pairs. Use the phrases:
You are right. I agree with you. – You are not right. You are mistaken.
1. Moscow was founded in 1743.
2. It was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky.
3. Now Moscow is a big sea resort.
4. Moscow University was founded by Peter 1.
5. Moscow University was founded in the 18th century.
6. The centre of Moscow is the tall Ostankino Tower.
7. The cultural life of the capital is very rich.
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8. The Moscow underground is world-known.
9. We can see world famous pictures by Russian and foreign artists in the Great
Kremlin Palace.
10.St Basil's Cathedral is a notable Kremlin cathedral.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Write the following sentences in Past Continuous and Future
Continuous adding necessary adverbs of time:
1. What’s his wife doing? 2. He is not packing his things. 3. Are you waiting
for your friend? 4. Where are you hurrying to? 5. My friend is staying at a hotel. 6.
She is talking to a friend of mine. 7. My daughter is having her French. 8. They are
not smoking.
Ex. 2. Answer the following questions paying special attention to the Past
Continuous and Future Continuous:
1. Were you doing your homework at 11 yesterday evening?
2. What will you be doing at 3 o’clock tomorrow?
3. Will you be hurrying home after classes?
4. Who were you talking to when I called you?
5. What were you talking about when I came in?
6. Do you know when you’ll be taking your exams this year?
7. Where will you be going for your holidays?
8. Where were you hurrying to when my friend met you?
Ex. 3. Complete the sentences, putting the verbs in the Past Simple or Past
Continuous:
1. They ………. for me when I ………. at the station. (wait/arrive)
2. She ………. in the sea when I ………. her. (swim/see)
3. ………. they ………. tennis when it ………. raining. (play/start)
4. She ………. when she ………. the news. (cry/hear)
5. We ………. home from the theatre when the police ………. us. (drive/stop)
6. Everyone ………. quiet when the concert ………. . (go/begin)
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7. When she ………. him, he ………. quite ill. (leave/become)
8. You ………. in a restaurant when I first ………. you. (work/meet)
9. I ………. very angry when I ………. the letter. (feel/read)
10.It ………. when I ………. . (rain/get up)
Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using the following prepositions:
down
below
up
next to
opposite
past
along
across
under
between
over
above
behind
round
in front of
1. Mario’s
restaurant
is
……… a travel agency.
2. There is a person ………
Mario’s restaurant.
3. There is a dog ……… the
ladder.
4. A
painter
is
climbing
……… a ladder.
5. Mario’s restaurant is ………
a hotel called The Red Lion.
6. Someone
is
running
……… the hotel.
7. There is a beautiful garden ……… the hotel.
8. There is a bus stop ……… the hotel.
9. Mario’s restaurant is ……… the hotel and the launderette.
10.There is a hairdresser’s ……… the launderette.
11.Someone is coming ……… the steps from the hairdresser’s.
12.There are a few people walking ……… the road.
13.Someone is pushing a pram ……… the road.
14.There is a car coming ……… the corner.
15.There is a plane flying ……… the town.
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Ex. 5. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences:
1. We haven’t got some/any milk.
2. She arrived in/to Mexico at 2 o’clock.
3. It’s very cold tonight. I think it’s snowing/it’s going to snow soon.
4. Don’t walk/Not walk on the grass.
5. You play tennis very good/very well.
6. Thank you for telling me that. You’re honester/more honest than your brother is.
7. Alice and Mike stay/are staying in a hotel in Berlin this week.
8. I think I’m going to take that picture out off/off the wall.
Ex. 6. Write ten questions about a friend’s trip to London, using the table
below. Then choose a short answer for each question:
Was
the underground
warm?
Yes, it was.
Were
trains
comfortable?
No, it wasn’t.
the weather
beautiful?
the streets
friendly?
Yes, they were
the people
busy?
No, they weren’t
the parks
clean?
the airports
expensive?
the museums
good?
the shops
fast?
the hotel
interesting?
the food
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UNIT 6. GREAT BRITAIN
Read, translate and retell the text:
GREAT BRITAIN
Great Britain is situated on a group of islands lying off the north-west of
Europe. The official title of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland. It includes the following parts: England, Wales, Scotland and
Northern Ireland. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh
and the Irish. The United Kingdom is bordered to the south by the English
Channel, which separates it from continental Europe, to the east by the North Sea,
and to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The only land border is
between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The total area of the United
Kingdom is 242 km².
The climate of Great Britain is mild and damp. This is because of the west
winds which often blow from the ocean. They keep the weather cool in summer
and warm in winter. Rain and fog are rather common things in Great Britain,
especially in autumn and in winter. In general the weather is rather changeable and
every Englishman wishes it to be more stable.
Great Britain is one of the most highly developed industrial countries in the
world. Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy – a kingdom. But the King’s or
Queen’s power is limited by Parliament. Parliament consists of two Houses: the
House of Lords and the House of Commons.
There are two main parties in Great Britain: the Conservative Party and the
Labour Party. London is the capital of Great Britain.
The population of United Kingdom is more than 56 mln people, but it is
one of the world's leading commercial and industrialized nations.
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ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE
VOCABULARY:
island – остров
north-west – северо-запад
English Channel – пролив Ла-Манш
separate – отделять
border – граница
between – между
mild – мягкий, умеренный
because of – из-за, благодаря
fog – туман
changeable – изменчивый
kingdom – королевство
power – власть
limit – ограничивать
House – здание, палата
Labour Party – Лейбористская партия
Ex.1. Answer the questions:
1. Where is Great Britain situated?
2. What parts does it include?
3. How is it separated from the continent?
4. What is the total area of the United Kingdom?
5. What is the population of the United Kingdom?
6. How can you describe the climate and the weather in Great Britain?
7. What is the form of ruling in the country?
8. What is the King’s or Queen’s power limited by?
9. Will you name the main parties in Great Britain?
10.What is the capital in Great Britain?
Ex.2. Give antonyms to the following words:
North, west, mild, damp, warm, stable, highly, often.
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Ex.3. Fill in the blanks. Use the suitable words from the text:
1. Our main building of the University is … in the very centre of our town.
2. The strong wind often … in our region in autumn.
3. Not all people like … life, they often look for adventures.
4. Her mood is very … . She is sad in the morning and is singing joyfully in the
evening.
5. His freedom is now … because he often infringes … and orders.
6. Our work at the English text … reading, translation and retelling.
7. There are several kingdoms in Europe where a … or a … is at the head.
Ex.4. Read the following dialogue and invert your own:
- You see, I’m a bit confused. I thought Britain, Great Britain and the British Isles
mean the same. Am I right?
- Well, in everyday speech Britain, Great Britain and the British Isles are used to
mean the same country, but it is not quite correct.
- Can you explain why Britain is called Great Britain?
- In fact, it is only one of about 5500 British Isles. It is the biggest one. That is why
it’s called Great, because of its size.
- I see. Does it also mean the United Kingdom, then?
- No, it consists only of the country’s three parts. The fourth part, Northern Ireland,
is on the next largest island – Ireland.
Ex. 5. Use the following phrases and word combinations to retell the text:
1. As I understood from the text...
2. According to the text...
3. According to the author...
4. As it is described in the text...
5. As it is said in the text...
6. As the author puts it...
7. According to the figures (data, information, opinions) from the text...
Ex. 6. Discuss the following statements. Use the following phrases to
express your opinion:
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1. It seems to me (that)...
2. I would like to say that...
3. As I see it...
4. I think that...
5. I guess...
6. I suppose...
7. I (strongly) believe that...
8. I am (absolutely) sure that...
Statement A: The United Kingdom is a small country. It is one of the leading
countries now because it had many rich colonies in the past.
Statement B: UK will loose Northern Ireland soon and Wales and Scotland
later, like it lost Hong Kong in 1997, because of the differences in languages,
culture and history.
Statement C: British people don't travel much because they live not too far
from the sea (ocean).
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
SOME FACTS ABOUT GREAT BRITAIN

Foreigners have many ideas about what the English are like. Some
people consider them to be cold and reserved.

As the weather in Britain is mild, British people do the gardening
almost all the year round.

Mowing grass is also very important. They do it every Sunday
morning. The British see an unmown lawn as a sign of laziness and as disrespect to
others.

Cycling is a very popular activity especially on the country roads
because they are not very busy and dangerous.

Fish and chips is the classic English take-away food. It is usually
bought ready cooked at fish and chip shops.

The British are said to drink about 2 billion cups of tea a day. They
drink green and black tea, with milk and without it.
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
Double- deckers were designed specially for London by people who
knew what London needed. Big London buses are recognized all over the world.

The first double- deckers were driven by horses . Since 1911 they
have been London’s ‘king of the road’.

The black London taxi cab is another traditional symbol of London. It
looks old-fashioned and clumsy, but it’s comfortable and speedy.

it’s comfortable and speedy.
THE UNION JACK
This is the popular name given to the flag of Great Britain. Actually it is
called the Union Flag and it is a mixture of several flags.
It all began in 1606 when Scotland was joined to England and Wales. The
Scottish flag, St. Andrew’s Cross, blue with a white cross from corner to corner,
was joined to the English Flag, St. George’s Cross, with a red cross. The flag of St.
George can still be seen on churches in England.
Later, in 1801, when Ireland was joined to the union, as it called, the Irish
Flag of St. Patrick’s Cross was added, white with a red cross from corner to corner.
In this way the English people got the Union Flag which is red, white and
blue. King James the Third (1566 - 1622) ordered that the Union Flag should be
flown on the main mast of all British ships, except on ships of war. Here the flag
was flown at the front of the bowsprit. The end of the bowsprit was called the Jake
Star and so we get the name of Union Jack. A “jack”, by the way, is an old word
for the sailor. The Union Jack is also on the flags of Australia and New Zealand.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Put the verbs into the correct tense and form:
1. ……… a good time last weekend? (you/have)
2. I ……… that film three times but I’d like to see it again. (see)
3. She ……… to Mary when I saw her in town. (talk)
4. Where ……… for your holidays next year? (you/go)
5. Be careful with that glass. If you drop it, it ……… . (break)
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6. I usually ……… with Joanna on Saturday nights but she’s away this weekend. (go out)
7. Where’s Annie? She ……… the shopping at the moment. (do)
8. It was a beautiful morning. The sun ……… and the birds ……… . (shine/sing)
9. If you ……… harder, you’ll fail the exam. (not/study)
Ex. 2. Write the sentences, choosing one of the modals.
1. We are leaving tonight, so you (should/must) buy a ticket for the flight.
2. (May/Might) I come in?
3. David (can/could) cook well when he wants to.
4. 'Do you think it (can/might) rain?' 'Yes, possibly. We don't want to get wet so I
think we (should/must) take our raincoats.'
5. Jenny tried to carry him but she (can't/couldn't).
6. We (can/might) visit my cousin in Australia next year but we don't know yet.
7. In many countries, you (should/must) wear a seat belt in the car - it's the law.
8. (Can/May) you hold this for me, please?
9. I know they enjoy their work but they (shouldn't/'mustn't) work at the
weekends. It's not good for them. I think they (should/must) spend time at home
with their families.
10.The letter (can/may) arrive tomorrow.
Ex. 3. Complete the sentences with can, could, may, might, should or
must in the positive or negative:
1. Richard's only three but he …….. swim very well.
2. You've had that headache for two days. I think you …….. go to the doctor.
3. I don't think we …….. go to the beach because it rains this afternoon.
4. I lived in Germany as a child so I …….. speak German then but I …….. speak it now.
5. You …….. remember to take your passport tomorrow.
6. …….. you close the door, please?
7. We …….. move house next year but we're not sure yet.
8. Passengers …….. smoke when the plane is taking off.
9. I think you …….. play tennis with Sally. She play really well.
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10.“Do you think I …….. learn some Portuguese before I go to Brazil?” – “Yes,
that would be a good idea.”
11.We …….. remember to pay this bill before the weekend. It’s very important. If
we don't, we'll have no electricity.
12.I know you like sugar but you …….. eat quite so much. It's bad for you.
13.I'll be at work on Saturday so I'm afraid I …….. come to the football match
with you.
14.I was listening very carefully but I …….. hear what she said.
15.They don't like living in the countryside. I think they …….. move back to the
city but they don't agree.
Ex. 4. Circle the correct words to complete the sentences:
1. She (won't/wouldn't) have all these problems if she was more efficient.
2. If it (rains/rained), we'll go by bus.
3. Where (will/would) you live if you could choose?
4. The boss always (gets/got) angry if people are late for work.
5. Mary (can't/'couldn't) speak English when I first met her.
6. You look tired. You (might/should) go to bed.
7. (Must/Can) you close the door, please?
8. I think it (can/may) rain tomorrow.
9. Our car broke down so we (had to/must) take a taxi.
10.You (don't have to/mustn't) tell anyone. It's a secret!
Ex. 5. Supply the modals or their equivalents:
1. There were so many questions he … not answer.
2. … I ask a few minutes private conversation with him?
3. “I am afraid I … be going now”, he said.
4. Her English is very poor, she … study very hard.
5. They … know how to divide their time between studies and rest.
6. I … write my test. It proved to be too difficult.
7. We … not leave class without permission.
8. The students … settle that question at the conference last week.
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UNIT 7. LONDON
Read, translate and retell the text:
LONDON
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural
centre. London is an ancient city. The population of London is about 8 million
people. London is one of the biggest cities in the world and the largest city in
Europe. It is situated on the banks of the river Thames. London consists of four
important sections: the West End, the East End, the City, and Westminster.
The City is a small part of London but it is the financial and the business
centre of the country. There are a lot of banks and various offices here. We can
also see here one of the greatest English churches – Saint Paul’s Cathedral. Many
famous people are buried here.
Not far away is Westminster – the administrative centre of London. The
Houses of Parliament are situated here. It is the seat of the British Government.
The building is very beautiful with its two towers and a big clock called Big Ben.
Westminster Abbey where kings and queens are crowned is opposite the
Houses of Parliament.
The West End is the part of London where the rich people live. Fine houses,
wide street, numerous parks are to be found here. The best cinemas, theatres,
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famous shops, comfortable hotels, large museums are situated here. The most
beautiful London park – Hyde Park – is in this district too.
The East End is the poorest part of London. It includes the port, docks. The
workers and the unemployed live here.
London is famous for its outstanding places of interest. There are many
architectural, art and historic monuments in London such as the British Museum,
the Tower of London, the National Gallery, Buckingham Palace and many others.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
ancient – древний
population – население
business – деловой, коммерческий
Saint Paul’s Cathedral – Собор Святого Павла
to bury – хоронить
not far away – недалеко
seat – зд. местопребывание
to crown – короновать
tower – башня
district – район
unemployed – безработный
outstanding – выдающийся
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1. What is London?
2. What can you say about its population?
3. Where is it situated?
4. How many parts are there in London?
5. What are they?
6. What can we see in the City?
7. Where are the Houses of Parliament situated?
8. Where do the rich people do?
9. What is the most beautiful park?
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10. Will you name the famous places of interest in London?
Ex. 2. Take equivalents to the underlined words from the text and write
down new sentences:
1.
Many spectators were waiting for the well-known actor near the theatre.
2.
The high grey modern building is the commercial centre of the oil company.
3.
This very old part of Rome is often shown in many feature films.
4.
We were greatly impressed by the beautiful sights of Paris.
5.
This new arm-chair is very convenient to have a rest in.
Ex. 3. Imagine that you are a tour guide. Make an excursion about
London for your groupmates.
Ex. 4. What do you know about this places of interest?
- Saint Paul’s Cathedral
- Big Ben
- Westminster Abbey
- Hyde Park
- British Museum
- Buckingham Palace
- the National Gallery
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Write the correct form of the Present Perfect to complete these
sentences:
1. …….. to Rome (you ever be)? 2. …….. this film before (I see). 3. …….. in an
office (she never work). 4. …….. in an airplane (I never be). 5. …….. to Germany
(he ever be)? 6. …….. my parents (you met)?. 7. …….. in the theatre (you ever
work)? 8. …….. to all the capital cities of Europe (she be). 9. …….. this book (I
read). 10. …….. that new film about aliens (you see)? 11. …….. abroad (we never
be). 12. …….. a British policeman before (they never see). 13. …….. in a foreign
country (they ever live)? 14. …….. the President (they meet).
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Ex. 2. Is 's a short form for is or has?
Model: He's tired. / It's dead. / She's thirsty. (= is).
He's gone. / It's disappeared. / She's left. (= has)
1 He's tired. 2 She's worried. 3. She's arrived. 4 He's left the country. 5. It's
escaped. 6. She's stopped working. 7. She's ill .8. He's had a cold. 9. He's eaten.
Ex. 3. Make up sentences in Present Perfect using “never”, “a few times”,
“a lot of times”:
to swim in the to eat cherries
to
see
sea
rainbow
a to lose a lot of to dance with
money
a
famous
singer
to
drink to
champagne
break
an to fall in the to win a game to teach a cat
expensive dish swimming-pool
of chess
to talk
Ex. 4. Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the Present Perfect or
Past Simple:
Model: I (read) that book three times. – I've read that book three times.
She (go) home three days ago. – She went home three days aqo.
1. I (meet) Mr and Mrs Shelley.
2. She (start) school in 1984.
3. I (leave) the office early last night.
4. He (see) the film before.
5. (You be) to Austria?
6. (You see) the film on TV last night?
7. When (you arrive) in London?
8. John (be) to Germany before.
9. (You read) this book before?
10. I (not see) him yesterday.
11. I never (go) anywhere by plane until now.
12. (You hear) their new record? It's the best they've ever made.
13.I (not know) about the disco last night.
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Ex. 5. Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the Past Simple or Past
Perfect:
1. They ………. the gates before I ………. there. (lock, get)
2. By the time we ………., the party ………. .(arrive, finish)
3. I ………. the shop as soon as I ………. the contents of the box. (ring, check)
4. After we ………. it on the phone, I ………. him a letter about it. (discuss, write)
5. We ………. a good rest when our guests ………. .(have, all leave)
6. When she ………. the office this morning, Jim ………. . (ring, already go out)
7. Before we ………. Tim to the theatre, he ………. a stage play. (take, never see).
Ex. 6. Match the phrases in the left column with those in the right column:
and we’ll be able to get a smaller house.
I (not finish) the report by Monday
In a couple of years the children (leave) and it’s needed for Monday morning.
home
On our next wedding anniversary,
I (drive) for fourteen hours
When I get home tonight,
I (work) for forty years.
When I retire,
we (be) married for twenty-five years.
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UNIT 8. HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
Read, translate and retell the text:
HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
When higher
education of Great
Britain is being spoken about the
University education is generally meant. But in fact there is a considerable
amount of pоst-school education , including part-time as well as full-time studies
carried on in technical colleges, teacher training colleges, art colleges, institutes of
adult education and so on.
There are some 90 universities, which enjoy academic freedom. Every
University is autonomous and responsible to its governing body. The regulations
differ from University to University. While there are similarities between them,
they all differ from Oxford and Cambridge, where are a number of separate
colleges, each with their own regulations and courses of studies. The new, socalled ”red-brick” Universities are divided into various faculties: Faculty of Arts,
Faculty of Science, Faculty of Social and Economic Studies, etc.
University degree courses are generally being taken for three, four or even
five years. University teaching combines lectures practical classes and small group
teaching in either seminars or tutorials. The last is a traditional feature of the
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
First degree courses are mainly full time and usually last three years, with
longer courses in subjects such as medicine. Universities offer courses in a broad
range of academic and vocational subjects, including traditional arts subjects, the
humanities, and science and technology. The government encourages young people
to choose degree courses in subjects, or combinations of subjects, that provide the
knowledge and skills required by a technologically advanced economy .
Over 95 percent of students on first degree and comparable higher education
courses receive government grants covering tuition and accommodation and other
maintenance expenses. Parents also contribute, the amount depending on their
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income. In addition, students can take out loans to help pay their maintenance
costs.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
post-school education – образование, получаемое после окончания школы
in fact – фактически, на самом деле
part-time studies – заочная форма обучения
full-time studies –очная форма обучения
as well as – так же как и
to be responsible to – быть ответственным за …
to take a course – выбирать курс
a broad range of academic and vocational subjects – широкий выбор академических и
профессиональных предметов
humanities – гуманитарный
teacher training college – педагогический институт
to carry on – продолжать
to provide knowledge – обеспечивать знаниями
to receive government grants – получать правительственные гранты
maintenance expenses – расходы на обучение
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1. What is the system of higher education in Great Britain ?
2. What does higher education consist of?
3. How many Universities are there in Great Britain at present?
4. Who is every university responsible to?
5. For how many years are university degree courses taken?
6. What does university teaching combine?
7. Where is a traditional feature of Cambridge and Oxford?
8. How many years do first degree courses last?
9. What courses does University offer?
10. Who does the government encourage?
11. Why does the government encourage young people?
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12. What do students on first degree receive?
13. What do parents contribute?
14. What can students take out to help pay their maintenance costs?
Ex. 2. Transcribe, read and translate the following words:
Generally, considerable, amount, equivalent, experienced, expansion , enjoy,
autonomous, responsible, regulations, governing, similarities, Oxford, Cambridge,
various, faculty, degree, course, lectures, tutorials , feature, mainly, medicine, broad,
range, academic, vocational, humanities , science, technology, government, encourage,
choose, require, comparable , tuition, maintenance.
Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences:
1. The post-school education is carried on in ... . 2. Higher education, consisting
of degree and equivalent courses, has experienced ... . 3. Every University is
autonomous and responsible to ... . 4. University teaching combines ... . 5.
Universities offer courses in a ... . 6. The government encourages young people to ...
. 7. Parents also contribute the amount ... .
Ex. 4. Say if it is right:
1. Part-time and full-time studies are carried on only at Universities . 2. British
higher education consists of degree and equivalent courses. 3. Every University is
autonomous and responsible to its government body. 4. There are great difference
between various Universities. 5. University degree courses are generally being
taken for four years. 6. Lectures and practical classes are traditional for teaching at
Oxford and Cambridge. 7. First degree courses are both full-time and part-time. 8.
Universities offer courses in a broad range of academic and vocational subjects. 9.
All students on first degree receive government grant. 10. Students can take out
loans to help pay their maintenance costs.
Ex. 5. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:
1. There is a demand ... a better and more democratic system ... education ...
Great Britain . 2. The students of all the groups are responsible ... their dean. 3. The
regulations differ ... university ... university ... Great Britain . 4. Our institute is
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divided ... various departments. 5. Our university degree courses are taken ... four
or five years ... Ukraine. 6. The students were speaking ... their forthcoming exams.
7. Women as well as men have equal rights ... education ... our country.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITIES
England is famous for its educational institutes. There were many different
kinds of schools in Medieval England and the English universities were one of the
most significant creations. The students who attended either Oxford or Cambridge
Universities set an intellectual standard that contrasted markedly with the norm of
Medieval England. Today both Universities are internationally renowned centres
for teaching and research, attracting students and scholars from all over the world.
The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford is one of the oldest
and most highly reverend Universities in Europe. It was the first university
established in Britain. Oxford is situated about 57 miles (90 km) north-west of
London in its own county of Oxfordshire. Oxford is dominated by the Medieval
architecture of the University, and the exquisite gardens within.
According to legend Oxford University was founded by King Alfred the
Great in 872 when he happened to meet some monks there and had a scholarly
debate that lasted several days. A more realistic scenario is that it grew out of
efforts begun by Alfred to encourage education and establish schools throughout
his territory.
The first college, University College, was founded in 1249 by William of
Durham. Other notable colleges include All Souls (founded in 1438), Christ
Church (founded in 1546) and Lady Margaret Hall (founded in 1878), which was
the first women's college. Since 1974, all but one of Oxford's colleges have
changed their statutes to admit both men and women. St Hilda's remains the only
women's college, and the rest enroll both men and women.
Today Oxford University is comprised of thirty-nine colleges and six
permanent private halls, founded between 1249 and 1996. More than 130
nationalities are represented among a student population of over 18,000. A range
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of scholarships offer support for international students. Thirty colleges and all halls
admit students for both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Seven other colleges
are for graduates only; one has Fellows only, and one specializes in part-time and
continuing education. Each college is practically autonomous with its own set of
rules. There is central administration, providing services such as libraries,
laboratories, lectures and examination.
There have been many famous people who have studied at Oxford
University and they include John Locke, Adam Smith, Percy Bysshe Shelley,
Lewis Carroll, Oscar Wilde, J. R. Tolkien, Indira Gandhi, Baroness Margaret
Thatcher, Bill Clinton, Rupert Murdoch, Rowan Atkinson (Mr. Bean), and Hugh
Grant. All in all, Oxford has produced four British and at least eight foreign kings,
47 Nobel prize-winners, 25 British Prime Ministers, 28 foreign presidents and
prime ministers, seven saints, 86 archbishops, 18 cardinals, and one pope. Seven of
the last eleven British Prime Ministers have been Oxford graduates.
Oxford's teaching and research is consistently in the top rank nationally and
internationally, and is at the forefront of medical, scientific and technological
achievement.
University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the Englishspeaking world (after Oxford). The start of the University is generally taken as
1209, when some masters and students arrived in Cambridge after fleeing from
rioting in Oxford.
Cambridge is situated about 50 miles (80 km) north of London. The town of
Cambridge originally took its name from the river on which it stood.
Cambridge University is composed of more than thirty constituent colleges,
one of the most illustrious of which is Emmanuel College. This college was
founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Queen
Elizabeth I. Many Emmanuel graduates, including John Harvard, were among
those who settled in New England in the first half of the 17th century. The oldest
building is in St John's College but the oldest college as institution is Peterhouse,
dates from 1284. King Henry VIII founded the largest college, Trinity, in 1546.
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Many of the University buildings are of historical or architectural interest,
and the University's museums contain many rare, valuable and beautiful items.
The University at present has more than 16,500 full-time students – over
11,600 undergraduates and nearly 5,000 graduates. About 17% of the student body
is from overseas, coming from over 100 different countries. Because of its high
academic reputation, admission to the University is highly competitive, and most
overseas students already have a good degree from a university in their own
country.
The University also has a worldwide reputation for other aspects of its work.
Cambridge University Press (one of the world's oldest and largest publishers) and
UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate) are world
leaders in their respective fields and allow the University to make a direct
educational and academic contribution to the lives of millions of people around the
world.
Cambridge University is more renowned than its rival for mathematics and
natural sciences, and has produced 80 Nobel-prize winners (33 more than Oxford
and the highest number of any university worldwide), 13 British Prime Ministers
(12 less than the other place) and 8 Archbishops of Canterbury, among others.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Put the verb to write in the appropriate form:
1. We often ... letters to our parents.
2. What ... you ... now?
3. Yesterday they ... ... tests from 10 till 12 o'clock.
4. Who ... ... this letter tomorrow?
5. I ... ... some letters last week.
6. What ... you ... tomorrow at 10?
7. When I came in she ... ... a letter.
8. Do you often ... letters to your parents?
9. I ... not ... this article now. I ... ... it in some days.
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10. ... he ... his report at the moment?
11. What ... she ... in the evening yesterday?
12. As a rule he ... tests well.
Ex. 2. Match the phrases in the left column with those in the right column:
... I go to the Institute by bus.
before the Institute
I do my morning exercises ...
by Tuesday
We shall have invited you ...
during October
Who has seen him ...?
every day
He had worked here ...
just
... the plant
machines.
was
producing
new last week
We have ... done our work.
now
What are you doing ...?
recently
He was going home ...
usually
Will you have read the book ...?
when we met
Did you see them ...?
when he comes home
We translated this text....
already
Ex. 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:
1. Peter and Ann (go) away five minutes ago. 2. I (write) the letter but I (not
send) it. 3. He just (go) away. 4. She already (answer) the letter. 5. She (answer) it
on Tuesday. 6. I just (tell) you the answer. 7. I (read) that book in my summer
holidays. 8. The greengrocer (sell) now all his vegetables. 9. He (sell) all of them
half an hour ago. 10. I (not see) him for three years. I (be) glad to see him again
some time. 11. What you (do)? I (copy) the text from the text-book now. 12. He
(go) to Moscow next week? 13. He (not smoke) for a month. He is trying to give it
up. 14. When he (arrive)? – He (arrive) at 2:00. 15. You (switch off) the light
before you left the house? 16. I (read) these books when I was at school. I (like)
them very much. 17. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work. 18. I already
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(tell) you the answer yesterday. 19. What you (do) tomorrow in the morning? 20. I
(not meet) him last week. 21. I usually (leave) home at seven and (get) here at
twelve. 22. Here is your watch. I just (find) it. 23. You (not have) your breakfast
yet?
Ex. 4. Comment on the formation and meaning of the tenses in the
following sentences:
1. The sun rises in the East, now it is setting and night is falling.
2. I haven’t seen your brother lately. Has he gone away?
3. She suddenly realized that she had left her umbrella in the bus.
4. When shall we see you again? – I’ll call on you as soon as I come back
from Canada.
5. Sometimes we read the same book again and again.
6. We’ve bought a new carpet but I don’t think it goes with the sofa.
7. He was rescued after he had been in the water for three hours.
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UNIT9. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Read, translate and retell the text:
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after
Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and
stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north
and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a
half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on
Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special
federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The
population of the country is more than 270 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The
highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.
The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande
and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and
deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the
north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental.
The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico
often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that
of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading
producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal.
Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles,
radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up
from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
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The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own
government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC.
According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3
branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the
Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of
Representatives.
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
to stretch – простираться
to include – включать
to border on – граничить с …
sea-boarder – морская граница
to be made up – состоять
District of Columbia – округ Колумбия
the Rocky Mountains – Скалистые горы
the Cordillera – Кордильеры
to be located – быть расположенным
copper – медь
manufacturing – производство
armaments – вооружение
furniture – мебель
executive – исполнительный
legislative – законодательный
judicial – судебный
House of Representatives – Палата Представителей
Ex.1. Answer the questions to the text:
1. The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world, isn’t it?
2. What part of North America does it occupy?
3. Where is the capital of the country, Washington, situated?
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4. What is the total area of the country?
5. Will you name the highest mountains of the USA?
6. What are America's largest rivers?
7. Do you know the most important manufacturing industries of the country?
8. Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, aren’t they?
9. Will you describe the political system of the USA?
Ex.2. Translate from Russian into English:
1. США – четвертая по размеру страна после России, Канады и Китая.
2. США граничат на севере с Канадой, а на юге – с Мексикой.
3. США имеют морскую границу с Россией.
4. Великие озера, расположенные на границе с Канадой – самые глубокие
озера в стране.
5. Горячие массы воздуха из Мексиканского залива часто являются
причинами тайфунов.
6. США – высокоразвитое промышленное государство с множеством отраслей.
7. США находится на втором месте в мире по добыче железной руды и угля.
8. Каждый штат имеет свою столицу.
9. Федеральное правительство расположено в Вашингтоне.
10.Конгресс состоит из Сената и Палаты Представителей.
Ex.3.Find the odd word out:
1. Central, total, memorial, additional.
2. Manufacturing, leading, reading, producing.
3. Legislative, informative, locomotive, executive.
4. Copper, border, order, water.
5. Coldest, deepest, chest, widest.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
BRITISH AND AMERICAN FAMILIES
British and American families are small. In fact the populations of both
Britain and the USA have stopped growing. The typical family has a father, mother
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and two children. Grandparents come to visit, but do not usually live with their
children.
Most people get married between the ages of 20 and 23 but many marriages
end in divorce. This means that both countries have a large number of "single
parent families", one father or mother looking after their children alone.
The typical British family has a car, a colour TV set, a washing machine,
and a cat or dog as well. They start the day at about 7 o'clock, have breakfast at 8.
and are off to work by 8.30 . More and more women now go out to work as well as
men. The children have lunch at school at about 12.30, and come home at 4 in the
afternoon. Their parents are usually home by 6 o'clock, and the family eats
together at 6.30 or 7. In the evenings, father may go to the pub for a drink, or stay
at home and watch TV with the others. Children go to bed early, at about 8 o'clock,
two or three hours before their parents.
The typical American family has more money than a British family. Many
have two or three cars, large modern kitchens and more electrical goods. They eat
more meat and spend more on clothes. But their daily programme is nearly the
same. Like British children, American children eat lunch at school, come home
mid-afternoon, and go to bed earlier than their parents.
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UNIT10. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING
COUNTRIES
Read, translate and retell the text:
ENGLISH CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS
Every country and every nation has own traditions and customs. England is a
land of traditions. First of all it concerns United Kingdom political system. In
Great Britain there is no written constitution, only customs, traditions and
precedents. After the English Revolution Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy
headed by King (now Queen, Elisabeth the second). Traditionally the queen acts
only on the advice of her Ministers. She reigns but she does not rule.
Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life. For
example, London, the capital of England, is traditionally divided into three parts:
the West End, the East End and the City. The City is a historical, financial and
business centre of London. The East End is the district inhabited by the workers,
and the West End is a fashionable shopping and entertaining centre. English people
like to spend their free time in numerous pubs where they can have a glass of beer
and talk about different things with their friends.
The English are traditional about their meals. They eat eggs and bacon with
toasts for breakfast, pudding or apple pie for dessert. Every English family has five
o'clock tea. A typical feature of an English house is a fireplace, even when there is
central heating in the house.
English people like domestic animals. Every family has a pet: a dog, a cat or
a bird.
Politeness is a characteristic feature of Englishmen. They often say "Thank
you", "Sorry", "Beg your pardon".
Englishmen
have
many
traditional
holidays,
St.Valentine's Day, Mother's day, Easter and others.
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ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
own – собственный
concern – забота
written constitution – письменная (написанная) конституция
precedent – прецедент
advice – совет
to reign – править
inhabited – населенный
fashionable – модный, стильный
entertaining – развлекательный
pub – паб, пивнушка
dessert – десерт
fireplace – камин
central heating – центральное отопление
politeness – вежливость
feature – черта характера
Easter – Пасха
Ex. 1. Answer the questions:
1. Is England a land of traditions?
2. What is there in Great Britain instead of written constitution?
3. When did Great Britain become a constitutional monarchy?
4. Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life, haven’t they?
5. Is London traditionally divided into two or three parts?
6. Is the City a historical, financial and business centre of London?
7. Where can Englishmen have a glass of beer and talk about different things with
their friends?
8. The English are traditional about their meals, aren’t they?
9. What do they usually eat?
10.What is a typical feature of an English house?
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ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES
Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are English
speaking countries. They are situated in different parts of the world and differ in
many ways.
The nature of these countries, their weather and climate and way of life of
their people differ. Each country has it's own history customs, traditions, its own
national holidays. But they all have a common language – English, the language of
the people who left England to make their names in new countries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland consist of 4 parts:
England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland. The British Isles are group of islands
lying off the north-west coast of the continent of Europe. There are no high
mountains, no very long rivers, no great forests in the U.K. The population of the
U.K. is almost fifty-six million. Great Britain is a capitalists country.
The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The
population of the USA is more than 236 million people. The USA is a highly
developed industrial country. In the USA there are two main political parties, the
Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
Canada has area of nearly 10 million square kilometres. Its western coast is
washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast by the Atlantic Ocean. The
population of Canada is over 26 million people. Canada is a capitalist federal state
and a member of the Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth of Australia’s territories are the continent of Australia,
the island of Tasmania and number of smaller islands. Australia has an area of
nearly eight million square kilometers. Its population is over sixteen million
people. The Commonwealth of Australia is a capitalist self-governing federal state.
New Zealand is situated south-east of Australia. The country consists of the
large islands called North Island, South Island and Stewart Island and also many
small islands. The population of New Zealand is over three million people. New
Zealand is a capitalist self-governing state and a member of the Commonwealth.
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TESTS
Test 1. Variant I
1. Write plural form of nouns:
Atom, group, name, play, leaf, mouse, student, party, glass, time, way.
2. Give the right form of the verb in в Present Simple:
1. We … newspapers every day.
a) read
b) are reading
c) am reading
d) were reading
2. He always … his homework carefully.
a) prepare
b) is preparing
c) prepares
d) prepared
3. She … several foreign languages.
a) speaks
b) speak
c) is speaking
d) spoke
4. The children … in the park every afternoon.
a) play
b) are playing
c) plays
d) were playing
5. Helen … lunch in the cafeteria every day.
a) is eating
b) eat
c) eats
d) ate
6. They … in Europe now.
a) am
b) is
c) were
d) are
7. John … absent from class today.
a) am
b) is
c) are
d) was
8. The weather … good today.
a) am
b) is
c) are
d) were
9. I … a good tennis player.
a) am
b) is
c) are
d) be
10. Where does he … to spend his vacations ?
a) like
b) likes
c) liked
d) will like
3. Put 5 questions to the sentences:
1. We use our books in class. 2. She makes mistakes in reading. 3. The plane
leaves at ten o’clock. 4. She is a clever girl. 5. They are members of the country
club.
NOTE. Please, take into account that several variants are possible in Special and Alternative questions.
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Test 1. Variant II
1. Write plural form of nouns:
Set, work, trade, year, life, energy, problem, class, doctor, goose, design.
2. Give the right form of the verb in в Present Simple:
1. He … us English.
a) teach
b) teaches
c) is teaching
d) taught
2. We always … football on Saturdays.
a) play
b) plays
c) are playing
d) were playing
3. They … their English lessons.
a) enjoy
b) enjoys
c) are enjoying
d) enjoyed
4. The exercises in the English lessons … difficult.
a) am
b) is
c) are
d) were
5. Ann and John … a lot of trips together.
a) take
b) takes
c) are taking
d) took
6. She always … to class late.
a) come
b) comes
c) is coming
d) came
7. We always … by car.
a) travel
b) travels
c) are travelling
d) traveled
8. John … angry with us.
a) am
b) is
c) are
d) were
9. I … his best friend.
a) am
b) is
c) are
d) was
10. When does he … home from school?
a) come
b) comes
c) is coming
d) came
3. Put 5 questions to the sentences:
1. He knows French perfectly. 2. I understand everything he says. 3. We are tired
after our long walk. 4. She is in the same class as Nick. 5. The train starts in five
minutes.
NOTE. Please, take into account that several variants are possible in Special and Alternative questions.
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Test 2. Variant I
1. Choose the correct tense form:
1. I think a storm ………….. .
a) comes; b) is coming
2. I …………... high school life really enjoyable.
a) find; b) am finding
3. Henry ………….. soon after your call.
a) was leaving; b) left
4. He ………….. the Channel between six and seven p.m.
a) is crossing; b) will be crossing
5. The moment the sun rises, we …………..
a) will get up; are getting up
6. Outside the apartment house a young man ………….. with the engine of a black
Opel when Bond passed by him, went up to the door and pressed the bell.
a) worked; b) working.
2. Complete the verb form:
1. Looking out of the window, we saw that a large number of policemen
………….. standing around.
a) are; b) have; c) were
2. I’m at my wits’ end. ………….. we tell Mother.
a) shall; b) do; c) –
3. ………….. you coming to dinner this evening?
a) were; b) are; c) do
4. They are not coming to the cinema tonight because they ………….. doing their
homework at that time.
a) are; b) were; c) will be
5) What time ………….. he come tomorrow?
a) does; b) will, c) did
6) What time ………….. you usually leave home to go to work?
a) did; b) will; c) do
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Test 2. Variant II
1. Choose the correct tense form:
1. The Plane to Manchester ………….. at 4.30.
a) takes off; b) will take off; c) is taking off; d) will be taking off.
2. They ………….. tomorrow at 8.
a) leave; b) will leave; c) will be leaving; d) are leaving.
3. He ………….. you to the airport, I’m sure.
a) will be driving; b) will drive; c) is driving; d) drives.
4. Will Mike come with you? No, he ………….. with his friends at present.
a) will be staying; b) stays; c) is staying; d) will stay.
5. When did you write this story? – I ………….. in Warsaw at the time.
a) lived; b) was going to live; c) would live; d) was living
6. She made a habit of it. She ………….. here and play the piano in those days.
a) came; b) was coming; c) used to come; d) was going to come.
2. Fill in the spaces with the correct “time” words:
1. I expect that I will hear from him ………….. .
a) in a day or two; b) always; c) simultaneously.
2. It was raining hard ………….. .
a) not often; b) always; c) for ever.
3. He ………….. distrusts his own judgment.
a) not often; b) always; c) for ever.
4. How are you feeling…………..?
a) usually; b) lately; c) at the moment
5. He spoke English ………….. .
a) recently; b) in his childhood; c) for two hours.
6. We are leaving for Italy ………….. .
a) at once; b) every spring; c) next Tuesday
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CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS
To be on duty – быть дежурным
To be absent – отсутствовать
To be present – присутствовать
To be ill – болеть
May I go out? – Можно выйти?
May I come in? – Можно войти,
I’m sorry, I’m late – Извините меня, я опоздал.
Excuse my being late – Извините за опоздание.
Go to the blackboard – Идите к доске.
Clean the blackboard – Сотрите с доски.
Go on reading (translating, retelling) the text – Продолжайте читать
(переводить, пересказывать) текст.
Start reading (translating, retelling) the text – Начинайте читать (переводить,
пересказывать) текст.
Compose the dialogue – Составьте диалог
make up sentences (questions) to the text – Составьте предложения (вопросы) к тексту
Finish up – Заканчивайте.
Hand in the papers – Сдайте работы.
Write down – Запишите.
Speak louder – Говорите громче. Keep quiet – Тишина!
Silence, please – Потише, пожалуйста.
Will you repeat, please? – Повторите, пожалуйста.
I haven’t caught you – Я вас не понял
Just a moment (a second) – Подождите, пожалуйста.
That’s enough – Достаточно.
Your mark is … – Ваша оценка excellent – “5”; good – “4”; satisfactory – “3”; poor (bad) – “2”
to notice mistakes – замечать ошибки
to correct mistakes – исправлять ошибки
Your hometask is… – Ваше домашнее задание …
The lesson is over – Урок окончен.
Who will remind me your hometask? – Кто напомнит мне домашнее задание?
No prompting! – Не подсказывайте!
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COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH PHRASES AND IDIOMS
By accident = unexpectedly, by chance – случайно
In accordance with = according to – согласно чему либо
Take into account = consider, take into consideration – принимать во внимание
In addition to = as well as, besides – в дополнение
In advance = beforehand – заранее
For ages, its ages = for a long time – в течение долгого времени
Put on airs = behave as if one were better than others – важничать
All in all = on the whole – в общем
All of a sudden = suddenly – неожиданно
As soon as = immediately, not later than – как только
At last = finally – наконец
At least = in the least degree – по меньшей мере
Beat around (or about) the bush – ходить вокруг да около
Because of = on account of – из-за
To begin with = in the first place, firstly – во первых
A (little) bit = a little – немного
Burst into crying (or laughing) = begin to cry (or laugh) suddenly – расплакаться
(рассмеяться)
Call in = ask to come, summon (a specialist, a doctor) – попросить, вызвать
Call (something) off = cancel – обменять
Call on = visit – заходить
Come across = meet or find unexpectedly – случайно
Up-to-date = modern, new – современный
Day by day = gradually – постепенно
Do a favor = do someone a kindness – оказать любезность
Be all ears = be very attentive – быть очень внимательным
Every now and then = from time to time – иногда
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Keep an eye on = watch, guard carefully – следить
From the first = from the start – с самого начала
For ever = for always, for good – навсегда
Get accustomed to = get used to – привыкнуть
Have a good time = enjoy oneself – проводить хорошо время
Be in a hurry = be in a great haste – спешить
Instead of = in place of – вместо
Lose one’s temper = lose one’s self-control – терять самообладание
Be at a loss = be puzzled and perplexed – быть в растерянности
Make friends = become friendly with – подружиться
By all means = certainly, in every possible way – обязательно
Out-of-doors = in the fresh air – на свежем воздухе
Take part in = participate – принимать участие
Point of view = standpoint – точка зрения
On purpose = intentionally – с целью
Be sick of = be tired of – уставать
Be in high (of good) spirits = be cheerful – быть в хорошем настроении
In spite of = notwithstanding – несмотря на
Take measures = take necessary steps – принимать меры
Time and again = repeatedly – повторно
Be (or look) upset = be (or look) worried, disturbed – быть расстроенным
On the whole = in general – в целом
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Написание русских имён собственных английскими буквами
ж – zh – Zhenya
ц – ts – Tsereteli
щ – shch – Shchukin
х – kh – Chekhov
ч – ch – Chekhov
ш – sh – Shishkin
ф – ph – Philip
у – u – Ulyana
ё – yo – Seryozha
ы – y – Krylov
э – e – Ella
ю – yu – Yulia
я – ya – Yana
в середине слов:
в окончаниях:
- ье – ye – Vasilyevich
- кс – x – Alexei
- ьи – yi – Ilyich
- ия – ia – Maria
- ай – ai – Nicolai
- ая – aya – Tolstaya
- ий – y (i) – Dmitriy
- ей – ei – Andrei
- ой – oy (oi) –
Tolstoy
- ый – y – Baty
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ADDITIONAL TEXTS FOR READING
U.K. POLITICAL SYSTEM
The U.K of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary democracy
with a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II as head of state.
The legislature, Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises 2
chambers – the House of Lords and House of Commons – together with the Queen
in her constitutional role.
The executive consists of the central Government – that is the PrimeMinister and Cabinet and other ministers who are responsible for initiating and
directing the national policy, government departments, local authorities, and public
corporations. The judiciary determines common law and interpret status and is
independent of both the legislature and executive.
The Government derives its authority from the elected House of Commons.
A general election for all seats in the House of Commons must be held every 5
years. The Government is normally formed by the political party which is
supported by the majority in the House of Commons. The Party's leader is
appointed Prime-Minister by the Queen. He chooses a team of ministers of whom
20 or so are in the Cabinet. The second largest party becomes the official
opposition with its own leader and Shadow Cabinet. The House of Commons
comprises members from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland who represent people whose history and traditions differ.
The House of Lords is a hereditary Chamber.
THE WEATHER IN GREAT BRITAIN
It is never too hot or too cold m Great Britain. This is because of the sea,
which keeps the island warm in winter and makes the air cool in summer. The
winds are also very often in Great Britain. They blow from the south-west two
days out of every three. But the warm winds from the Atlantic are very wet. They
also bring a lot of rain to the island. The east or north-east winds are cold and dry.
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The weather very often changes in Great Britain. You can never have the
same kind of weather for a long time. In spring, for example, sunshine and showers
follow each other so often during the day that an umbrella or a rain-coat are really
necessary in Great Britain. The weather in spring is generally mild, but sometimes
the days are really cold. The summer is not so cold as on the continent, and warm
days in autumn are beautiful. In winter they have all sorts of weather. Sometimes it
rains and sometimes it snows. Still, in Great Britain it is never so cold in winter as
in our country and they do not get so much snow there as we get here in Russia.
The rivers and lakes are seldom covered with ice. As the ice, if there is any, is not
thick enough, they seldom go skating on the rivers in Great Britain.
But the worst thing about the climate in Great Britain is the thick fog they so
often have in autumn and in winter. In London it often mixes with the smoke of
plants and factories and they call it the “smog”. It is sometimes so thick that cars
may run into one another.
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Britain was originally a land of vast forests, mainly oak and beech in the
Lowlands and pine and birch in the Highlands, with great stretches of marshland
and smaller areas of moors. In the course of time, much forest land was cleared and
almost all Lowlands outside the industrial areas were put under cultivation. Today
only about 6 per cent of the total land area remains wooded.
Extensive forests remain in eastern and northern Scotland and in southeastern and western England. Oak, elm, ash, and beech are the commonest trees in
England, while Scotland has much pine and birch. The Highlands with thin soil are
largely moorland with heather and grasses. In the cultivated areas that make up
most of Britain there are many wild flowers, flowering plants and grasses.
The fauna or animal life of Britain is much like that of north-western
Europe, to which it was once joined. Many larger mammals such as bear, wolf
have been hunted to extinction, others are now protected by law. There are many
foxes. Otters are common along rivers and streams, and seals live along much of
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the coast. Hedgehogs, hares, rabbits, rats and mice are numerous. Deer live in
some of the forests in the Highlands of Scotland and England.
Some 230 kinds of birds live in Britain, and another 200 are regular visitors,
many are songbirds. The most numerous are blackbirds, sparrows and starlings.
Robin Redbreast is the national bird of Britain. The number of ducks, geese and
other water fowl has diminished during recent years.
There are many threats to wildlife and ecological balance around the coast.
The biggest threat to the coastline is pollution. Even much-loved Blackpool is not
officially safe. More than 3.500 million tons of industrial waste is pumped into the
North Sea every year. “We cannot continue to use our seas as a dustbin and expect
our coastline to survive,” says Greenpeace. Many other ecological problems may
be caused by privatization of the coast. Many of the rivers are ''biologically dead'',
i.e. unable to support fish and wildlife.
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAIN
English people are fond of all kinds of sports. During the autumn and winter
shooting and fox-hunting are the great sports in Great Britain. Boxing is very
popular especially in the large towns and important boxing matches are attended
by many spectators. Horse-racing is also a great national sport. Among games
football and cricket take the first place in public interest. Huge crowds watch the
matches between the most important clubs, while practically every school or large
business firm has its own particular cricket and football clubs. Tennis is another
very popular game while golf has firmly established itself in favour and there are
golf-links all over the country.
The numerous rivers afford excellent opportunities for swimming and
rowing and the Oxford and Cambridge boat-race, in which crews from these two
universities compete, take place every spring on the Thames.
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SIGHTSEEINGS OF LONDON
The Tower of London is the most famous of all the historical buildings in
London. It stands today almost unchanged since first it was built in the 11th
century. In the past the Tower of London served both as a palace and as a state
prison, but it is only a museum today.
St Paul's Cathedral is the greatest work of England's greatest architect
Christopher Wren. The cathedral was begun in 1675. It was opened in 1697 but
was finished only in 1710, when Wren was almost eighty years old. There are
memorials to many famous men of England in the Cathedral.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. On the north
side is the National Gallery; in the north-east corner is the National Portrait
Gallery, and in the centre is Nelson's Column with the figure of the great seamen.
Trafalgar Square is the place where mass meetings and demonstrations for peace
and for working people's rights take place.
"Big Ben" is the name of the great bell which strikes the hour. It is in the
clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament.
Westminster Abbey is the historic building in London to which every visitor
sooner or later goes. The Abbey was founded in the 11 th century. Many of Great
Britain's famous men are buried in Westminster Abbey.
Piccadilly Circus is a square in the central part of London. London's bestknown theatres and cinemas and most famous restaurants are on Piccadilly Circus.
In the square you can see people of many nationalities and hear a lot of different
languages.
Hyde Park is the largest park in the West End of London. In the 19th century
it became a popular place for public meetings.
The British Museum is one of the largest museums in the world. It consists
of the National Library and Museum of History, Archeology, Art and
Ethnography.
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THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT
The houses of Parliament in London, known also as the Palace of
Westminster is the place where members of Parliament gather to make laws. The
Palace of Westminster stands on the riverside near Westminster Abbey. Tourists
always go to see them. Those who visit the Houses of Parliament may sit in the
Strangers’ Gallery looking down into the House of Commons and listen to the debates.
The members of each Houses meet in sessions which begin at the end of
October and last for about one hundred and sixty days. The sittings usually begin at
10 o’clock in the morning and end in the late afternoon; but if Parliament is
discussing an important question sittings may go on till late at night. All the time
Parliament is in session, a flag can be seen over the building, and when the House
of Commons is still sitting after dark, there is a light over the face of Big Ben. The
members of the House of Commons sit on two sides of the hall. The Speaker is the
chairperson at all the debates in the House of Commons, and it is duty to keep
order. The Speaker is elected by all the members of the House of Commons. He
belongs to one of the political parties in Parliament.
The chairperson of the House of Lords is Lord Chancellor. He sits on the
Woolsack, a large bag of wool covered with red cloth. If shows that wool made England rich.
THEATRE IN GREAT BRITAIN
The centre of theatrical activity in Britain is London. There are some 48
principal theatres in or near the West End and some 8 in the suburbs. Most of the
theatres are let to producing managements on a commercial basis but some are
occupied by important subsided companies, including the National Theatre and
Royal Shakespeare Companies.
The former stages classical and modern plays from all countries; the latter
presents Shakespearean plays in Stratford-upon-Avon and a mixed repertoire in
London. Many non-repertoire theatres outside London present all kinds of drama
and many also put on variety shows and other entertainment. Music in all its forms
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— pop music, folk music, jazz, light music and brass bands — plays an important
role in British cultural life.
The widespread interest in classical music is reflected in the large audiences
at orchestral concerts and at performances of opera, ballet and chamber music.
Regular seasons of opera and ballet are given at the Royal Opera House, Covent
Garden, London. Seasons of opera and operetta in English are given by the English
National Opera.
There are several thousands of amateur dramatic societies in Britain (some
200 amateur youth theatres among them). Most Universities have active amateur
drama clubs and societies.
FAMOUS ENGLISHMEN
London has been home of many famous Englishmen. Some were born there.
Some lived there all their lives. Others lived in London only for a short time but all
gave something to this great city.
One of the first names of importance is that of Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet.
He lived most of his life in London. He knew the courts of King Richard II and
King Henry IV. His most famous work, “The Canterbury Tales”, opens at the
Tabard Inn, in Southwark. Chaucer is buried in Westminster Abbey.
William Shakespeare also lived in London. He lived there for more than
twenty years. He acted at the Globe Theatre and wrote his plays in London. But
London's famous men are not only writers. Sir Christopher Wren, the architect,
spent most of his life in London. He designed many beautiful churches, including
St. Paul's Cathedral. He also designed palaces and fine houses.
Music is represented by a very interesting figure. This is George Frederick
Handel. He came to London from Hanover in 1710. He lived for a time at
Burlington House, Piccadilly, now the Royal Academy. After some success and
some failure he at last became famous. This happened when he composed "The
Messiah", "Judas Maccabeus" and 'The Music for the Royal Fireworks". Like
Chaucer and many other great artists Handel is buried in Westminster Abbey.
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Another famous London figure is one of England's greatest seamen Admiral
Lord Nelson. He has a very special memorial in Trafalgar Square. The monument
consists of a very tall column. On top of it stands a figure of Nelson. It is called the
Nelson Column. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of
Waterloo in 1815. This was the Duke of Wellington. His house stands at Hyde
Park Corner. It is sometimes known as Number One, London. Like Admiral
Nelson, the Duke of Wellington is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.
STRATFORD-UPON-AVON
Stratford-upon-Avon lies at the very heart of England. It attracts people not
only by its history and connection with William Shakespeare, but also by its
wonderful nature and typical English character.
Stratford stands on the river Avon and is one of the oldest market towns. It
has still preserved its own character and atmosphere. The houses are small and lots
of them are very old. Some of them date back to Shakespeare’s time.
Here you can visit Shakespeare’s birthplace (it is a museum now), Anna
Hathaway’s cottage (the early home of Shakespeare’s wife), the foundations of the
New Place, where Shakespeare lived when he retired and died in 1616. Just round
the corner there is Grammar school that Shakespeare used to attend.
Here in Stratford there is Holy Trinity Church where William Shakespeare
was buried. Thousands of people from all parts of England and foreign visitors
come here on Shakespeare’s birthday (23rd April) to pay tribute to the great poet.
Among other sights connected with the name of Shakespeare there is an
interesting monument with the statue of the great poet on top and with characters
from his plays round it. And, of course, you should visit the Royal Shakespeare
Theatre, a red-brick building standing on the banks of the Avon. It was opened on
1932 as a living memorial to the poet’s work. The Royal Shakespeare Company,
which is one of the best known and largest theatre companies in the world,
regularly performs here and in the Barbican Centre in London.
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Список использованных источников
1. Агабекян, И. П. Английский для технических вузов
[[Текст] :] : учебное
пособие для образовательных учреждений высшего профессионального
образования / И. П. Агабекян, П. И. Коваленко. - Изд. 12-е, стер. Ростов-наДону : Феникс , 2012 - 347 с.
2. Блинова С. И., Чарекова Е. П. Практика английского языка. Сборник
упражнений по грамматике / С. И. Блинова, Е. П. Чарекова. – СПб.:
Издательство «Союз», 2006. – 384с.
3. Бонк, Н. А. Английский шаг за шагом : : [workbook : в 2 ч.] Ч. 1 / Н. А.
Бонк, И. А. Бонк. Москва : РОСМЭН , 2008 – 117 с.
4. Мильруд, Р. П. Английский язык. Грамматические тесты: учеб. пособие /
Р. П. Мильруд, С. В. Логунова. – М. : Дрофа, 2007. – 186 с.
5. Walker E., Elsworth S. Grammar Practice for Elementary Students (With key).
Longman. 2000. – 172 p.
6. Walker E., Elsworth S. New Grammar Practice for Pre-Intermediate Students
(With key). Longman. 2000. – 174 p.
7. http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/english/
8. http://bibliofond.ru/
9. http://www.busyteacher.org/
10.http://www.english-easy.info
11.http://www.native-english.ru/
12.http://www.study.ru/
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