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201.There will always be nations. Part 3

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
Political
Correctness:
(In The World of Linguo-Cultural
Studies & Cross-Cultural Communication)
Второе издание переработанное и дополненное
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ББК 81.43.1 – 923
В 65
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Иркутского
государственного лингвистического университета
Рецензенты:
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей
с общественностью ИГЛУ
Ю.С.Заграйская
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
БГЭУ
И.Н.Зырянова
Войткова, А.Н.
В 65 Political correctness & all this jazz: (in the world of linguo-cultural
studies & cross-cultural communication) : учеб. пособие: в 3-х частях /
А.Н. Войткова. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2013. – Ч.3. –
69c.
Учебное пособие содержит обширный аутентичный практический текстовой и
аудиальный материал по актуальным проблемам межкультурной коммуникации,
практикуму по культуре речевого общения и сравнительной лингвокультурологии и
направлено на формирование профессиональной дискурсивной иноязычной компетенции.
Предназначено для студентов среднего (среднепродвинутого) уровня, обучающихся
в вузах с расширенной сеткой преподавания английского языка, а также для студентов 24 курса лингвистического университета неязыковой направления «Музеология и охрана
объектов культурного наследия».
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© Войткова А.Н., 2013
© Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет,
2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Contents
Book 3
Module 9 Political correctness
Module 10 Color naming in Russain & english speaking
countries
 (1) Discussing color-naming issues
Colors in different cultures
 (2) Color Vocabulary in different cultures
 (3) Color Idioms
Module 11 Superstitions
 Black cats & broken mirrors
Module 12 National Humour
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Contents for all the textbook
Book 1
Introduction to linguo-cultural studies
Module 1 Culture Issues

(1) More alike than different

(2) Cultural literacy. Tips for
travelers

(3) Greetings & saying goodbyes

(4) Giving gifts

(5) Ettiquette. Table manners

(6) Living abroad. Emmigration
problem

(7) Culture shock 1. How to
overcome 4 stages
Culture shock 2. Politeness
issues
Module 2 There’ll always be nations

(1) Introduction to English
National Character
Has Britain lost their identity?
Vocabulary. Countries

(2) National stereotypes:
appearance & character
Russian national character

(3) National Heroes: Superheroes
Russia’s Symbols
Russia will get their own
superhero

(4) It’s the Simpsons – the most
powerful American family!

(5) British school stereotypes
(6) The best night of their life.
High School Prom
School-leaving parties in
Russia
Module 3 National Holidays:

(1) National Holidays in Great Britain

(2) National Holidays in the USA
Halloween
St Valentine’s day

(3) National Holidays in Russia
Book 2
Module 4 What is Patriotism?

(1) Yankee Doodle - unofficial
anthem
Module 5 National values:

(1) American values & beliefs

(2) Core British values

(3) Comparing Russian & British
values
Module 6 A bit about Russia

(1) Religious creeds in Russia

(2) Stereotypes and symbols of
Russia

(3) Russian Folk craft

(4) Russian traditions

(5) Folklore of rural Russia

(6) Funerals in Russia & in other
countries
Module 7.1 Russian New Year vs American &
British X-mas

(1) Holiday decorations and New
Year resolutions, etc..)

(2) Christmas superstitions

(3) New Year & all that jazz in
Russia

(4) The origin of the Father Frost &
Snow maid)
X-mas is coming (additional text)
Module 7.2 Religious & pagan holidays in
Russia in detail

Epiphany

Easter

Shrovetide
Book 3
Module 8 Limerics & Nursery Rhymes

(1) American values & beliefs

(2) The Horrible Meaning behind
Nursery Rhymes

(3) The secret History of the
Nursery Rhyme

(4) Whose is Mother Goose?

(5) Lullabies for babies &
toddlers

(6) Clapping songs
Module 9 Political correctness
Module 10 Color naming in Russain & english
speaking countries

(1) Discussing color-naming
issues
Colors in different cultures

(2) Color Vocabulary in different
cultures

(3) Color Idioms
Module 11 Superstitions

Black cats & broken mirrors
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Module 12 National Humour
Module 8
Limericks & Nursery Rhymes
“Nursery rhymes” is really a generic term. It covers a variety of poems for
kids—the lullabyes, counting games, clapping songs, finger & toe games, riddles
and rhymed fables that introduce us to the rhythmic, mnemonic, allegorical uses of
language in songs sung to us by our mothers and other elders.
The usage of such poems only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century
and in North America the term "Mother Goose Rhymes", introduced in the mid1700s, is still often used.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursery_rhyme
http://poetry.about.com/od/nurseryrhymes/tp/nurseryrhymevarieties.htm
1. What is a nursery rhyme?
a) Warm up. What is the connection between the pictures:
Discuss:
 Can you answer the question in the subheading of the unit?
 When you remember your childhood what poems for children come to your
mind first? Do they mean something in your language?
 Do you know ancient Russian lullabies, tong twisters?
b) Read the text & explain the meaning of the words in bold.
Answer the questions:
 What do nursery rhymes serve as?
 Why do children learn nursery rhymes?
A nursery rhyme is a short rhyming story, often set to music and usually
designed for young children, such as those in a nursery. Songs for children are a part
of many cultures, and they often serve as an oral record of important political and
historical events. They also can preserve archaic forms of language. In the English
language, the bulk of commonly used nursery rhymes date from the 16th-18th
centuries, with some originating in Europe and others, such as Humpty Dumpty.
Typically, a nursery rhyme has simple vocabulary and a catchy rhyme.
Children can quickly learn to sing along with a nursery rhyme, and nursery rhymes
are often used to help young children build their vocabulary. Counting is often
integrated into nursery rhymes as well, so children also can learn to count using
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nursery rhymes. They also show children how to find and keep a beat, and they can
be used to get children to start reading. When a child learns a nursery rhyme, he or she
also can learn to follow it on a page, so many children learn the fundamentals of
reading this way.
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-nursery-rhyme.htm
c) Have fun with Humpty Dumpty rhyme. Enjoy the video file.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1fiPIhGXYA
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the king's horses and all the king's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again
Watch the cartoon Humpty dumpty (1935). Did it seem funny to
you? (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESPuE5oL9gA)
2. The Horrible Meanings Behind Nursery Rhymes
Part 1
a) Read the article & say what the origin of the Humpty
Dumpty rhyme is. Do you find the article funny?
by Matthew Archbold Sunday,
August 14, 2011 11:40 PM Comments (45)
My wife went out to a shower today. I’m still not even sure if it
was a baby shower or a wedding shower. I don’t really ask a lot of
questions. All I know is she got dressed up and left me home with the five kids.
It was raining so me, being Super Dad, picked out a large book of nursery
rhymes from our bookshelf to read to the four-year-old. I asked my six-year-old son if
he wanted to listen and he looked at me like I had three or maybe four heads that were
each speaking Portuguese in Pig Latin.
OK. I’ll take that as a no. I’m perceptive like that.
I started with Humpty Dumpty, the epic tale of an unfortunate egg. My eightyear-old daughter, sitting nearby, interrupted by asking “What’s the deal with Humpty
Dumpty?”
She asked why, if you were an egg, would you sit on a wall in the first place.
Doesn’t that seem like a silly thing for an egg to do? My nine-year-old daughter added
that she wouldn’t sit on a wall and she was human which is a lot more difficult to
break than an egg.
The eight-year-old wondered who puts horses in charge of putting eggs back
together anyway. No wonder they couldn’t put him together.
So with my eight- and nine-year-olds in tow I announced that we would look it
up on the internet. The four-year-old sat on my lap and the other two crowded around.
My 11-year-old was too cool to come over and the boy continued playing video
games.
It turns out that, according to several internet sites (and who disbelieves the
internet?) Humpty Dumpty was a name for a cannon protecting a fort which fell.
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While the men attempted to lift the cannon again, they were being slaughtered and
finally they surrendered because they couldn’t get the cannon working.
http://www.ncregister.com/blog/matthew-archbold/the-horrible-meanings-behind-nursery-rhymes
b) Watch the documentary video
about the secret meaning about
Humpty Dumpty. Retell as much as
you can.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f9d9r9cekIA
Humpty Dumpty was a colloquial term used in fifteenth century England describing someone
who was obese. This has given rise to various, but inaccurate, theories surrounding the identity of
Humpty Dumpty. The image of Humpty Dumpty was made famous by the illustrations included in the
'Alice through the looking glass' novel by Lewis Carroll. However, Humpty Dumpty was not a person
pilloried in the famous rhyme!
http://www.childhoodheritage.org/humpty_dumpty.htm
Part 2. Mary Mary Quite Contrary
a) Enjoy the video file first.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1h6rht1K9I
Mary Mary quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells and cockle shells
And pretty maids all in a row.
b) Read the secret meaning
by Matthew Archbold Sunday,
August 14, 2011 11:40 PM Comments (45)
So while we were online we decided to look up some of stories
behind some other favorite nursery rhymes on the internet. That was a
big mistake because it turns out that reading nursery rhymes to kids is
like singing them a Black Sabbath song without all of Ozzy’s talent.
Mary Mary Quite Contrary - While it seems like simple nonsense, it actually
may be a nice little ditty about mass executions.
The Mary being referred to is believed by many to be “Bloody Mary,” the
Catholic queen of England who did a pretty good job of filling graveyards with
Protestants. The garden referred to is actually a graveyard.
The “silver bells and cockle shells” are instruments of torture. You don’t even
wanna’ know what they did. I quickly escaped that internet site.
Oh, and the “Maids” in the poem was the original guillotine!
Just so you know, though, this piqued the interest of my 11-year-old, who came
over and started looking over my shoulder. We looked up the meanings of nursery
rhymes of all sorts, and pretty much they’re all horror shows.
http://www.ncregister.com/blog/matthew-archbold/the-horrible-meanings-behind-nursery-rhymes
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c) Watch the documentary video about this
nursery rhyme. Retell as much as you can.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mn2mJUYYOns
Part 3. Ring around the rosy AKA as Ring a ring o'
rosies.
a) Enjoy the video file first. Below is the lyrics. Learn
it by heart
Ring around the rosy
Ring-a-Ring o'Rosies
A pocketful of posies
A Pocket full of Posies
"Ashes, Ashes"
"A-tishoo! A-tishoo!"
We all fall down
We all fall Down!
* posy - маленький букет цветов
b) Read & answer the uathor’s question below.
- What could be wrong with a rhyme that sings of a pocketful of posies and all
that?
by Matthew Archbold Sunday,
August 14, 2011 11:40 PM Comments (45)
Well, your kids might just be singing merrily about THE BUBONIC
PLAGUE!!!! The symptoms of the plague included a rosy red rash in
the shape of a ring on the skin. Pockets were sometimes filled with sweet smelling
herbs (posies) due to the belief that the disease was transmitted by bad smells.
And I’m sure you can guess what the term “Ashes Ashes” referred to.
In case you can’t—it’s the cremation of the thousands and thousands of
dead bodies!
At this point I shooed away the children to
continue my “research.” End of nice family time.
http://www.ncregister.com/blog/matthew-archbold/the-horriblemeanings-behind-nursery-rhymes
b) Read the text & watch (or listen to) the
secret meaning behind this nursery Rhyme
Origins of "Ring around the rosy" in
English History (Connections to the Bubonic Plague (Black
Death)?)
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The words to the Ring around the rosy children's ring game have their
origin in English history. The historical period dates back to the Great Plague of
London in 1665 (bubonic plague) or even before when the first outbreak of the
Plague hit England in the 1300's. The symptoms of the plague included a rosy red
rash (=red spots on the skin) in the shape of a ring on the skin (Ring around the
rosy). Pockets and pouches (=small bag) were filled with sweet smelling herbs ( or
posies (bouquet of flowers)) which were carried due to the belief that the disease
was transmitted by bad smells. The term "Ashes Ashes" refers to the cremation of
the dead bodies! The death rate was over 60% and the
plague was only halted (=stopped) by the Great Fire of
London in 1666 which killed the rats which carried the
disease which was transmitting via water sources. The
English version of "Ring around the rosy" replaces Ashes with
(*A-tishoo, A-tishoo) as violent sneezing was another
symptom of the disease.
.htmhttp://www.rhymes.org.uk/jack_and_jill.htm
* Atishoo - a word used to represent the sound you make when you sneeze
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaspFUkcPjo
Part 4. Jack and Jill
a) Watch the nursery rhyme about Jack & Jill.
Below is the lyrics. Learn it by heart.
"Jack and Jill (Nursery Rhyme)"
Jack and Jill Went up the hill
Up Jack got And home did trot
To fetch a pail of water,
As fast as he could caper,
Jack fell down And broke his
Went to bed To mend his head
crown
With vinegar and brown paper.
And Jill came tumbling after.
b) Read the & watch (or listen to) the
secret meaning behind this nursery
Rhyme
Jack and Jill story - The French
(history) connection!
The roots of the story, or poem, of Jack and Jill
are in France. Jack and Jill referred to are said to be King
Louis XVI - Jack -who was beheaded (lost his crown)
followed by his Queen Marie Antoinette - Jill - (who
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came tumbling after). The words and lyrics to the Jack and Jill poem were made
more acceptable as a story for children by providing a happy ending! The actual
beheadings occurred in during the Reign of Terror in 1793. The first publication
date for the lyrics of Jack and Jill rhyme is 1795 - which ties-in with the history and
origins. The Jack and Jill poem is also known as Jack and Gill - the mis-spelling of
Gill is not uncommon in nursery rhymes as they are usually passed from
generation to generation by word of mouth.
On the gruesome subject of beheading it was the custom that following
execution the severed head was held up by the hair by the executioner. This was
not, as many people think, to show the crowd the head but in fact to show the
head the crowd and it's own body! Consciousness remains for at least eight
seconds after beheading until lack of oxygen causes unconsciousness and
eventually death. The guillotine is associated with the French but the English were
the first to use this device as described in our section containing Mary Mary Quite
Contrary Rhyme.
A picture of a French Revolution execution scene during the Reign of Terror
http://www.rhymes.org.uk/jack_and_jill.htm
3. Read the text that sums up the issues mentioned above. Try
to find some equivalent ideas in your language.
The Secret History of the Nursery Rhyme
Many of the origins of the humble nursery rhyme are believed to be associated
with, or reflect, actual events in history! The secret meanings of the Nursery Rhyme
have been lost in the passing of time. A nursery rhyme was often used to parody the
royal and political events and people of the day. The humble Rhyme was used as a
seemingly innocent vehicle to quickly spread subversive messages!
A rhyme is often short and easy to remember and this was a critical element
when many people were unable to read or write and a rhyme was verbally passed
from generation to generation - it was also a vital element when commoners wanted to
comment on the events of the day! It must be remembered that direct criticism or
dissent would often have been punishable by death!
The Nursery Rhyme began to be printed in England as early as 1570! Printing
allowed the production of books and cheap pamphlets, or Chapbooks. A chapbook is
"a small book or pamphlet containing poems, ballads, stories, or religious tracts".
More people during this time were learning to read but the chapbooks were also
popular with people who could not read as they contained pictures, in the printed form
of crude wood engravings - A Middle Ages equivalent of a Children's comic! So the
Nursery Rhyme was then passed from one generation to the next by word of mouth
and in a printed format.
The relationship of many historical events to the Nursery Rhyme have been
long forgotten. The Bubonic Plague and its symptoms were parodied in “Ring around
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the Rosy” and the English Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) was believed to be the 'star'
of the Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary rhyme which featured a hidden reference to the
Queen's treatment of Protestants using instruments of torture (silver bells) and
execution by burning them alive at the stake! It's no wonder that this Queen has since
been known as Bloody Mary! Witches and their 'familiars', like cats, frogs, mice and
owls, are frequently, but obliquely, referred to in the words of a Nursery Rhyme as we
have discussed in The Identity of Mother Goose. We need to understand the people,
history and cultures of by-gone days to unlock the hidden meanings of the humble
Nursery rhyme.
http://www.rhymes.org.uk/nursery-rhyme.htm
4. Who is Mother Goose?
a) Look at the pictures & presuppose why she is called that way?
b) Read the article below & answer the questions.
 Why is she called Mother Goose?
 What is 'Malleus Maleficarum'? & What did it have to do with Mother Goose
rhymes?
 What are the categories of Mother Goose nursery rhymes?
The Identity of Mother Goose & her Nursery Rhymes!
Though Mother Goose is a prominent figure in children’s literature, almost
nothing is known about the author or authors of the rhymes that are traditionally
attributed to her.
The words of the original Old Mother Goose Nursery rhymes can be interpreted to
find a darker meaning to the identity of ' Mother Goose'! The title 'Mother Goose'
probably originates from the 1600's - the time of the great witch hunts. Comparisons
can be made between the Mother Goose in the above children’s poem and the popular
conception of a witch during this era!
 Witches were able to fly (the broomstick has been replaced by a goose, hence
the name - Mother Goose)
 A witch was often portrayed as an old crone ( with no man to defend her
against accusations of witchcraft)
 Witches are closely associated with living alone (house in the wood)
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
Witches were known to a have 'familiars' (most often cats but also owls! Just
like the modern wizard Harry Potter whose owl is called Hedwig!)
 The identity of the Mother Goose in the Nursery Rhymes was therefore a
witch!
Witches, Familiars and Nursery Rhymes!
Animals like the Cat, Frog, Pig, Raven, Goat, Wolf, Goose, Crow, Bat and Mouse
were believed to be the forms adopted by a Witches Familiar (an evil spirit, in animal
form, who was used by the witch to perform evil deeds and cast malevolent spells).
People were obsessed with witches during the 16th and 17th centuries when there was
limited understanding of the cause of devastating events, such as storms, drought and
disease. The disasters were believed to be brought about by supernatural forces which
resulted in scapegoats (witches) being blamed. A book called the 'Malleus
Maleficarum'* was published in 1486 as guide used for the torture and persecution of
witches – a best selling book of those times, only being out-sold by the Bible!
Witchcraft was outlawed in England in 1563 and a Witchcraft Act was passed in
1604. The witchcraft hysteria grew and eventually led to the Parliamentary
appointment of Matthew Hopkins as Witchfinder General in 1644. His task was to
seek out witches (he was vigorous in his work as he was said to have been paid twenty
shillings for each witch he condemned!) During his interrogations he was guided by
books like the 'Malleus Maleficarum' which stated that an animal Familiar “always
works with the witch in everything”. Many Nursery Rhymes originated in the 16th
and 17th centuries and the children of these era's would have been familiar (sorry
about the pun!) with stories of witches and witchcraft. Just look at the image of
Mother Goose portrayed a witch with her familiar (the goose)! Is it therefore just a
coincidence that so many of the Nursery rhymes of the periods featured the Cat, Frog,
Pig, Goose, Raven, Goat, Wolf, Bat and Mouse?
Notes:
*Malleus Maleficarum - «Молот ведьм» (нем. Hexenhammer, лат.) — известнейший трактат по
демонологии, написанный двумя германскими монахами.
The Categories of Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes
The Mother Goose nursery rhymes content tends to fall into four distinct
categories:
 The first category of Mother Goose nursery rhymes includes lullabies such as
Rock a bye baby
 The second type of Mother Goose nursery rhymes was for infant amusement
and education where many of the counting and alphabet rhymes originate
 The third section of Mother Goose nursery rhymes would include riddles for
example As I was going to St. Ives
 The fourth, lesser known, category of Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes contains
the Secret History of the Nursery Rhyme - reflecting the actual historical events
and culture of the day and also used to spread subversive messages!
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c) Watch the documentary “The Truth About Mother Goose”
(1963) & add in the details of Mother Goose’s “biography”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nViEWeTXzMk
Variant:
Walt Disney - The Truth About Mother Goose (2-2) - 1957
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8BqHncfuJo
5. Lullabies for babies & toddlers.
a) "Rock a bye baby" , AKA "Hush a bye baby". Enjoy
the video with this song.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67xcbww9bfo
The very first poems that reach our human ears are often
lullabyes, the soft, repetitive, calming songs parents sing to soothe their
babies to sleep. Two classics in our library are “Rock-a-bye Baby” (1805)
and “Hush, Little Baby,” also known as “The Mockingbird Song”
(American traditional, probably 18th century).
Rock a bye baby on the tree top,
When the wind blows the cradle will rock,
When the bough breaks the cradle will fall,
And down will come baby, cradle and all.
Hush-a-by baby On the tree top,
When the wind blows The cradle will rock.
When the bough breaks, The cradle will fall,
And down will fall baby Cradle and all.
Origins of words to "Rock a bye baby" in American history
The words and lyrics to the "Rock a bye baby" rhyme are reputed to reflect the observations of a
young pilgrim boy in America who had seen Native Indian mothers suspend a birch bark cradle from the
branches of a tree. Thus enabling the wind to rock the cradle and the child to sleep! This rhyme is also
known as "Hush a bye baby" which is the correct title. The confusion regarding these lyrics occurred due
to the popularity of the old Al Jolson classic song "Rock a bye my baby with a Dixie melody!". A difficulty
with this theory is that the words appeared in print first in England in c. 1765.
Origins of words to "Rock a bye baby" in English history dating back to the 1700's
The story of the Nursery Rhyme relates to a family who lived in a tree house which was formed
within a massive Yew tree. The Yew Tree concerned was believed to be nearly 2000 years old. The family
were charcoal burners who lived in Shining Cliff Woods, Ambergate, Derbyshire in the 1700's. The
ancient occupation of Charcoal Burning would be conducted by people who actually lived in the woods.
Just like like this family. Their names were Kate and Luke Kennyon and they lived in what was locally
called the 'Betty Kenny Tree' - a colloquialism for Kate Kenyon. The Kenyons had 8 children and a tree
bough was hollowed out to act as a cradle for their children! Shining Cliff Woods was owned at the time
by the Hurt family. The Kenyons were favoured by the Hurts who commissioned the artist James Ward
of the Royal Academy to paint their portraits. The Yew tree still exists but was severely fire damaged by
vandals in the 1930s. More information may be located on the Amber Valley Borough Council website.
http://www.rhymes.org.uk/rock_a_bye_baby.htm
b) “Hush, little baby”. Enjoy the video with this lullabies.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScScbj-D6bg
There are several versions of the song, but the most common lyrics
are:
Hush, little baby, don't say a word,
Mama's gonna buy you a mockingbird.
And if that billy goat don't pull,
Mama's gonna buy you a cart and bull.
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And if that mockingbird won't sing,
Mama's gonna buy you a diamond ring.
And if that diamond ring turns brass,
Mama's gonna buy you a looking glass.
And if that looking glass gets broke,
Mama'a gonna buy you a billy goat
And if that cart and bull turn over,
Mama's gonna buy you a dog named
Rover.
And if that dog named Rover won't
bark,
Mama's gonna buy you a horse and
cart.
And if that horse and cart fall down,
You'll still be the sweetest little baby in
town.
"Hush, Little Baby" is a traditional lullaby, thought to have been written in the United States
(mockingbirds are from the New World), but the author and date of origin are unknown. The lyrics
promise all kinds of rewards to the child if he or she is quiet. The simple structure allows more verses to
be added ad lib.
Mama is often substituted by Papa, Dada, etc. according to the singer's relation to the child or
personal preference. There are simple revisions to the lyrics, but all remain true to the promise of
rewards for being quiet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hush,_Little_Baby
c) Render the ideas about singing a lullabies in Russia in the text.
Народные колыбельные песни как традиционный и очень весомый
фольклорный жанр – это то, что объединяет
всю нацию в общих народных чаяниях.
Издавна на Руси появившемуся на свет младенцу
было принято петь колыбельные. Считалось, что именно
с помощью этих убаюкивающих песенок маленький
человечек начинает познавать окружающий его мир.
Ведь колыбельная знакомит малыша с образами
животных и сказочных персонажей, дает первые
упоминания о добре, чести, долге и т.д.
Cлово “колыбель” этимологически происходит от
глаголов “колебать”, “колыхать”, “качать”. Устройство
колыбели для новорожденного традиционно на Руси
обставлялось множеством таинств и мистических
обрядов. Люльку подвешивали к потолку к матице с помощью веревок. Прежде чем впервые
положить в только что сконструированную люльку младенца, в нее обязательно сажали
хозяйского кота (считалось, что коты разгоняют чертей и злых духов). Существовало
общенародное поверье, что кот – большой друг домового, и он “при случае” непременно
доложит "дедушке" (домовому) о “доброте хозяйской”, а уж "дедушка" наверняка постарается
обеспечить в таком доме уют и покой.
Колыбельные песни в народе ещё зовут байками. Это название произошло от глагола
баять, баить – «говорить». Старинное значение этого слова – «шептать, заговаривать». Со
временем колыбельные песни утратили обрядный и заговорно-заклинательный характер.
Колыбельные песни, выражая нежность и любовь к ребёнку, имеют вполне определённую цель –
усыпить его. Этому способствует спокойный, размеренный ритм и монотонный напев.
Но в песне каждого народа много своих "секретов". В них заключается своя философия народа, по
которой ребенок формирует свой взгляд на жизнь.
Народное поэтическое творчество ведет свое начало от глубокой древности, когда люди
ещё не умели писать, поэтому естественно, что ему была присуща устная форма выражения.
http://shkolazhizni.ru/archive/0/n-13525/
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Listen to the ancient Russian song & comment on its plot.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9ZsPUGhVMQ
6. Clapping songs. Bring back happy memories.
a) Warm-up.



What were you doing during recess at
primary school? Did you meet on the
playground & play clapping games?
Did you manage to go faster and faster
until we were breathless and giggly.
What hand-clapping and jumprope rhymes do you remember?
I had fun looking these up because I had forgotten some of them. Hopefully you'll recognize some of
them and they'll bring back happy memories for you too! :)
b) Act out one of the two clapping songs in class. Watch the videos as many
times as you want.
1) “Eenie Meanie Sassaleeny”.
Eenie Meanie Sassaleeny,
Opps ah tumbalini,
Achi cachi Liberace,
I love you,
Take a peach,
Take a plum,
Take a stick of bubble gum,
No peach
No plumb
No stick of bubble gum
Saw you with your boyfriend
last night
How'd you know
I was peaking through the key hole
Nosy
Didn't do the dishes
Lazy
Stole a box of candy
Greedy
Jumped out the window
Dog on crazy
That's why they call me...
Eenie Meanie Sassaleeny,
Opps ah tumbalini,
Achi cachi Liberace,
I love you!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBVksBh0cLg
2) “Sally was a baby”.
Sally was a baby, a baby, a baby
Sally was a baby she went like this,
Wha! wha!,
Sally was a toddler, a toddler, a toddler,
Sally was a toddler, she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb,
Sally was a child, a child, a child,
Sally was a child she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum,
Sally was a teenager, a teenager, a teenager,
Sally was a teenager she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum, shut up I’m on the phone,
Sally was a mother, a mother, a mother,
Sally was a mother she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum, shut up I’m on the phone, do this, do that,
Sally was a grandmother, a grandmother, a grandmother,
Sally was a grandmother she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum, shut up I’m on the phone, do this, do that, argh my
aching back,
Sally was dead, dead, dead,
Sally was dead she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum, shut up I’m on the phone, do this, do that, argh my
aching back, eerrgh,
Sally was an angel, an angel, an angel,
Sally was an angel she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum, shut up I’m on the phone, do this, do that, argh my
aching back, eerrgh, ding!
Sally was a devil, a devil, a devil,
Sally was a devil she went like this,
Wha Wha, suck my thumb, give me a piece of chewing
gum, shut up I’m on the phone, do this, do that, argh my
aching back, eerrgh, ding! GRRR.
http://oritoday.pp.ua/ori.php?v=KSOxq1eovtw&feature=youtube_gdata_player&titl=
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Module 8
Part 1
Political correctness
1. A) Give your
understanding of what political
correctness means.
B) Below is the dictionary definition
of Political correctness:
Political correctness (or PC - n) (PC)  language, behavior or attitude that are
politically correct are regarded as right &
acceptable because they are careful to avoid
offending women, black people, disabled
people etc (Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English)
 the avoidance of expressions or actions that
can be perceived to exclude, marginalize
(=isolate), or insult groups of people who
are socially disadvantaged or discriminated
against. (Abbyy Lingvo Dictionary)
C) Discuss the following:
 What kind of people do you think can be socially
disadvantaged or discriminated against?
 Can you say you are politically correct?
 What does a person have to say to make you feel
insulted?
2. A) Read the text that will give you the full answers to
the questions above. Explain the words in bold.
NOTES:
inclusive - инклюзивный, без дискриминации (gender) inclusive language — (гендерно-) инклюзивный язык
(совокупность языковых единиц без сексистских коннотаций, например, слова общего рода - person, officer,
attendant) policemen police officer , steward  flight attendant , chairman chairperson, fireman  firefighter;
invalid  ‘handicapped  disabled  differently abled  physically challenged;
retarded children  children with learning difficulties; old age pensioners  senior citizens;
poor  disadvantaged economically disadvantaged;
natives  indigenous population; foreigners  newcomers, aliens; short people – vertically challenged;
fat people – horizontally challenged; pets  animal companions, etc
Ant: exclusive
What Is Political Correctness?
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Politically Correct. What does that mean exactly? Are we trying so hard to
be politically correct that we have removed the meat from the bun? “Where’s
the beef?” When did we become so focused on making everyone happy?
Political Correctness (PC) is the communal
tyranny that erupted (=started) in the 1980s. It
was a spontaneous declaration that particular
ideas, expressions and behavior should be
forbidden by law, and people who transgressed
(= break that law) should be punished. It started
with a few voices but grew in popularity until it
became unwritten and written law within the
community. Those who were publicly declared as
being not politically correct become the object of persecution by the mob
(=crowd).
The declared purpose of this tyranny is to stop people from being
offended; to get everyone to avoid using words or behaviour that may upset
homosexuals, women, non-whites, the crippled, the stupid, the fat or the ugly.
Why do the terms niggers, *dagos, *spastics and sheilas have become
heresy (ересь)? For in an act of infantile rebellion this subject has become
revered (=respected) by the new generation.
The expression “politically correct” came about in the 1970’s and was
intended to mean “inclusive.” It referred to the use of language that would not
cause an individual of any demographic (social or cultural) group to feel excluded,
offended, or diminished.
So, PC involves using language that is intended to be less offensive. Rather
than referring to someone as “fat”, politically correct language might suggest that
the individual is “stout” or “robust” or that an overweight woman is “full figured”,
but true politically correct speech would not refer to the size of an individual at all.
It is when all hope is lost for being honest and upfront. It is when an issue
is tailored, so as not to offend someone at the expense of accuracy and integrity
(прямота, честность) of the statement/opinion. (Remember the story of the
Emperor has no clothes).All of
which is an attack upon truth,
clear thinking and plain speaking.
Political Correctness is our
attitude to the world around us (its
phenomena, things, other people).
We use political correctness in
speech in order to respect our
interlocutors. But many people
use it also in order to conceal the
truth. We hope this list of the most
interesting and often used
"politically correct" words and
phrases will be useful for you.
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http://www.ourcivilisation.com/pc.htm
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_political_correctness
http://www.fierceinc.com/blog/are-we-too-politically-correct
http://groupa.ucoz.co.uk/index/political_correctness_in_speech/0-108
*даго (прозвище итальянца, испанца, португальца)
*This medical term "spastic" became used to describe cerebral palsy. However, the word began to be used as an
insult and became a term of abuse used to imply stupidity or physical ineptness; one who is uncoordinated or
incompetent, or a fool. It was often colloquially abbreviated to forms such as "spa", "spaz", "spazmoid", "spazzer",
"spazmo", "spack", "spackhead", "sped", "spazzy", "spacko", or "spacker".
*sheilas - бабёнка
B) Answer the questions:
 Why does the author call political correctness
‘tyranny’?
 Where did it come from?
 Why do you think this movement started in the
USA?
 It is the object of widespread ridicule, usually a very
powerful weapon, so why doesn't it go away?
 Comment on ‘but true politically correct speech
would not refer to the size of an individual at all’.
 Is PC an attack upon truth, clear thinking and plain speaking?
 Where are the boundaries when political correctness stop
being ridiculous?
 Look at the pictures aside & at the beginning of the topic.
What do you think the picture implies?
C) Vocabulary. Match the words with their
definitions & make up sentences with them
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
exclude (v)
upfront (adj)
offend (v)
inclusive
(adj)
transgress
(v)
integrity (n)
mob (n)
conceal (v)
1) keep from sight; hide ;
2) a large crowd of people, esp. one that is disorderly and
intent on causing trouble or violence;
3) infringe or go beyond the bounds of (a moral principle or
other established standard of behavior);
4) bold, honest, and frank;
5) (of language) deliberately nonsexist, esp. avoiding the use
of masculine pronouns to refer to both men and women;
6) deny (someone) access to or bar (someone) from a place,
group, or privilege.
7) cause to feel upset, annoyed, or resentful
8) the quality of being honest and having strong moral
principles
3. A) Get acquainted with some other common politically
correct words
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 Do these euphemism make you giggle? Why?
 What is your attitude to this linguistic phenomenon?
Bald: follicularly challenged
Dumb: cerebrally challenged
Fat: horizontally challenged: person of
substance
Garbage collector: sanitation engineer
Handicapped: physically challenged
Homeless person: residentially flexible
individual
Incorrect: alternative answer
Individualism: uncooperative spirit
Insane: reality challenged
Lazy: motivationally dispossessed
Misunderstand: personalized
interpretation
Political: amorally gifted
Poor: economically marginalized
Prisoner: client of the correctional
system
Rich: economically maximized
Secretary: stationery engineer
Smart: cerebrally gifted
Tall: vertically gifted
Teaching: personality repression
Tired: rest-challenged
White: melanin-impoverished
Lost: locationally disadvantaged
Politically Correct Dictionary. http://funny2.com/dictionary.htm
B) Make up your own politically correct sentences. Make
other students decipher what you have meant.
4. Read more about political correctness in the
textbook by S. Terminasova (p.215-228) & answer
the questions.
 Why did Political correctness erupt in the USA?
 Why is this term not appropriate? What is the
alternative?
 Who is James Finn Gardner? What is he famous for?
 Is Russian politically correct? Prove your point.
5. Humor. A) Discuss:
 What is there humor for? What is the purpose of satire?
B) Read the politically correct jokes & discuss them in
class.
We all know how literally impossible it is not to offend SOMEONE
these days, everyone is just SO TOUCHY... So this guide will help you on how
to speak about the opposite sex in a POLITICALLY CORRECT way...
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HOW TO SPEAK ABOUT WOMEN AND BE POLITICALLY
CORRECT
She is not a BABE or a CHICK; she is a BREASTED AMERICAN.
She is not a SCREAMER or MOANER; she is VOCALLY APPRECIATIVE.
She is not EASY; she is HORIZONTALLY ACCESSIBLE.
She is not an AIR HEAD; she is REALITY IMPAIRED.
She does not get DRUNK or TIPSY; she gets CHEMICALLY
INCONVENIENCED.
She does not have BREAST IMPLANTS; she is MEDICALLY ENHANCED.
She does not NAG YOU; she becomes ORALLY REPETITIVE.
HOW TO SPEAK ABOUT MEN AND BE POLITICALLY
CORRECT
He does not have a BEER GUT; he has developed a LIQUID GRAIN STORAGE
FACILITY.
He is not a BAD DANCER; he is OVERLY CAUCASIAN.
He does not GET LOST ALL THE TIME; he INVESTIGATES ALTERNATIVE
DESTINATIONS.
He is not BALDING; he is in FOLLICLE REGRESSION.
He does not get FALLING-DOWN DRUNK; he becomes ACCIDENTALLY
HORIZONTAL.
He is not QUIET; he is a CONVERSATIONAL MINIMALIST.
He is not SHORT; he is ANATOMICALLY COMPACT.
He does not HOG THE BLANKETS; he is THERMALLY UNAPPRECIATIVE.
http://www.lotsofjokes.com/politically_correct.asp
c) Make up a politically correct story using the vocabulary
pattern above. Read it in class & make other students
reinterpret (=literally translate) the story in everyday
English.
Politically correct bed time stories
6. Enjoy reading the extracts from satirical "politically
correct" fairy tale by Finn Gardner. Discuss the politically
correct terms and their usage.
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The Three Little Pigs
Once there were three little pigs who lived together in
mutual respect and in harmony with their environment.
Using materials which were indigenous to the area,
they each built a beautiful house... One day, along
came a big, bad wolf with expansionist ideas. He saw
the pigs and grew very hungry in both a physical and
ideological sense. When the pigs saw the wolf, they run
into the house of straw. The wolf ran up to the house
and banged on the door, shouting, «Little pigs, little
pigs, let me in!»
The pigs shouted back, «Your gunboat tactics hold no
fear for pigs defending their homes and culture».
But the wolf wasn't to be denied what he thought was
his manifest destiny. So he huffed and puffed and blew
down the house of straw. The frightened pigs ran to the
house of sticks, with the wolf in hot pursuit. Where the
house of straw had stood, other wolves bought up the
land and started a banana plantation.
At the house of sticks, the wolf again banged on the
door and shouted, «Little pigs, little pigs, let me in!»
The pigs shouted back, «Go to hell, you carnivorous,
imperialistic oppressor!»
At this, the wolf chuckled condescendingly. He thought
to himself: «They are so childlike in their ways. It will
be a shame to see them go, but progress cannot be
stopped».
So the wolf huffed and puffed and blew down the house
of sticks. The pigs ran to the house of bricks, with the
wolf close at their heels. Where the house of sticks
stood, other wolves built a time-share condo resort
complex for vacationing wolves, with each unit a
fiberglass reconstruction of the house of sticks, as well
as native curio shops, snorkeling, and dolphin shows.
At the house of bricks, the wolf again banged on the
door and shouted, «Little pigs, little pigs, let me in!»
This time in response, the pigs sang songs of solidarity
and wrote letters of protest to the United Nations.
By now the wolf was getting angry at the pigs' refusal
to see the situation from the carnivore's point of view.
So he huffed and puffed, and huffed and puffed, then
grabbed his chest and fell over dead from a massive
heart attack brought on from eating too many fatty
foods.
The three little pigs rejoiced that justice had triumphed
and did a little dance around the corpse of the wolf.
Their next step was to liberate their homeland. They
gathered together a band of other pigs who had been
forced off their lands. This new brigade of porcinistas
attacked the resort complex with machine guns and
rocket launchers and slaughtered the cruel wolfoppressors, sending a clear signal to the rest of the
hemisphere not to meddle in their internal affairs.
Then the pigs set up a model socialist democracy with
free education, universal health care, and affordable
housing for everyone.
Please note: The wolf in this story was a metaphorical
construct. No actual wolves were harmed in the
writing of the story.
B)
Три поросенка
Жили-были три поросенка, во взаимном понимании и полной
гармонии с окружающей средой. Используя природные
материалы своего края, каждый из них построил себе по
чудному домику... Однажды к ним пришел огромный, злой
волк с экспансионистскими идеями. Он увидел поросят и
сразу проголодался — и физиологически, и идеологически.
Увидев волка, поросята спрятались в соломенном домике.
Волк подбежал к домику и стал колотить в дверь, крича:
«Поросята, поросята, впустите меня!»
Поросята закричали в ответ: «Твоя интервентская тактика не
напугает поросят, защищающих свое жилье и свою
культуру!» Но волк не намеревался лишиться того, что он
явно считал своей судьбой. Он дул-дул, пыхтел-пыхтел и
сдул
соломенный
домик.
Напуганные
поросята,
преследуемые волком по пятам, перебежали в домик из хвороста. То место, где раньше стоял домик из соломы,
выкупили другие волки и основали там банановую
плантацию. У домика из хвороста волк опять стал колотить в
дверь и кричать: «Поросята, поросята, впустите меня!»
Поросята закричали в ответ: «Убирайся к черту, плотоядный
притеснитель-империалист!»
Волк снисходительно хмыкнул. Про себя он подумал: «У них
такие детские замашки! Очень жаль, что они исчезнут, но
прогресс не остановить».
И волк дул-дул, пыхтел-пыхтел и сдул домик из хвороста.
Поросята побежали к домику из кирпичей, а волк за ними по
пятам. Там, где раньше был домик из хвороста, волки
построили курортный комплекс тайм-шер для волковотпускников, где каждый блок воспроизводил домик из
хвороста, но на самом деле был изготовлен из стеклоткани, а
также магазинчик местных редких вещиц, бассейн для
подводного плаванья и шоу с дельфинами.
У кирпичного домика волк вновь заколотил в дверь и
закричал: «Поросята, поросята, впустите меня!».
На этот раз поросята в ответ запели песни солидарности и
написали протест в Организацию Объединенных Наций. К
этому времени волк уже разозлился из-за отказа поросят
посмотреть на ситуацию с точки зрения хищника. И вот он
опять дул-дул, пыхтел-пыхтел и вдруг схватился за грудь,
упал и умер от обширного инфаркта в результате
чрезмерного потребления пищи, содержащей повышенное
количество жиров.
Три поросенка возрадовались тому, что справедливость
восторжествовала, и сплясали вокруг мертвого волка свой
маленький танец. Следующей их целью было освободить
свои земли. Они собрали целый отряд из поросят, которых
прогнали с их родины. Новая бригада свинистов с
автоматами и ракетными орудиями атаковала курортный
комплекс и уничтожила злых волков-притеснителей, давая
понять всему полушарию, что не стоит влезать в их
внутренние дела. Затем поросята установили образцовую
социалистическую демократию с бесплатным образованием,
всеобщим здравоохранением и доступным для каждого
жильем.
Заметьте, пожалуйста: волк в этой истории — персонажметафора. Ни один волк не пострадал при написании этой
сказки.
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Cinderella
There once lived a young wommon named
Cinderella, whose natural birth-mother had
died when Cinderella was but a child. A few
years after, her father married a widow with
two older daughters. Cinderella's mother-ofstep treated her very cruelly, and her sistersof-step made her work very hard, as if she
were their own personal unpaid laborer. One
day an invitation arrived at their house. The
prince was celebrating his exploitation of the
dispossessed and marginalized peasantry by
throwing a fancy dress ball. Cinderella's
sisters-of-step were very excited to be invited
to the palace. They began to plan the
expensive clothes they would use to alter and
enslave their natural body images to emulate
an unrealistic standard of feminine beauty. (It
was especially unrealistic in their case, as
they were differently visaged enough to stop a
dock.) Her mother-of-step also planned to go
to the ball, so Cinderella was working harder
than a dog
Золушка
Жила-была молодая женщина по имени Золушка, чья
природная мать умерла, когда Золушка была еще
ребенком. Несколько лет спустя ее отец женился на
вдове с двумя более взрослыми дочерьми. Мачеха
Золушки обращалась с ней очень жестоко, а сводные
сестры заставляли ее трудиться до седьмого пота, как
будто она была их личным неоплачиваемым
работником.
Однажды в дом прислали приглашение. Принц решил
в честь эксплуатации неимущего и маргинального
крестьянства устроить бал-карнавал. Сводных сестер
Золушки очень взволновало это приглашение во
дворец. Они стали обдумывать дорогие наряды, для
того чтобы изменить свой природный образ в
подражание реально не существующему стандарту
женской красоты. (Это было особенно нереально в их
случае, так как они были столь нестандартной
внешности, что от их вида могли остановиться часы.)
Ее мачеха тоже собиралась поехать на бал, так что
Золушке пришлось вертеться как белке в колесе (подходящая метафора, но, к сожалению, некорректная по
отношению к виду животных).
Taken from Тер-Минасова С. Язык и Межкультурная коммуникация,
2000
C) Try to write your own politically correct fairy tale
"Kolobok".
7. Watch the video file taken from the popular humorous
program “Blue Collar”. Discuss it in class.
 Do you find it funny?
8. Vocabulary to be learnt from this module
1. Make up context for each of the words below in writing.
1. include
10. transgress
19. cause smb
28. -gifted
2. exclude
11. avoid
20. the crippled
29. -challenged
3. offensive
12. erupt
21. the handicapped
4. feel offended
13. punish
22. the retarded
30. police officer
5. offend
14. mob
23. the mentally-ill
31. flight
6. insult
15. prosecution
24. refer to
attendant
7. feel insulted
16. prosecute
25. upfront
32. chairperson
8. integrity
17. stout
26. tailor an issue
33. firefighter,
9. ridicule
18. robust
27. conceal the truth
2. Fill in the grid below
Verb
Noun
Adjective / Participle
(1) offended
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(2) ridicule
(3) prosecution
(4) insult
(5) tailor
(6) transgress
(7) cause
(8) crippled
3. Translate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Его действия оскорбили всех.
Необходимо проявить честность в этой
истории
В эту историю, осмеянную большинством,
некоторые, тем не менее, поверили.
Он был прямолинеен в своих намерениях
По своей воле я никогда не нарушал закон.
Module 10
Part 1
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Держись подальше от этой компании.
Его преследовали за мошенничество (fraud).
Его наказали за этою
Надо просто избегать разговора с ним
Он нарушил закон
Не обижайся, пожалуйста.
Color vocabulary in different cultures
Part1 Discussing color naming issues
1. Warm-up:
 As grownup learners of foreign languages can you say that all people all
over the world see the same colors & have the same vocabulary for them?
What is the difference? Are the concepts the same?
2. Read the small text below & say what the concepts of red
were in communist Russia & in the USA
Colors in different cultures
By Felicia Bratu
Some time ago, before the collapse of communism in
Eastern Europe, I heard a joke about colours: somebody
informed USA officials that the Russians were thinking of painting the entire moon
red to show their supremacy in space. Everyone was expecting to see the
Americans getting angry over this, but instead they were very calm about it. “Ok,
no problem, let them paint the moon red.” To which they added “We’ll just write
Coca-Cola on top of it and everybody will know who the best is…”
Same colour, two different meanings: red is
perceived as the colour of communism and Russia
used to be a communist country, but red is also the
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colour of Coca-Cola, which is a very well-known symbol of the United States.
http://www.wintranslation.com/articles/cross-cultural-articles/cross-culturalcolours/
Module 10
Part 2
Color Vocabulary in different cultures
2. a) Read what people say on the forum (user:
tikhonj & user: Natsu) discussing we way people from
different cultures see & name the colors.
How we gave colors names and it messed with our brains
 I was actually talking with some friends about just this recently. Particularly, I
speak Russian as well as English. In Russian, we actually have two separate
words for blue: one for light blue and one for dark blue. They are completely
different colors. My idea was that this actually changes how Russians view
colors as compared to English speakers. Good to see my idea has some
scientific backing :). I personally am in a particularly odd position: I learned
Russian first but still learned English at a very young age (5) and have since
used it more. I'm not entirely certain how this has affected my view of blue, but
I think I see it more like English speakers (e.g. not differentiating between the
two blues intuitively) than Russian speakers. This probably says something
about my relative comfort in the two languages. Another interesting thing is
that for the longest time I did not even realize that the difference was so
fundamental. I just took it in stride. When I thought about it, it was a little
weird: there is actually a different set of colors (rather than just shades of color)
in the two languages. The fact that I could go from one set to the other without
noticing is rather interesting as well.
 Japanese has something like that, too. See, Japanese didn't always make the
blue-green distinction[1]. Because of this, certain items get described as 青い
(aoi - green/blue) even though modern Japanese contains a word for green. So
both clear blue skies and green traffic lights are still called 青い.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ao_(color))
 The article states that most world languages do not actually make a distinction
between blue and green. To me this seems completely foreign, which is an
interesting insight on how much I take my language for granted. I can't even
imagine thinking of blue and green as the same color, just like most Russians
can't imagine thinking of синий and голубой as the same color (blue). While I
was brought up in a Russian family (we still speak Russian at home), I went to
an English school from the first grade, so for me the difference between синий
and голубой is much less ingrained than the difference between blue and
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



green. I think this just shows that while Russian is my first language, English
has really become dominant, for better or for worse.
There's an old study claiming there's actually some logic in how the
distinctions progress: "According to Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's 1969 study
Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution, distinct terms for brown,
purple, pink, orange and grey will not emerge in a language until the language
has made a distinction between green and blue. In their account of the
development of color terms the first terms to emerge are those for white/black
(or light/dark), red and green/yellow."
Interestingly, Finnish had no word for pink (it was called light red, though a
case could be made for roosa). There is one now (pinkki), but that's a loanword
from English.
In Danish pink is "lysserød" literally "light red", though pink is more or less
taking over.
I have a situation as a grown up learner of hungarian. Hungarian has no "red",
they have "blood/wine/redhead color" (vörös) and "sigarette pack/punk
hair/paprika color" (piros). As a foreigner I kept confusing them cause they do
not map directly over the red names I know. I am still not sure if darkness is all
there is to the difference.
http://news.ycombinator.org/item?id=4121859
b) Watch the video file from BBC Horizon: Do you see what I
see? "The Himba tribe". What does it prove? Make up
(formulate) the idea of the file & deliver it to the
class.
Module 10
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4b71rT9fU-I
Part 3a
Color idioms in English
3. a) Name some color idioms (if you know) & try to think
over what the origin of the color idioms might be.
# To be white with fear - the skin goes pale as blood is diverted to the muscles
& etc
out of the blue feel blue be in the red be in the
black paint the town red & etc.
b) Read the article & discuss the
origins of the idioms that are in the
article
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COLORS in English Idioms
Americans have used colors to create many expressions they use every day.
We say we are "in the pink" when we are in good health. It is easy to
understand how this expression was born. When my face has a
nice fresh, pink colour, it is a sign my health is good, If I look grey and
ashen, I may need a doctor.
Red is a hotter colour than pink. And Americans use it to express heat. In
English, the small hot peppers found in many Mexican foods are called
"red hots, for their colour and their fiery taste. We say that fast, fiery
music, especially the kind called Dixieland Jazz is red hot .”
Blue is a cooler colour. The traditional blues music of American blacks is
the opposite of red hot music, it is slow, sad and soulful. Duke Ellington and
his orchestra recorded a famous song, Mood Indigo, about the deep blue
colour, indigo. In the words of the song. You ain’t been blue till you've had
that Mood Indigo. To be blue, of course, is to be sad.
While the colour green is natural for trees, it is an unnatural colour for
humans. When someone does not feel well, someone who is seasick for
example, we say he looks green. When someone is angry because he does
not have what someone else has we say he is green with envy.
Some people are
green with envy
because someone else has more dollars, or
'greenbacks. Dollars are called greenbacks
because that's the colour of the back side of
the money.
The colour black is often used in
expressions. People describe a day in
which everything goes wrong as a “black
day”. A black sheep is the member of a family or group who always
seems to be in trouble. A "blacklist” is illegal now. but at one time, some
employers shared blacklists of people who should not be given work. Not all
the black expressions have bad meanings, A business in
the black, for example, is one with profits. A company "in
the red is losing money. Red ink is used to show losses in a
financial report. Profits are written in black. If someone tells
you to put something "in black and white, they want you
to write it down.
In some cases, colours just describe a situation. A "black out”, in World
War Two, was when all lights were turned off to make it difficult for bomber
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planes to find their target at night. A "brown out “ is an American
expression for reduced electrical power which makes electric lights dim.
American women use the French word for
red as the name of the colored, cosmetic
which they sometimes use to brighten their
cheeks. It's just called rouge. They use
it especially when they are going out for
the evening, or as. Americans say “to paint
the town red».
The colour yellow sometimes used to
describe a coward. A person who is
"yellow” has no courage. A person's skin may become yellow as a result of
diseases that attack the liver. Yellow fever is one. In the past, ships
carrying yellow fever victims raised a flag called the "yellow jack".
In the United States, an activist organisation of older people calls itself the grey
panthers”. The name comes from the panther, a fierce animal of the lion or
leopard' family.
c) Discuss:
- Below are your native language idioms with colours & compare their
meaning with those of English ones.
- Why are there so many Russian idioms that have much in common &
some of them that are completely different? for example: # “to be in
the black” & etc
Look through Russian color idioms. Translate them in
English. Pay attention to the idioms that coincide in word &
in meaning. Which idioms are unique & you can’t give an
equivalent, only explanations?
Can you explain the origin of truly Russian idioms (not
borrowed ones)? Consult any references if needed. Make a
report.
Красное словцо
Красный как рак
/ как помидор
Красная строка
Красная рыба
Весна-красна
Зеленый как
три рубля
Молодо зелено
Тоска зеленая
Елки зеленые!
В глазах
Чернее тучи
Черным по
белому
Черная работа
Черный нал
Черный список
Белый бычок
Белая горячка
Белая ворона
Шито белыми
нитками
Как сажа бела
Белая зависть
Белый флаг
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Красные береты
позеленело
Синий как
изолента
Синяк
Синий чулок
Синее море
Серый кардинал
Серая мышь
Серая масса
Серые клетки
Серые шинели
Мне все
фиолетово
Я что рыжий
Серобуро
малиновый
Черный юмор
Черный день
Черновик
Пить по-черному
Банька по-черному
Черный как черт
Черные мысли
Чернорусь
Черная магия
Черные (люди)
Беленькая
Белые (шахматы)
Белый свет
Беларусь
Белая магия
Белые тапочки
Белобрысый
Называть черное
белым
Белое пятно
(восстанавливать)
Белые пятна в истории
Желтый дом
Голубая мечта
На блюдечке с голубой
каемочкой
Голубая кровь
Голубой экран
Через розовые очки
Все в розовом цвете
Розовые мечты
Золотой век
Золотые руки
Золотая осень
Find the equivalents of some color idioms in English. Note
they have nothing to do with colors.
1.
2.
3.
4.
power broker
first draft, outline
pipe dream
as dull as ditch
water
5. be homely
6. a square peg in a
round hole
7. hand smth on a
silver platter
8. blank page
9. good golly! / holy
cow!
10. rainy day
11. not give smth a
hoot/ damn
12. black eye
13. bluestocking
Module 5
Part 3b
a) a person who exerts strong political or economic influence,
especially by virtue of the individuals and votes he or she controls;
b) utter boredom;
c) not to be attractive / plain;
d) (exclamation)used to express feelings such as surprise or fear;
e) an unknown event or period of time
f) if something is given to you on a silver platter, you do not have to
make any effort to get it;
g) a plan for a piece of writing in which each new idea or fact is
separately written down;
h) someone who is in a job or situation that is not suitable for them;
i) to not care at all about someone or something;
j) to save something, especially money, for a time when you will
need it;
k) a hope, idea, plan etc that is impossible or will probably never
happen;
l) a woman who is more interested in ideas and studying than in
parties, men etc - sometimes used to show disapproval;
m) a dark area around your eye because you have been hit:
4. Practise with color idiom
1. Complete the sentences by
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choosing the correct word from the list. Use one word
twice.
Blue black red
green
# I've paid off my overdraft at last! I must admit that I feel better now that I'm in
the black again. (Black )
1. I got a letter this morning saying that an uncle in Australia had left me some
money in his will. I didn't know that I still had an uncle in Australia, so it
was completely out of the__________
.
2. It isn't all that easy to get a visa and work permit for the States. There's still
a lot of _____ tape.
3. Don't believe all the bad things you've heard about Tom Spencer. He
isn't as_____ as he is painted.
4. The plans are ready, so as soon as you give me the ______ light I’ll start with
the construction work.
5. Do you still visit your friends in Edinburgh?. ‘No, since we moved to
Cambridge. Only once in a ______ moon , unfortunately.'
2. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct idiom.
1. 'What did you think of the Prime Minister's
speech?' 'Too many _______. She was trying to divert
attention away from the really important issues.'
white lies
black sheep
red herrings
2.
Tina came home and announced to her parents that she had got engaged to
Frank. It was ______ for them, because they hadn't even met him!
a red letter day
a black mark
a bolt from the blue
3.
'Some of the new plants in my garden don't seem to be growing very well' .
'Well, ask Ted what to do about them. He's got ____’
red tape green fingers grey matter a green belt
4. Mathew & Walter are both highly respectable lawyers. It's Simon who's
the_______ He went off to Mexico with a night club dancer.
blue-eyed boy
black mark
black sheep
5. If you see Robert, don't mention me. I'm afraid I was very rude to him last
night, so now I'm _______.’
in the black in the red in his black books
in a blue funk
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3. Put each of the following phrases in its
correct place in the sentences below.
A)
out of the blue in the red
a black sheep
in black and white
once in a blue moon
red tape
green with envy
to have green fingers to catch someone red-handed
1. The offer of a job sounded very good on the phone but I
shan't believe it till I have it _______________
2. I must remind you that this is a non-smoking office. I suspect that some of you
have been smoking. If I happen ________, I'm afraid it will mean dismissal.
3. To import firearms into Britain you'll have to fill in a lot of forms. There's a lot of
____ .
4. If you want to be a successful gardener, of course you've got_________.
5. The rest of the family were respectable, honest people but he was always in
trouble. I'm afraid he was ___________.
6. When I saw him in a new sports car, I was ____________.
7. Tourists often go to the Louvre but most Parisians only go ______
8. The firm is _________
. It owes a lot of money.
9. I had lost touch with Jack, and then one night he arrived at my flat
right________. What a surprise!
B)
red-carpet treatment
rose-coloured spectacles
a green belt
to see red
a red herring
blue-eyed boy
a white-collar job
a white lie
1. Naturally the President's wife received ________ on her visit
2. He said he didn't want to have ______________ . and sit in an office all day
3. All round the city there is___________ of open country where building is
restricted,
4. She loves animals and tends ______________ when she sees one being badly
treated
5. He told _ to avoid hurting his wife's feelings.
6. Everyone thinks he'll be Director of the firm one day. He's the ____
7. Be realistic . you can’t go through life looking at the world through _____
8. In class pupils sometimes introduce ________to distract the teacher from his subject
4.
Choose one of the colors below to
complete each sentences
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1. When I see people dropping litter in the street, it really makes me see
________
2. As long as your account is in the ________ you don't have to pay any bank
charges
3. His sister lives in a beautiful house & her financial success makes ________with
envy
4. I'm afraid my account is in the________at the moment & I don't think I could
afford to take a holiday
5. Things are going very well for Brenda at the moment. When I saw her she
really looked in the ________
6. When I started my own business, I was very ________& I had to learn some
important lessons the hard way
5. Go to http://www.flickr.com/photos/lfdeale/17589132/in/photostream/
& Study the flipchart. Write as many color idioms as
possible
6. Insert the right word in: You can use some of the words
twice or don't use them at all.
Red, pink, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, black,
grey, white.
1. All our holidays we were painting the town _________.
(веселились)
2. His prank (выходка) made me see __________.
(разозлила меня)
3. I have a big garden, but I haven’t _________ fingers. (я
не люблю заниматься садом)
4. He has failed his exam. He is so dark ___________. (подавлен)
5. Astrophysics lies in my __________ area. (область неопределенных знаний)
6. His foolish joke gave me a ______ face. (смутила меня)
7. – What is his profession?
- He is a _______-collar worker. (рабочий)
7. Watch video files from youtube Color Idioms (1,2,3) &
make up the list of all the idioms you've studied in the
module & the new idioms from the video according to the
table (at least 25 idioms)
Idiom
1.
Explanation (or definition)
Context of your own
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8. Think up your own exercise to practise the idioms in
your speech
Follow-up
Sum up all the ideas mentioned in this module & give a 5
minute talk on color naming peculiarity in English speaking
countries & in Russia.
Module 6
Part 1
7. Superstitions
Will superstitions always live in spite the
age of science?
1. Read the text "Black cats & broken mirrors & discuss it
with your group mates & do the tasks below
A) Are you superstitious? Read the
sentences. Then check ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Give
reasons .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Black cats are unlucky
It’s unlucky to break a mirror
If i point at the moon, something bad will happen to me
It is bad luck when a shoelace breaks
If my palm itches, I will receive money
When I want good luck, I sometimes cross my fingers or
knock on wood
7. I have a lucky number
8. I have something that I consider lucky – a lucky
pen or a lucky hat, for example
BLACK CATS & BROKEN MIRRORS
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Do you think that it is bad luck to walk under a ladder or break a mirror? Do
you think that black cats & the number 13 are unlucky? The three men in the
picture don’t. Every Friday the 13th they walk under ladders, break mirrors, & open
umbrella indoors. They want to prove that they aren’t at all superstitious. They
may be the only people in the world who aren’t. There are over one million
superstitions,& most people believe at least one or two of them.
Many people are superstitious about numbers. They think that they are lucky
& unlucky numbers. The number 13 is often considered unlucky. In some parts of
the world, buildings have the 13th floor & streets have no houses with the number
13. In Japan, 4 is considered unlucky because in Japanese the word ‘four’ is
pronounced the same as the word ‘death’. Japanese never give gifts of four knives,
four napkins, or four of anything. What are the lucky numbers?
7 is lucky in many places, & 8 is considered lucky in Japan &
china. In china, businesses often open August 8 (8-8), & many
couples register to get married at 8 past 8 on August 8.
Superstitions about numbers are so widespread that some
people – called numerologist – make a living giving advice about numbers. In
1937, when the Toyoda family of Japan wanted to form a car company, they
asked a numerologist if ‘Toyoda’ would be a good name for the company. The
numerologist said it would not be. He explained that ‘Toyoda took ten strokes of
the pen to write, & 10 was not a lucky number. ‘Toyota’ however, took 8 stroke to
write, & 8 was a very lucky number. The numerologist recommended ‘Toyota’ as a
better name for the company. The family took his advice. As a result, millions of
people drive ‘Toyotas’ & not ‘Toyodas’.
In addition to superstitions about numbers, there are many other kinds
of superstitions. There are superstitions about eating, sleeping, sneezing &
itching, about animals, holidays, horseshoes. There are even superstitions
about superstitions. Those superstitions tell people how to reverse bad luck.
For example, in many parts of the world spilling salt is bad luck. Throwing
salt, however, is good luck, so people who spill salt throw a little of the spilled salt
over their left shoulder. Throwing the spilled salt reverse the bad luck. When the
Japanese bump heads, they immediately bump heads again. According to a
Japanese superstitions, the first bump means their parents will die, but the second
bump erases the first bump. To reverse bad luck in general, people turn around
three times, turn their pockets inside out, or put their hats on backwards. In the
USA baseball layers sometimes wear their caps backwards when their team is
losing. It looks silly, but the baseball players don’t mind if it helps them win the
game.
Because there are so many superstitions, it is not surprising that some of them
are contradictory. In Germany it’s bad luck when the left eye twitches& bad luck
when the right eye twitches. In Malaysia, it is exactly the opposite. Accidentally
putting on clothes inside out brings good luck in Pakistan but bad luck on Costa
Rica. In Chile, unmarried people won’t take the last piece of food on the plate
because it means they will never marry. In Thailand, unmarried people take the
last piece because it means they will marry someone good-looking.
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Some superstitions have been with us for so long that have become customs.
In many parts of the world it is polite to say ‘Health’ or ‘God bless you’ when
someone sneezes. People used to think that the soul escape from the body during a
sneeze. They said’ God bless you’ to protect people from losing their souls. Today
we no longer believe that people who sneeze are in danger of losing their soul, but
we keep saying ‘Bless you’ anyway. We say not because we are superstitious, but
because we are polite.
Even people who say they are not superstitious would probably not do what
the men in the picture do – intentionally walk under ladders & break mirrors.
Almost everyone is at least a little superstitious. One woman says that she got
married, her aunt gave her white bath towels. ‘Never buy purple towels, your
marriage will end’. Does the woman believe that superstition?’ No, surely not, she
says. It’s silly’. Does she use purple towels? Well, no’ she answers. Why take
chances?
taken from 'Even More true Stories in English.
An Intermediate Reader'? by Sanda Heyer
2. Make a list of superstitions that some people in your
country believe. Here is an example from a student from
Panama:
1. Always sleep with your feet facing the door of your room.
2. If you give your sweetheart a handkerchief or socks, you will argue.
3. If you want a visitor to live, turn your broom upside down
4. If a young woman is sweeping & the broom accidentally touches her feet , she
will marry a rich old man.
5. To protect yourself from evil spirits, wear your pajamas inside out.
Why do people follow these superstitions in Russia
1. When people are going on a trip they sit down before they leave their home
2. When a new ship is put into water people break a bottle of champagne on its
side
3. Before people come into a new flat or house they let a cat come first
4. When people give knives as a present to their friends they take
symbolic money for them
5.
When people see a black cat cross their path they go around this
place or wait for smb else to go
Now make your list
taken from 'Even More true Stories in English.
An Intermediate Reader'? by Sanda Heyer.
3.
Try to give the definition of a superstition of your own
Originally the word superstition meant something like "standing
still in apprehension or awe," but since has been rather watered down in its
application and use. According to the writer Raymond Lamont Brown:
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
"Superstition is a belief, or system of beliefs, by which almost religious
veneration is attached to things mostly secular; a parody of religious faith
in which there is belief in an occult or magic connection."
Another way to put it is that superstition is an irrational or nonscientific
belief in the existence of certain powers operant in the world, with positive or ill
(usually ill) effects, and therefore a concomitant belief in the counter-effects of
amulets, tokens and such, and the power of certain actions (or avoidance of some
actions, such as not walking under a ladder) to diminish or deflect these ill effects
and/or to promote the positive influence (i.e. crossing one's fingers, or rubbing a
beneficent stone, for good luck) of these indeterminate and usually unnamed
powers.
http://urbanlegends.about.com/cs/folklore/f/superstition1.htm
a)
Look at the dictionary entry for superstition:
Super.sti..tion (,su:p ' sti n ) (n.) 1. Irrational belief or practice, either
cultural, personal or religious, usually founded on ignorance or fear, &
characterized by obsessive reverence for omens, lucky charms, etc 2. Any
rational belief, esp. with regard to the unknown
Do you agree that superstitions:
- are irrational
- are founded on ignorance or fear
- what is the difference between belief & a superstition?
b) Are the following examples of cultural or personal
superstitions
1. A boy has to have a certain lucky pen to write an exam.
2. A girl who's getting married refuses to se her future husband on the day of the
marriage, until they at the church. She also believes that she has to wear '
something old, something new borrowed, something blue'.
3. A seven-year-old girl's tooth falls out, so she puts the tooth under her pillow
4. A gambler always put money on grey horses.
5. A business man consults an astrologer before making an important decision
6. A footballer always puts his clothes on in a certain order before a match
7. On Christmas Eve , a child puts a mince pie & a glass of brandy out for a Father
Christmas
8. A person thinks: "If I get to the end of the road before that bus, I'll have a good
day"
Headway. Upper-Intermediate ???
LISTENING
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4. Superstitions in Russia & in England are a bit different.
Listen to the tape.
a) Note down the superstitions the Englishmen follow.
b) What will happen if you do the following
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
If you break a mirror ..................................................................................
If you put an umbrella up in the house ........................................................
If you see three magpies (black & white birds) ..........................................
If you see four magpies .................................................................................
If you put a head on a bed ............................................................................
If you put two teaspoons on a saucer with your cup ....................................
If you mention the word Macbeth in a theatre ...............................................
c) Do those superstitions differ from those ones in Russia?
d) Form small conversation group. Ask students in your
group if they know any superstitions about :
Salt
Ladders
Mirrors
brooms
Combs
Knives
Shoes
Black cats
Crows
owls
Rabbits
Elephants
Horseshoe
Garlic
Four-leave clover
Numbers
Hiccups
Intching
Sneezing
Ears ringing
Eye twitching
Shivering
Whistling
Cutting nails
Taking photos
Giving gifts
Dropping
silverware
Cooking
Eating a pear
Chopsticks
Sleeping
Dreams
Leaving the house
Finding a coin
Opening an umbrella
Knocking on wood
Wedding
New Year's day
Funeral proccession
5. Talking point! Discuss the following questions:
1. Which superstitions do you perform? Do you have any superstitions yourself?
Do you have any cures (How do you reverse bad luck?)
2. How would you define “superstition”? What does it mean for you to be s-s
3. Why do some people believe such weird things?
4. Which British superstitions are similar to ours?
5. Why do many ancient, primitive superstitions survive in the age of science?
6. Why are there some superstitions contradictory to the s-s in other countries?
7. What’s your lucky color / clothes ? Do you have something lucky(a charm) like
# teddy bear
8. Is there anything unlucky for you?
9. How would you wish these people good luck? Would you telephone or speak or
send a letter/ card/present?
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- a friend who is going for an interview for a job
- a neighbor who is going to take a driving test
- someone who is going to take an exam
- a friend who is going to have a baby
- a friend who is moving to a new flat
- friends who are going to marry
10.Are there any typical gestures or
superstitions beliefs that are unknown
elsewhere?
11.Have you ever thrown a coin into a fountain
& made a wish?
12.If you could choose between 12 & 13 rooms
in a hotel. Which would you choose?
13.Do you read your horoscope in a magazines
or newspapers?
14.What do you do before an exam or an
interview?
15.How do you feel if a black cat crosses your path?
16.Why do some people seem to be unlucky or “accident-prone”, while other are
born ‘lucky’. Do you know any people like that
17.Translate “Better safe than sorry”
18.Are women more superstitious than men?
LISTENING
6. You are going to hear a programme made about
superstitions. Tick the superstitions you hear
1. Black cats
6. Touch wood!
11.Cross knives
2. Walk under ladders 7. Have lilacs in thehouse 12.Have itching palm
3. Broken mirrors
8. Open an umbrella
13.Spill salt
4. Find an egg laid in
9. Pick up a coin
14.See new moon
the hay
10.Hem of smb's skirt
through glass
5. Red & white flowers
comes down
together
7. Back-translate this text into English & discuss the
problem. Do you find the author’s opinion of superstitions
accurate?
СУЕВЕРНЫЛИРУССКИЕ?
В глубине души русские – это мистически
и суеверный народ. Я припоминаю как
один русский поэт с полной серьезностью
как-то мне посоветовал никогда не
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возвращаться домой, если я точно что-нибудь забыл, потому что выходить
из дома второй раз дурной знак. Одна образованная женщина
порекомендовала нашей семье, если кто-нибудь уезжает, собраться всем
вместе и некоторое время молча посидеть. Видно это был пережиток какогото религиозного обычая, потому что, поднявшись, она сказала:”Ну, идите с
Богoм!” Другие старались не упоминать точно место поездки, чтобы
уберечься от дурного глаза.
Другие русские из наших знакомых верили в знаки зодиака, как это
принято на Востоке. Некоторые , включая и образованных людей, с
убеждением говорили о том, что високосный год несчастливый, и относили
на его счет все несчастья. Если приближается такое важное событие как
рождение ребенка, принимаются все возможные меры предосторожности.
Дурной знак - заранее выбирать имя, считается нехорошо покупать подарки
заранее, а еще хуже – обсуждать предполагаемую дату. У русских также
считается дурным знаком ( скорее всего из чувства конформизма, а не из-за
суеверия) если ребенок левша, его сразу же «поправляют» на правую руку.
Русские не стучат по дереву так часто, как это делаем мы, но с этой же
целью плюют (фигурально) через левое плечо. Тринадцать человек за столом
– не к добру, однако русские инженеры не боятся возводить тринадцатый
этаж.
Меня очень озадачивало то, что понедельник считается несчастливым
днем для начала серьезных дел. Я так и не мог этого понять , до тех пор ,
один знакомых советский журналист не объяснил мне, что понедельник –
это день похмелья и что именно поэтому многие поездки иностранных
корреспондентов устраивались в воскресенье вечером, я не в понедельник
утром.
Дурным знаком считается если кот, любой кот ( не обязательно
черный) перебежит дорогу. Но зато русские говорят, что во время новоселья
первый порог дома должна перейти кошка. Если птица залетает в дом, это
очень дурной знак, предвещающий смерть или тюрьму.
Судя по всему корни всех этих суеверий лежат в деревне, точно так
же, как и любовь русских к половицам и поговоркам и народным средствам
лечения. И горожане, и сельские жители зачастую предпочитают целебные
травы и горчичник, нежели современные средства от простых болезней.
Знакомому американцу посоветовали приложит пятак к опухоли. Мы
встречали русских, которые носили на шее ожерелье из чеснока, чтобы
предупредить простуду.
Настолько сильно у русских предубеждение против рукопожатия через
порог (из опасения, что это приведет к ссоре), что по возвращении в
Америку я с опаской протягивал руку через открытую дверь.
(H. Smith. The Russians)
a) Answer the following questions
1. Do you really think that Russians are superstitious?
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Would you prefer not to return to your flat if you happened to forget smth?
Do you take your zodiac name seriously?
Do you also think that leap years are also unlucky?
Would you buy things for your little one before it is born?
Should your child happen to be left-handed will you fight against it?
Do you keep the tradition of spitting over your left shoulder against the evil
eye?
8. Do you mind inviting 13 guests?
9. Do you ever start a serious undertaking on Monday?
10.Are you upset by a cat crossing your path?
11.Do you believe in folk medicine?
12.Do you ever shake hands across a threshold?
13.What do you think of the custom to sit down before starting on a journey?
b) Translate the text into English
1. Русские избегают хвалить здоровье маленьких людей, потому что это
может подвергнуть их опасности сглаза.
2. Конечно, это можно предотвратить, если вы сделаете вид , что вы трижды
плюете через левое плечо, произнося при этом «тьфу, тьфу, тьфу»,
подобно тому, как на Западе стучат по дереву.
3. В России на каждом шагу сталкиваешься с так называемой дурной
приметой.
4. Например, считается дурной приметой, если женщина с пустым ведром
пересекает вам дорогу.
5. Как и в других странах, плохо если черная кошка перебегает дорогу.
6. Русские стараются не ставить пустые бутылки на стол, а если вы
состригли ногти с пальцев ног, их не надо выбрасывать в туалет, только в
мусорное ведро.
7. Разбитое зеркало предсказывает чью-то смерть, а не 7 неудачных лет как
это читается в западных странах.
8. Русские обязательно посоветуют вам посмотреться в зеркало, если вы
забыли что-нибудь и возвращаетесь домой.
9. Если в дом залетела птица, произойдет что-то нехорошее. Но если на вас
упадет птичий помет, это к деньгам.
10.Свистеть в помещении – не к добру: денег не будет.
Module 6
Part 1
7. Superstitions
Will superstitions always live in spite the
age of science?
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1. Read the text "Black cats & broken mirrors & discuss it
with your group mates & do the tasks below
A) Are you superstitious? Read the
sentences. Then check ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Give
reasons .
9. Black cats are unlucky
10.It’s unlucky to break a mirror
11.If i point at the moon, something bad will happen to me
12.It is bad luck when a shoelace breaks
13.If my palm itches, I will receive money
14.When I want good luck, I sometimes cross my fingers or
knock on wood
15.I have a lucky number
16.I have something that I consider lucky – a lucky
pen or a lucky hat, for example
BLACK CATS & BROKEN MIRRORS
Do you think that it is bad luck to walk under a ladder or break a mirror? Do
you think that black cats & the number 13 are unlucky? The three men in the
picture don’t. Every Friday the 13th they walk under ladders, break mirrors, & open
umbrella indoors. They want to prove that they aren’t at all superstitious. They
may be the only people in the world who aren’t. There are over one million
superstitions,& most people believe at least one or two of them.
Many people are superstitious about numbers. They think that they are lucky
& unlucky numbers. The number 13 is often considered unlucky. In some parts of
the world, buildings have the 13th floor & streets have no houses with the number
13. In Japan, 4 is considered unlucky because in Japanese the word ‘four’ is
pronounced the same as the word ‘death’. Japanese never give gifts of four knives,
four napkins, or four of anything. What are the lucky numbers?
7 is lucky in many places, & 8 is considered lucky in Japan &
china. In china, businesses often open August 8 (8-8), & many
couples register to get married at 8 past 8 on August 8.
Superstitions about numbers are so widespread that some
people – called numerologist – make a living giving advice about numbers. In
1937, when the Toyoda family of Japan wanted to form a car company, they
asked a numerologist if ‘Toyoda’ would be a good name for the company. The
numerologist said it would not be. He explained that ‘Toyoda took ten strokes of
the pen to write, & 10 was not a lucky number. ‘Toyota’ however, took 8 stroke to
write, & 8 was a very lucky number. The numerologist recommended ‘Toyota’ as a
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better name for the company. The family took his advice. As a result, millions of
people drive ‘Toyotas’ & not ‘Toyodas’.
In addition to superstitions about numbers, there are many other kinds
of superstitions. There are superstitions about eating, sleeping, sneezing &
itching, about animals, holidays, horseshoes. There are even superstitions
about superstitions. Those superstitions tell people how to reverse bad luck.
For example, in many parts of the world spilling salt is bad luck. Throwing
salt, however, is good luck, so people who spill salt throw a little of the spilled salt
over their left shoulder. Throwing the spilled salt reverse the bad luck. When the
Japanese bump heads, they immediately bump heads again. According to a
Japanese superstitions, the first bump means their parents will die, but the second
bump erases the first bump. To reverse bad luck in general, people turn around
three times, turn their pockets inside out, or put their hats on backwards. In the
USA baseball layers sometimes wear their caps backwards when their team is
losing. It looks silly, but the baseball players don’t mind if it helps them win the
game.
Because there are so many superstitions, it is not surprising that some of them
are contradictory. In Germany it’s bad luck when the left eye twitches& bad luck
when the right eye twitches. In Malaysia, it is exactly the opposite. Accidentally
putting on clothes inside out brings good luck in Pakistan but bad luck on Costa
Rica. In Chile, unmarried people won’t take the last piece of food on the plate
because it means they will never marry. In Thailand, unmarried people take the
last piece because it means they will marry someone good-looking.
Some superstitions have been with us for so long that have become customs.
In many parts of the world it is polite to say ‘Health’ or ‘God bless you’ when
someone sneezes. People used to think that the soul escape from the body during a
sneeze. They said’ God bless you’ to protect people from losing their souls. Today
we no longer believe that people who sneeze are in danger of losing their soul, but
we keep saying ‘Bless you’ anyway. We say not because we are superstitious, but
because we are polite.
Even people who say they are not superstitious would probably not do what
the men in the picture do – intentionally walk under ladders & break mirrors.
Almost everyone is at least a little superstitious. One woman says that she got
married, her aunt gave her white bath towels. ‘Never buy purple towels, your
marriage will end’. Does the woman believe that superstition?’ No, surely not, she
says. It’s silly’. Does she use purple towels? Well, no’ she answers. Why take
chances?
taken from 'Even More true Stories in English.
An Intermediate Reader'? by Sanda Heyer
2. Make a list of superstitions that some people in your
country believe. Here is an example from a student from
Panama:
6. Always sleep with your feet facing the door of your room.
7. If you give your sweetheart a handkerchief or socks, you will argue.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8. If you want a visitor to live, turn your broom upside down
9. If a young woman is sweeping & the broom accidentally touches her feet , she
will marry a rich old man.
10.To protect yourself from evil spirits, wear your pajamas inside out.
Why do people follow these superstitions in Russia
5. When people are going on a trip they sit down before they leave their home
6. When a new ship is put into water people break a bottle of champagne on its
side
7. Before people come into a new flat or house they let a cat come first
8. When people give knives as a present to their friends they take
symbolic money for them
5.
When people see a black cat cross their path they go around this
place or wait for smb else to go
Now make your list
taken from 'Even More true Stories in English.
An Intermediate Reader'? by Sanda Heyer.
3.
Try to give the definition of a superstition of your own
Originally the word superstition meant something like "standing
still in apprehension or awe," but since has been rather watered down in its
application and use. According to the writer Raymond Lamont Brown:
"Superstition is a belief, or system of beliefs, by which almost religious
veneration is attached to things mostly secular; a parody of religious faith
in which there is belief in an occult or magic connection."
Another way to put it is that superstition is an irrational or nonscientific
belief in the existence of certain powers operant in the world, with positive or ill
(usually ill) effects, and therefore a concomitant belief in the counter-effects of
amulets, tokens and such, and the power of certain actions (or avoidance of some
actions, such as not walking under a ladder) to diminish or deflect these ill effects
and/or to promote the positive influence (i.e. crossing one's fingers, or rubbing a
beneficent stone, for good luck) of these indeterminate and usually unnamed
powers.
http://urbanlegends.about.com/cs/folklore/f/superstition1.htm
a)
Look at the dictionary entry for superstition:
Super.sti..tion (,su:p ' sti n ) (n.) 1. Irrational belief or practice, either
cultural, personal or religious, usually founded on ignorance or fear, &
characterized by obsessive reverence for omens, lucky charms, etc 2. Any
rational belief, esp. with regard to the unknown
Do you agree that superstitions:
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
- are irrational
- are founded on ignorance or fear
- what is the difference between belief & a superstition?
c) Are the following examples of cultural or personal
superstitions
9. A boy has to have a certain lucky pen to write an exam.
10.A girl who's getting married refuses to se her future husband on the day of the
marriage, until they at the church. She also believes that she has to wear '
something old, something new borrowed, something blue'.
11.A seven-year-old girl's tooth falls out, so she puts the tooth under her pillow
12.A gambler always put money on grey horses.
13.A business man consults an astrologer before making an important decision
14.A footballer always puts his clothes on in a certain order before a match
15.On Christmas Eve , a child puts a mince pie & a glass of brandy out for a Father
Christmas
16.A person thinks: "If I get to the end of the road before that bus, I'll have a good
day"
Headway. Upper-Intermediate ???
LISTENING
4. Superstitions in Russia & in England are a bit different.
Listen to the tape.
a) Note down the superstitions the Englishmen follow.
b) What will happen if you do the following
8. If you break a mirror ..................................................................................
9. If you put an umbrella up in the house ........................................................
10.If you see three magpies (black & white birds) ..........................................
11.If you see four magpies .................................................................................
12.If you put a head on a bed ............................................................................
13.If you put two teaspoons on a saucer with your cup ....................................
14.If you mention the word Macbeth in a theatre ...............................................
c) Do those superstitions differ from those ones in Russia?
d) Form small conversation group. Ask students in your
group if they know any superstitions about :
Salt
Ladders
Mirrors
Rabbits
Elephants
Horseshoe
Eye twitching
Shivering
Whistling
Sleeping
Dreams
Leaving the house
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
brooms
Combs
Knives
Shoes
Black cats
Crows
owls
Garlic
Four-leave clover
Numbers
Hiccups
Intching
Sneezing
Ears ringing
Cutting nails
Taking photos
Giving gifts
Dropping
silverware
Cooking
Eating a pear
Chopsticks
Finding a coin
Opening an umbrella
Knocking on wood
Wedding
New Year's day
Funeral proccession
5. Talking point! Discuss the following questions:
19.Which superstitions do you perform? Do you have any superstitions yourself?
Do you have any cures (How do you reverse bad luck?)
20.How would you define “superstition”? What does it mean for you to be s-s
21.Why do some people believe such weird things?
22.Which British superstitions are similar to ours?
23.Why do many ancient, primitive superstitions survive in the age of science?
24.Why are there some superstitions contradictory to the s-s in other countries?
25.What’s your lucky color / clothes ? Do you have something lucky(a charm) like
# teddy bear
26.Is there anything unlucky for you?
27.How would you wish these people good luck? Would you telephone or speak or
send a letter/ card/present?
- a friend who is going for an interview for a job
- a neighbor who is going to take a driving test
- someone who is going to take an exam
- a friend who is going to have a baby
- a friend who is moving to a new flat
- friends who are going to marry
28.Are there any typical gestures or
superstitions beliefs that are unknown
elsewhere?
29.Have you ever thrown a coin into a fountain
& made a wish?
30.If you could choose between 12 & 13 rooms
in a hotel. Which would you choose?
31.Do you read your horoscope in a magazines
or newspapers?
32.What do you do before an exam or an
interview?
33.How do you feel if a black cat crosses your path?
34.Why do some people seem to be unlucky or “accident-prone”, while other are
born ‘lucky’. Do you know any people like that
35.Translate “Better safe than sorry”
36.Are women more superstitious than men?
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LISTENING
6. You are going to hear a programme made about
superstitions. Tick the superstitions you hear
15.Black cats
20.Touch wood!
25.Cross knives
16.Walk under ladders 21.Have lilacs in thehouse 26.Have itching palm
17.Broken mirrors
22.Open an umbrella
27.Spill salt
18.Find an egg laid in
23.Pick up a coin
28.See new moon
the hay
24.Hem of smb's skirt
through glass
19.Red & white flowers
comes down
together
7. Back-translate this text into English & discuss the
problem. Do you find the author’s opinion of superstitions
accurate?
СУЕВЕРНЫЛИРУССКИЕ?
В глубине души русские – это мистически
и суеверный народ. Я припоминаю как
один русский поэт с полной серьезностью
как-то мне посоветовал никогда не
возвращаться домой, если я точно чтонибудь забыл, потому что выходить из
дома второй раз дурной знак. Одна
образованная женщина порекомендовала
нашей семье, если кто-нибудь уезжает,
собраться всем вместе и некоторое время молча посидеть. Видно это был
пережиток какого-то религиозного обычая, потому что, поднявшись, она
сказала:”Ну, идите с Богoм!” Другие старались не упоминать точно место
поездки, чтобы уберечься от дурного глаза.
Другие русские из наших знакомых верили в знаки зодиака, как это
принято на Востоке. Некоторые , включая и образованных людей, с
убеждением говорили о том, что високосный год несчастливый, и относили
на его счет все несчастья. Если приближается такое важное событие как
рождение ребенка, принимаются все возможные меры предосторожности.
Дурной знак - заранее выбирать имя, считается нехорошо покупать подарки
заранее, а еще хуже – обсуждать предполагаемую дату. У русских также
считается дурным знаком ( скорее всего из чувства конформизма, а не из-за
суеверия) если ребенок левша, его сразу же «поправляют» на правую руку.
Русские не стучат по дереву так часто, как это делаем мы, но с этой же
целью плюют (фигурально) через левое плечо. Тринадцать человек за столом
– не к добру, однако русские инженеры не боятся возводить тринадцатый
этаж.
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Меня очень озадачивало то, что понедельник считается несчастливым
днем для начала серьезных дел. Я так и не мог этого понять , до тех пор ,
один знакомых советский журналист не объяснил мне, что понедельник –
это день похмелья и что именно поэтому многие поездки иностранных
корреспондентов устраивались в воскресенье вечером, я не в понедельник
утром.
Дурным знаком считается если кот, любой кот ( не обязательно
черный) перебежит дорогу. Но зато русские говорят, что во время новоселья
первый порог дома должна перейти кошка. Если птица залетает в дом, это
очень дурной знак, предвещающий смерть или тюрьму.
Судя по всему корни всех этих суеверий лежат в деревне, точно так
же, как и любовь русских к половицам и поговоркам и народным средствам
лечения. И горожане, и сельские жители зачастую предпочитают целебные
травы и горчичник, нежели современные средства от простых болезней.
Знакомому американцу посоветовали приложит пятак к опухоли. Мы
встречали русских, которые носили на шее ожерелье из чеснока, чтобы
предупредить простуду.
Настолько сильно у русских предубеждение против рукопожатия через
порог (из опасения, что это приведет к ссоре), что по возвращении в
Америку я с опаской протягивал руку через открытую дверь.
(H. Smith. The Russians)
a) Answer the following questions
14.Do you really think that Russians are superstitious?
15.Would you prefer not to return to your flat if you happened to forget smth?
16.Do you take your zodiac name seriously?
17.Do you also think that leap years are also unlucky?
18.Would you buy things for your little one before it is born?
19.Should your child happen to be left-handed will you fight against it?
20.Do you keep the tradition of spitting over your left shoulder against the evil
eye?
21.Do you mind inviting 13 guests?
22.Do you ever start a serious undertaking on Monday?
23.Are you upset by a cat crossing your path?
24.Do you believe in folk medicine?
25.Do you ever shake hands across a threshold?
26.What do you think of the custom to sit down before starting on a journey?
b) Translate the text into English
11.Русские избегают хвалить здоровье маленьких людей, потому что это
может подвергнуть их опасности сглаза.
12.Конечно, это можно предотвратить, если вы сделаете вид , что вы трижды
плюете через левое плечо, произнося при этом «тьфу, тьфу, тьфу»,
подобно тому, как на Западе стучат по дереву.
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13.В России на каждом шагу сталкиваешься с так называемой дурной
приметой.
14.Например, считается дурной приметой, если женщина с пустым ведром
пересекает вам дорогу.
15.Как и в других странах, плохо если черная кошка перебегает дорогу.
16.Русские стараются не ставить пустые бутылки на стол, а если вы
состригли ногти с пальцев ног, их не надо выбрасывать в туалет, только в
мусорное ведро.
17.Разбитое зеркало предсказывает чью-то смерть, а не 7 неудачных лет как
это читается в западных странах.
18.Русские обязательно посоветуют вам посмотреться в зеркало, если вы
забыли что-нибудь и возвращаетесь домой.
19.Если в дом залетела птица, произойдет что-то нехорошее. Но если на вас
упадет птичий помет, это к деньгам.
20.Свистеть в помещении – не к добру: денег не будет.
Module 8
Part 1
6. National aspects of humor
1.Listen to some people who are discussing
a joke based on national stereotypes of the
Scots, the Irish, the English
a) Before listening
Read the dictionary entry for a definition of stereotype
Ster.e.otype / steritaip / n[(of)] usu. derog.(s.o. or smth that represents) a fixed set
ideas about what a particular type of person or thing is like, which is ( wrongly)
believed to be true in all cases: She believes she is not a good mother because she
doesn't fit the stereotype of a woman who spends all her time with her children ,/
the characters in the film are just stereotypes with no individuality./ racial
stereotypes -. Stereotypical adj.
b) While listening Note:
- what national characteristics are implied in the joke
- how the Irishman felt about the joke
- what other types of jokes the people thought were perhaps more
offensive
c) Talking point
What are views about the British? Make a note of your
views on the following subjects
 language
 attitude to
 attitude to
foreigners
 dress
sense
 behavior /
manners
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work
 food
 homes
 young people
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2. Read some other national jokes & comment the on.
What is the difference between garbage and an Irish girl? Garbage gets picked up.
What do you call a Greek with 500 girlfriends? A Sheppard.
Did you hear about the Iranian who locked himself out of his car? It took three hours to get his
family out of it.
What’s an Irish 7 course dinner? A six pack and a potato.
What does a Mexican order at Starbucks? Cap-a-Chino! - piseisea
'He's Just Not That Into Jew: A Guide to Inter-Faith Dating" - Lucey
Why do Italians wear gold chains? So they know where to stop shaving! - salasand
http://www.laughfactory.com/jokes/index/jokelist/id/18
3. National attitude explored
Read the following jokes & outline the ideas that
are laughed at.
CHINA You have two cows. You have 300 people milking
them. You claim full employment, high bovine productivity, and
arrest the newsman who reported
the numbers.
FRANCE You have two cows.You go on strike because you
want three cows.
JAPAN You have two cows. You redesign them so they are one-tenth the
size of an ordinary cow and produce twenty times the milk. You then create clever
cow cartoon images called Cowkimon
and market them World-Wide
JAMAICA You have two cows Whoa! catch that sucker before he jumps
the moon. no...wait.... he's just rollerskating wait a minute are cows
supposed to be purple and look like Bob Marley? Oh forget it. Pass the
pipe.
GERMANY You have two cows. You re-engineer them so they
live for 100 years, eat once a month, and milk themselves.
USA You have two cows. One is stupid, the other disagrees
with its ideals. It is arrested for terrorism and held in a cell for the rest
of its life with no trial. The other is elected president.
SWEDEN You have two cows. You bought them from IKEA and assembled
them yourself (it was cheaper). The Volvo cows last a lot longer but don't look as
trendy.
NEW ZEALAND You have two cows, the one on the left is kinda cute! Wait
a minute, it bleeted! It's really a sheep!
SPAIN You have two cows, you stick horns on them,
and get men to prance around an arena in clown outfits and
throw spears at them until they bleed to death.
MEXICO You think you have two cows, but you don't
know what a cow looks like. You take a siesta.
SWITZERLAND You have 5000 cows, none of which belong to
you. You charge others for storing them. If they give milk, you tell no one.
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ITALY You have two cows, but you don't know where they are. You break for lunch.
TEXAS You have two cows. You make beef. The beef is tasty.
RUSSIA You have two cows. You count them and learn you
have five cows. You count them again and learn you have 42 cows. You
count them again and learn you have 12 cows. You stop counting cows
and open another bottle of vodka.
CANADA You have two cows. On cold winter nights you sleep
between them. You wonder why you smell that way.
BRAZIL You have two cows. One bred from the most expensive and productive cows
around. It produces lots of good milk, so you feed it well, take extremely good care of it, and
build it a stable to sleep in at night. The other cow is a descendent of your grandfather's beasts of
burden. You feed it barely enough to keep it alive, and make it sleep outside. As a result,
although potentially strong and useful, it produces little milk. Depressed, it sits in a corner all
day playing a sad samba. Sometimes it steals the other cow's food, but you don't REALLY care
enough about either of them to act, as long as the milk still makes you money.
GREECE You have two cows. You claim subsidy from the EU for 400 cows. Your 199
first cousins, who also have two cows each, do the same.
When the EU inspectors come around, you shift the 400
cows from cousin to cousin (on the beautiful EU
subsidised Greek motorway system). Everyone gets
subsidies for 400 cows. On the proceeds you open a hotel and
drink Ouzo all day while you wife runs it.
HUNGARY You have two cows. One gives
nothing but sour milk. You sell it to your brother without
telling him.
IRELAND You have two cows. One is Catholic, one is Protestant. You
must keep them in separate fields, occasionally they bite each other
through the dividing fence.
Hatred stops milk production.
ISRAEL You have two cows. You insist they be pastured on a Palestinian's farm at no
cost.
One day, to feed his starving family, he milks them before you can. You demand the government
imprison him and build a police outpost so your cows can be watched.
PALESTINE You have two cows. You use one for a shield while you throw rocks at the
Israeli police. You put a time bomb inside the other and send it into an Israeli marketplace.
When both cows die you blame the Jews.
CUBA You have two cows. You leave one with your family and take the other to Florida
in a leaky boat. The cow makes it but you drown. The cow faces months of legal rangles and
publicity before being deported.
ZIMBABWE You have two black-and-white cows. You decide that you don't like the
white parts, so decide to hack them off with a knife. You then wonder why the cows seem to be
dying.
You blame the white cow in the next paddock for the whole thing.
SINGAPOR You have two cows. The government fines you for keeping two unlicensed
farm animals in an apartment.
http://www.radisol.com/cows/national.htm
4. Surf the net & do the research on American & British
humor. Prepare the analytical report about the categories of
American humor.
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



Say what is laughed at & why?
Is this types of humor critical in nature?
Why Is this types of humor unclear for other nations?
What national peculiarities doe it reflect?
The procedure of the research:
1. Read the jokes in a category
2. Systemize the things that are laughed at
3. Try to find explanations why this type of humor exist
4. Compare this category of humor with the humor in your
country
5. Express your attitude (say you like it or not & give your
reasons)
Bulb jokes
Dead baby jokes
Little Johnny jokes
Irish
& etc.
How many of your views are positive & how many are
negatives ? Compare your opinions in groups. How many of
your beliefs are the same ? Do you think this means they
are stereotypes?
d) Write paragraphs about national stereotypes of your
country. Say if you think they are true or false .
You may use the following patterns :
The ( name of nationality) are thought / said to ….. because ….. but most of people
I know …..
Jokes are often made about us … because we…. In some ways I think this true.
A popular view of ….. is that we all …. But actually ……….
Учебное издание
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Войткова Анастасия Николаевна
Patriotism:
American &British
values vs Russian ones
(in the world of linguo-cultural studies & cross
cultural communication)
Второе издание переработанное и дополненное
Учебное пособие
Печатается в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 13.11.2013. Формат 60х90/16.
Тираж 100 экз. Поз. плана 52к.**. Усл.печ. 3,25.
Зак. №
Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет
664025, г.Иркутск, ул. Ленина, 8
anastasiakaver@mail.ru
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