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199.Business communication evaluating an advertising process

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ИРКУТСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
А.Н. Войткова, C.А. Фетисова
Business
Communication:
evaluating an
advertising process
Учебное пособие
ИРКУТСК
ИГЛУ
2013
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ББК 81.43.1 – 923
В 65
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского
государственного лингвистического университета
Рецензенты:
совета
Иркутского
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей
с общественностью ФГБОУ ВПО «ИГЛУ»
Ю.С. Заграйская
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры русского языка,
литературы и языкознания ФГБОУ ВПО «ИГЛУ»
С.О.Коршунова
Войткова, А.Н., Фетисова С.А.
В 65 Business Communication: Evaluating an Advertising Process: учебное
пособие / авт.-сост. А.Н. Войткова, С.А. Фетисова, – Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2013. –
83 c.
Пособие “Business Communication: Evaluating an Advertising Process” предназначено для
студентов 3-4 курсов направлений «Менеджмент», «Реклама и связи с общественностью»,
«Музееведение». Целью учебного пособия является формирование иноязычной
профессиональной дискурсивной компетенции посредством изучения лингвистических и
экстралингвистических особенностей рекламы. В пособии использованы аутентичные аудио,
видеоматериалы и тексты из разных источников, позволяющие объективно рассмотреть
феномен рекламы как источник профессионально-направленной и культурологической
информации.
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© авт.-сост. Войткова А.Н., Фетисова
С.А. 2013
© Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет, 2013
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Contents
1. The basics of advertising
1.1. What Is The Purpose Of Advertising?
1.2.1. Types of advertising
 1.2.2. Surrogate Adverting
 1.2.3. Public service Adverting
 1.2.4. Guerrilla Adverting and Marketing
2. The contents of the ad
2.1. Parts of an ad
2.2.1 AIDA
2.2.2 What are the key persuasive techniques used in consumer
advertising?
2.2.3 How Design Works To Bring You Customers
 Psychology of advertising
 Analysing television commercials
2.3. What is logo?
 What Makes a Logo Great?
 The Characteristics of a Good Logo Design
 What makes bad logos?
 Types of logos
2.4. What makes Advertising slogans?
 Types of sticky slogans
3. Language of advertising
 Wording characteristics of English advertising texts
 Syntax in English Advertising Texts
 Common Rhetorical Devices in English Advertising Texts
4. Experience economy
5. National Peculiarities of advertising
Supplement 1
Steps how to evaluate an advertisement concept
Supplement 2
Linking words and phrases
Supplement 3
Business vocabulary ‘DO YOUR BEST!’
How to Evaluate an Advertisement
Supplement 4
Discussing a New Ad Campaign
Supplement 5
Vocabulary tests
References
Introduction
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Warm-up
“Advertising - A judicious mixture of flattery and threats.”
― Stephen Leacock
a) Read & discuss the following text in class.
Why Is Advertising so Important to Business?
by Christina Hamlett, Demand Media
The best mousetrap won't catch any
customers if you don't advertise that it exists.
As far back as Ancient Egypt, advertising
has served a critical purpose in the business
world by enabling sellers to effectively
compete with one another for the attention of
buyers. Whether the goods and services your
company provides are a necessity, a luxury
or just a bit of whimsy, you can't rely on a
one-time announcement or word-of-mouth chatter to keep a steady stream of
customers. A strong commitment to advertising is as much an external call to action
as it is an internal reinforcement to your sales team.
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advertising-important-business-3606.html
b) Think of the question “Are you influenced by Advertising?”
and choose one of the answers.
1. I'm much influenced and base all of my purchases on advertisements I've seen.
2. Frequently I base my purchases on advertisements & commercials
3. Maybe a few times it's influenced me, but I mostly rely on word of mouth
4. No way! I don't trust ads, and I never make purchases based on ads I've seen!
c) Read
“Are you influenced by Advertising?”
When consumers make purchases, they most often are influenced
by something someone said to them much more than any
advertisement. Many people ask around about a product before
they purchase to see if their friends or family have purchased the
item, and to get their recommendations on who to buy it from.
Why don't people listen to advertising?
Because they don't trust advertising.
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Why not? Advertisements are everywhere. They're constant. They promise one thing,
and deliver another. We've all become so numb to advertising; people for the most
part ignore it! The advertising world is changing, and new advertising methods are
becoming more effective, cost-efficient, and sometimes, free.
d) Vocabulary. Paraphrase the words in bold type. Use them in
sentences of your own.
Part 1
1.1. What's the purpose of
advertising?
Read three texts below &
summarize the ideas in a report.
(I)
What a silly headline. I mean everyone
knows that the purpose of advertising is to sell
stuff, right?
Well, not always. Sometimes it's to get
people to stop doing things (e.g. littering),
start doing things (e.g. voting), and keep
doing things (e.g. being proud and productive
associates).
In any and all events, the purpose of
advertising is to affect viewer and listener
behavior. The real question is, What's the best
way to go about it?
We're going to witness a subset of corporate America's answer to that question
during this Sunday's Super Bowl broadcast, when they display the results of their
collective brain power and combined investment of more than $200 million (the most
expensive real estate on TV).
For many of those advertisers, the viewer behavior desired will be transparent and
really quite simple:
1. Watch, enjoy, and remember the commercial;
2. Write about, talk about, tweet, and otherwise spread the commercial; and,
eventually
3. Consume their stuff.
Most commercials will probably be about nothing. There won't be a compelling
reason to consume their stuff weaved into the ads, since their stuff is pretty much the
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same stuff as their competitors' stuff; think beverages, salty snacks, and candy bars.
Their solution: Get you to like and remember their brands, so when you walk through
the store you'll (hopefully) reach out and grab a few.
Some advertisers will take a more subtle approach to the aforementioned
strategy by acting as corporate sponsors of various portions of the game; $500k coin
toss anyone? Others will employ a more experiential, sampling strategy; for example
the network (NBC) and various movie studios will broadcast clips and trailers to whet
viewers appetites for their upcoming shows.
Some, most notably automakers, will likely try to wow viewers with artsy
displays of their new products, while others will use celebrities, babies, and animals to
grab viewer's attention while casually highlighting their products' positive attributes
(dot coms readily come to mind).
http://www.acleareye.com/sandbox_wisdom/2012/01/whats-the-purpose-ofadvertising.html
(II)
It’s an oversimplification to say that the purpose of advertising is to sell a
product. This is certainly true but there are other applications, depending on who the
client or sponsor is. Political parties advertise, as do special interest groups, religious
organizations, government agencies, health care organizations and charities. The
function of some forms of advertising may be solely to inform, to raise awareness.
People can’t make informed choices if they’re not aware of the options available to
them. They can’t utilize resources that they don’t know exist. Public service
announcements, for example, are a form of advertising. Commercial advertising
works to inform as well; "branding” strategy in advertising attempts to create a
positive impression by associating particular qualities with a product. Carefully
calculated language and images are used to stress a product’s desirable qualities as a
means of influencing consumer choice; effective advertising persuades. Reiteration is
used as a means of promoting product recognition. Through repetition, a product
becomes established in the minds of the targeted audience. Most people need to hear
information more than once before they retain it, so reinforcing the message becomes
another reason to advertise. Emphasizing the strong points of a product or service
through advertising benefits a sponsor in another way; it creates a better appreciation
for the product, thus creating added value for the brand. Educating consumers through
advertising creates an easier selling climate for the sponsor because customers are
already familiar with the product. It’s easy to get tired of all the advertising, because
we’re so media-saturated every day. We already had television, radio, newspapers,
magazines, outdoor signage and direct mail. Now in addition we have websites and
text messaging. You have to filter some of it out just to function but it does serve a
purpose for both consumers and providers. It would be a very different, probably
narrower world without advertising.
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So, The advertising has following purposes:
 To attract new buyers and try to expand customer base
 To increase the sale of a particular product.
 To compete in the market.
 To create an organization's recognition among consumers (to create and
maintain a brand identity or brand image).
 To promote subsidiary or products manufactured by the same company.
 To bring into notice the changes, special offers or current developments of the
interest of the consumers (to communicate a change in the existing product line
to introduce a new product or service).
 To carry out public relations and public service program.
 To increase the buzz-value of the brand or the company.
(III)
Following are the main purposes
of Advertising.
Giving Information: The first and the
most important purpose of advertisement are
to inform the public about the availability of
new product, service or an idea that is being
sold in the market. This is aimed for creating
a demand for new product and the new
product has to be known to public.
To Persuade: Advertisement not only informs but also serves to influence the
public to buy the product or services. For example a company seeks to induce the
public to buy its particular brand of soap in preference to others.
To Remind: Advertisement also serves to remind consumers of existing
products, that the product may be needed in future and where to buy the product. It is
necessary for the advertiser to constantly draw the attention of consumer to his
product and away from other competitive brands, which may be heavily advertised.
http://www.blurtit.com/q863338.html
b) Discuss which text gives more reliable information.
c1) Watch the video file ‘Admongo – What is the purpose of the
ad’ on the youtube. What ides does it add to the ones
described above?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDYEmw7JVTo
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c2) Imagine you are a professional advertiser & you are
delivering a lecture on what the purpose of advertising is. Give
a 2-minute talk.
d) Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their contexts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
affect view’s behavior
transparent
consume the products
be /have a compelling
reason to consume the stuff
take a more subtle approach
will toss anyone / toss smb
to whet viewer’s appetite for
to wow viewers with artsy
display of the products
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
highlight the product positive
attributes
to stress the products
desirable qualities
carefully calculated
language & image
Influence consumer choice
Reiteration
Be targeted to
Be intended to do
16. celebrity
17. Be established in the minds
of the targeted audience
18. Reinforce the message
19. Emphasize the strong points
20. eventually
21. Be media-saturated every
day
22. Outdoor signage
d1) Restore the contexts where these words & phrases were
used. Can you make up another context with the vocabulary.
d2) Explain the meaning of the words & phrases & make the
other students guess the word.
d3) Make up a definition exercise
d4) Make up a row of words having one function & one
more word that is odd. Make the students in your group
find this odd word out.
d5) Make synonyms & antonyms rows of words.
D6) Think up sentences in Russian & get
other student to translate them
1.2. Different Types of Advertising Methods
Below are the types of advertising match the
headlines with the passages.
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Online Advertising
Print Advertising Covert Advertising
Cell Phone & Mobile Advertising Broadcast Advertising
Outdoor Advertising
By Paul Suggett, About.com Guide
Image courtesy of Engin Erdogan
Advertising has evolved into a vastly complex form of communication, with
literally thousands of different ways for a business to get a message to the consumer.
It could be said that cave paintings in some way represented the first forms of
advertising, although the earliest recognized version of what we know as advertising
was done on papyrus by the Egyptians. And in Pompeii, the ruins suggest that
advertising was commonplace.
(1) ………………………………………………………………………
If an advertisement is printed on paper, be it newspapers, magazines,
newsletters, booklets, flyers, direct mail, or anything else that would be considered a
portable printed medium, then it comes under the banner of print advertising.
(2) ………………………………………………………………………
(Television, Radio and the Internet)
A mass-market form of communication
including television and radio, broadcast advertising
has, until recently, been the most dominant way to
reach a large number of consumers.
Television advertisements have been very
popular ever since they have been introduced. The cost
of television advertising often depends on the duration
of the advertisement, the time of broadcast (prime
time/peak time), and of course the popularity of the television channel on which the
advertisement is going to be broadcasted. The radio might have lost its charm owing
to the new age media however the radio remains to be the choice of small-scale
advertisers. The radio jingles have been very popular advertising media and have a
large impact on the audience, which is evident in the fact that many people still
remember and enjoy the popular radio jingles.
(3) ………………………………………………………………………
If you see an advertisement via the Internet (World Wide Web), then it is classified as
online advertising. In fact, there are ads on this very page, and most other websites
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you visit, as they are the primary revenue driver for the Internet. Learn more about
this vital part of the Internet.
(4) ………………………………………………………………………
(Billboards, Kiosks, Tradeshows and Events)
Also known as out-of-home (OOH) advertising, this is a broad term that
describes any type of advertising that reaches the consumer when he or she is outside
of the home.
The most common examples of outdoor
advertising are billboards, kiosks, and also several
events and tradeshows organized by the company. The
billboard advertising is very popular however has to be
really terse and catchy in order to grab the attention of
the passers by. The kiosks not only provide an easy
outlet for the company products but also make for an
effective advertising tool to promote the company's
products. Organizing several events or sponsoring
them makes for an excellent advertising opportunity.
The company can organize trade fairs, or even exhibitions for advertising their
products. If not this, the company can organize several events that are closely
associated with their field. For instance a company that manufactures sports utilities
can sponsor a sports tournament to advertise its products.
(5) ……………………………………………………………………………..
Advertising
in
Movies
(=Product
Placement Advertising)
Covert advertising is a unique kind of
advertising in which a product or a particular brand is
incorporated in some entertainment and media
channels like movies, television shows or even sports.
There is no commercial in the entertainment but the
brand or the product is subtly( or sometimes
evidently) showcased in the entertainment show.
Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of
brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruise's phone in the movie Minority Report,
or the use of Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded.
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In a nutshell, product placement is the promotion of branded goods and services
within the context of a show or movie, rather than as an explicit
advertisement.
(6) ……………………………………………………….
A relatively new form of advertising, but one that's spreading
rapidly, uses cell phones, iPads, Kindles, Nooks, and other
portable electronic devices with Internet connectivity. Current
trends in mobile advertising involve major use of social media
such as Twitter and Facebook.
http://advertising.about.com/od/advertisingprojects/a/Different-Types-Of-AdvertisingMethods.htm
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_types_of_advertisements
b) Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their contexts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Terse
Catchy
Evolve into
Vastly complex form of
communication
Cave paintings
To get a message to the
consumer
Be commonplace
radio jingles
9.
spread via word of
mouth & social
media
10. be solely for
commercial purpose
11. banner /flyer/
newsletter/booklet
12. invite the consumer
to participate or
interact
13. the time of broadcast (prime
time)
14. aka (also known as)
15. primary revenue driver
16. passer by
17. grab the attention of
18. organize trade fair
19. encourage the use of
20. in a nutshell
1.2.1. Surrogate Advertising - Advertising Indirectly.
 Consult the dictionary & write of the definition of what
the word ‘surrogate’ mean?
Surrogate (adj.) –
……………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………….
 Read the text below & try to understand what this kind of
ad is.
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Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in
cases where advertising a particular product
is banned by law. Advertisement for
products like cigarettes or alcohol which are
injurious to heath are prohibited by law in
several countries and hence these companies
have to come up with several other products
that might have the same brand name and
indirectly remind people of the cigarettes or
beer bottles of the same brand. Common
examples include Fosters and Kingfisher
beer brands, which are often seen to promote their brand with the help of surrogate
advertising.
'Get what I mean' advertising
What we see on the right is a print screen and copy-paste of a remarkable
Indian ad, which I am sure many of us wouldn't have missed on TV. Our dear friend,
Ajay Devgan, drives miles on a dusty highway to reach ‘Tony da Dhaba‘ and runs to
grab a soda (Seriously?). Later, mocked by a bunch of hooligans he enters a tug-ofwar and fools them by grabbing the soda by letting the rope go. Ajay Devgan holds
the soda in his hand with pride and says the magic words translated to English. “It
would be an awesome evening if three friends sit together. You, me and Bagpiper
(What follows is the longest pause in the history of 60 second advertisements) soda.”
This is an example of surrogate advertisement, where the advertisement contains a
product message or a brand inside it, which is essentially for another brand or product.
The most common reasons for this kind of advertisements, is that the company
is trying to work around a ban or a prohibition on mass media advertisements of the
product. Many nations have laws restricting alcohol and tobacco advertising, for
example, so companies use surrogate advertising to market their products. Techniques
used might include advertising another product with the same brand name, sponsoring
community events, issuing public service announcements, or sponsoring sports teams.
All of these activities technically do not violate the ban on direct advertising, but they
still get consumers familiar with the company's branding.
Generally, surrogate advertisements are used for products such as cigarettes,
alcoholic beverages and certain kind of pharmaceutical products
For example, a cigarette company might issue public service announcements
relating to a topic such as lung cancer, using the company's logo or distinctive brand
colors in the ads so that people are exposed to the company's branding without seeing
an explicit ad for the company's product. The company would justify the
advertisement by claiming that it's an example of social responsibility.
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Further delving into the purpose of such advertisements gives us certain
concrete findings. A report released by the United States department of health and
services eventually concludes that, there is no basis to believe that surrogate
advertising of alcoholic beverages significantly affects consumption, let alone the
abuse of it. So, if such surrogate advertisements don’t drive the non-drinkers into
drinking, then what is the point of it? The answer is fairly simple. It is done to
increase the market share. It serves as a reminder to the consumer to consume the
product which has managed to break barriers and be visible, when, next time around,
she/he is making the buying decision.
Surrogate advertising may also be used when companies want to cultivate an
image of social responsibility. For example, many health advocates have criticized
advertisements for sweet treats aired during children's cartoons. A company might
pull outright advertising during these time slots and instead air a series of public
service announcements about eating a balanced diet, with the announcements bearing
the company's branding.
How are they doing it?
Over the years, many companies have tried various ways to establish their
brand and advertise their products through the surrogate advertising route.
McDowell’s has extended its brand to include bottled water and soda, Seagram’s and
Bacardi have aced the cassettes and Cds way of doing it and Royal challenge
extensively sponsors golf tournaments. Kingfisher campaign of 'be a true kingfisher
fan', actively promotes bottled water.
Kingfisher has done all the above along with venturing into the airline industry
with the same logo (which now, however, is a full-fledged brand extension) and
calendars. The baggage tags, back of the boarding pass and also the exit doors of the
kingfisher flights have extensive advertisements of the Whyte and Mackay music cds.
Diageo has promoted club culture by opening exclusive Diageo clubs in many parts of
the world and now in India.They have also sponsored fashion and music.
The tobacco companies, such as Wills (now ITC) have extended into the Wills
lifestyle store, Marlboro have been associated with Formula1 for quite a long time.
Rugby has seen the ‘Silk cut challenge cup'. Some companies have even
manufactured sweet, candy cigarettes by the same name (Joe camel advertisements).
However, the Indian information and broadcasting ministry under Mrs. Soni has been
fiercely pushing for the ban on surrogate advertisements to make it even more rigid.
This has prompted Godfrey Phillips India to change the name of Red and white
Bravery awards to Godfrey Phillips national bravery awards.
There is a thin line between brand extension (Kingfisher airlines and Wills
lifestyle brand) and surrogate advertising routes .How well inside the limits the
companies can stay depends on their creativity and will be something to watch out for
in the future.
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http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-surrogate-advertising.htm
http://p10kabhijita.hubpages.com/hub/SURROGATE-ADVERTISING-Get-what-Imean-Advertising
b) Your vocabulary bank. Write out the active vocabulary out
of the text & learn them in their context.
1.
2.
3
Think up exercises & fun activities to practice using the
following vocabulary units in their contexts
1.2.2. Public Service Advertising
a) Read the article & underline the
purpose of this kind of advertising.
Unlike traditional commercials, Public Service
Advertisements (PSA) are primarily designed to
inform and educate rather than sell a product or
service.
Public service advertising is a technique that makes
use of advertising as an effective communication
medium to convey socially relevant message about important matters and social
welfare causes like AIDS, energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation,
illiteracy, poverty and so on. David Oglivy who is considered to be one of the
pioneers of advertising and marketing concepts had reportedly encouraged the use of
advertising field for a social cause. Oglivy once said, "Advertising justifies its
existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful tool to use solely
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for commercial purposes". Today public service advertising has been increasingly
used in a non-commercial fashion in several countries across the world in order to
promote various social causes. In USA, the radio and television stations are granted
on the basis of a fixed amount of Public service advertisements aired by the channel.
b) Your vocabulary bank.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
justify its existence
be used in the public interest
powerful tool
to use solely for commercial
purposes
increasingly u
be used in a noncommercial fashion
promote various social
causes
on the basis of
a fixed amount of
10. Unlike
11. Commercials
12. Be primarily
designed
13. to inform and
educate
14. rather than
15. be considered to be
16. a pioneers of
advertising
17. reportedly
18. be granted
19. convey socially relevant
message
20. important matters
21. social welfare
22. causes
23. AIDS
24. energy conservation,
25. political integrity
26. deforestation
27. illiteracy
28. encourage
29. poverty
c) Bring in a PSA commercials & discuss the ideas they
convey.
1.2.4. Guerrilla Advertising and marketing
Also known as ambient media, guerrilla advertising (or marketing) has become
prominent over the last 20 years. It is a broadly used term for anything
unconventional, and usually invites the consumer to participate or interact with the
piece in some way. Location is important, as is timing. The driving forces behind
guerrilla advertising or marketing are creative ideas and innovation, not a large
budget. Quite often, you will ask for forgiveness rather than permission with these
campaigns, and they will spread via word of mouth and social media.
*guerrilla - a member of a small independent group taking part in irregular
fighting, typically against larger regular forces
 What do you think this term might be about?
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a) Read over the types of
promotion below. What
does each one involve?
Discuss your answers with
a partner.
Advertising PR (public
relations) shop demo Personal
selling Telemarketing Product
placement Viral advertising
b) Guerrilla marketing is another form of promotion. What do you
think it involves. Think, then listen to the article & compare your
ideas.
c) Listen to the article again. Then write the name of the
company next to each sentence.
They set up a water vending machine with contaminated water.
They dropped strips of pink paper from
They paid the town of Halfway to rename itself.
They stuck coins on the ground.
They gave tents to homeless people.
Discuss:
Have there been any examples of guerrilla marketing in the news lately? What
happened?
Can you think of any more examples of guerrilla marketing? What happened?
How effective do you think guerrilla marketing is?
e) Your vocabulary bank. Read the article & find the words &
phrases for the following definitions:
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………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
………………
1. to get people very interested in something so that everyone is
talking about it
2. an action designed to attract attention
3. a box or container with little presents inside
4. if something "floats down'" it falls from the sky and comes
down slowly and gently
5. a device that allows a person to jump from an aircraft and float
to the ground. It consists of a large piece of cloth attached to
your body with strings
6. if you "stick" A to B, you use glue or another substance to
attach A to B
7. a machine that gives you a ticket if you put money in it. The
ticket shows you how long you can park your car in a specific
parking zone
8. a round, metal cover for a hole in the street. The hole leads to
the sewage system (the underground water system)
9. a machine that sells bottles of water
10.to make people know about
11. a small, thin piece of paper
12.an amount of paper money
13.that you can take off /
14.to attract attention; to make people look at / notice
15. a profit
16.a well-known object or feature in a city / town / landscape
17.to create a design / image / picture by cutting and shaping a
hard material such as stone / wood / metal, etc.
18.a soft white limestone (calcium carbonate). Some teachers use a
piece of it to write on a blackboard
19.the side of a hill (a small mountain)
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Guerrilla Marketing
The term "guerrilla marketing was invented by Jay Conrad
Levinson (1933) and is described in his book Guerrilla
Marketing.
What's the best way to promote a product?
Advertising? Personal selling? Shop demos?
Guerrilla marketing techniques are becoming
more and more popular But what do they consist
of?
The objective of guerrilla marketing is to
create a buzz, to get people talking about your
product, to get it in the news whilst spending as
little as possible - inexpensive, small-scale stunts
that attract massive amounts of attention. Here are
a few examples of guerrilla marketing.
In 2007, Swedish furniture giant IKEA
transformed bus stops in Manhattan into furnished "rooms", giving people a
comfortable place to sit while they waited to get home. Reports of the stunt appeared
in all the major newspapers.
In 2009, Libresse dropped more than 3,000 gift packs of tampons on Dutch
beaches. The packs floated down on pink parachutes. The event was reported
widely in the press.
Loctite stuck coins on the ground to demonstrate the effectiveness of their
Super Glue 3 brand. The coins had stickers on them advertising the product.
Lee Jeans covered parking meters and manhole covers in Paris with jeans to
promote the opening of a new store. With so much denim around the city, the launch
was a major success.
UNICEF set up a water vending machine filled with bottles of
"contaminated" water to raise awareness of the lack of clean water in many
countries."Diseases"on offer included malaria, cholera and typhoid.
Italian newspaper La Gazzetta Dello Sport dropped millions of strips of pink paper
from the top of a building in Milan to promote the newspaper. which is printed on
pink paper.
As part of a Carlsberg campaign, Ј10 and Ј20 notes were left around London.
Each note had a removable sticker attached to it which read, "Carlsberg don't do
litter. But if they did, it'd probably be the best litter in the world". The campaign
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created massive media interest. and thousands of Londoners desperate to pick up the
"litter"
Medecins du Monde distributed hundreds of tents to homeless Parisians
sleeping along the Quai d'Austerlitz and Canal Saint- Martin. All the tents had the
Medicins du Monde logo on, and drew attention to the number of destitute people
in the area.
In 1999, the town of Halfway (Oregon) was paid $100,000 to rename itself
Half.com for a year. Within two weeks, news of the name change had appeared on
the Today show, the Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. Three weeks
later, Half.com was bought by eBay for $313 million - one of the biggest advertising
returns ever.
In order to promote the release of The Simpsons Movie, a giant, 60-metre
Homer Simpson was painted right next to one of the UK's most famous landmarks:
the Cerne Abbas giant, which is carved into a chalk hillside in Dorset. News of the
event was published in all the major newspapers.
Watch out for some guerrilla marketing in a town or city near you!
On Youtube watch the video that illustrate the ideas of guerrilla
marketing. Discuss the concept of making up a stunt like this.
Taken from ’Hot English magazine’
www.hotenglishgroup.com
2. Linguo-cultural corner.
a) In the text above in the last passage the Cerne Abbas Giant
was mentioned.
 Do you know what that is?
Read the text & find out
The Cerne Abbas Giant
The Cerne Abbas Giant or the 'Rude Man' is one
of the largest hillfigures in Britain, he (the figure's
gender is beyond doubt) is one of two representations
of the human form, the other being the Long Man of
Wilmington in East Sussex. The giant, carved in solid
lines from the chalk bedrock measures in at 180 feet
high, and carries a huge knobbled club, which
measures 120 feet in length.
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(Cerne Abbas Illustration: by Daniel Parkinson)
The first written record of the giant appears in 1751 in a letter by Dorset
historian John Hutchins, he suggested that the figure was cut in the mid 1600's.
Another slightly later reference to the figure can be found in the Gentleman's
magazine of 1764, where the figure is described and depicted with a navel, that has
long since disappeared. The lack of earlier references is frustrating but does not mean
that the figure dates to the 17th century, and its style and proximity to an Iron Age
earthwork suggests a much earlier origin.
There are numerous theories as to when and why the giant was created, one of
the more popular is that he is the Greek-Roman god Hercules, who is often
represented with a club and an animal fur. It has been suggested that the figure was
once depicted carrying and animal fur in his left hand. It is possible that worship of
Hercules arrived in the early part of the Roman invasion, which was then became
amalgamated with a god of a local Celtic tribe. The theory given the most weight by
historians is that it was created during the reign of the Emperor Commodus between
180 - 193 AD, he believed himself to be a reincarnation of Hercules and allowed the
cult to revive.
Other stories suggest that the monks at the nearby monastery cut the giant as a
joke on an Abbott called Thomas Corton, who was expelled from the area for
malpractice. This is unlikely but its close proximity to a ecclesiastical house is
strange, how could such an obviously pagan symbol have survived for so long?
especially through puritanical times and the reformation. It may be that the religious
buildings were built close to the giant as a form of amalgamation of the pagan site.
This was common practice, and many churches are built on, or near to, sites that were
once Pagan religious centres.
Cerne Abbas GiantFolklore
According to one tradition, recorded
from a farm labourer in the Gentleman's
Magazine, the figure is the representation of a
Danish giant who had led an invasion of
England from the coast. He had fallen asleep
on the side of the hill, and the local villagers
had taken advantage of his slumber and cut off
his head. They had then drawn around his
prone body in the manner of a gigantic police
chalk line, to show where he met his doom. However, the chalk figure sometimes rose
from the dead on dark nights, to quench his thirst in the local stream, a habit also
common to certain standing stones.
The giant's obvious sexuality and virility was put to use in fertility folk magic.
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most productively within the confines of his giant phallus, and young couples would
make love on the giant to ensure conception.
Sleeping on the giant was also thought to be a good way to ensure a future
wedding for unmarried women. Just above the giant's head is a small Iron Age
earthwork which encloses a roughly square piece of land, this is known as the 'Frying
Pan' or the 'Trendle' and it was within this enclosure that the Mayday Maypole was
erected during the festival celebrations. Like many traditional village Maypole
ceremonies this practice died out in the 19th century.
http://www.mysteriousbritain.co.uk/england/dorset/featured-sites/the-cerne-abbasgiant.html
3. a) Listen to the dialogue “A Publicity Stunt” & fill in the
gaps. Act this dialogue out.
Hank: What’s that for?
Svetlana: This costume? I’m planning a publicity stunt to get our store more
business.
Hank: You think that dressing up as a giant banana will get our store more business?
Svetlana: We need to get media coverage for the grand opening of our store and
attract as much attention as possible. I’ll be on hand to give sound bites and
organize photo ops.
Hank: How does a giant banana tie into our store?
Svetlana: It doesn’t directly, but trust me, it’ll get noticed.
Hank: I was thinking of a traditional marketing campaign, more along the lines of
holding a contest or a giveaway. And I don’t see how a giant banana is going to get
media attention.
Svetlana: The person in the giant banana costume will skydive into the parking lot of
the store.
Hank: What idiot have you convinced to do that?
Svetlana: Well, that’s actually why I’m here...
Script by Dr. Lucy Tse
b) Discuss
 Do you agree with the promotional idea of grand opening
of the store?
 Do you think the ideas like that will help the museums to
promote their events?
 Are there any differences of promoting products or events
by profit & non-profit organization?
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4. Project Work. Surf the net & find
out what are the ways to promote
events the museums use.
 Are there any guerrilla
marketing examples in
museum advertising
campaigns?
5. Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their contexts.
Fill in the table below with the words from this part
d1) Restore the contexts where these words & phrases were
used. Can you make up another context with the vocabulary.
d2) Explain the meaning of the words & phrases & make the
other students guess the word.
d3) Make up a definition exercise
d4) Make up a row of words having one function & one
more word that is odd. Make the students in your group
find this odd word out.
d5) Make synonyms & antonyms rows of the
words.
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D6) Think up sentences in Russian & get other student to
translate
d7) Make up a presentation “Different types of advertising”
Part 2
2. The contents of the ad
2.1. Parts of an Ad
How many of these elements does
your ad design have?
By Jacci Howard Bear, About.com Guide
Ads come in all shapes and sizes but they
have a common goal -- to sell a product, a
service, a brand. Text, visuals, or a
combination of the two are the main
elements of any print ad.
1.
Artwork.
Photographs, drawings, and graphic embellishments are a key visual
element of many types of ads. Some ads may have only a single visual while others
might have several pictures. Even text-only ads might have some graphics in the
form of decorative bullets or borders. When included with visuals the caption is one of
the first things most readers look at after the visual. It's not in all ads but it is an
option that gives the advertiser one more chance to grab the reader.
2.
Titles.
The main headline may be the strongest element of
the ad or it may be secondary to a strong visual.
Some ads may have subheads and other title
elements as well. Just making it larger isn't
enough, headlines should be well-written to get the
readers' attention.Great headlines capture and
engage the reader's attention.Within any printed
medium, such as a newspaper or magazine, people will read, or at best "skim" the
headlines of articles, but with advertisements, readers often skip right past the ad
entirely. Once a person recognizes the space as being that of an advertisement, their
eyes dart elsewhere without even giving the ad a chance. By simply redesigning an
advertisement to appear as editorial content (with a headline and newsworthy
copy), the odds of your headline getting noticed and thus read will increase some
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50%. An effective headline doesn't just pique your reader's curiosity. It hooks
them. They are drawn into the ad, compelled to read more.Be One in a Million, Not
One of a Million
3.
Body.The copy is the main text of the ad. Some ads may take a minimalist
approach, a line or two or a single paragraph. Other ads may be quite text-heavy
with paragraphs of information, possibly arranged in columns newspaper style.
While the words are the most important part of the copy, visual elements such as
indentation, pull-quotes, bullet lists, and creative kerning and tracking * (read below) can
help to organize and emphasize the message of the body of the ad.
4.
Contact
The contact or signature of an ad may appear
anywhere in the ad although it is usually near the
bottom. It consists of one or more of:

Logo

Advertiser Name

Address

Phone Number

Map or Driving Directions

Web Site Address
Extras
Some print ads may have additional special
elements such as an attached business reply
envelope, tear-out portion with a coupon, tip sheet,
product sample.
http://desktoppub.about.com/od/ads/a/ad_parts.htm
b) Analyse the ad aside on the basis of
the information above.
c) Your vocabulary bank. Think up
exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following
vocabulary units in their contexts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
artwork
visuals
embellishment
be a key visual element
decorative bullets
bullet list
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
be secondary to
be well-written
capture smb’s attention
engage smb’s attention
within any printed medium
take a minimalist (subtle)
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28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
skim smth
at best
skip right past the ad
entirely
eyes dart somewhere
give the ad a chance
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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
borders
be included with
caption
option
the copy
signature
be near the bottom
headline
subhead
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
approach
be arranged in columns
attached business reply envelope
tea-out
coupon
tip sheet
product sample
pique reader’s curiosity
be drawn into the ad
be compelled to read more
indentation
pull-quote
organize the message
emphasize the message of the
body of the ad
41. be text-heavy (with)
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
Self-check
Analyse the print advertisements using the text “How many of
these elements does your ad design have?” as an outline. Use
the information about advertising techniques.
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2.2.1 How to Write an Effective Advert
Posted by Alison Reeves on febrary 11, 2013
a) Listen to the AIDA sales model in
advertising
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQADInp7-7Q and
put down all the elements; b) then listen to
Frank Borg lecture in the model
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGgpjHmIZTY and
write down it.
b) Read the text; sum up all the information to explore the
print advertisement above for the AIDA concept.
AIDA explains
As the world of advertising becomes more and more competitive, advertising
becomes more and more sophisticated. Yet the basic principles behind advertising
copy remain – that it must attract attention and persuade someone to take action. And
this idea remains true simply because human nature doesn't really change. Sure, we
become increasingly discerning, but to persuade people to do something, you still
need to grab their attention, interest them in how your product or service can help
them.
AIDA is an acronym developed in 1898 by advertising pioneer E. St. Elmo Lewis
and used to describe a process that occurs when a consumer engages with an advert
before deciding to buy. AIDA stands for: Attention, Interest, Desire, Action.
 Attention leads to – Interest in the product
 Interest leads to – Desire for the offer
 Desire leads to – Action to make a purchase
Attention
First get their attention. Without attention, you can hardly persuade them of
anything. You can get attention in many ways--a good way is to surprise them.
When you are talking to them, the first few seconds are essential as they will listen
most then and rapidly decide whether you are worth giving further attention. Don't
waste these precious moments on niceties, grab the other person's attention
immediately.
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It is generally better to open with something that pulls them towards you rather
than something that scares them (as this may push them away).
Good openers address their problems and begin with such as:
 Have you ever...?
 Are you noticing...?
 Can you see...?
Bad openers give them something to object to, demonstrate your disrespect, or just
bore them to tears, and may begin with such as:
 I've got just the thing you want...?
 I just dropped by so that I might...?
 I was only wondered whether you could...?
Interest. Once you have their attention, sustain that attention by getting the
other person interested.
You can get interest by:
 Listening to them talk about their problems.
 Telling them things that affect their problems.
 Demonstrating things, rather than just telling.
 Getting them actively involved.
Watch out for the boredom factor. You may be able to get someone interested, but
you cannot expect to keep their attention for ever. If you want to come back some
day, you should leave them wanting more, at least of your company.
Desire. Once they are interested in you and what you have to say, then next
step is to create a desire in them for what you want them to do.
They can recognize that they have a need, but this is not desire. Desire is a motivation
to act and leads towards the next stage.
Desire is like a fire, and can be stoked by many methods, such as:
 Showing them how the item to be desired will not be available for long
(Scarcity principle).
 Showing how other people approve of the item and have acquired it for
themselves.
 Showing them how what you have to offer will solve some of their problems.
Action. This is the magic stage when they take action on their desires and
actually buy the product or agree to your proposals.
The scariest point is where you ask for the sale or ask them whether they actually do
agree fully with you.
Listen to the signals they are sending. Are they asking you about when you can
deliver or what after-sales support you give?
Summarize the problem you are solving for them and how what you are proposing
solves that problem.
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Use the appropriate closing technique, such as alternatives ('Do you want the red or
the blue?) or presupposition ('What time shall we meet next week?').
And...
A variant on AIDA add a 'C' for Conviction. The ideas is that before you get to a final
purchase action, a cognitive state of understanding the value is needed that matches
the emotional state of desire. This sometimes appears before Desire (AICDA) and
sometimes after (AIDCA), perhaps showing two different approaches: one which
starts with getting a logical agreement and then moving to emotional desire, as
opposed to creating desire first and then reaching the state when the purchase also
makes logical sense.
The letter 'S' for satisfaction also gets added, indicating the fact that happy customers
will buy more (whilst unhappy customers will tell their friends!).
This is often true, but is not necessary in all cases, depending on the sales methods
(which can be highly emotion-based) the person (who may prefer emotional
assessment, and the context (for example selling clothes can be very emotionally
based).
http://writetowin.co.uk/wp/2013/02/11/how-to-write-an-effective-advert/
Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their
contexts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
solve some of their
problems.
presupposition
conviction
approach
be opposed to
purchase
satisfaction
indicate
be highly emotion-based
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
acquire
niceties
pull smb towards
push smb away).
address their problems
to object to
demonstrate your
disrespect
17. bore them to tears,
18. get smb actively involved
19. essential
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
competitive
sophisticated.
discerning,
acronym
engage with an advert
stand for
the boredom factor
be stoked by many
methods
28. approve of
29. precious
2.2.2 What are the key persuasive techniques used in
consumer advertising?
Testimonial- using words of an expert or famous person to persuade
Bandwagon- using social pressure to persuade people to purchase the product
because 'everyone else is doing it'.
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Repetition- idea is repeated over and over, like in that "Head On" commercial
Transfer- using names or pictures of famous people but not direct quotes
Free or Bargain- a speaker suggests that the public can get something for
nothing or almost nothing
Glittering Generalities- in glowing terms and offering no evidence the speaker
or advertiser supports a candidate or a solution to social problems
Common Sense- trying to persuade using everyday sense of good or bad/right or
wrong
Emotional Words- words are used that make you feel strongly about an idea
Reasoning- luring the reader by listing or explaining reasons or an idea
Card Stacking- telling only one side of the story as if there were no opposing
view or other consideration
Exigency- creating the impression that action is required immediately or the
opportunity will be lost forever
Flag Waving- connecting a person, product, or course with undue patriotism
Innuendo- causing the audience to become wary or suspicious of the competition
by hinting that negative info may be kept secret
Name Calling- negative or derogatory words to create a distasteful association in
the mind of the audience
Plain Folks- using a person who represents the "typical" target of the ad to
communicate the message that we are alike, and I use/buy/believe this so you should
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_key_persuasive_techniques_used_in_consu
mer_advertising
b) Explain the other advertising techniques:
Anti bandwagon Reasoning Evoke emotions Demographic positioning
Snob appeal Scientific approach
c) Search for more advertising techniques and explain them.
d) Choose one (or more) advertisement to find the persuasive
techniques employed
2.2.3 The Elements Of Design
How Design Works To Bring You Customers
Our goal at Professional Advertising is to help you to become a stronger, faster,
smarter advertiser. We want you to know quality advertising design when [or if] your
graphic artist shows it to you.
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Although we tell you about advertising design on this page, our goal is not to
teach you how to be a graphic artist. [And we assume that you want to focus on your
business anyway – not on becoming an advertising design expert.]
The advertising design information on this page should help you to understand
more about effective communication, and how your customers interpret your ads.
Advertising Design: Attention Is Always First
This one is simple. If people don’t notice your ad, your chance of success is
exactly zero. Your advertising design absolutely must get attention first.
Research indicates that 85% of ads don't get looked at, no matter how much
they cost to produce. You have to be seen if you want action. Just imagine losing 85%
of your customers because your ad doesn't stand out from the crowd. [Or think about
increasing the response to your ads by SIX times because they do get noticed].
Advertising Design: Imagery
Strong imagery is the best attention getter. A picture is truly worth 1,000 words
when it comes to getting attention. Ads that feature large visuals [60%-70% of the ad
is the photo] score the highest for stopping power.
But you need to make sure that you get the right kind of attention. A big,
beautiful, full color picture of a naked model will get you a lot of attention, but not the
kind you want. Don’t let a great picture dictate your advertising design. It is critical
for your imagery to match your message. Your pictures have to match your copy, and
together they must convey your intended message.
This is probably the most common mistake in advertising design. The pictures
don’t have much to do with the product or service, or they don’t convey the right
message. If the photo sells lust or humor, and you are selling security, the mental
contrast will confuse all but the most determined readers. People will pass you by
because the reason they were attracted to your ad [the picture] does not match what
you are selling. You have attracted the wrong attention with your advertising design.
Advertising Design: Contrast
If imagery is the first way to get attention with your advertising design, then
contrast is definitely the second way. Your ad must contrast with the other ads on the
page. That is why it is critical for designers to see the actual medium you will be
advertising in. If your ad just blends in with everything else on the page, you are
wasting your money. If your graphic designer doesn’t care where your ad appears –
fire them.
Even worse than blending in, your customers might mistake your ad for your
competitor's ad. You want your advertising design to give your company a unique
look that contrasts with the other ads around it.
Advertising Design: Be Different
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If imagery is first, and contrast is second, then being different is the third way
to get attention with your advertising design.
People are attracted to unusual, new, funny, different things. You need to push
your advertising design as far away from your conservative side as your willpower
will let you. It may be hard, but do not listen to that little voice in your head telling
you to do a quite, calm, conservative ad. This is about results. Get a little crazy with
your advertising design.
If you live in North America, then you have seen the very best advertising in
the world. Americans are subject to the highest quality advertising ever created –
every day. Judge your own advertising design by the absolutely brutal competition
that you face. Your ads must come out on top. Professional Advertising is about
getting results, and being a little different is definitely part of the formula.
How Many Customers Do You Really Need?
This question may seem odd coming from us, but we are serious. This is about
maximizing your advertising dollar. Do you really need to reach everybody, or just
enough people to keep your business growing stronger every year?
At advertising design agencies, it is often said that the best work ends up on the
cutting room floor. Businesses often want their ads to be on the conservative side. Not
too loud, not too risky. Loud, attention-getting ads are cut. But there is a trade off
made with this decision.
Conservative ads don’t get attention. They are conservative. They will, in the
long run, make your business look highly professional and traditional. But the
conservative strategy of advertising design is about the most expensive path you can
choose.
Do you really need to be thought of as conservative? Even IBM now has dressdown Fridays. Dell computer uses a loud teenage spokesperson. Merryl Lynch uses a
bull in a china shop. Maybe, [maybe], if you are a bank, a hospital, a non-profit, or a
funeral home, conservative advertising design is the way to go. But conservative ads
don’t get attention. And you need attention.
We are not endorsing risky advertising design here. At Professional Advertising
we actually like to play it on the safe side. But ask yourself, how many customers do I
need? If my loud-happy-funny-sexy-strange-bright-weird shaped-purple and pink ad
gets the attention of half of the people out there, maybe that’s all I need. If you leave
some of the conservative people behind with your advertising design, that’s OK.
By getting attention with your advertising design, you will maximize your
advertising dollar. Conservative advertising is very, very expensive. Don’t go crazy,
and always keep your target market in mind, but stretch to get attention with your
advertising design. S-T-R-E-T-C-H to get ATTENTION!
Advertising Design: Using Photos And Illustrations
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This one is also easy. Pay for the best, most appropriate photo or illustration
available. Buy it, own it, keep it, and use it forever. Maybe it costs $100, or even $300
dollars. It is absolutely worth it.
There is an endless supply of fantastic photos available to you. There is a
perfect photo out there for your business. Our databases have tens of millions of super
high quality photographs and illustrations. Find the right one that conveys your
message, and you are half way to a highly effective ad.
Alternatively, if you use a poor photo, you have just cut the effectiveness of
your advertising design in half. Remember, companies that cut corners on advertising
design production are wasting a huge percentage of their advertising budget. Pay for
high quality production up front, and use it forever. The cost of production is trivial in
comparison to the cost of the media. Don’t waste your money by skimping on good
advertising design.
And of course there is a question of photo reproduction quality in the media
you choose. Every newspaper is printed on a different type of press. Every press is
different, and every printer is different. It’s your designer's job to know how to get the
best quality photo reproduction from the specific press that is being used. You don’t
want your photos to look like mud in the newspaper.
Advertising Design: The Psychology Of Color In Advertising
Understanding how your customers interpret color in your advertising can be
very important. First, different cultures interpret colors in different ways. Yellow
represents jealousy in France, sadness in Greece, happiness in the United States, and
is sacred in China. The moral, of course, is know your target audience.
Red is for excitement in advertising design. It is commonly used for automobile and
food advertising. Red is passion and sex, danger, velocity, and power. Yellow is a
great attention grabber in advertising design. It is sunshine, warmth, and happiness. It
is the first color your eye processes. Blue represents reliability, trust, security, and
technology. This is why businesses often use blue, green, teal, or gray in their
advertising. Blue is also coolness and belonging. Black represents sophistication and
strength. It is elegant and seductive. For the right product, black is a great color.
Green is a cool, fresh color. It is nature and spring. Purple is royalty. It is dignified
and refined. Pink is soft and feminine. It is security and sweetness. White (white) is
for cleanliness and purity in advertising design. It is youthful. But that doesn’t mean it
is for young people. Young people [teen and tween] prefer more trendy colors, like
mauve and teal.
There is also white space to consider in advertising design. Without white
space, you can’t read the text. Photos lose their impact, and the ad loses balance.
White space may be the most important component of your advertising design.
Gold is expensive and high class. Orange is playful. It is autumn leaves,
warmth and vibrancy. Silver is prestigious. It represents cold and science.
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Don’t forget that every season has its’ own colors, and fashion changes [every
few minutes]. If you are trying to be trendy with your advertising design, then you
have to keep up with the trends.
Is all of this important? Everything in advertising design is important.
When color is used correctly, it adds impact and clarity to your message. When
color is used incorrectly, it can compromise your message and confuse your target
audience.
Color can draw attention, lead the eye, and add emphasis. It can be used to
show continuation and relatedness, or it can differentiate. Color certainly generates
emotions and associations. Color has meaning for people, and you need to make sure
that your colors say the right thing to your customers. Don't let poor advertising
design destroy your marketing campaign.
Here’s a quick example. In finance, the color red means loss. In engineering, it
means hot or danger. In the medical field, it means danger or emergency or health.
You want to make sure that you don’t send the wrong message by using the wrong
color. A high quality graphic designer will know the difference.
http://www.myprofessionaladvertising.com/The%20Elements%20of%20Design.htm
Analysing television commercials
a) Watch the advertisement at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MxSd7vTr5GA
b) and read the analysis.
Audi's "Vampire Party" ad aired during Super Bowl XLVI
The story line of the commercial presents a guy (a vampire) driving by Audi to
the vampire party with a big portion of blood where everybody’s waiting for him. But
their idyll is accidentally spoiled when he arrives there. All the vampires burn away
with the LED headlights of an Audi S7. And when he gets out of the car he blazes up too.
The events in the commercial affect the way the viewer’s feel. The voices,
facial expressions, body language carry a certain message to the viewer. The ad is
aimed to be funny, not even scary because of killing vampires. The actions remind first
of all of “The Twilight Saga” and create some movie atmosphere that attracts viewers’
interest at once. So the actors that resemble the Twilight actors have been chosen for
the ad to appeal to the viewer. In fact, there is no doubt that looking at the vampire
guys all girls obsessed with “The Twilight Saga”, “True Blood” or “Vampire Diaries”
would be attracted to the ad. The first thing that grabs our attention is the main
character driving a cool car like all tough guys usually do in the listed above films. The
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second is that the vampire party takes place in the forest where vampires feel “forever
young and free”. The third is the choice of clothes, all the vampire girls and boys are
well-dressed, and they’re stylish to make the viewer feel sympathy for the vampire
fops. The age of the actors is between 18-25.
The lighting helps set the scene and create the relaxing mood. The color of the
video is in Twilight-style too. It uses dark, subdued colors. There is a good soundtrack
also – “Echo and the Bunnymen – The Killing Moon” with right lyrics. The soundtrack
allows grabbing attention of amateurs of indie and post-punk music including Twilightfans. This track is quite versatile and might be loved by everyone. Other most affective
sounds used in the commercial are the sounds of growing vampires’ teeth, the sounds
of bursting and climbing on trees vampires. They make the ad a fascinating mixture of
a horror movie and funny masterpiece.
Modern English is used in the advert. The language also contributes to creating
a free and easy mood as when watching the movie “The Twilight”. The funny theme of
killing vampires (in our case it’s the ruining of the vampire party) exploited in this
Audi ad tries to persuade us and promises "Daylight, now in headlight" used as a
slogan there. The super-bright headlights are compared to daylight as if they could kill
vampires. The slogan is easy to remember and it decodes selling point in a proper way.
This is a commercial of few words. But what they say grabs our attention since the
characters pronounce their cues with some intrigue that helps to create a film
atmosphere and makes the commercial’s plot interesting and exciting. The main cues
are: “There he is!”, said some of the vampires; “Party’s arrived”, said the guy. And
that’s all, except short vampires’ death agony.
Definitely the vampire story is mostly targeted at young people and it attracts
both males and females. Even using the hash tag #SoLongVampires like in Twitter
describes the commercial orientation of young people. The young audience
understands the characters’ actions for sure.
We can assume that the TV ad is successful since it combines all the facets to
satisfy the target audience (from the choice of the actors and the background to the
language and other sound components).
c) Develop the analysis focusing on the employed persuasive
techniques
d) Choose one TV commercial to analyse it following the
model and the outline below.
The following text is a guide to analysing television commercials
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Looking at the narrative structure or the story line of the
commercial
 What happens in the story of the commercial?
 How might the actions and events affect the way the viewers feel or their actions?
 Who is the story trying to attract - young? old? males? females? (this is called a
target audience)
Looking at the dialogue and the language
 What do the characters say to one another?
 What are they saying to the viewer?
 How does what they say grab our attention?
 How does what they say try to persuade us? What kind of language is used?
Look for alliteration, metaphor and simile.
 What mood is the language trying to create?
 Is it funny, scary, exaggerated?
 Is one thing being compared to another?
Looking at the people ( the actors employed to perform the roles in a
commercial) animals and animated characters in commercials
 Have the actors, animals etc. been chosen to be attractive in some way to the
viewer?
 Who would be attracted to them?
 How does the choice of actor and the way they appear, interest and grab the
attention of the viewers? Look at the clothes they wear, the age of the actor,
the setting in which the characters have been placed.
 Is the viewer made to feel sympathy for and understand the characters
actions?
 How do the characters use their voices, facial expression, body language to
carry a message to the viewer?
Looking at the use of lighting, color and music and sound
effects
 How does the lighting help set the scene? create a mood?
 How is music used to grab attention? create a mood?
 Is there a jingle used in the commercial? A jingle is a simple tune that the
viewer will remember when they see the product.
 How does the jingle link the product and the viewer? (e.g easy to
remember the product name?)
 Who is it trying to attract? young? old? males? females?
 What affect does the colour used have on the viewers?
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 What sounds are used and how do they affect the viewer?
http://www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/advertising.htm
2.3. What is logo?
a) Read the text & explain the meaning of the words in bold.
The dictionary meaning of a logo is a symbol, sign, or emblem. Human beings
have used such symbols throughout time to convey a succinct message. In present
times, logos tend to be a stylized name & unique symbol, graphical in nature,
designed for easy recognition of an organization. It is a tool to build an identity for the
organization, as part of its trademark or brand, and to generate favorable thoughts
and feelings about the organization.
Logo is affixed, included, or printed on all advertising, building,
communications, literature, products, stationary, and vehicles. Logos should not be
confused with a brand, which identifies a product or family of products. Logos can be
also called logotype.
b) Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their contexts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
to generate favorable
thoughts and feelings
be affixed
stationary
vehicle
a tool
6.
7.
8.
9.
to build an identity for the
organization
be confused with a brand,
family of products
trademark
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
throughout time
succinct message
In present times,
tend to be
a stylized name be designed
for easy recognition of
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/logo.html#ixzz2jM2j3E1Q
http://www.treefrog.ca/what-is-a-logo
What makes a logo great?
Logos define brands and they create corporate images because logos are what
sticks in people’s mind and creates associations. Think Coca-Cola, Nike, or
McDonald’s – what do you instantly picture in mind? Right, their logos. Great logos
will never allow their consumers forget about the brand – it’s what prompts them
choose one product over alternative: people tend to stick to something familiar,
something that brings up positive associations.
http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/logo-design-gone-wrong/
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 Can you answer the question in the title?
 Watch the video ‘What Makes a Good Logo’ on the
youtube. What are the three basic things important to
design a good logo?
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSdii7Yx8qU)
Read the text below & find out more criteria. You have to
match the title of the subheading (the quality) with the
paragraph
The logo :
a) Timeless
b) Something to remember, catches the
eye
c) It should fit your image and be
relevant
d) Unique
e) Versatile
f) Simple, yet smart
g) It works well as black and white too
h) (A Clear message
i) Goes well with
different
backgrounds
j) (Well-drawn
k) It scales well
l) The client loves it
m) Working well with
different types of
media
The Characteristics of a Good Logo Design 2
Tuesday, 15th June, 2010 by Hilde Torbjornsen in Logo Design.
Anyone can make a logo, but making a truly good logo design is something that
takes more than just a PC or mac with the required software. There are many
guidelines you should have a look at before deciding which logo design you choose in
the end.
Remember that your logo will be part of
your brand and for that reason it needs to be taken
seriously. If you’re a designer you would want to
look out for these tips. If you’re someone ordering
a logo from somewhere – make sure the provider
can give you a logo fitting most of these criteria.
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(1) ………………………………………………………………….
If there is any use of other elements in your logo besides the fonts, make sure it
is relevant. The use of wrong elements in your logo design could give a confusing
effect towards potential customers. Also if you already have a strong color-scheme on
your website and so on, you would want to make sure the new logo fits in with that
style.
(2) ……………………………………………………………………….
Picture by Guillaume Riesen
By adding relevant elements that fit the image you want to reflect, your logo is
likely to get attention. Try out different color schemes and
fonts to make sure its memorable and looks fresh. This way
you make people stop for a second when they see your
logo. This is a very important part of building up your logo
as a successful part of your branding. Try to think a bit
different, play around a bit to find something that is eye
catching.
(3) ……………………………………………………………………
You’d want your logo to be unique. Never copy the look of any other logo
you’ve seen, no matter how much you liked it. You want to stand out from the crowd.
This also means being able to think outside the box and experiment with the different
elements. Some niches can sometimes have many companies with similar blending
logos. Have a look at your competition in the business. Instead of blending in – you
should aim to stand out!
(4) ………………………………………………………………………
Picture by Zsuzsanna Kilian
Less is more, simple is smart. Never use too many
different fonts or colors, and never add a photo to the logo
design. If you want an illustrative element to accompany the
text, use simple shapes. If you look around at some of the
logos you remember best, they’re all simple. Some examples are the Apple logo,
Nike, Coca Cola, Pepsi, Samsung, Nokia and so on. You recognize them immediately
and they’re all very simple at the same time as they’re part of powerful brands.
(5) ………….…………………………………………………
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The logo you want to go for should be something you can stick with for years
to come. By steering clear of all current trends and going for solid and simple, smaller
changes can be done later on without losing the characteristic look. If you have a look
at an Apple logo from years back, it still has those characteristics you recognize
today. If your business or website last for another fifty years, you are likely to make
smaller changes along the road – but they should be simple. The simpler the logo you
make from the start, the better it holds through the years.
(6) …………………………………………………………
Picture by Michal Zacharzewski
Keep in mind where you want to use the logo, and
make sure it can fit. This could be on websites, as part
of
ads, on T-shirts, printed media and so on. Again, simple
goes with everything. During the process you should
also take the time to try it out on different media to
make sure you get the look you want. What looks good on plain white paper may not
look so good on a busy website. Only one way to find out: try while you’re in the
design process to be able to do adjustments as you go.
(7) ………………………………………………………………….
As part of being simple comes a clear message. If you’re trying to say anything with
your logo, make sure it can be executed in a simple way. Test out the design on
friends or co-workers to hear their associations when they look at it. It doesn’t help
that you see one thing if no one else get it.
(8) …………………………………………………………………………
Make sure every element is crisp and flawless. If you want for instance a flower
in the logo, make sure it’s done exactly how you want it. Sometimes there can be one
tiny thing that will make you crazy for years if you don’t get it solved immediately.
Make sure none of the shapes look as something other than they are (except if that is
your message). The logo should be drawn and cleaned up in proper vector-software
without any loose ends. This will also make adjustments easier during the rest of the
design process and in the future.
(9) …………………………………………………………
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The one who orders the logo should be satisfied. If that person is you, make
sure that you keep a good communication going with the designer. And if you are the
designer, you have to make sure the client is happy, even if it takes a redraw or three
to get there. Happy clients make a good portfolio and keep coming back for future
projects. If it’s your own logo and you’re not satisfied from day one – this can be a
very bad influence on your brand.
(10) ……………………………………………………………….
Picture by Flavio Takemoto
As with versatility regarding where to put it, a good
logo also has to do well on different colors. Try out the
design with light and dark backgrounds to make sure both
work. There are many reasons for why you want this. Some
are that it won’t need a redesign for use with different Tshirts, ads and more. We can all change our minds, maybe you do changes to things
later on – so make sure the logo will still fit for the future.
(11) ……………………………………………………………………
It’s common practice to get the logo designed as a vector. This means that it
will still stay crisp and clear no matter how much you enlarge it. You also have to
remember that it should be able to work well in a small version. Don’t have so much
detail that everything disappears if you for example put it on a business card or in a
smaller printed newspaper ad.
(12) ……………………………
Picture by Hugo Humberto Plбcido da Silva
Most great logos remain recognizable
even if they’re changed into black/white. This
should be the case for yours too! This can in
many situations save you costs when needed
and it will do fine if a document is copied. It
can also be the test of the logos «personality». If you still recognize it when in black
and white, that’s always a good sign.
(13) ………………………………………………………….
As mentioned before you should try your logo out in different settings before
you make your final decisions. It won’t cost you much to make a test including a
business card, cd-cover, magazine ad, website-banner and so on.
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These were some of top tips on how to make sure your logo has the good
characteristics from the start.
http://www.freelancelogo.com/2010/06/the-characteristics-of-a-good-logo-design/
b) Comment on the logo of our university.
Does it fit all the criteria in the text?
c) Watch the video file “The starbucks logo
explained” on the youtube. Tell as much as
you can about history of the logo. make up
questions about about the information in
the video.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_APClZ0NrYE
d) Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their
contexts.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
be likely to get attention
memorable
look fresh
think a bit different
eye catching.
no matter how much you
…..
stand out from the crowd
think outside the box
experiment with the
different elements
blend in
you keep a good
communication going
with the designer
takes a redraw or three to
get there
make a good portfolio
an illustrative element
15. give a confusing effect
16. towards potential
customers.
17. have a strong colorscheme on your website
18. unique
19. fit in with that style
20. go for solid and simple,
smaller changes
21. current trends
22. Lose the characteristic
look.
23. keep coming back for
future projects
24. versatile (ity)
25. need a redesign
26. hold through the years.
27. flawless
What makes a bad logo?
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28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
required software
guidelines
to look out for these tips
fit the image / most of
these criteria.
the fonts
relevant
looks good on plain
white paper
look good on a busy
website.
do adjustments
be executed in a simple
way
Test out the design on
friends
hear their associations
crisp
enlarge
As mentioned before
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While the implementation of an effective logo can set a company up for
success, the opposite is also possible. When outside input
isn’t gathered to evaluate logo prototypes, designers can
miss major steps and the result can be disastrous.
For instance, In this case the logo design was
destroyed by the lack of letter spacing. Running your
letters together in a logo design can cause you problems
with "readability". Just plain bad logo design.
http://www.artistmike.com/Bad-Logos/BadLogos.html
Watch three videos “Logos: The Good, the bad, and the downright
offensive” on the youtube & conclude what way you should
have been accurate.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-iuk0PbfaHY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-iuk0PbfaHY
Types of logo design
Is a logo just a logo or do they fall into certain categories or types of logos?
So, the object of a logo is to act as a mnemonic device and identifier, to
communicate a desired thought or feeling, and to generate a desired emotional
response. A thought-provoking logo design can strengthen your brand image and
corporate identity, giving you a psychological advantage over your competition. Your
logo is the core of your corporate identity, defining and symbolizing the character of
your company or organization.
There are three basic types of logos:
Iconic/Symbolic - Icons and symbols are compelling yet uncomplicated
images that are emblematic of a particular company or product. They use imagery that
conveys a literal or abstract representation of your organization. Symbols are less
direct than straight text, leaving room for broader interpretation of what the
organization represents. In order for a symbol to be a truly effective logo, it should
conform to these maxims:
Instantaneously recognizable.
Memorable.
Clarity when reproduced in small sizes.
Can be illustrative in nature, either concrete or abstract.
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Logotype/Wordmark - A logotype, commonly
known in the design industry as a "word mark",
incorporates your company or brand name into a uniquely
styled type font treatment. Type fonts come in thousands of
possible variations, shapes, sizes, and styles, each
conveying a slightly different impression upon your
intended audience. Script fonts imply a sense of formality
and refinement. Thick fonts proclaim strength and power,
whereas slanted type fonts impart a sense of motion or movement. Type font
treatments can also include hand-drawn letters, characters or symbols that have been
rendered in such a way as to intrigue the eye and capture the interest. Images can also
be integrated into a logotype, often to great visual effect. Of prime consideration
when selecting a logotype or wordmark is legibility and ease of recognition, even
when reduced to the size required for printing your
business cards.
Combination Marks - Combination Marks are
graphics with both text and a symbol/icon that signifies the
brand image that you wish to project for your company or
organization. Concise text can complement an icon or
symbol, providing supplemental clarity as to what your
enterprise is all about.
There are integrated and stand alone combination
marks. For instance, Starbucks logo has the text with the graphic integrated, whereas
the AT&T logo has the icon separate from the text.
http://www.logodesignsource.com/types.html
You can also watch the tutorial ‘3 types of logos’ on the tube
about the same ideas (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fsBrjGWlWg)
Which type of logo is right for your product or service?
There are no specific rules in design to define right or wrong when it comes to
logos. Graphic design is a creative process and each and every brand must be
approached in a unique way. But don’t worry, finding the right solution for you and
your business, product or service is all part of your professional graphic designer’s
job!
However, as there are many ‘unknown’ areas to what a client is looking for,
most graphic designers find it hard to give clients a price without knowing their
specific requirements, target market and long term goals.
http://www.soulspace.com.au/7-different-types-of-logos-for-small-to-medium-businesses-which-one-is-theright-for-yours/
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c) Your vocabulary bank. Think up exercises & fun activities to
practice using the following vocabulary units in their
contexts.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Concise text
complement an icon or
symbol
provide supplemental
clarity a
what your enterprise is
all about.
symbolize the
character of your
company
uniquely styled type
font treatment
proclaim strength and
power
impart a sense of
motion or movement
9. mnemonic device
10. identifier
11. to communicate a
desired thought or
feeling
12. to generate a desired
emotional response
13. thought-provoking
logo design
14. strengthen your brand
image
15. the core of your
corporate identity
16. hand-drawn letters,
17. define
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
capture the interest
Of prime consideration
and ease of recognition
compelling
uncomplicated
emblematic
less direct
straight text
leave room for broader
interpretation
conform to these maxim
Instantaneously
to intrigue the eye
refinement
Thick fonts
2.4. What makes Advertising slogans?
Advertising slogans or taglines are short slogans that add a description of a
brand or product or create an association with the brand. They are one of four types
(see types of slogans) and seem to be most effective if they describe one key attribute
of the brand or product.
So if you want to create an effective advertising slogan, the first step is to
identify the key attribute of the product – what to people think of or what do you want
them to think of when they hear the advertising slogan.
Then think of how that key thing can be expressed in the four different ways:
- describe the product (descriptive slogan) “The pause that refreshes”
- exaggerate the products characteristics to make a point (superlative slogan)
“Like a rock”
- command the audience to some action (imperative slogan) “Just do it” or
“Don’t leave home without it”
- make a statement or ask a question that gets people to think (provocative
slogan) “Greatness is the prize”
Try out all four ways of describing or drawing attention to the one key aspect of
your brand. After a few (or maybe more than a few) tries, one will stick and you will
have a catchy advertising slogan.
Also keep in mind there are four basic personality types and slogans can be created
that communicate to each type.
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People who are primarily interested in other people love stories. They are
pushovers for emotional stories of people overcoming difficulties, families united
against obstacles, people who triumph in the face of adversity and so on. If you are in
their office, you will notice pictures of kids and pets. They will be more motivated by
a single emotional testimonial than by charts, graphs and statistics. So when you are
writing a slogan, consider an emotional testimonial from someone who loves your
product or organization.
People who care more about information than other people, love as much
information as you can provide. They are poor decision makers and will keep you
busy with information requests to postpone a decision. They love charts, graphs and
statistics. Their office will likely have charts on the wall instead of artwork. So if you
know there are some of these types in your audience, make them happy by including
slogans with numbers and statistics.
People who care about all types of information, stories and data, tend to be very
busy people because they are constantly soaking in everything around them. People
with this type of personality often rise to positions of authority because they are good
with both knowledge and interpersonal skills. So they will often be the decision
maker. So if you are writing a slogan to address this audience, make it literal and to
the point.
People who care about themselves to the extreme are narcissists. This personality
type will evaluate all communication based on what the concept or offer will do for
them. Slogans that make them feel good about themselves will win them over.
http://www.stickyslogans.com/advertisingslogans.html
Types of Sticky Slogans
There are basically four kinds of slogans:
Imperative Slogan - a command to do something:
– Advertise Here! (Not very original but you get the message.)
Descriptive Slogan - describes the key feature or benefit of the
organization or person:
– Free ads here!
Superlative Slogan – exaggerates but in a way that makes a point and is
something you believe to be true:
– Our ads have never been more free...
Provocative Slogan - makes the listener or viewer think or reflect on their
situation:
– Free Ads? From What?
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If you are trying to think of a slogan, a good brainstorming technique is to say
essentially the same thing in each of these four ways and see which one has the best
ring to it.
As an example:
Descriptive Slogans
Imperative Slogans
- Neighborhood Services - Intelligent
Neighborhood Services - Change
Changes for Our Community
Things
- John Jones - Bringing Positive Change John Jones - Changes You Can Count
to Our School
On
Superlative Slogans
Provocative Slogans
Neighboorhood Services - The Smartest Neighborhood Services - Do you really
Choice for Community Change
want anybody else making changes?
John Jones - The Most Intelligent
John Jones - What kind of change do
Choice for Student Council
you want?
Each of these slogans makes the point that Neighborhood Services (or John
Jones in the case of an election) is a smart organization/person that will make some
positive changes in the community. But each slogan is quite different and has a
different ring to it.
3. The language of advertising
Words and phrases used in advertising
• Is advertising language normal language?
• Does advertising language sometimes break the rules of normal language?
Language has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour. This is
especially true in the fields of marketing and advertising. The choice of language to
convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is vitally important.
Visual content and design in advertising have a very great impact on the
consumer, but it is language that helps people to identify a product and remember it.
The English language is known for its extensive vocabulary. Where many other
languages have only one or two words which carry a particular meaning, English may
have five or six.
Moreover, the meanings of these five or six words may differ very slightly and
in a very subtle way. It is important to understand the connotation of a word.
Connotation is the feeling or ideas that are suggested by a word, rather than the actual
meaning
of
the
word. Armchair,
for
example,
suggests
comfort,
whereas chair arouses no particular feelings.
The target audience, of course, also puts its own meaning into certain words.
Different people sometimes interpret language in different ways.
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Both the mass media, when reporting news items, and marketing and
advertising personnel have to consider the emotive power of the words they use. First,
they make a decision about what to communicate and what to withhold.
One way in which advertisers adapt language to their own use is to take
compound words and use them as adjectives. These compounds often later become
widely used in normal situations. Examples of these compounds which have become
part
of
the
English
language
are: top-quality, economy-size,chocolateflavoured, feather-light and longer-lasting.
The language of advertising is, of course, normally very positive and
emphasizes why one product stands out in comparison with another. Advertising
language may not always be "correct" language in the normal sense. For example,
comparatives are often used when no real comparison is made. An advertisement for a
detergent may say "It gets clothes whiter", but whiter than what?
A study of vocabulary used in advertising listed the most common adjectives and
verbs in order of frequency. They are:
1. new
11. crisp
1. make
11. look
2. good/better/best 12. fine
2. get
12. need
3. free
13. big
3. give
13. love
4. fresh
14. great
4. have
14. use
5. delicious
15. real
5. see
15. feel
6. full
16. easy
6. buy
16. like
7. sure
17. bright
7. come
17. choose
8. clean
18. extra
8. go
18. take
9. Wonderful
19. safe
9. know
19. start
10 special
20. rich
10. keep
20. taste
Good and new were over twice as popular as any other adjective.
Exercise
 Find a word in the text which means an especially strong or powerful influence
or effect.
 Find a word in the text which means delicate, not easy to notice.
 Can you think of any products which could be described as economy-sized?
Can you think of any other compound adjectives that could be used in
advertising?
Look at number 11 on the list of adjectives. What kind of products could be
described as crisp?
http://www.linguarama.com/ps/marketing-themed-english/the-language-of-advertising.htm
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Wording characteristics of English advertising texts
Generally, advertisers try by various means at their disposal to get people to buy
the products or services advertised. An advertiser attempts to construct an
advertisement that will fully attract the attention of the potential purchaser and have
persuasive effects. Therefore, he or she makes full use of every word to draw readers’
attention and arouse their interest. English advertising texts (EAT) display many
unique features of wording, such as frequent use of simple words, clever use of
coinages, loanwords, monosyllabic verbs, and simple adjectives, as well as
compounds, etc. which will be discussed briefly and separately in this part.
1. Simple and informal words
Shakespeare said, "Brevity is the soul of wit". The function of advertising is to
provide information, attract consumer, exploit market, and promise the quality. A
simple advertisement is intended not only to arouse the reader's attention and interest,
but also to make consumers remember it. Therefore, an advertisement must pay
attention to its language, and the first step is to use popular and oral language, the
second step is to use some single-syllable words or fewer letters to make it easy to
understand and memorize.
For example:
(1) “I couldn’t believe it, until I tried it!
I’m impressed! I’m really impressed!
You’ve gotta try it!
I love it!”1
This is an advertisement of a microwave oven. The words in it are very simple and
oral. It uses the slang “gotta”, which means “got to” in American English, to give an
impression that this advertisement comes from real life.
(2) “Buy one, get more.”2
This is an advertisement of selling automobile. “buy” and “get” which are two
simple monosyllabic verbs show the bilateral activities between advertisers and
consumers directly. It expresses advertiser’s sincerity, and on the other hand the
advertisement lets consumers have the feeling of simple, efficient, affordable in
order to increase the reliability between advertisers and consumers.
2. Misspelling and Coinages
In some of advertisements, the advertising copywriter misspells some words on
purpose, or adds some suffix or prefix to some common words. New original words
are created to attract addressees’ attention and to meet their needs for curiosity and
novelty. Such freshly made words and phrases may suggest that the product or service
being advertised possesses peculiar qualities as well as the value of novelty. Many
words in advertisements, especially in trade names, are words newly coined, or
deliberately misspelled and abbreviated. Furthermore, some misspelling words help
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the advertiser to disseminate the information effectively and also let the advertising
become more charming.
For example:
(3) “We know eggsactly How to sell eggs”3
In this advertisement, “eggsactly” not only has the similar pronunciation as
“exactly”, but it has connections with the last word “eggs” in this sentence, thus
impressing people a great deal.
(4) “The Orangemostest Drink in the world.”4
When one reads or hears example (4), he or she may think “Orangemostest” is a
wrong word, but actually it is deliberately created by the advertiser, Orangemostest in
this advertisement consists of three elements: orange, most and est. It is well known
that orange juice is a popular drink liked by the old and the young for its nutrition and
thirsty-quenching quality. Two superlatives most and est are added to orange so as to
stress the best quality of this product.
(5) “Give a Timex to all, and to all a good time.”5
In example (5), Timex= time + excellent. In English advertising the suffix ex is
often added to the root, showing the good quality of a product. In addition, “good
time” here has a double meaning: it may mean “pleasant time” or “showing time
exactly”.
(6) “Come to our fruice”6
In example (6), fruice = fruit + juice. This newly coined word arouses people’s
attention by its novelty in form.
Coinages of this kind are nowhere to be found in dictionaries, but they seem
familiar to readers in appearance. One can guess their meanings by means of the
context without help of dictionaries. When customers come across newly coined
words, their interest is stimulated, and they want to go on reading and take action.
Thus, the aim of advertising is reached. But coinages must be well based on after-taste
and implication, stressing the novelty and uniqueness of the products, without which
coinages can produce little effect and will be meaningless.
Misspelling some common words is also a clever use of coinages. Now let’s see
the following examples:
(7) “Going East, Staying Westin.”7 (Westin is the name of the hotel)
In this advertisement, the advertiser wrote “Western” into “Westin” on purpose
in order to win a seat in consumer’s memory. In fact, this advertisement achieved the
expected results which impressed people immensely.
(8) “For twogether the ultimate all inclusive one price sunkissed holiday”8
Example (8) is an advertisement on providing a couple with a holiday inn.
“Twogether” and “together” are similar both in spelling and pronunciation. “To” is
misspelled as “Two” on purpose by the advertiser to indicate that the couple could get
the romantic yesterday once more if they spend their holiday together in this inn.
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Psychologically, emotion between lovers tends to become common and ordinary on
the surface after a long period, “Twogether” here can remind them of the romantic
time in the past. This advertisement is just intended to cater for such a psychological
need .
(9) “Surefit Shoe Ltd”9 (舒飞鞋业有限公司)
When the consumers see the word “Surefit” at first sight, they must imagine
“surely to fit your feet” immediately and have a deep impression of this brand.
(10) “Ezyrub”10 (advertising shoe polish)
“Ezy” has the same pronunciation as the word “easy” and it is combined with
“rub”, which means “easy to rub”. This coinage not only shut the name of the
product, but also describes the quality of the product.
(11) “Hi-fi, Hi-fun, Hi-fashion, only from Sony”11 (advertising Sony Audio)
Hi-fi means high fine (quality), Hi-fun means high fun, and Hi-fashion means
high fashion. These three coined words make the effect differ from the common
words through the form of words and pronunciation.
It is easy to see from the above examples that newly created words vividly
express the desirable features, qualities, or functions of the product or service being
advertised.
3. Loanwords
If an advertisement emphasizes the product’s quality or the origin abroad,
loanwords would be the best choice for it. The most frequently used loanwords are
those from French and Spanish in English advertising, mostly for wine, food,
cosmetics, clothing, ect. Added some French in advertising for wine, then the
quality of this product is undoubted.??? Perfume companies usually add to the
romantic atmosphere of their products by using French words such as Vol de Nuit.
Automobile manufacturers will increase the mysterious atmosphere for their product
by use of foreign words such as: Cordova, Biarritz. The commonest use of foreign
words is in a restaurant, like their food labels: Del Taco, L’Auberge, and La Scala.
For example:
(12) “Order it in bottles or in canners
Perrier……with added je ne sais quoi.”12
This is an advertisement for a French drink. The manufacturer uses a sentence
with French words at the end. “je ne sais quoi” means “I don’t know what”. Suddenly
this English advertisement is characterized by a French style. The purpose to use this
simple French phrase is to show the French flavor of this drink. The loanwords in
some advertisements are intended to express the exoticism of the products. In other
cases, loanwords provide quality protection in some degree and stimulate the desire to
take action .
4. Frequent use of verbs
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Monosyllable verbs are widely used in English advertising, furthermore, most of
them are colloquialisms. These common verbs make advertising in English simple
and easy to understand. That can give consumers a feeling of friendliness and help
tehm to remember the products easily.
The most frequently used 20 verbs and phrasal verbs are:
Try, ask, get, take, let, send for, use, call, make, come on, hurry, see, give, come,
remember, discover, serve, introduce, choose, and look for.
A number of the above-mentioned verbs are frequently used in the imperative
clauses which encourage the audience to buy the product. Although the ultimate
purpose of advertising is to persuade consumers to buy the adverised products,
advertisements seldom use the word “buy” in it. Statistics show only two out of ten
advertisements use the verb “buy” directly. In imperative clauses the word ‘buy’ is
rarely used. The tendency to avoid “buy” might be put down to the unpleasant
connotations of this verb. It is of course of vital importance to the adman that he
should not appear to be imposing himself on his audience, for if the reader feels the
advert to be too obtrusive, he/she is likely to react negatively to its message, or simply
forget about it altogether. The adman is therefore confronted with a problem: on the
one hand his advert should make people buy the product; on the other hand he must
not say this in so many words lest they should take offence (Vestergaard, T. and
Schroder, K. 1985: 67). Leech (1966:154) points out that in advertising language the
most frequent word for ‘acquisition of product’ is ‘get’ instead of ‘buy’. The reason
for this is undoubtedly that ‘buy’ has some unpleasant connotations (money and the
parting with it) which ‘get’ lacks. Advertisers usually make very careful efforts not to
use the word ‘buy’. Instead they often use such synonyms as: ‘try’, ‘ask for’, ‘get’,
‘take’, ‘send for’, ‘use’, ‘choose’, ‘look for’.
The common verbs that indicate that consumers have some goods are such words
as have, get, give, keep.
The verbs express the progress of using some goods are: take, use, have;
The verbs express consumer’s favorite of some goods are: like, love, need
For examples:
(13) “Getting places in the business world is easier if your banker is there to
meet you.”13 (Security Pacific Asian Bank)
(14) “We can give you a better view of investment opportunities from both sides of
the Pacific.”14 (City Bank.)
The widely used disyllable and multi-syllable verbs include accept, adopt,
assure, award, contact, design, discover, enjoy, hurry, introduce, obtain, offer,
provide, receive, request, remember, secure, supply, welcome.
The following sentences are frequently seen or heard in advertisements: “Make
X your toothpaste.” “Give him / her an X.” “Discover the smoothness, etc. of X.”
“Introduce your family to X.” “Serve X.” “Let X solve your problems.” In these
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imperative sentences X stands for the product with a certain brand name. In other
cases, however, advertisers don’t ask their customers to buy the product or service,
but try to make sure that their names will be present in their mind in a buying
situation. They usually employ such imperative sentences as: “Look for X at your
dealer’s.” “Remember there’s only one X.” This latter group requests the customers to
contact the dealer/agent with greater or lesser urgency. “Call /See your X agent.”
“Come to our showroom.” “Come on / hurry, book now.” These sentences are
particularly frequent in advertisements for services such as insurance, travel, and
provision of luxurious accommodation or for products in the more expensive range,
such as cars.
Frequent use of monosyllabic verbs can help kill two birds with one stone: on the
one hand, it makes the language of English advertising more concise and lively, and
on the other hand, it saves space, time and money.
5. Use of Adjectives
The primary function of adjectives with deep emotion is to describe head nouns.
Meanwhile, evaluative adjectives and the form of “-er” and “-est” are very frequently
used in advertising in order to emphasize that the product is better than the others and
build a perfect and fuzzy image in readers’ mind, and to persuade consumers to buy
the products.
We can imagine that many businessmen extremely want to use evaluative
adjectives to describe their products and services. Therefore, it is reasonable for
appearing a series of modified ingredients in front of noun or noun phrase in all
of English advertisings.
G.N. Leech,a well-known linguist in Britain, lists in his Language in
Advertising (1966: 152) the following most frequently used adjectives: (1) new (2)
crisp (3) good/better/best (4) fine (5) free (6) big (7) fresh (8) great (9) delicious (10)
real (11) full, sure (12) easy ,bright (13) clean (14) extra, safe (15) special (16) rich.
For example:
(15) “What’s on the Best-Seller list in IBM personal Computer Software?”15
(Advertising for IBM)
People prefer IBM Personal Computer software for a variety.
Because, for just about anything you want the IBM Personal Computer to help
you do, there’s software to help you do it. Software helps improve productivity,
efficiency and planning. To help teachers teach and students learn. Or help you
become an even more astute games player. Every program in our software library
makes the IBM Personal Computer a truly useful tool for modern times. That’s why a
lot of buyers like you have made them best sellers. And the library is still growing.
(16) “Why do our special teas make your precious moments even more
precious?”16 (Advertising for Lipton)”
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From these two advertisements you will find the “-er” and “-est” form of words
as mentioned are also widely used in English advertisings. Adjectives add vividly
images into the advertising and help create a natural feeling so as to strengthen
attraction.
(17) “Kent. Fresh. Calm. Mild.
Kent. The taste you’ll feel good about. The Mild International cigarette.”17
As we all know, ladies are unwilling to get close to smokers; however, when you
hear the advertisement of “Kent”, you may imagine a picture: a man is smoking a
Kent and a beautiful lady is nestling beside him. This advertisement wants to let you
know that you need not worry about losing your lover, and that when you smoke the
Kent, your sweet would love you more. Just owing to these adjectives in this
advertising, the advertiser get the effect expected.
The adjectives mentioned above are associated with products, showing their
qualities and properties.
6. Frequent use of compounds
In English advertisements, you can see compounds everywhere. Some
compounds are written as single words and some with a hyphen, but others appear as
two separate words. Because lexical restraints on compounds are few, the advertisers
are relatively free to create English compounds which are appropriate to the copy text.
As a result, English compounds become a conspicuous characteristic of English
advertisements. In business advertising, compounds can express the thought that the
manufacturers want to show exactly and completely. For this reason, compounds are
frequently employed
For example:
(18) “Chocolate-flavored cereal”18
(19) “fresh-tasting milk”19
(20) “top-quality bulbs”20
The following are the main ways of word forming:
adj+noun: short-term goal, high-fashion knitwear
noun+adj: the farmhouse-fresh faste, brand-new
v-ing+adj: shining-clean
noun+v-ed: honey-coated sugar puffs, home-made
adj/adv+v-ed: warm-hearted, perfectly-testured cakes
noun+v-ing: a relief-giving liquid, record-breaking
adj+v-ing: innocent-looking, fresh-tasting milk
adv+v-ing: hard-working, the best-selling soft toilet tissue
noun+noun: economy-size shredded wheat, a state-of-the-art cell sorcer
adv+noun: up-to-the-minute sculling
adj+infinite: easy-to dress; hard-to-reach place
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Compounds are very flexible and embody the innovative spirit of advertising
fully; they can also make a profound impression on people’s mind when the
consumers see the product for the first sight.
For example:
There is a famous magazine called Self in America, the compound “Self-Made”
that appears in the magazine encourages women to be independent.
(21) “The Self-Made woman. She’s living better all the time.”21
(22) “Evergreen, Round-the-world service.”22
The advertisement of Evergreen Marine Corp is very short, but the compound
“Round-the-world” focuses on the different service form other company??.
(23) “Kodak Single-use-cameras take pictures where you wouldn’t normally take
your camera.”23
The properties and usage of this camera is performed perfectly through the
compound “Single-use-cameras”.
Syntax in English Advertising Texts
As a particular branch of language, advertising language should be concise and
attractive. It usually has its own characteristics in syntax, such as the frequent use of
simple declarative sentences, interrogative sentences and imperative sentences.
However, no matter what syntactical features advertisers are adopted, they should
perform the following functions: to get attention; to show people an advantage; to
arouse interest and create desire; to ask for action. This part concentrates on the major
grammatical characteristics of English advertisements.
The function of declarative sentence is to describe the products reasonably and
perfectly; the function of imperative sentence is to persuade consumers to buy the
product; the function of interrogative sentences is to raise a question then answer it,
which helps the consumer to eliminate the doubt of the product. These three types of
sentences are all fit for the principle that advertising should have attention value and
memory value.
1. More simple sentences, fewer complex sentences
The function of declarative sentences is to describe the products reasonably and
perfectly. It will get better effect to use simple sentences than compound sentences,
because the readers will get bored on reading complex sentences. Another reason is to
reduce the cost of advertising, and effectively stimulate the consumers. So “use the
least words to express as much information as possible”, that is the truth for the
advertisement.
For example:
(39) “It comes with a conscience”39
(40) “Stouffer’s presents 14days to get your life, on the right course”40
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Example (39) is an advertisement of Honda cars and Example (40) is a food
advertisement. They are mostly made up of simple sentences, which render these two
advertisements smooth and easy to understand.
(41) “The label of achievement.”41 (Advertisement for wine)
“label” means “piece of paper describing the name, ect”, and it also can explain
that “famous brand”, a simple noun phrase describes the product appropriately and be
remembered easily.
(42) “Fresh up with Seven-Up”42
This advertisement only uses five words to describe the benefits of the beverage
and to urge readers to buy.
(43) “Natural herb, pure honey.”43
The distinctive characteristics of honey which displayed through simple
language and symmetrical structure persuade readers to buy it.
Simple sentences can not only make English advertising easy to read, hear and
understand, but also leave a deep impression on the readers’ minds.
2. More interrogative sentences and imperative sentences
According to statistics, in every 30 sentences there is one interrogative sentence.
The main reason is that interrogative sentences can effectively arouse readers’
response. Moreover, especially at the beginning of an advertisement, interrogative
sentences will excite readers’ interests in this product.
For example:
(44)“What’s so special about Lurpark Danish butter? Well, can you remember
what butter used to taste like — real fresh farm house butter? Do you remember how
you used to enjoy it when you were young? Today — the taste of Lurpark bring it all
back to you — that’s why it’s so special.”44
This is an advertisement of Lurpark Danish butter, the writer raises a question,
which attracts readers to read this advertisement. During the progress of watching
advertising, consumers get to know this product and develop interests in it. Contrary
to the ordinary description, interrogative sentences can catch consumer’s eyes easier.
Imperative sentences have a meaning of claiming, calling and
commanding,??? As the goal of advertising is to persuade and urge consumers to
accept its product or service, there are lots of imperative sentences in advertising,
For example:
(45)“Have a little fruit after dinner.”45
The manufacturers offers some advice to consumers in this advertisement; in
fact, they urge consumers to buy their products through a tactful way.
(46)“Get ready to encounter the new trend in timepieces.”46
--Citizen Watch
3. Disjunctive elements
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It is often observed that the advertising copy writer has a tendency to chop up
sentences into shorter bits by using full stops, dash, semi-colon and hyphen, where
ordinary prose would use commas or no punctuation at all. Leech (1966:90-7, 11316,148-50, 170-4) refers to this phenomenon as ‘disjunctive syntax’. Disjunctive
elements which are widely used in English advertisements have become a special
phenomenon in English advertising language.
For example:
(47) “an automatic applicator gently smooth on soft crиme or high-shine color
for a smooth silky finish that lasts. And lasts.”47
(48) “colors that look lastingly tempting. Longer.”48
(49) “Finally. The convenience of Silver Stone combined with glass! It’s a
cook’s dream true”49
(50) “Italy’s masterpiece. A delightful liqueur created from wild peanuts, herbs
and berries. Ah! Frangclico.”50
These examples contain disjunctive elements: ‘And lasts.’; ‘Longer.’; ‘Finally.’;
‘Italy’s masterpiece.’ and ‘Frangclico.’. Each of these is separated from the preceding
sentences by a full stop. In fact, each is an element or a constituent of the preceding
sentence. The effect of this is to cut up the sentence sinto more information units. As
each information unit is articulated in a stressed falling tone and, therefore,
emphasizes the message contained, more information units means more emphasized
messages. It is easy to see that by frequently using disjunctive syntax advertisers want
to emphasize those key or important messages, to render them more attractive to the
addressees and to achieve the purpose of promoting consumption.
As can be seen from the examples, disjunctive elements or sentence fragments
end in full stops and look as if they were complete sentences. In fact, they are just
parts of the sentences concerned. The separate parts are often the key ones that are
emphasized in advertising texts. They are very attractive. They are to be read in a
stressed falling tone. They usually project or highlight the special features, or
characteristics, or fantastic functions of the advertised product or service.
Common Rhetorical Devices in English Advertising Texts
Rhetorical devices are various forms of expression deviating from the normal
arrangement or use of words, which are adopted in order to give beauty, variety or
force to a composition. Many of them are used in English advertising to achieve three
goals: first, it is to form the brand image or corporate image in consumer’s mind;
second, to stress the uniqueness of the advertised product; thirdly, to stress the unique
sales proposition of the advertised product. Among them, the third is the most
important because of its attraction.
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Hegel says, ‘beauty comes out of image’ (Albert E. Dipippo, 1986:3). The
beauty of English advertising is first characterized by its ideographic image. It
embodies the materialized labor in a lively and vivid way. Psychologically, image is
realized through imagination. With the help of rhetorical devices advertising leads
people to an artistic conception.
In order to make their advertisements unique and eye-catching, the copywriters
have to make elaborate designs and draw up remarkable verbal blueprints by working
creatively and aptly applying rhetorical devices. It can be said without any
exaggeration that the success of English advertisements has much to do with apt
employment of rhetorical devices. Frequently used rhetorical devices are: simile,
metaphor, personification, pun, etc. The following rhetorical devices are often used in
English advertising, which are discussed briefly in this part.
1. Personification
According to A Hand Book to Literature, published by the Bobbs–Merrill
Company in 1972, personification is “a figure of speech which endows animals, ideas,
abstractions, and inanimate objects with human form, character, or sensibilities; the
representing of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities,
intelligence, and emotions; whether real or fictitious, by another person.”
However, the definition in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Of Current
English With Chinese Translation is more concise: “treating sth. that is without life as
a human being or representing it in human form” (1991:163). Through
personification, animals are endowed with human form or feelings, and inanimate
objects, or ideas and abstractions are given life and personal attributes.
Personification is often employed in English advertisements. Personifying the
advertised product and giving it feeling and emotion, which only people possess,
make an advertisement more acceptable.
For example:
(24) “They will stay on the job longer than most employees.”24
(25) “It handles the road as easily as it handles Mother Nature”25
These two advertisements are for Volvo and Ford. “stay on the job” and “handles
the road” are employed to give the car hummer beings’ life and ability, and they are
read vividly.
(26) “It’s for your lifetime”26
Here the watch is personified. It is described as a person who accompanies you
for your all life. Consumers want to own this watch as soon as they read this advert.
(27) “Flowers by Interflora speak from the heart.”27 (Advertising for Interflora)
In Example (27), flowers are personified: they seem to be human beings who
speak from the heart. In other words, they are endowed with human feelings of love,
kindness, friendship, so they’re really invaluable gifts. When customers see this
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advertisement, they are likely to buy some of the advertised flowers to express their
true and profound feelings.
(28) “She has her own spirit and it graces everyone she comes near”28
(Lauren perfume)
The perfume, Lauren, is personified as a graceful lady. “She” refers not only to
the perfume itself, but to the beautiful lady who loves the perfume. The use of the
feminine gender “she” indicates that the perfume is used exclusively by females.
We can come to the conclusion that the use of personification in advertising
attracts the audiences’ attention, stimulates their interest in what is being advertised
and helps create an impressive image of the product or service.
2. Simile and Metaphor
Writers often use figures of speech in advertising English. First, figures of speech
are employed to describe the characteristics of commodities in a vivid lively manner
so as to catch consumers’ eyes and leave a deep impression; second, using a simple
and common sample to figure a complicated and unfamiliar product in order to
achieve the effect of fresh-feeling, creativity and outstanding.
Simile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are
compared; in this kind of figure vehicle and tenor appear at the same time, which are
introduced or connected by like or as.
For example:
(29) “Breakfast without orange juice is like a day without sunshine.”29
This example is a case of simile introduced by the word like. The adman here
compares breakfast without orange juice to a day without sunshine. How vivid and
imaginative the simile is! As we all know, a day without sunshine is not warm and
cheerful. People usually do not like a cloudy or overcast day, or a day without
sunshine, and some people might feel sad or gloomy during days without sunshine. In
the opinion of the adman, for some people it is not desirable to have breakfast without
orange juice. So how nice it is to have a breakfast with orange juice!
Though simile is an important rhetorical device in English advertisements, it is
far less frequently employed than metaphor, which is one of the most frequently used
rhetorical devices in English advertisements.
Metaphor
Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily
designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit
comparison. Myers describes metaphor in this way, ‘Metaphor sets up a relation of
similarity between two referents, as if they were the same thing. X is described in
terms of Y ’(Myers, 1994:125). C. Hugh Holmanm defines metaphor in A Handbook
to Literature as “An implied analogy which imaginatively identifies one object with
another and ascribes to the first one or more of the qualities of the second or invests
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the first with emotional or imaginative qualities associated with the second”.
Metaphor, unlike simile, does not use like or as to indicate the comparison. Without
as or like, it becomes more concise and produces profound associations. Metaphor is
considered by many to be the most important and the most common rhetorical device
in English advertisements.
For example:
(30) “Kodak is Olympic color”30 (Advertising Kodacolor Firm)
In Example (30), Kodak is compared to the color of Olympic. Kodak shows the
real color just as Olympic shows the real essence of the sports. The metaphor in this
implies that Kodak develops itself by the Olympic spirit—higher, faster and stronger.
(31) “You’d better off under the Umbrella”31
(Advertising Travelers Insurance Co.)
Safety is the most important thing for travelers. This Travelers Insurance Co.
takes advantage of the typical psychology of travelers to complete this advertisement.
They used “umbrella” to figure their services to let consumers feel comfortable and
enjoy the travel relieved. The advertisement is short, but the advertiser chose an
appropriate metaphor to affirm the services of their company and increase the
reliability of their advertising.
Obviously, appropriate application of metaphor plays an important role in
English advertising, which can not only render advertisements attractive and
picturesque, but also informative and persuasive. Undoubtedly, metaphor contributes
to promotion of the sale of products and helps make advertised service thrive and
flourish.
3. Pun
According to Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1986:1642), the
pun is “a humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest different meanings or
applications of words having the same sound or nearly the same sound but different
meanings: a play on words.” It is a play on words, or rather a play on the form and
meaning of words. Nida ( 1993:87 ) describes it as follows, “Playing on the meaning
and formal resemblance of words (punning) is a universal phenomenon, and in some
languages this rhetorical device is extensively encouraged and practiced.”
Pun is a play on words; it increases the humor of advertising and makes the
advertising pregnant with meaning. Appropriate application of pun can attract
readers’ attention, make the body copy readable and memorable and arouse
consumers’ interest and imagination.
For example:
(32) “Coke refreshes you like no other can”32 (Coca-Cola)
In this advertising, “can” maybe understand as a bottle for drink, and it also can
be used as an auxiliary verb. So this sentence has two meanings:
First is “Coke refreshes you like no other can (can refresh you)”;
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Second is “Coke refreshes you like no other (drinks) can (refresh you)”
(33) “Ask for More”33
“More” is an American cigarette brand, “More” and “more” has the same
pronunciation and different meaning, consumer will connect “More” with the
meaning of “much, more” when they heard the advertising. The pun help the brand
promote itself and guide consumer buy their product.
(34) “Cutex Strongnail with nylon for long , strong, beautiful nails”34.
“nail” means “指甲” and “钉子” show the quality of “Cutex Strongnail nail oil”
to the highest level.
(35) “A Deal With US Means A Good Deal To You”35
(Advertising for Department stores)
“a good deal” means “many, much, more” , the advertising is combined meaning
with “a good business” increase the interesting of this advertising.
(36) “Every Kid Should Have An Apple After School”36
(Advertising for Computer)
In example (36), Apple refers to either the fruit we eat, or the computer with this
brand name: Apple. American children usually eat some fruits or candies as their
desserts. The advertisement means that children should not only eat apples, but also
have an Apple computer, which is the spiritual food for them.
(37) “You don’t have to be an angel to wear it”37 (Heaven Sent)
“sent” is past participate of “send” ,“sent” and “scent” are homophones. “sent”
means “take”, and “scent” is a kind of perfume, so we can understand the meaning of
this advertisement----“heaven sent” is “angel”, it showed the perfume which is
expensive form heaven.
(38) “The role of the Volunteer Reserves is changing, If you’ve got any
questions, shoot.”38
“Shoot” is slang in this advertising; it means “please say it”. As this advertising
is about Army reserve and shooting, so the writer used pun made the language
humorous and vivid, and also the topic is closer to us.
Pun which is often emp1oyed by the manufacturers to seek first-hand attention,
is almost a most attention-getting device of the rhetorical figures. The nature of pun in
advertising is: the pun is the product of a contest deliberately constructed to enforce
an ambiguity, to render the choice between meanings impossible, to leave the reader
or hearer thinking about products in semantic space.
As far as I know, pun is one of the most favored rhetorical devices employed by
copy writers and one of the most common rhetorical devices used in English
advertisements.
a) Your vocabulary bank. Write out the active vocabulary
out of the text ‘& learn them in their context.
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1.
2.
3
b) Search for other examples of wording characteristics in
advertising texts.
c) Search for other examples of rhetorical devices in English
advertising texts
4. Experience Economy
a) Have you come across the term “experience economy”?
b) Read the text & say as much as you can about it. What is
the way you would translate it into Russian?
Welcome to the Experience
Economy
by B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore
How do economies change? The
entire history of economic progress can
be recapitulated in the four-stage
evolution of the birthday cake. As a
vestige of the agrarian economy, mothers
made birthday cakes from scratch,
mixing farm commodities (flour, sugar,
butter, and eggs) that together cost mere
dimes. As the goods-based industrial economy advanced, moms paid a dollar or two
to * Betty Crocker for premixed ingredients. Later, when the service economy took
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hold, busy parents ordered cakes from the bakery or grocery store, which, at $10 or
$15, cost ten times as much as the packaged ingredients. Now, in the time-starved
1990s, parents neither make the birthday cake nor even throw the party. Instead,
they spend $100 or more to “outsource” the entire event to *Chuck E. Cheese’s, the
Discovery Zone, the Mining Company, or some other business that stages a
memorable event for the kids—and often throws in the cake for free. Welcome to
the emerging experience economy.
Economists have typically lumped experiences in with services, but experiences
are a distinct economic offering, as different from services as services are from
goods. Today we can identify and describe this fourth economic offering because
consumers unquestionably desire experiences, and more and more businesses are
responding by explicitly designing and promoting them. As services, like goods
before them, increasingly become commoditized.
An experience is not an amorphous construct; it is as real an offering as any
service, good, or commodity. In
today’s service economy, many
companies
simply
wrap
experiences
around
their
traditional offerings to sell them
better. To realize the full benefit
of staging experiences, however,
businesses
must
deliberately
design engaging experiences that
command a fee.
To appreciate the difference
between services and experiences,
recall the episode of the old
television show Taxi in which Iggy, a usually atrocious (but fun-loving) cab driver,
decided to become the best taxi driver in the world. He served sandwiches and drinks,
conducted tours of the city, and even sang Frank Sinatra tunes. By engaging
passengers in a way that turned an ordinary cab ride into a memorable event, Iggy
created something else entirely—a distinct economic offering. The experience of
riding in his cab was more valuable to his customers than the service of being
transported by the cab—and in the TV show, at least, Iggy’s customers happily
responded by giving bigger tips. By asking to go around the block again, one patron
even paid more for poorer service just to prolong his enjoyment. The service Iggy
provided—taxi transportation—was simply the stage for the experience that he was
really selling.
An experience occurs when a company intentionally uses services as the stage,
and goods as props, to engage individual customers in a way that creates a
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memorable event. Commodities are fungible, goods tangible, services intangible, and
experiences memorable. Buyers of experiences—we’ll follow the lead of experienceeconomy pioneer Walt Disney and call them “guests”—value what the company
reveals over a duration of time. While prior economic offerings—commodities,
goods, and services—are external to the buyer, experiences are inherently personal,
existing only in the mind of an individual who has been engaged on an emotional,
physical, intellectual, or even spiritual level. Thus, no two people can have the same
experience, because each experience derives from the interaction between the staged
event (like a theatrical play) and the individual’s state of mind.
Experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business—a fact
that Walt Disney and the company he founded have creatively exploited. But today
the concept of selling an entertainment experience
is taking root in businesses far removed from theaters
and amusement parks.
At theme restaurants such as the Hard Rock
Cafe, Planet Hollywood, or the House of Blues, the
food is just a prop for what’s known as
“entertainment.” And stores such as Niketown,
Cabella’s, and Recreational Equipment Incorporated
draw consumers in by offering fun activities,
fascinating displays, and promotional events
(sometimes labeled “shoppertainment” or “entertailing”).
http://hbr.org/1998/07/welcome-to-the-experience-economy/
с1) Your Vocabulary Bank. Look though the text again &
find the equivalents in English
1. подпорки, реквизитор или
бутафор
2. с самого начала
3. купить за копейки
4. устроить вечеринку
5. отдать работу на сторону
6. театрализовать событие
7. желать получить впечатление
(опыт)
8. продавать увлекательное
впечатление
9. парк развлечений
10.четкое экономическое
предложение
11.аморфная концепция
12.продаться за отдельную плату
13.спроектировать увлекательное
впечатление
14.скверный, но обаятельный
15.продлить удовольствие
16.театрализованное действие
17.укоренилось в бизнесе
18.поддающийся физическому
измерению
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c2) Match the definitions with the words aside
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
commodity (n)
prop (n)
distinct (adj)
outsource (v)
amorphous
(adj)
6. wrap (v)
7. fee (n)
8. fungible (adj)
9. tangible (adj)
10.dime (n)
11.mere (adj)
an amount of money that you pay to do something or that you
pay to a professional person for their work;
b) having no definite shape or features;
c) used to emphasize how small or unimportant something or
someone is;
d) to put paper or cloth over something to cover it;
e) a product that is bought and sold;
f) when a company uses workers from outside the company to do a
job;
g) clearly different or belonging to a different type;
h) an object placed under or against something to hold it in a
particular position;
i) clear enough or definite enough to be easily seen or noticed
a coin of the US and Canada, worth one tenth of a dollar.
a)
d) Make up a project where you show the progression of
the economic values from extracting commodities to staging
experiences.
5. National peculiarities of advertising
a) Read the texts and render them in English:
Национальный креатив — особенности рекламы стран мира
Каждая страна имеет свой отличительный рекламный почерк — из-за
особенностей национального самосознания, из-за исторических рекламных
традиций, из-за экономических и общественных реалий.
Если знать обо всех этих особенностях и какое-то время наблюдать за мировой
рекламой, то можно с легкостью говорить о том, в какой стране был придуман
ролик, принт, эмбиент и прочее, попадая в девяти случаях из десяти.
Менталитет нации и те условия, в которых она живет — это и причины, и среда
существования именно той рекламы, которая есть в любой отдельно взятой
стране в любой отдельно взятый момент. География, особенности восприятия
и мышления, технические возможности накладывают свой отпечаток
практически на любую рекламную кампанию. Тайцы сумасшедше шутят,
бразильцы карнавалят, немцы делают потрясающе логичные эмбиенты
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и директы.
В этом материале AdMe.ru обозначает самые яркие отличительные
отличительные черты и особенности креатива разных стран. И подобрали
примеры, которые, на наш взгляд, наиболее ярко отражают суть
«национального креатива». Естественно, не вся локальная реклама такая, как
мы ее здесь описываем — невозможно стандартизировать все креативные
усилия, направленные на целую нацию
США
США — это центр мирового креатива, где находятся штаб квартиры
крупнейших холдингов — Omnicom и Interpublic с центральными офисами
в Нью-Йорке, которым принадлежат крупнейшие сети — BBDO, DDB, TBWA,
Lowe, McCann Erickson, DraftFCB, и множество креативных бутиков, таких как
агентство Goodby, Silverstein & Partners, Droga5, Crispin Porter & Bogusky.
Поэтому американский креатив — это международный креатив, и для него
сложнее всего выбрать характеризующие только его стороны (если, конечно,
не вдаваться в исключения вроде ковбоев Marlboro).
Тем не менее, если вы видите в кадре офис и мизансцену, в которой офисные
сотрудники что-то многословно обсуждают, это скорей всего американский
ролик. Если вы смотрите рекламу и понимаете, насколько там все рационально,
логично и по всем канонам рекламной науки, даже когда они шутят, то это
американская рекламная кампания. Исключение из этого правила — конфетные
ролики, в которых намеренно нет никакой логики. Если вы смотрите сложный
кейс сложной кампании, суть которой может ускользнуть с первого раза, это
скорей всего американская кампания.
Великобритания
Великобритания — страна прекрасной, яркой, качественной, многогранной
рекламы с великолепным креативом и тонким юмором. У англичан хороший,
тонкий вкус. Они успешно сочетают рекламу, ориентированную на вербалику,
с образной рекламой. Британская реклама более понятна нам, нежели
американская, более интеллигентная, более изящная и менее «местечковая»,
даже если предназначена только для британского рынка. В основном она даже
куда более кинематографичная, там больше историй.
Реклама, созданная в Англии, очень успешно соперничает со Штатами в плане
размаха бюджета и крутизны продакшена и постпродакшена.
Бразилия
Страна победившего арт-дирекшена и печатной рекламы. Телевизионная
реклама из Бразилии редко представляет собой нечто выдающееся, а вот яркие,
солнечные, искусно выполненные принты ежегодно покоряют жюри
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международных фестивалей, а в 2010 году совокупность наград за печатную
рекламу принесла агентству AlmapBBDO награду «Агентство года».
Аргентина
Близкая географически к Бразилии, но далекая культурно и рекламно Аргентина
совпадает с соседом только в богатстве палитры отношений и чувств, но дает
куда больший уровень эмоциональной напряженности и славится необычными
сюжетами. И отдельно нужно обязательно упомянуть цветовую гамму —
по одним слегка приглушенным тонам, теплоте картинки и особенной
прозрачности воздуха можно сразу определить, что ролик снимали в Аргентине.
Канада
В целом канадская реклама схожа с американской, но выглядит чуть более
маргинальной и мрачноватой.
Канада, после головокружительного успеха малобюджетного вирусного видео
«Evolution» для Dove агентства Ogilvy Toronto, в рекламной среде начала
ассоциироваться в первую очередь именно с этой кампанией. Кроме того,
агентство Taxi Toronto является самым известным производителем рекламы для
Viagra. А не так давно BBDO Toronto с успехом подхватило общее бредовое
настроение рекламы Skittles, создав кампанию, в которую надо тыкать пальцем .
Титульный ролик с котом и мужиком, облизывающими палец зрителя, набрал
уже более трех миллионов просмотров.
Франция
Франция — согласно стереотипам о самой стране должна обладать самым
утонченным и изящным креативом. Безусловно, французская реклама
отличается утонченностью, но вовсе не в плане гламура. Идеи, которые являют
миру такие французские агентства как TBWA\Paris, Euro RSCG и Publicis
Conseil, тонки в плане идей и подходов. Они очень смелы и умны, у них
глубокий подтекст. Франция — одна из трех стран, создающих лицо
европейского креатива. Именно Франция подарила рекламной индустрии таких
людей, как Фред и Фарид, Эрик Ферфрухен , Оливье Олтманн . Высокая эстетика этой
страны нашла отражение в рекламе, которая оперирует визуальными образами,
туманными и соблазнительными. Она красива и совершенна сама по себе,
элегантна и утонченна. Для француза удовольствие, приносимое рекламой, уже
само по себе является достаточной причиной для покупки рекламируемого
товара.
Реклама этой страны ориентирована на образы и изысканный креатив, креатив
с изюминкой. Не случайно более половины французских креативных
директоров начинали свою рекламную карьеру как художники, в то время как
в Америке это, как правило, копирайтеры. Возможно, поэтому во французской
рекламе очень мало слов.
Германия
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Германия — одна из самых «креативных» стран Европы, постепенно
занимающая лидирующие позиции и в мире. Реклама из Германии также, как
и реклама из Франции, опровергает стереотипы, сложившиеся о самой стране.
Нет чопорности, нет зацикленности на порядке, нет ничего из того, что
мы обычно думаем о Германии, кроме безупречной немецкой точности
и выверенности.
Немецкая реклама тяготеет к аргументам и фактам, к логике убеждения. Это
во многом информационная реклама, она говорит о цифрах, деталях,
технических
характеристиках.
Кроме
того,
ее отличает
большая
ответственность. Минимум эмоций, максимум достоверности. При этом —
красивая визуализация, отлично снятые ролики и креатив, основанный
на фактах.
Кроме того, лучший эмбиент и прочие non-traditional media делаются именно
в Германии.
Глобальные сетевые агентства, представленные в Германии, кроме, пожалуй,
BBDO Dusseldorf, не блещут на мировой арене, тогда как локальные и создают
весь креатив, получающий призы на фестивалях и известный всему рекламному
миру. Лучшее агентство Германии — Jung von Matt .
Нидерланды
Голландцам свойственна любовь к чистоте и порядку, почти как у немцев,
и почтение к традициям, как у англичан.
Нидерланды стоят особняком не только в ряду европейских стран, но и вообще
среди всех стран, создающих заметный креатив. Маленькая страна
со свободными нравами — дом для двух сильных офисов двух самых, пожалуй,
креативных сетей. 180 Amsterdam (TBWA\) делает глобальный креатив для
Adidas и прочих крупных клиентов, а Weiden + Kennedy Amsterdam
придумывает рекламу для европейской Coca Cola. Но агентства, производящие
креатив локально, такие как TBWA\Neboko и DDB Amsterdam тоже работают
успешно.
Ирландия
Ирландия — это Guinness, но этот пивной бренд в основном обслуживается
в британском AMV BBDO, именно в этом агентстве ему обеспечивают
необходимый размах. Ирландский креатив куда меньше по размаху и амбициям.
В ирландском креативе, по большому счету, был один заметный игрок — Irish
International BBDO. И это агентство в своих работах до недавнего времени
воплощало дух этой маленькой страны с характером. Сейчас же стали заметны
и другие, например, Rothco, отделения Mccann, DDB и Publicis.
Южная Африка
ЮАР — с одной стороны страна глубокого душевного креатива и философских,
задумчивых роликов для финансовых или нефтяных корпораций; страна
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глубокого понимания общественных проблем и человеческих трудностей.
А с другой стороны, в африканцах генетически заложена жизнерадостность
и чувство юмора.
Ключевые агентства этого региона — TBWA/Hunt/Lascaris, Jupiter Drawing
Room, NetWork#BBDO. Южноафриканцы не любят иностранные локейшены —
почти всегда снимают у себя дома, показывая свою жизнь такой, как она есть.
Австралия
Австралия, казалось бы, как и Бразилия с Аргентиной, находится в Южном
полушарии, однако такого веселья и брызг позитивом в разные стороны
в рекламе Зеленого Континента нет и в помине. Они там и правда антиподы —
австралийский креатив, особенно телевизионный, маргинален, мрачен,
драматичен и порой труден для понимания.
Новая Зеландия
Новая Зеландия делает креатив одновременно похожий и не похожий
на австралийский. Не так драматично, не так «придонно», но то, что их точно
объединяет — это крайности. Если провокация, то уж такая, что мимо
не пройдешь. Если искусство, то высшей пробы, практически артхаус.
А с ирландским креативом Новую Зеландию равнит бесконечная любовь
к определенному спорту: в Ирландии херлинг, а в Новой Зеландии, конечно же,
регби и их национальная гордость All Blacks.
В маленькой островной стране довольно много представительств сетей —
Publicis Mojo, M&C Saatchi, DDB Auckland, Colenso BBDO, TBWA Whybin
и прочие. Локальные агентства на глобальном рынке незаметны.
Япония
В японской рекламе доминирует образ. Любой элемент рекламного сообщения
является частью целостной смысловой, в некотором роде философской,
картины. Можно сказать, что, прислушавшись к шелесту листьев в японской
рекламе, можно постигнуть глубокий
эзотерический смысл. Удивительно тонкие, изящные детали придают японским
роликам богатство красок и глубину.
Япония — страна трех из десяти крупнейших мировых рекламных холдингов.
В Токио расположены центральные офисы Dentsu, Hakuhodo и Asatsu.
Их реклама — смесь из японской точности, сдержанности и ментальности
с общим сумасшествием азиатского креатива.
Индия
Индия поставляет миру утонченный национальный креатив с безупречным артдирекшеном, по уровню сравнимым только с бразильским. И неважно, есть ли
в ролике или принте индийский колорит, он все равно ощущается. В Индии
работает множество экспатов, но и они не могут ничего поделать с этим
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индийским духом.
Печатная реклама из Индии известна куда больше, чем телевизионная.
Таиланд
Таиланд — фабрика самого сумасшедшего креатива в мире. У них будто совсем
по другому устроены мозги — тайцы снимают простую, смешную рекламу,
доводя в ней до абсурда практически все. Говорят, что в телеэфире у них там
довольно мало подобного роскошного бреда, но если бы был только он,
было бы уже не так интересно.
Самые награждаемые режиссеры последних трех лет — тайцы Танончай
Сорнсривичайи Сатон Петчуван из продакшена Phenomena. Других рекламных
режиссеров из Таиланда общественность даже не знает. Сетевые агентства,
такие как BBDO Bangkok, McCann Worldgroup, Ogilvy и прочие, имеют мало
что общего со своими европейскими и американскими коллегами.
В последние годы мир видит все больше принтов из Таиланда. Как и в случае
с роликами, почти все они результат работы одного человека — ретушера Анучая
Сечаранпутонга из студии Remix.
http://www.adme.ru/kreativnyi-obsor/nacionalnyi-kreativ-osobennosti-reklamy-stran-mira-22264/
b) Watch the video materials at
http://www.adme.ru/kreativnyi-
; choose
some countries to expand on the topic and prepare a project
‘national peculiarities of advertising in …(countries)”.
obsor/nacionalnyi-kreativ-osobennosti-reklamy-stran-mira-22264/
Supplement 1
Steps how to evaluate an advertisement concept
1.1. The basic of advertising.
 What kind of ad is it? What is the purpose of this advertisement? Does it it fulfill the
business purpose? Does it promote a new product line, reinvigorate the brand or manage a
public relations problem? (Is it intended to educate, entertain, inform, change behavior or
persuade to buy?)
 What is the target audience of this advertisement? Is it easy to identify the target audience?
Can measure the advertisement content against the needs of the viewers? Do the language,
jargon, tone and length fit the temperaments and habits of the listeners?
 What is type of the advertisement? (print, online, outdoor, public service, broadcast, product
placement or guerrilla advertising)
2.1. The contents of the advertisement
Review the content and measure it against the goals of the advertising campaign
Describe what is going on in the ad.
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2.2. Psychological contents
artwork
headlines and body (if any)
Contact
visuals
Or slogan
logo
 AIDA (Analysis of attention getting devices)
(attention, interest, desire, action)
 Common persuasive techniques
(Slogan, Repetition, Bandwagon, Testimonial, Emotional Appeal, Expert Opinion, Loaded words,
etc.)
3. Design of the ad
The visual elements of the ad should match the overall message and tone
Does it need more drama or changes to the design & message?
Are there too many different directions that can confuse customers and make it difficult to
remember the message?
Is the message strong? Has some striking visual graphics been used?
4. Overall Impression of the advertisement
 Does it represent a company’s unique selling point? Does it differentiate from other ads?
 What emotions does the advert evoke in you?
 Is it effective & persuasive enough? Confusing or vague & obscure?, clear? , etc.? Is the ad
pared down to the simplest idea possible to ensure that it is memorable and easy to
comprehend?
 Does it fulfill all tasks above successfully?
 Can you track the progress of the advertisement?
SUPPLEMENT 2
Linking words and phrases
To State the Reasons
There are different reasons why
There are several explanations for
There are many positive/negative
reasons for
There are some/more/fewer
benefits/disadvantages to
To Further the Argument
First (of all) . . . Second . . . Third
In addition
There are three reasons why
Similarly
Furthermore
To Give an Opinion
To Set Up a Condition
(Why) I believe
I’d like to explain why
Personally
I’d enjoy
I would prefer
I think
In my opinion
As far as I’m concerned
It seems to me
I suggest
To Summarize/Conclude
If
Even if
If I could
Whether (or not)
. . . may/might
. . . can be
In conclusion
Finally
As a result (of)
In summary
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To Restate or Repeat
an Argument
To put it differently
To repeat
Namely
That is
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Moreover
Further
As an example
For instance
What’s more
Not only . . . but also
. . . including
More than
Also
. . . coupled with
Both . . . and
Therefore
To sum up
In other words
To summarize
Then
In brief
On the whole
To conclude
As we have seen
As has been said
In other words
To Show Cause/Reason and
Effect/Result
To Show Time
Relationships
Consequently
Because (of)
Due to
Thanks to
If this occurs, then
Since
For this reason
As a result
Caused by
Immediately
Then
Later
Afterwards
After
Before
While
During
As soon as
As
Sometimes
Last
Frequently
When
Once
Often
Oftentimes
To Argue/Make a
Suggestion
. . . seems to warrant
. . . contend/s
. . . argue/s
. . . justify/ies
This observation is
supported by
To plead
. . . suggest/s
The suggestion is valid
. . . propose/s
. . . claim/s
. . . state/s
. . . clearly proof enough
If I had the choice
. . . examine/s
. . . assert/s
To Generalize
Overall
For the most part
In general
Generally speaking
By and large
To Show Contrast/Make an
Exception
Some may argue that
Although
Even though
Whereas
Instead
In contrast
On the one hand
On the other hand
However
In spite of
Despite
To Emphasize
Above all
Obviously
Clearly
Evidently
Actually
In fact
Certainly
Definitely
Extremely
Indeed
Absolutely
Positively
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To State Policy
The policy is (that)
To State the Problem
The problem is (how)
The question is
What is being
asked/challenged
To Show Evidence/Give
an Example
As evidence of
The legitimacy of
Such as
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Unlike
On the contrary
But
Yet
Rather than
Either
Or
Nor
Neither
Either . . . or
Neither . . . nor
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
Sometimes
Once in a while
Occasionally
Some…other(s)
Other(s)
Often
None
Surprisingly
Unquestionably
Without a doubt
Objectively
In fact
To Show Disagreement
. . . object/s (to)
. . . disagree/s with
. . . contradict/s
. . . doesn’t/don’t support
. . . is/are invalid
These arguments, one by one, can be
challenged
. . . is
absurd/ridiculous/unfounded/illogical
. . . not to be taken seriously
. . . has/have no scientific basis
. . . dispute/s
To Choose One Option
over Another
For example
A few of these are
In the case of
In addition
For one thing . . . for
another
To Show Purpose
In order to
For
So that
So as to
. . . might be the better option
. . . make/s it a better policy
It’s beneficial/better/positive
It’s
detrimental/worse/negative
. . . is true/false
The assertion that…
. . . seem/s to offer strong
arguments for/against
. . . is/are better/worse than
To Show Similarity
Just as
As . . . as
In the same way
Similarly
Likewise
As in/as with/as was/etc.
SUPPLEMENT 3
Business vocabulary DO YOUR BEST!
1. a) Make a guess about meanings of the idiomatic expressions
Idiomatic expressions
Meanings
1. Toot One’s Own Horn
1. (become involved in too many activities)
2. Stick to One’s Guns
2. (persevere)
3. Get the Ball Rolling
3. (exert influence)
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4. Mind One’s P’s and Q’s
5. Hang On
6. Give It One’s Best Shot
7. Make Ends Meet
8. Get the Jump on Someone
9. Pull Strings
10. Spread Oneself Too Thin
11. Go to Bat for Someone
12. Duck Soup
4. (easy, effortless)
5. (maintain one’s position)
6. (get the advantage over someone)
7. (pay one’s bills)
8. (help out and support someone)
9. (take care in speech and action)
10. (boast)
11. (try hard)
12. (initiate an action)
b) Listen to the recording where the idiomatic expressions are used in a
context and check your guess. Retell the stories.
c) Use the idioms in a story of your own.
2. Read the text and paraphrase some of the sentences using the
idiomatic expressions
Eg. Determine whether or not the advertisement fulfills its business purpose. = Give it your
best shot for the advertisement to fulfill the business purpose.
The basics of advertising
How to Evaluate an
Advertisement
by Elizabeth Smith, Demand Media
Seeking feedback from others
can help you evaluate an
advertisement.
For many businesses, advertising
helps bring in new customers and
build brand strength. Advertising
space can be expensive; before
sending an advertisement out for distribution, evaluate it carefully to ensure that you are using your
ad budget wisely. Even if you are not an advertising professional, you can judge the suitability of an
ad concept based on the goals of your business and the purpose of the campaign.
Step 1
Determine whether or not the advertisement fulfills its business purpose. Review the content
and measure it against the goals of the advertising campaign: promoting a new product line,
reinvigorating the brand or managing a public relations problem, for example. Clarity is key. If the
ad's message is confusing or vague, it will not be as effective. Make sure the ad is pared down to the
simplest idea possible to ensure that it is memorable and easy to comprehend.
Step 2
Identify the target audience and measure the advertisement content against the needs of the
viewers. Ensure that the language, jargon, tone and length will fit the temperaments and habits of the
listeners. If you are marketing to children, for example, complicated words and long speeches may
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not be as effective as short copy and bold imagery. If the audience is highly technical or very
specific, bring in representative customers to get their reaction.
Step 3
Watch or read the advertisement and compare it with the other messages your audience
members are getting from competitors and other businesses. Look closely at competitors who are
advertising similar products; if your advertisement does not hold its own, it may need more drama or
changes to the design and message. The advertisement should present your unique selling point in a
way that differentiates it from everyone else.
Step 4
Evaluate the design of the advertisement. Check to make sure that the visual elements of the
ad match the overall message and tone; too many different directions can confuse customers and
make it difficult to remember the message. If you are using bold copy and a strong message, for
example, use striking visual graphics. Test the advertisement on a focus group and gauge [geids]
their reactions. Strong reactions, both positive and negative, can translate to a powerful impact.
Step 5
Track the progress of the advertisement once it has been distributed. Note sales before,
during, and for one or two months after the launch of a new ad campaign and watch for increases.
Measure web traffic, particularly if you are using online advertisements; use an analytics program to
see where visitors are coming from to see if your ads are having an impact. Ask new customers
where they heard about your business, either through an online service, a paper form or in person. If
your advertisement is targeted to a specific product, keep track of any changes in sales. Higher sales,
increased customer inquiries or larger web traffic numbers can indicate a positive response to an
advertisement.
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/evaluate-advertisement-23094.html
3. Find vocabulary units in the first three passages of the text for the
definitions in the chart.
1.
To look for smth/smb
2.
advice, criticism or information about how good or useful
something or somebody's work is
3.
to calculate something exactly
4.
the power and influence that somebody/something has
5.
to give new energy or strength to something/somebody
6.
an idea or a principle that is connected with something abstract
7.
producing the result that is wanted or intended; producing a
successful result
8.
to form an opinion of the amount, value or quality of
something after thinking about it carefully
9.
to understand something fully
10.
to make sure that something happens or is definite
11.
special, good or unusual and therefore worth remembering or
easy to remember
12.
to attract somebody/something to a place or business, etc
13.
the quality of being expressed clearly
14.
The activity to promote products, services, etc.
15.
not clear in a person's mind
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16.
To simplify; to make something easier to do or understand
17.
The quality of being appropriate for a particular purpose or
occasion
18.
costing a lot of money; charging high prices
19.
difficult to understand; not clear
20.
the act of giving or delivering something to a number of
people
21.
the intention, aim or function of something; the thing that
something is supposed to achieve
22.
the money that is available to a person or an organization and
a plan of how it will be spent over a period of time
23.
to have a particular role or purpose
___________________
4. Follow the model above (TASK 3) to point out the key vocabulary from
the paragraphs ‘Step 3, 4 and 5’
5. Adapt the text; use the definitions
6. Solve the crossword puzzle
Across:
1А: the reason why something is done or used : the aim or intention of something
1Б: The return of information about the result of a process or activity
3: a form providing information, signs or set of primary signals containing information. Usually the
message is sent as an offer or the symbol.
5: positive effect of something; something that is advantageous or good; an advantage
7А: not having a clear shape or form.
7Б: something that you hope to achieve in the future.
9: To form an opinion or estimation of after careful consideration
10: to guarantee or to make safe
11: clearness for understanding; lucidity
12: A general idea derived or inferred from specific instances or occurrences
13: influence (of one thing on another); effect
15: evaluation; article, report, video on smth (product, service, book, play), which criticize or
evaluate the subject
17: very good, enjoyable, or unusual, and worth remembering.
19: The state, property, or quality of being strong.
Vertically:
2А: A trademark or distinctive name identifying a product or a manufacturer.
2Б: a series of actions intended to achieve a particular result relating to politics or business, or a
social improvement.
5: to draw, to conceive and plan design, a term denoting a kind of art-project activities, covering the
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establishment of industrial products and the formation of a coherent rational objective environment
6: determine, set the quality of something
7: To try to locate or discover; search for.
8: something that you aspire to achieve; a goal
10: if you fulfill a hope, wish, or aim, you achieve the thing that you hoped for, wished for etc.
12А: : producing a result that is wanted : having an intended effect
12Б: someone who buys goods or services from a business
14: To ascertain the origin, nature, or definitive characteristics of.
16: a person, team, company etc. that is competing with another:
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
SUPPLEMENT 4
Discussing a New Ad Campaign
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1. a) Listen, read and translate the text ‘Discussing a New Ad Campaign’;
focus on the highlighted vocabulary.
Ted works for an advertising agency. He’s presenting to Sam and Lisa, who work for Pacific Beer
Company.
Lisa: Ted would like to run some ideas by us for our new ad campaign.
Ted: Please keep an open mind. Remember that nothing is set in stone yet. We're still just
brainstorming.
Sam: I hope that doesn't mean we're about to hear a lot of half-baked ideas!
Ted: I think you're going to like this. Our idea is to use a black bear as our mascot. Our tagline can
be: "Strong enough to satisfy a bear."
Lisa: It would be great if people would associate our brand with a bear — strong and independent.
That would really improve our brand equity.
Sam: I don't want to throw cold water over your idea, but where did you get the idea for a bear?
Ted: Didn't you hear about that bear at a campground a couple weeks ago? He entered a tent and
drank two dozen Pacific beers! What a great endorsement for Pacific beer!
Lisa: I think we're on the right track with this campaign. The bear should generate lots of buzz.
Everybody will be talking about the bear who loves Pacific beer!
Ted: And here's the icing on the cake: he won't demand an
arm and a leg to plug our product. In fact, we can probably pay him in beer!
Sam: Okay, you've twisted my arm. Let's run with the idea.
Ted: Great. I'll flesh it out some more and touch base with
you in a couple of days.
b) Match the idioms to their meanings:
1. (to) run some ideas by
A. to convince somebody; to talk somebody into doing
someone
something
2. (to) keep an open mind
B. an additional advantage; when one good thing
happens, then another good thing happens along
with it
3. nothing is set in stone
C. to promote a product; to talk positively about a
product
4. (to) brainstorm
D. proceeding in a good way; going in the right
direction
5. half-baked idea
E. to elaborate on something; to add more detail to a
plan; to think in more detail about something
6. (to) throw cold water over
F. to cause many people to start talking about a
(an idea, a plan)
product or service, usually in a positive way that
increases sales
7. on the right track
G. a lot of money
8. (to) generate lots of buzz
H. a slogan; a phrase used to promote a product
9. icing on the cake
I. to present reasons why something will not work; to
discourage
10. an arm and a leg
J. nothing is decided yet; things can still be changed
11. (to) plug (a product)
K. to proceed with an idea
12. (to) twist somebody's arm
L. to get in contact with; to make brief contact with
13. (to) run with an idea
M. to be ready to accept new ideas and experiences
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14. (to) flesh out something
N. to discuss some new ideas
15. (to) touch base with
O. to think up new ideas; to generate new ideas in a
someone
group
16. tagline
P. a stupid or impractical idea or suggestion
c) Comment on the idiomatic expressions in the context; paraphrase the
sentences:
1. Our R&D department has some ideas about how to make our products safer. They'd like to meet
this afternoon to run some ideas by us (NOTE: You will also hear the singular form: to run an idea
by someone).
2. Cathy's new boss starts next Monday. She's heard he's very difficult to work with, but she's trying
to keep an open mind.
3. If you don't like the new product design, we can still change it. Nothing is set in stone yet.
4. When the company started losing market share, the president called a meeting to brainstorm
ways to turn around the business (NOTE: There is also the expression "brainstorming session,"
in which a group gathers to come up with new ideas or to solve a problem).
5. I can't believe we paid that consulting company so much money. We wanted them to help us
grow our business and all they did was give us a bunch of half-baked ideas!
6. Pat presented her boss with a plan to expand their business into China, but he threw cold water
over her plan and told her to just focus on developing business in the United States (NOTE: You
will also hear the variation: to throw cold water on).
7. After years of struggling, Apple Computer is now on the right track by focusing on innovative
products like the iPod.
8. Procter & Gamble generated lots of buzz for its new toothpaste by giving away free samples to
people on the streets of New York City (NOTE: "Buzz" is a popular word for "attention").
9. Alison won $2 million in a sexual harassment lawsuit against her employer. And here's the icing
on the cake: her company will have to pay all of her legal fees too! (NOTE: Icing is the creamy
glaze put on top of a cake to decorate it and make it sweeter. The cake is already good enough —
putting icing on top is something extra which makes it even better).
10.
Jack always flies business class to Asia. The plane tickets cost an arm and a leg!
11.
American Express often hires famous people to plug their credit cards. No wonder people
pay attention to their ads!
12.
Ben didn't want to go to the company Christmas party this year, but Amy twisted his arm and
he ended up having fun.
13.
After much discussion, the language school decided to run with the idea of offering a free
class to each potential client.
14.
I like your idea of moving our manufacturing facility to China, but your plan doesn't have
any details. Please flesh out your plan and present it at our board meeting next month.
15.
"Hi, it's Andy calling from City Style magazine. I'm just touching base with you to see if you
want to buy an ad."
16.
Meow Mix, a brand of cat food, has one of the best taglines in history: "Tastes so good, cats
ask for it by name."
D) PRACTICE THE IDIOMS . Choose the best substitute for the phrase or
sentence in bold:
1) Starting a chain of coffee houses in Manhattan is a half-baked idea! There are already more
than enough coffee houses in Manhattan.
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a) a great idea b) a really bad idea c) an idea that needs some more time in the oven
2) The government is discussing a new proposal to raise the minimum wage, but nothing is set in
stone yet.
a) nothing has been decided yet b) the proposal has been approved c) nothing will ever be decided
3) You don't have to twist the boss's arm. She's already decided to let everybody leave early on
Friday to avoid holiday traffic.
a) convince the boss b) hurt the boss c)ignore the boss
4) Arnold Schwarzenegger has appeared on television commercials in Japan, China, Austria, and
Brazil, plugging products such as vitamin drinks and soup.
a) drinking products b) advertising products c)terminating products
5) Before approaching a bank for a loan, you need to flesh out your business plan.
a) throw out b) present c) add more detail to
6) Buying a new computer system would cost an arm and a leg. Let's just upgrade the system we
already have.
a) a lot of money b) not much money c) a lot of time
7) Paul and Susan make a good living running a bed-and-breakfast in Vermont. Meeting lots of
friendly people is the icing on the cake.
a) easy when you live in Vermont b) how they earn their living c) an additional benefit
8) I like your idea of selling our products by direct mail. Let's run with it.
a) Let's discuss it further. b) Let's proceed with it. c) Let's forget it.
e) Make up dialogues using the idioms.
SUPPLEMENT 5
Vocabulary test 1
Find English equivalents for the following:
выразительная образность, коммерческий аргумент, усиливать, упрощать, урезать,
сокращать; неопределенный, туманный; проверять; прослеживать (регулярно, постоянно);
в конечном итоге; разновидность; принудительный; ясный, прозрачный; практический,
эмпирический; возбуждать (аппетит, интерес); исключительно; повторение, назойливость;
насыщенный; молва; поражать; вычурный, чрезмерно разукрашенный.
Vocabulary test 2
1. The ad has a (подзаголовок) and some title elements as well.
2. The (графические изображения) are a key element of the print advertisement.
3. The great headline doesn’t allow the reader’s eyes to (промчаться стрелой.быстро)
4. The visual elements such as (отступ), pull-quotes, bullet lists help to organize and
emphasize the message of the body of the ad.
5. (Курсив) conveys a slightly different impression upon the intended audience.
6. The logo is (бросающийся в глаза).
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7. The logo is (гибкий, практичный, легко переходящий от одного к другому).
8. The logo is crisp and (безупречный, безукоризненный, совершенный)
9. The (содержащая только текст) ad has some graphics in the form of decorative bullets.
10. The (наводящий на размышления) logo design can strengthen the brand image and
corporate identity.
11. (Рукописный шрифт) implies a sense of formality and refinement.
12. Thick fonts (провозглашает) strength and power.
13. A concise text (дополняет, служит дополнением) the icon, providing supplemental clarity.
14. The (подпись к рисунку/картинке) is one of the first things most readers look after the
visual.
15. The visual elements such as indentation, (броские цитаты), bullet lists help to organize and
emphasize the message of the body of the ad.
Vocabulary test 3
Find English equivalents:
рекламный слоган, дающий пищу для размышлений, вызывающий чувства, рекомендация
товара, влияние, обширный/далеко идущий, тонкий, еле уловимый, вызывать (чувства);
утаивать, умалчивать; сложное слово; убедительный; неологизм; loanword; краткость;
двусторонний, взаимный; надежность; писать с ошибками; новизна; распространять
(информацию, взгляды); скрытый смысл; в огромной степени, чрезвычайно.
Vocabulary test 4
Find English equivalents:
Любопытсво; уникальность; живо, наглядно; экзотичность; мотивировать, поощрять,
подстрекать; навязчивый; приобретение;
гарантировать; краткий, точный; оценочный;
выдающийся, заметный; ультрасовременный; вопросительный; исключать; ответ,
реагирование; разделительный союз, разделяющий; потребление; описательный;
производящий сильное впечатление; точка с запятой; дефис.
Vocabulary test 5
Find English equivalents:
вводить, применять; уместный, соответствующий; утверждение, заявление, предложение;
тщательно разработанный; составлять; программа, сценарий, намётки; прием, средство;
персонифицированный; продукт, товар; мрачный, угрюмый; определять, обозначать;
основательный; очевидно; живописный; несомненно; процветать, преуспевать; применение;
соперничество, состязание; двусмысленность; соотнесенность, связанность; скорость,
быстрота; сине-зеленый цвет; утонченность, изысканность, совершенство; притягательный,
чарующий; горделивый, обладающий чувством собственного достоинства; розоватолиловый, сиреневый; яркость, нарядность; подразумевать, намекать.
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Учебное издание
Войткова Анастасия Николаевна
Фетисова Светлана Анатольевна
Business Communication:
Evaluating an Advertising
Process
Учебное пособие
Печатается в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 12.12.2013. Формат 60х90/16.
Тираж 50 экз. Поз. плана 58к**. Усл. печ 5,1.
Зак. № 148
Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет
664025, г.Иркутск, ул. Ленина, 8
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