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202.Rendering and summary writing

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
Е. В. Турлова
RENDERING AND SUMMARY WRITING
Рекомендовано Ученым советом федерального государственного
бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального
образования «Оренбургский государственный университет» в качестве
учебного пособия для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего
профессионального образования по направлениям подготовки 032700.62
Филология
Оренбург
2014
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УДК 811.111'27(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73
Т 88
Рецензент – кандидат филологических наук, доцент А.В. Павлова
T 88
Турлова, Е.В.
Rendering and summary writing: учебное пособие / Е.В. Турлова;
Оренбургский гос. ун-т. – Оренбург: ОГУ, 2014. – 112 с.
ISBN
В учебном пособии представлены задания и упражнения,
необходимые для успешного освоения разделов «Аннотирование
различных типов текстов на английском языке» и «Реферирование
различных типов текстов на английском языке».
Учебное пособие предназначено для занятий по дисциплине
«Реферирование и аннотирование на иностранном языке» для
обеспечения аудиторной и самостоятельной работы
студентовбакалавров очной формы обучения по направлению 032700.62
Филология, профиль «Зарубежная филология» 2 курса очной формы
обучения в 4 семестре.
УДК 811.111'27(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73смссм
ISBN
© Турлова Е.В., 2014
© ОГУ, 2014
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Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………….…. 4
1 Rendering: definition and process of creating…………………... 7
1.1 The general scheme for rendering writing ……………………. 7
1.2
Identifying the topic and supporting details ……………….. 11
1.3 Rendering opinion articles ………………………………...…. 16
1.4 Rendering survey articles………………………………..…… 24
1.5 Rendering news articles …………………….………………. 36
2 Summary writing ………………………………………………. 49
2.1 General notes on summary writing …………………………. 49
2.2 Writing an Assignment Summary …………………………… 57
2.3 Focus on Language while writing a summary …………….… 66
2.4 Summarizing a scientific article ………………………….…. 75
3 Mixed bag: articles to render and summarize on your own …… 83
Bibliography …………………………………………………….. 112
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Introduction
“Rendering and summary writing ” - учебное пособие по аннотированию
и
реферированию различных
типов
текстов на
английском
языке,
предназначенное для обеспечения аудиторной и самостоятельной работы
студентов-бакалавров 2 курса в 4 семестре очной формы обучения по
направлению 032700.62 – Филология, профилю “Зарубежная филология”,
которое имеет своей целью систематизацию и обобщения практического
материала по темам “Аннотирование различных
типов текстов на
английском языке”, “Реферирование различных типов текстов на английском
языке” в соответствии со 2 и 3 разделами рабочей программы дисциплины
«Аннотирование
и
реферирование
на
иностранном
языке».
Данная
дисциплина является частью модуля «Реферирование и аннотирование» в
рамках реализации компетентностно-ориентированной модульной ООП по
вышеуказанному направлению и профилю.
Настоящее учебное пособие формирует базовые знания стандартных
методик и действующих нормативов создания различных типов текстов
(аннотация, реферат, обзор); методов и приемов создания, обработки
(обобщение и реферирование) и трансформации, анализа и интерпретации
различных типов текста на английском языке; а также развивает основные
профессиональные умения бакалавра филологии, которые являются частью
их
профессиональной компетенции - «создание на основе стандартных
методик и действующих нормативов различных типов текстов (например,
устное выступление, обзор, аннотация, реферат, докладная записка, отчет;
официально-деловой,
публицистический,
рекламный
текст);
работа
с
документами в учреждении, организации или на предприятии», а также
«доработка и обработка (корректура, редактирование, комментирование,
систематизирование, обобщение, реферирование) различных типов текстов;
подготовка обзоров» (ПК 12-13, ФГОС ВПО по направлению подготовки
«Филология», 2010).
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Учебное пособие состоит из трех разделов: “Rendering: definition and
process of creating”, “Summary writing” и “Mixed bag: articles to render and
summarize on your own”. Каждый раздел предваряется материалом
иллюстративного
характера,
включающим
пояснения
сути
процесса
трансформации исходного текста, аннотации и рефераты-образцы, клише,
способствующие развитию навыков реферирования и аннотирования на
английском
языке;
содержит
описание
лексико-грамматических
особенностей аннотаций и рефератов, а также упражнения для оптимизации
навыков составления аннотаций и рефератов различных типов англоязычных
статей и текстов, необходимые для активизации, закрепления и контроля
степени усвоения содержания учебной программы по указанной выше
дисциплине.
Кроме того, идя в ногу со временем, отвечая современным требованиям
к качеству образования, материал каждого раздела включает задания с
использованием online ресурсов, которые, помимо этого, являются заданиями
для групповой работы по созданию единого совместного проекта (подготовка
обзора по предложенной теме), что отвечает требованиям современных
работодателей о работе в команде. Выполнение такого рода заданий
способствует овладению навыками организации различных проектов в
рамках
реализации
проектной
и
организационно-управленческой
профессиональной деятельности бакалавра филологии.
Необходимость создания данного учебного пособия продиктована
потребностью ознакомить обучающихся с особенностями составления
аннотаций и рефератов различных типов текстов на английском языке,
поскольку данный вид профессиональной деятельности (прикладной)
является одним из основных для бакалавров филологии, а также
потребностью
погрузить
студентов
в
языковую
среду
с
помощью
современного аутентичного языкового материала (стати и тексты 2014 года
издания).
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Symbols and signs
theory and general information on rendering and summary
writing
clichés and schemes for rendering and summary writing
focus on language and grammar exercises
articles for rendering and summarizing in class
articles for rendering and summarizing in written form
team work
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1 Rendering: definition and process of creating
1.1 The general scheme for rendering writing
While working in an office one may be asked to prepare rendering or
summary of articles or reports on some important topic or urgent news. Or dealing
with the scientific research you may be in need of preparing a kind of synopsis on
some controversial scientific issue.
You are to read the given texts
attentively, represent them in a smaller
volume, suppressing all insignificant
information,
conclusion.
and
That
give
is
just
your
own
rendering
writing.
The point is you are to render the
content of the article under study which
requires a lot of skills and knowledge of
reconstructing and rearranging a written
Picture 1
passage without any considerable damage
to its context and idea(s) (picture 1).
Rendering can't be produced without thorough comprehension of the
passage. Dividing the text into logical parts and singling out the main idea of each
of them can be an essential help in understanding the passage. You will have to
read the original more than once.
The most important thing here is the compression of the information given
in the text, which means you should avoid repetitions and do not generally repeat
one and the same idea twice.
Rendering is the process of creating the text based on the notional
compression of the original with the aim of rendering its general matter. All the
events and facts in a rendering are presented from the point of view of the author
of the original and does not include any elements of interpretation or evaluation.
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Rendering can be performed with two aims: informative and educational. Since the
objective of this textbook is to provide you with tools for oral rendering in the
framework of Conversation Practice lessons, you will still be asked to give your
opinion of the original text at the end of your rendering.
A rendering has usually got the following structure:
- introduction, where you provide all necessary background information
such as the title and source of the passage and state the main idea;
- the body, where the main idea is revealed;
- the conclusion on the passage;
- your opinion of the problem (position) introduced in the passage.
There are several basic principles you are to follow in order to make a
successful rendering.
You have to develop your power of judgment, so that you may be able to
decide rightly what must be expressed and what must be suppressed.
In rendering, facts should be expressed as plain statements, with constant
reference to the author of the passage. Try to avoid evaluative words and phrases in
the body of the rendering, keep them for expressing your own opinion.
The term ‘rendering’ is a name for a type of learning exercise that is usually
used in universities in Russia. In British and American Universities a term
«abstracting» or «summarizing» is used to mean an independent work and is also
translated into Russian as «реферирование». An abstract is usually done in written
form and presupposes no personal opinion or interpretation.
Here is the chart representing the general scheme and useful
vocabulary for rendering.
Table 1 - The scheme and useful vocabulary for rendering
The plan of rendering
Expressions to be used in rendering
1
1. The title of the article
2
The article is headlined ...
The headline of the article I have read is...
As the title implies the article describes ...
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Table 1 continued
1
2.. The author of the article
2
The author of the article is ...
The article is written by ...
It is (was) printed in ...
It is (was) published in ...
3. The main idea of the article
The main (basic) idea of the article is ...
The article is about...
The article deals with...
The article is devoted to...
The article touches upon...
The article focuses...
The purpose of the article is to give the reader
some information about...
The aim of the article is to provide the reader
with some material (data) on...
4. The contents of the article, someAt the beginning of the text the author ...
facts, names, figures, terms
The author starts by telling the reader (about,
that)...
The author writes (states) that ...
According to the text ...
It is specially noted that ...
A mention should be made ...
It is spoken in detail ...
... is (are) noted (mentioned).
It is reported that ...
The text gives a valuable information about...
Much attention is given (paid) to ...
The article is of great help to ...
The article is of interest to ...
It gives a detailed analysis of ...
It draws our attention to ...
The difference between the terms ...and ...
should be stressed.
It should be stressed (emphasized) that ...
... is (are) proposed.
... is (are) examined.
An opinion permits…
The method proposed...
At the end…
In conclusion…
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Table 1 continued
1
2
5. Your personal opinion (only forAs for me (personally) ...
rendering done for educationalWhat concerns me personally ...
purpose)
To my mind ...
In my opinion ...
As far as I have come to understand ...
I consider (think) that ...
Here are some useful connectors to insert in your rendering to
arrange the passages properly:
further — далее
also — также
in addition — вдобавок, кроме того, к тому же
finally — в конце концов, в конечном счете, в заключение
on the whole — в целом
as started above — как изложено выше, как указано выше
in other words — другими словами
however — однако
on the one hand — с одной стороны
on the other hand — с другой стороны
thus — таким образом
therefore — следовательно, по этой причине, поэтому
consequently — следовательно
hence — следовательно, в результате
in all — всего
as opposed to — в отличие от
in particular — в частности
In the process of a rendering creating a number of clichés are generally used.
These clichés can be divided into the following groups.
Clichés concerning the general topic:
The text deals with ...
The chapter discusses an important problem of…
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Clichés concentrating upon the main idea:
The author emphasizes (outlines) the idea of...
The main idea of the text is...
The author believes ...
Не points out that...
Clichés summarizing upon the topic:
At the end of the article…
The author comes tо the conclusion…
On the reading the article we realize the fact that…
In conclusion, the article reads…
In summing up…
1.2
Identifying the topic and supporting details
Understanding the topic or the larger conceptual framework of a
textbook chapter, an article, a paragraph, a sentence or a passage is a
sophisticated reading task. Being able to draw conclusions, evaluate,
and critically interpret articles or chapters is important for overall
comprehension in college reading. Textbook chapters, articles, paragraphs,
sentences, or passages all have topics and main ideas. The topic is the broad,
general theme or message. It is what some call the subject. The main idea is the
«key concept» being expressed. Details, major and minor, support the main idea by
telling how, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many. Locating the topic,
main idea, and supporting details helps you understand the point(s) the writer is
attempting to express. Identifying the relationship between these will increase your
comprehension.
Grasping the Main Idea.
A paragraph is a group of sentences related to a particular topic, or central theme.
Every paragraph has a key concept or main idea. The main idea is the most
important piece of information the author wants you to know about the concept of
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that paragraph.
When authors write they have an idea in mind that they are trying to get
across. This is especially true as authors compose paragraphs. An author organizes
each paragraph's main idea and supporting details in support of the topic or central
theme, and each paragraph supports the paragraph preceding it.
A writer will state his/her main idea explicitly somewhere in the paragraph.
That main idea may be stated at the beginning of the paragraph, in the middle, or at
the end. The sentence in which the main idea is stated is the topic sentence of that
paragraph.
The topic sentence announces the general theme (or portion of the theme) to
be dealt with in the paragraph. Although the topic sentence may appear anywhere
in the paragraph, it is usually first - and for a very good reason. This sentence
provides the focus for the writer while writing and for the reader while reading.
When you find the topic sentence, be sure to underline it so that it will stand out
not only now, but also later when you review [1].
Identifying the Topic.
The first thing you must be able to do to get at the main idea of a
paragraph is to identify the topic - the subject of the paragraph. Think
of the paragraph as a wheel with the topic being the hub - the central
core around which the whole wheel (or paragraph) spins. Your strategy for topic
identification is simply to ask yourself the question, «What is this about?». Keep
asking yourself that question as you read a paragraph, until the answer to your
question becomes clear. Sometimes you can spot the topic by looking for a word or
two that repeat. Usually you can state the topic in a few words.
Let us try this topic-finding strategy. Reread the first paragraph on this page
- the first paragraph under the heading Grasping the Main Idea. Ask yourself the
question, «What is this paragraph about?» To answer, say to yourself in your mind,
«The author keeps talking about paragraphs and the way they are designed. This
must be the topic - paragraph organization». Reread the second paragraph of the
same section. Ask yourself «What is this paragraph about?» Did you say to
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yourself, «This paragraph is about different ways to organize a paragraph?» That is
the topic. Next, reread the third paragraph and see if you can find the topic of the
paragraph. How? Write the topic in the margin next to this paragraph. Remember,
getting the main idea of a paragraph is crucial to reading.
The bulk of an expository paragraph is made up of supporting sentences
(major and minor details), which help to explain or prove the main idea. These
sentences present facts, reasons, examples, definitions, comparison, contrasts, and
other pertinent details. They are most important because they sell the main idea.
The last sentence of a paragraph is likely to be a concluding sentence. It is
used to sum up a discussion, to emphasize a point, or to restate all or part of the
topic sentence so as to bring the paragraph to a close. The last sentence may also
be a transitional sentence leading to the next paragraph.
Of course, the paragraphs you'll be reading will be part of some longer piece
of writing - a textbook chapter, a section of a chapter, or a newspaper or magazine
article. Besides expository paragraphs, in which new information is presented and
discussed, these longer writings contain three types of paragraphs: introductory,
transitional, and summarizing.
Introductory paragraphs tell you, in advance, such things as the main ideas
of the chapter or section; the extent or limits of the coverage; how the topic is
developed; and the writer's attitude toward the topic. Transitional paragraphs are
usually short; their sole function is to tie together what you have read so far and
what is to come - to set the stage for succeeding ideas of the chapter or section.
Summarizing paragraphs are used to restate briefly the main ideas of the chapter or
section. The writer may also draw some conclusion from these ideas, or speculate
on some conclusion based on the evidence he/she has presented [1].
Exercise 1. Read the following paragraph and underline the stated
main idea. Write down in your own words what you are able to
conclude from the information.
Translate the italicized words and phrases before you read. Be sure
to use them while doing the task.
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to rise spectacularly
to launch
to be well documented
to have to be secured
What happened to the McIntosh apple?
The Apple Mac has risen spectacularly since its launch 30 years ago. But
the apple variety it's named after has gone in the opposite direction, writes Tom de
Castella.
It was 30 years ago this week that a bow-tied Steve Jobs plucked a boxshaped object from a bag. Standing on a stage, he introduced the world to the first
Macintosh computer. What happened next has been well documented. Less noticed
is the fate of the McIntosh apple. According to Walter Isaacson's biography, Jobs
was on a fruitarian diet when he visited an apple farm and hit upon the name.
McIntosh sounded "fun, spirited and not intimidating," Jobs said. It was making
technology seem like something that belonged to us rather than boffins. There were
still details to work out. The spelling changed to Macintosh to prevent copyright
problems, and rights had to be secured for its abbreviated form.
Exercise 2. Identify the topic sentence and the supporting details.
Pattern for analysis:
The Main Idea Sentence (the topic sentence)
Supporting Detail 1
Supporting Detail 2
Supporting Detail 3
Concluding (or Summary) Sentence
Translate the italicised words and phrases before you read. Be sure to use
them while doing the task.
to approve the use
satellite technology
to give the green light to
to maintain accuracy
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to ensure fast data speeds
to be exempt from the need
to access the internet
to rely on smartphones or internet-connected dongles
to cut off the satellite link
deployment of the technology
Faster internet on trains, boats and planes on horizon
People on boats, planes and trains could soon enjoy fast broadband on their
travels after Ofcom approved the use of new satellite technology.
The UK telecoms regulator has given the green light to the use of so-called
earth stations on moving vehicles.
Recent advances have improved the effectiveness of earth stations.
Newer antennas (antenna
) are capable of maintaining very stable
pointing accuracy, allowing the earth station to track the satellite closely, even on a
fast-moving vehicle, providing a reliable internet connection.
Valuable services
The regulator is making a relatively large amount of high-frequency
spectrum available ensuring fast data speeds and capacity at the stations.
Speeds could be reach around 50Mbps (megabits per second) to a single
earth station, which would mean speeds of more than 10Mbps for individual
passengers.
Trains will be exempt from the need for a spectrum license, but planes or
ships will need to be licensed by Ofcom, as they cross into other countries'
jurisdictions.
Currently people on the move can access the internet using a variety of
methods.
People on planes rely on entertainment consoles with a small amount of wifi also being made available, while wi-fi hotspots are often used on trains. Other
travellers have to rely on smartphones or internet-connected dongles.
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Trains could start using the technology by the summer, although experts are
not sure that it is the best solution, due partly to bandwidth having to be shared
among all passengers and the fact that tunnels will cut off the satellite link.
"The real solution for internet connectivity on the move in the UK is for
there to be a concerted effort to ensure that all the rail network has access to 2G,
3G and 4G services," said Andrew Ferguson, founder of broadband news site
ThinkBroadband.
"I suspect that we will be watching live video from the Mars One lander the current aim is for this is 2018 - before we are able to have a Skype video call
that does not drop out from the moment a train leaves London until it arrives in
Birmingham and you get off the train," he added.
For planes, the service will work outside UK airspace as long as airlines
adhere to local regulations, the regulator said.
Applications for ship- and plane-mounted earth stations will begin in
February, with the first commercial deployment of the technology on vehicles to
begin later in the year, it said.
Pattern for analysis:
The Main Idea Sentence (the topic sentence)
Supporting Detail 1
Supporting Detail 2
Supporting Detail 3
Concluding (or Summary) Sentence.
1.3 Rendering opinion articles
While rendering an opinion article one should remember to grasp the main
idea the author wants to express. An opinion article is a piece of
wring which expresses the author’s view point on some event or
problem. Use the general scheme for rendering.
Exercise 3. The idea of the article is not always stated in one topic
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sentence, sometimes it is implied. Identify the main idea of the opinion articles.
Translate the italicized words and phrases before you read. Be sure to use them
while doing the task.
in terms of the technological advancements
in both energy and water consumption
generating heat
to meet standards
energy and water efficient
can be reduced
an extended spin cycle
savings and environmental friendliness
to save energy consumption
expert knowledge and guidance
Laundry Appliances: How to Save Money and the Environment at the
Same Time
In terms of the technological advancements of laundry pair components,
washing machines have made marked improvements in both energy and water
consumption while new dryers still use about the same amount of energy as the
older models. Part of the reason for dryers' relative stasis in terms of energy
consumption is that, like gas and electric ranges, this half of a laundry pair is only
doing its job when it is generating heat, a physics-based action that has proved to
be difficult to improve. This is one of the primary reasons that dryers and ranges
are not included in the ENERGY STAR program and do not carry EnergyGuide
labels.
On the other hand, new washers that meet ENERGY STAR standards are far
more energy and water efficient than similar models that are more than a decade
old, saving about $135 dollars per year in utility bills. The savings are generated in
two ways:
•
New machines use less water so less energy is required for heating hot
water washes.
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•
High Efficiency (HE) detergents are now so effective that most wash loads
can be run in cold water. Generally speaking, hot water cycles can be reduced to
only those where the load has oily or greasy stains. Cold water washes save up to
90 percent on energy costs versus hot water cycles.
•
Go with an extended spin cycle - Because there is no heat involved,
removing water with a fast and extended spin cycle uses energy very efficiently
versus heated drying.
Savings and environmental friendliness don't have to stop with these
advances, however, and even the dryer can help out through a couple of easy steps.
Here are some of the measures you can take to wring even more savings out of
your laundry pair:
•
Dry similar fabrics together - A load of cotton fabrics can dry in about half
the time of a load of denim or terrycloth. By separating out fast-drying fabrics, you
can reduce drying times on these loads substantially.
•
Set the moisture sensor on the dryer - With most of the moisture removed
during the spin cycle, your drying cycle can be shortened dramatically. The
moisture sensor will stop the cycle as soon as the load is dry, saving unnecessary
energy consumption.
A new ENERGY STAR washing machine can save money and a couple of
new tricks can save even more. Additionally, reduced water and energy usage
helps the environment, making for a "win" on two fronts.
At Jessup's we call ourselves the appliance experts because we work hard to
offer our customers the best products at the lowest prices, along with great service
and support from trained professionals.
That is why we have had more than 40 years of growth and success because when you walk into Jessup's, we make sure you get experienced customer
service, expert knowledge and guidance, plus the lowest pricing possible.
Exercise 4. Study the words for another opinion article. Be sure to
use them while rendering the article:
to commiserate
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negligible
to collaborate
savvy
immune
profound
hack
to betray
Dalí: the first celebrity modernist
Call him a hack, call him a fascist but, on the 25th anniversary of Salvador
Dalí's (picture 2) death, it's time to admit the Spanish surrealist made modern art
popular and accessible.
Posted by Jonathan Jones Thursday 23 January
2014 14.48 GMTtheguardian.com
It is 25 years to the day since Salvador
Dalí died, in 1989. Is it an anniversary to celebrate,
or commiserate, or forget?
Picture 2
No one can say Dalí was a negligible 20th-century
artist. He was the first celebrity modernist.
Picasso and Matisse were famous – very famous – but the work came
first, celebrity second. By contrast, when Dalí made a speech in a diving suit or
collaborated with Alfred Hitchcock, he was turning self-promotion into an art form
– setting the stage for all artists since who have become pop culture icons.
It's striking that he died just as a new generation of media-savvy artists were
taking the stage. In 1989, Damien Hirst was soon to hire a shark fisherman. Dalí
was there first. High art lite? He invented it.
Yet I cannot pretend to be immune to his charms. I had a Salvador Dalí
poster in my bedroom as a teenager, and I thought it was really profound. I thought
his work was the definition of modern art.
I still do partly think that. There's a big problem with seeing the surrealist
movement as a pure, serious artistic phenomenon and Dalí as a hack who betrayed
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it. First, his best paintings are genuinely creepy and beautiful, and Un Chien
Andalou, his 1929 cinematic collaboration with Luis Buñuel, is a masterpiece. But
second, in taking modern art to the shops and turning it into telly, he recognised a
reality. The avant garde in the modern age has two choices: either it is for a
wealthy elite or it is for the masses. Dalí is accused, with some justice, of
everything from snobbery to fascism, but the paradox is that he made modern art
popular and accessible.
He also poisoned it with the past. As George Orwell once pointed out, Dalí
was a gifted traditional draughtsman. His paintings echo the Renaissance
and infect modern culture with art's wicked past.
So we are unlikely ever to forget Dalí.
Exercise 9. Read an opinion article on your own. Write out the
unknown words and use them in the rendering of your own.
Paul McCartney's surprise gig sees him busking in Covent
Garden
The former Beatle treated fans, tourists and workers on their lunch break to
songs from his new album after announcing an impromptu gig on Twitter.
Posted by Harriet Gibsone
Friday 18 October 2013 15.56 BSTtheguardian.com
In a space normally inhabited by tourists eating overpriced boxes of paella
and mime artists on a break stands a large, black truck with speakers stacked either
side of it. At 1pm in London's Covent Garden there are thousands of people, a mix
of zealous fans, gangs of nervous-looking people on their lunch hour and shop
workers peering out from their windows. Everybody's waiting. Waiting for a
Beatle.
The flurry of excitement began this morning when Sir Paul McCartney sent
a typically groovy message to his twitter followers ("I'm getting ready to pop up in
Covent Garden at 1pm today. Oh baby!") and now the entire space outside the
piazza is a sea of people trying to catch a glimpse of the singer, who released his
16th studio album ‘New’ this week.
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The gig is due to take place just down the road from where the famous and
frenzied Beatles performance on the roof of their record label in January 1969 took
place, a show which brought traffic on Savile Row to a standstill and was closed
down by police, who ordered the band's touring manager to turn off their amps.
At about 13:07, the crowd begins to get fidgety: the woman next to me
keeps mentioning a meeting she's supposed to be at in an hour, another girl to the
right, wearing a denim jacket covered in pictures of the Beatles, looks anxiously at
the stage as if her life depends on him appearing.
Men with mod haircuts stand next to women with
dreads, Spanish teenagers teeter behind with Scottish
men in their 60s, and in the distance I've spotted
popular bespectacled TV presenter Lizo Mzimba.
One celebrity point awarded. At 13.15 a man from
Picture 3
inside the van slowly peels back its side awning to
reveal a psychedelic piano and the neon bar artwork from his new album. The
process of unravelling the stage takes quite some time, about four minutes, and a
man behind me keeps making comments about how low-rent this production is so
far, somehow forgetting that he's about to see Paul MacCartney (picture
3)
perform for free.
At 13.28 the worried office woman next to me leaves for her meeting. Some
polite yet slightly demanding clapping begins and two revved up fans chant "Half
past one!", until a ripple of applause begins right at the front. Dressed in
monochrome, eyes casting across the horizon of people, Paul McCartney languidly
calls out from the stage: "Good afternoon, welcome to Covent Garden! We're
going to play some songs from the new album. So get your phones out – as if they
weren't already."
Starting off with single New, McCartney sits in front of his piano, wedged in
between his bassist and guitarist. "Buskin'!" he shouts. "I always wanted to busk
here." The flamboyant rock of God Save prompts the girl next me to quietly sob
with joy, and by the time he's worked his way through the country rock croon of
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‘Everybody Out There’ she's audibly weeping. "This is a change from the 60s as
we'd be coming out the clubs about now," Paul tells crowd, before launching into
‘Queenie Eye’. At this point I've potted someone who looks like Carol
McGiffin and the actual, real life Stella McCartney. Six points to me.
Right after he performs another rendition of ‘New’ – and dashes any hopes
of a classic Beatles track – he bids us farewell. "Thanks very much! Now back to
work."
Normality – aside from the curiously small street performer dressed as Yoda
– is again restored.
Exercise 9. Read an opinion article on your own. Write out the
unknown words and use them in the rendering of your own.
Contemporary Art in Your Homes
By Gregory Garcia
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8523605
In today's modern era contemporary art remains to find its place in homes,
commercial offices and buildings. This is because contemporary art is a true beauty
of the handiwork of seasoned artists and they are a great addition to beautifying a
room. Whether you want to create an ambient atmosphere suited for a relaxing
environment or one that will stimulate the senses of the viewer of the artwork, it
takes different forms to accomplish that effect. Some art collectors like to keep
artworks created by contemporary artists because of how intricately their works are
made. If you are planning to buy one, it helps to know these tips to help you find a
great collection of this artwork and how you can make them perfectly fit your
home designs.
Understand the purpose of buying contemporary art
There are many reasons why people like to buy inspiring art from the 70's.
Some buy them plainly for home decorating while others like to keep them at
home for their art collection gallery. There are also those that are looking for a
good investment to make from its designs and value. These are important
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considerations when looking for the contemporary masterpieces to buy and make
sure that when buying one it suits your purpose well.
Keep an eye on the price tag
Not all aged arts are created equal. Older pieces of artworks usually cost
more than the latest creation of the modern artists. If your goal is investment when
buying the artwork, then you should invest well and choose the higher priced
antique collections. If you simply want to show off a beautiful painting on your
walls, there are cheaper art collections that come as nice as the expensive ones in
terms of the design value.
The artistic value
The contemporary art value is also regarded in consideration of its creator.
Seasoned contemporary artists are known for their handiwork, skills and reputation
in their field of industry and their works are already considered of high value in
terms of quality, design and longevity. Avoid buying contemporary arts that are
worthless and created by artists that simply copied their art from the style of the
other artists. Good artists are those that can express inspiring ideas and their works
are marked with originality. High quality masterpieces of this kind are likely to be
good investment. They usually retain their quality value especially in public
auctions.
Determine your taste
Contemporary art evolves and it may take different forms. Your choice will
depend upon your own taste of style and design from a contemporary masterpiece.
You can choose from the modern approach of contemporary designs or remain to
opt for the conservative style of this masterpiece. Landscape paintings remain to be
popular in the industry but more bizarre and abstract designs of contemporary
paintings begin to emerge and are quite accepted by the contemporary art
community because of its exciting, intriguing and unique forms. When choosing
the contemporary art to buy, make sure that the design and color best suit in
complementing your home furniture and walls.
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Gregory is a supporter of contemporary art and recommends the
contemporary artworks at Mozumbo where you can find high quality masterpieces
of seasoned contemporary artists.
Exercise 10. Team work. In groups of 3 or 4 students choose
one of the following article categories (picture 4) and prepare
rendering of 6 articles on the topic chosen. Each of you does
his/her part of the work. One of you is to get a presentation of your articles in class.
Follow the link to find the articles for rendering - http://ezinearticles.com/
Picture 4
1.4 Rendering survey articles
Rendering a survey report is not that difficult but needs some set
phrases and phrases to be used. A survey is normally a formal piece of
writing based on research. It may be less formal depending who it is
addressed to, e.g. to a friend, a group of colleagues or a business client.
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Usually a survey consists of:
- an introduction in which you state the purpose and content of your survey
report;
- a main body in which all information collected on the topic is presented
in detail. The author can use sub-headings, numbers or letters to separate each
piece of information;
- a conclusion in which you summarize all points mentioned, give
recommendation or suggestions.
Points to consider.
* Before starting your report, consider who you are supposed to be,
according to the topic, and who the report is addressed to. This will be helpful to
decide on the style of the report. E.g. You work for a travel agency. Your boss has
asked you to write a report… This means you are an employee in a travel agency
and that your report will be addressed to your boss; therefore it should be formal in
style.
* Decide on the main heading of the report, then carefully plan the
information you will include in your report and divide it into sub-headings.
* Present tenses should be used in survey reports to introduce
generalizations. Use a variety of reporting verbs such as: state, report, agree, claim,
complain, etc. to introduce reported speech.
* Use expressions such as: one in five, seven out of ten, thirty per cent of the
people questioned, the majority of people questioned, a large proportion of, a
minority of, etc. to report the results of the survey.
* Facts may be supported by generalizations, e.g. Fifty-five per cent of
young people go to the cinema at last twice a month (fact). This indicates that the
cinema is still quite a popular form of entertainment among young people
(generalization).
Useful language for Survey Rendering.
To introduce: the purpose/aim of this report, as requested, this survey
was carried out.
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To generalize: in general, generally, on the whole.
To introduce other people’s opinions: many people consider, some people
arguer/believe/claim.
To conclude/summarize: in conclusion, all things considered, to sum up, all
in all.
Here is a model rendering of a survey article. Read it thoroughly and
underline statements containing information about the data discussed in the
article.
The article shows the rise in the number of visitors to Australia from a
number of other countries worldwide over the 1990s. Looking at the data on the
Unites States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and other countries in
Europe, we can see that the number of visitors to Australia from all these countries
increased significantly over the decade.
The biggest increase was in visitors from other countries in Europe, which
more than doubled over the period. The largest number of visitors came from the
United Kingdom, which rose from 258 to 509 thousand. Visitors from the United
States also increased over the decade. There were considerably fewer visitors from
Canada, although the figure rose over the same period from 51,000 to 75, 000, with
most of the increase occurring in the second half of the decade.
There were almost as many visitors from the United Kingdom as from all the
other European countries, including Germany. However, 1999 there were nearly as
many tourists from the other European countries as from the United States.
Australia is increasing as a tourist destination according to the survey date
given.
While rendering a survey article you may be asked to describe a graph,
table or chart. This means comparing and contrasting different parts of
the information or data. Look to see if the data changes over time or is
only about one fixed time. If it changes over time, you will need to
describe the general patters or trends you can see.
Look at the model rendering above and group the phrases into one of these
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categories (Table 2).
Table 2 – Describing and comparing trends
Describing trends
1
…increased significantly over
decade.
Comparing data
2
the The biggest increase was…
Useful language: describing trends.
rose
increased
The figure
decreased
The number (of…) fell
dropped
slightly
gradually
steadily
sharply
over the decade/year
over the same period
in the same time
between 1991 and 1994
from 1990 to 2004
significantly
dramatically
doubled
tripled
Exercise 5. For each of the examples below, write a sentence describing
the trend shown in the data in that section. Use the language box above to
help you.
1991
259
1993
267
US – The number of visitors from the USA increased
1995
335
1999
509
UK
1991
51
1993
48
Canada
1991
75
1993
102
Germany
slightly between 1191 and 1993.
Useful language: comparing data.
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Simple comparatives
Australia
Germany
is
Germany
is not
as
bigger
more
expensive
cold
than
Germany
the UK
as
the UK
Comparative structures to compare figures
There were
significantly
fewer (C)
(noun)
considerably
more
far
less (U)
slightly
There were nearly
as
Many (C)
(noun)
There were almost/more twice/three Much (U)
than
times as
than …
as …
Superlative structures to describe figures
The
biggest
largest
smallest
most significant
increase
number of …
was in …
was from …
Exercise 6. For each of the examples below, write a sentence comparing
the data in each section. Use the language box above to help you
Canada
48
Germany
102
UK
104
Germany
509
UK
258
USA
259
UK
509
Canada
75
Pattern - In 1993 there were more than twice as many
visitors from Germany as from Canada.
Exercise 7. Strategy. Read the statements below. Tick 5 sentences that give
good advice.
1. Describe the data and give examples.
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2. Write sentences about all the data using similar grammar sentence
patters.
3. Write an introductory sentence saying what the data is describing.
4. Check your grammar and spelling.
5. Give seasonal opinions.
6. Start with any general statements and move to specific information.
7. Use exactly the same words given in the question.
8. Make all your statements general.
9. Try to explain the data or give reasons.
10.Organize and present the data logically.
Exercise 8. Identify the main idea of the survey article. Translate
the italicized words and phrases before you read. Be sure to use
them while doing the task.
unemployment rate
claiming Jobseeker's Allowance
the unemployment rate to hit 7 %
to reassess their forecasts
to return to the 2 % target rate
to subdue
UK unemployment rate drops to 7.1 %
John May
The UK unemployment rate has dropped to 7.1 %, close to the point at
which the Bank of England has said it will consider raising interest rates.
The number of people out of work fell by 167,000 to 2.32 million in the
three months to November, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) said.
The ONS also said the number of people claiming Jobseeker's Allowance
fell by 24,000 to 1.25 million in December.
The Bank will consider increasing rates from 0.5% when unemployment hits
7%.
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The drop in the number of people out of work was bigger than analysts had
expected, raising the possibility that interest rates may rise sooner than previously
thought.
The strong jobs figures pushed up the value of the pound, which rose 0.4 %
against the dollar to $1.6541 and 0.5 % against the euro to 1.2214 euros.
'Record breaking'
The fall of 167,000 was the biggest drop since the autumn of 1997.
"Creating jobs and getting people into employment are central to our
economic plan to build a stronger, more competitive economy, so it is very
encouraging news that we've seen a record-breaking rise in employment over the
last three months," said Employment Minister Esther McVey.
Many analysts had not expected the unemployment rate to hit 7 % until
much later this year, and the significant fall in the three months to November is
likely to mean many will reassess their forecasts.
But the latest minutes from this month's meeting of the Bank of England's
Monetary Policy Committee, also published on Wednesday, indicated that the
Bank is in no rush to raise rates.
Given that inflation had returned to the 2 % target rate last month, and that
"cost pressures were subdued... members therefore saw no immediate need to raise
the Bank rate even if the 7 % unemployment threshold were to be reached in the
near future", the notes said.
The latest figures from the ONS showed that the number of people in
employment increased by 280,000 to reach 30.15 million.
Exercise 8. Read another survey article. Study the words and use
them in the rendering of your own.
attitudes
to matter most
consequence
to be better off
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to be worse off
the benefits of independence
to be opposed
the economic argument
Scottish independence: Economy matters most, says social attitudes survey
The authors of a survey on Scottish social attitudes said economic factors
mattered most to voters ahead of the independence referendum ( referendum
).
Issues such as EU membership and the pound were a much lower priority,
the ScotCen Social Research found.
Its consultant, Prof John Curtice, said voters wanted to hear about the
economic and financial consequences "of the choice that they make".
People in Scotland vote in an independence referendum in September.
They will asked the straight "yes/no" question: "Should Scotland be an
independent country?"
The survey, by the not-for-profit research group, involved interviewing
1,497 adults between June and October.
It found:
•
52 % would support independence, and 30 % would oppose it if they
thought they would be £500 a year better off;
•
15 % would support independence and 72 % would be opposed if they
thought they would be £500 a year worse off;
•
71 % of those who think Scotland's economy would be "better" under
independence say they "will" or "think they are most likely" to vote "yes";
•
and 86 % of those who think the economy would be "worse" are inclined
to vote "no".
The survey's authors also found that topics, such as the EU, the pound and
welfare, made little difference to their sample group's voting intentions.
The leader of the Yes Scotland campaign, Blair Jenkins, said the survey
demonstrated that momentum was "very much with yes".
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He added: "This research was, of course, carried out last year before
publication of Scotland's Future, the Scottish government's detailed guide to
independence and we know that the more people learn about the benefits of
independence the more likely they are to vote yes. The survey confirms that.
"We also know that the economic argument is key in this debate and if we
win the economic argument we will achieve a yes majority in September.
Better Together's Blair McDougall said he was encouraged by the survey's
findings.
He added: "People who have still to make up their mind are leaning towards
remaining in the UK and are rejecting separation."
"The reason for this is clear. The economic uncertainty of leaving the UK
has become the defining issue of the referendum with fewer than one in 10 Scots
believing they would be better off outside the UK."
Exercise 9. Read a survey article on your own. Write out the
unknown words and use them in the rendering of your own.
Times Higher Education pay survey, 2014
3 April 2014 by Jack Grove
Anger about the pay rises enjoyed by so-called “academic fat cats” in charge
of UK universities has been fiercer than ever this year – and the criticism has come
not just from those working within higher education.
University staff who went on strike earlier this year over a “miserly” 1 per
cent pay offer were, of course, the first to seize upon reports of the salary hikes
received by some vice-chancellors in 2012-13.
Picket lines buzzed with talk of the
“hypocrisy” of the heads who had lectured staff on
the need for pay restraint amid the uncertainty of
the new fee and funding system, but then pocketed
increases of 10 per cent or more themselves.
Picture 5
Outside the higher education sector, national
newspapers lapped up news that vice-chancellors from Russell Group universities
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had received an 8.1 per cent increase on average in the year that annual tuition fees
trebled to £9,000: The Independent ran the story on its front page.
Criticism of vice-chancellors’ pay also came from politicians, most notably
in this year’s annual grant letter in which Vince Cable, the business secretary, and
David Willetts, the universities and science minister, said they were “very
concerned about the substantial upward drift of salaries of some top management”.
The letter, sent to the Higher Education Funding Council for England in
February, called for leaders in the sector to “exercise much greater restraint”.
So which recent salary rises may have caught the attention of Cable and
Willetts?
Sir Keith Burnett, vice-chancellor of the University of Sheffield, is a likely
candidate. He accepted a £105,000 salary increase last year, which lifted his basic
pay from £265,000 to £370,000 in 2012-13.
About a quarter of this rise – £27,000 – was awarded in lieu of pension
payments no longer made by Sheffield after he left the Universities Superannuation
Scheme, but the rest – £78,000 – was to recognise “a period of real success” at
Sheffield under his leadership.
Calling Burnett “one of the most outstanding leaders in the sector”, Sheffield
pro chancellor Tony Pedder said the 26 per cent overall pay rise was awarded so
that his remuneration reflected “his national and international standing, and his
responsibility in leading a world-class and complex organisation”.
Union leaders have questioned the rise as Sheffield has refused to pay its
lowest-paid staff the living wage – £7.65 an hour – and last year the university set
up a subsidiary company, Unicus, to pay wages outside the nationally agreed pay
spine for higher education.
A pay rise that certainly caught politicians’ attention was the 10.9 per cent
salary increase awarded to Martin Bean, vice-chancellor of The Open University,
which took his overall pay and pension package to £407,000 – the third highest in
the sector. Last month, MP George Galloway tabled an early day motion
condemning “massive, above inflation pay rises of university vice-chancellors”
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and highlighting Bean’s rising remuneration package. “The appeal from
universities minister David Willetts to exercise restraint has fallen on deaf ears,”
the motion said.
Bean’s pay rise came despite The Open University’s student numbers falling
16 per cent in 2012-13 and its operational surplus halving to £18.8 million as parttime student levels were hit by the higher fee regime.
The Open University says that last year’s rise was awarded to restore Bean’s
remuneration after he took a 10 per cent pay cut in 2010-11 as the institution
adjusted to the new funding system.
The former Microsoft executive’s pay “reflects the scale and complexity” of
leading a “major international organisation and the UK’s largest university with
more than 200,000 students”, a spokesman adds.
But the highest-paid university head in 2012-13 was the newly arrived Craig
Calhoun, whose total pay package as director of the London School of Economics
stood at £466,000 in 2012-13.
Exercise 10. Read a survey article on your own. Write out the
unknown words and use them in the rendering of your own.
Survey: Health Records Hassle Is Top Area of Doctor
Dissatisfaction
Doctors say that filling in electronic records takes too much time away from
actually caring for patients (picture 6).
By Susan Brink March 11, 2014
In days of yore, when she scribbled orders with a pen, it would take two,
maybe three, minutes for Dr. Christine Sinsky to complete the paperwork to admit
a patient to a hospital. “Today, it takes me 20 minutes to record that same
information in an electronic health record,” says Sinsky, an internal medicine
physician in Dubuque, Iowa. What with waiting for screens to appear, drop-down
menus that may not contain the proper category and checking off all the boxes
required by federal regulations, medical data entry for hospital admissions and
routine patient visits adds hours of work to a doctor’s day. Those clerical tasks are
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landing in the laps of a highly trained workforce, people who have spent 12 years
or more preparing to care for sick people. “The doctor has been made into a data
entry clerk,” she says.
No one, including 80 percent of doctors
recently surveyed, wants to go back to the days
when illegible handwriting could lead to mistakes
in paper records, records that often could not be
located when and where they were most needed.
Picture 6
But a recent report on physician satisfaction
undertaken by the Rand Corporation with the support of the American Medical
Association came up with the surprising finding that hassles with electronic health
records were one of the top two areas of dissatisfaction among doctors. The other
leading source of professional frustration was that doctors felt bureaucratic and
regulatory obstacles got in the way of the best patient care they could provide.
As every CEO and small business owner knows, a satisfied worker is more
likely to be a productive and efficient worker. So, too, a professionally satisfied
doctor is the kind of doctor a patient wants to see. Studies show that when
physicians burn out, they make more mistakes, and the doctor/patient relationship
deteriorates.
Seeking potential solutions to physician burnout, researchers looked at 30
physician practices in six states - Colorado, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Texas,
Washington and Wisconsin. They personally interviewed 108 physicians and got
written survey responses from 447 more. “What really satisfied physicians was
good patient care,” says Dr. Mark Friedberg, a scientist at Rand and the lead author
of the report. “They have to perceive that they’re providing high-quality patient
care.”
That makes unhappy doctors the canary in the coal mine, he says. If doctors
are unhappy because they feel unable to provide the best possible care, then it’s not
just their problem. It’s a problem for everyone seeking health care.
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What’s encouraging from the report is that the most satisfied doctors truly
enjoy getting to know their patients, and want more time with them.
Exercise 10. Team work. In groups of 3 or 4 students choose
one and the same article categories (picture 7) and prepare
rendering of 6 survey articles on the topic chosen. Each of you
does his/her part of the work. One of you is to get a
presentation of your articles in class.
Follow the link to find the articles - http://www.naturalnews.com/survey.html
Picture 7
1.5 Rendering news articles
A news article describes a particular event or topic which is of
interest to the public. It is always written in a formal impersonal
style and gives accurate facts only, not catty descriptions. God news
article should consist of:
- a short eye-catching headline which introduces the subject of
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the article;
- an introduction which summarizes the event giving information about the
time, place and people involved;
- a main body consisting of two or more paragraphs in which the event is
developed in detail. Information about the cause(s) and result(s) of the incident
should also be inclined;
- a conclusion in which action to be taken or people’s comments on the event
are given.
Read a news article. Pay attention to the parts mentioned
above.
US east coast hit with heavy snow and bitter cold
The US east coast has been hit by the second major winter
storm of the year, with up to 12in (30cm) of snow, strong winds
and bitter cold forecast.
Even before the first flakes had fallen, US government offices in
Washington DC and schools in several states were closed pre-emptively.
As snow fell along major motorways along the US east coast authorities
warned of hazardous road conditions.
And more than 3,000 flights have already been cancelled in the US.
Another 800 flights were pre-emptively cancelled (
)for
Wednesday and Amtrak began to cut back train services on Tuesday afternoon
along its popular north-eastern route.
'Dangerously cold'
The storm comes two weeks after a weather pattern known as the polar
vortex brought heavy snow and record low temperatures to the eastern half of the
US.
Perilous conditions stretched for 1,000 miles (1,600km) from Kentucky to
Massachusetts on Tuesday, slowing traffic and sparking winter storm warnings.
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Washington DC is expected to see its heaviest snow fall in three years. The
White House cancelled an afternoon press briefing and a meeting of President
Barack Obama's commission on electoral administration.
Arrange the information given in the article in the following chart (Table 7).
Table 7 – The way to arrange the information from a news article
Categories
1
Time
Space
People involved
Events
Cause(s)
Consequence(s)
Comment
Action taken
Information
2
Points to consider while rendering a news article:
- give all necessary information accurately and in detail;
- do not write about your feelings or your point of view
concerning the incidents;
- use passive voice and direct/reported speech to include people’s comments
and make the news report more interesting.
The scheme for rendering a news article:
Paragraph 1. Introduction - summary of the event – time, place, people
involved;
Paragraph 2, 3, 4. Main Body – description of the main events and people
involved – give detailed facts;
Final Paragraph. Conclusion – comments, reference to future developments.
Read another survey article. Study the words and use them in
the rendering of your own.
carat
diamond
to mine
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vivid
saturation
to yield a polished stone
at a Sotheby's auction
to be auctioned for $10.8m
Rare Blue Diamond found in South Africa's Cullinan mine
The "exceptional" 29.6 carat blue diamond is the latest rare stone to be
found in the Cullinan mine.
A rare blue diamond has been discovered in a mine in South Africa.
The 29.6-carat stone was recovered by Petra Diamonds at its Cullinan mine,
about 40km (25 miles) north-east of Pretoria.
"This stone is one of the most exceptional stones recovered at Cullinan
during Petra's operation of the mine," the company said.
Petra unearthed a 25.5 carat blue diamond which sold for $16.9m (£10.3m)
in 2013.
'Class of its own'
The latest discovery is also expected to sell for a high price.
The Cullinan mine is famed for the production of blue diamonds.
"The stone is an outstanding vivid blue with extraordinary saturation, tone
and clarity, and has the potential to yield a polished stone of great value and
importance," Petra said in a statement on Tuesday.
Cullinan mine has produced hundreds of large stones and is famed for its
production of blue diamonds - among the rarest and most highly coveted of all
diamonds.
The mine was acquired in 2008 by Petra Diamonds, which also operates in
Botswana and Tanzania.
A similar 26.6-carat blue rough diamond discovered by the company in May
2009 was cut into a near perfect stone and fetched just under $10m at a Sotheby's
auction.
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Another deep-blue diamond from Cullinan was auctioned for $10.8m in
2012 and set a world record for the value per carat.
In 1905, the renowned Star of Africa blue diamond - the world's second
largest cut diamond - was discovered at the Cullinan mine.
The pear-shaped 530-carat stone was presented to King Edward VII and
became part of the British crown jewels.
Fill in the table with the information fro the article (Table 8).
Table 8 – The information from a news article
Categories
1
Information
2
Time
Space
People involved
Events
Cause(s)
Consequence(s)
Comment
Action taken
Exercise 4. Find the main idea in each of the following leading
sentences (the first paragraph of a news story).
Inmate
dies
in
'botched'
execution (picture 8)
One of two death row inmates who lost a case
in the Oklahoma Supreme Court dies of a
heart attack following a "botched" lethal
injection.
Picture 8
Clippers owner race row ban welcomed
The lifetime ban imposed on the LA Clippers
basketball team owner over racist remarks has
received widespread praise, with the team
sdhadhsfghsfPicture 9
coach saying it is the "start of a healing process".
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Missing plane MH370: Australia downplays wreckage claim. Australian
officials co-ordinating the search for the missing Malaysian plane have played
down a company's claim it has identified possible debris (picture 11).
Picture 10
Picture 11
Microsoft to launch Xbox One game console in China (picture 10).
It is the first foreign company to announce the sale of its consoles in China after
the country lifted a 14-year old ban in January this year. Microsoft will launch the
console in collaboration with BesTV New Media Co, a subsidiary of Shanghai
Media Group.
Exercise 5. Think of headlines for the following opening sentences of news
articles. What do you think the articles go on to say?
1. A bridge collapsed last Monday as a result of an earthquake which hit
Southern California.
2. Last night blackout has been traced to a mistake made by an employee at
Peterville’s central power plant. Engineer Harold Petty, 27, admitted having
pushed the wrong button on a control panel.
3. Medical researches in Britain say they may have found a cure for the
common cold. In a series of controlled tests a combination of certain vitamins has
been found to reduce symptoms dramatically.
4. It was announces yesterday that the panned motorway extension outside
Peterfield will go ahead despite protests from environmental groups.
5. Two brothers who had gone missing three days before were found last
night by a farmer, Davis Jones. They had been hiding in an abandoned barn on his
property.
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Exercise 6. Find the main idea of the whole article; make up a title
for it. Before doing the task translate the words and phrases from
the article.
Article source http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/01
former rival factions
the expected announcement
via one’s official Twitter account
to embrace
to vow to cut all ties with
to delay
to precipitate an economic crisis
conciliatory
The Israeli prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, has called on the
international community not to recognise a Palestinian unity government made up
of former rival factions Fatah and Hamas.
In a statement before the expected announcement of the full Palestinian
cabinet on Monday, Netanyahu again branded Hamas a terrorist organisation and
said the new government would strengthen terror and not peace.
Via his official Twitter account, he said the unity government "rests on
Hamas", which "calls for the destruction of Israel, and the international community
must not embrace it".
Earlier the Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas, said Israel had vowed to
cut all ties with the Palestinian Authority (PA) once the new unity government was
announced.
On Thursday, Abbas confirmed that Rami Hamdallah would serve as prime
minister in the new government, but the full cabinet announcement has been
delayed as the two factions wrangle over key posts.
Abbas said Israel was expected to withhold tax revenue from the PA, a move
last made in 2012 in response to a Palestinian UN statehood bid and which
precipitated an economic crisis that led to riots in the West Bank.
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Netanyahu and other senior Israeli politicians have been outspoken in their
opposition to the unity deal between Hamas and Fatah – agreed in April – which
brings to an end a seven-year feud between the two parties.
On Sunday, Israel denied travel permission to three Palestinian politicians
wanting to leave Gaza for the West Bank before their swearing-in as ministers in
the new unity government, the Israel Defence Forces' civil administration in the
West Bank told Israeli Army Radio.
The United States planned to give the West Bank and Gaza around $440m
(£262m) in aid in 2014, but in the aftermath of the April announcement a US state
department spokesman said the deal could have "potential implications".
The response in Europe appears more conciliatory, the EU having welcomed
the April deal. In a statement on 24 April, it said it had consistently called for
reconciliation between Hamas and Fatah and that it "welcomed the prospect of
democratic elections".
Exercise 7. Render the given news article. Find the main idea of the
whole article. Follow the scheme for rendering a news article.
Before doing the task translate the words and phrases from the
article.
to be convicted of apostasy
to authorise one’s release
imminent
to lodge an appeal against
death by hanging
to shackle
to renounce one’s Christian faith
Meriam Ibrahim lawyer dubious over Sudan government pledge to free
her
H Sherwood 30 April 2014
Article
source
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/01/meriam-
ibrahim-lawyer-christian-sudan-free-pledge-apostasy
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Elshareef Ali Mohammed, of defence team for Christian woman convicted
of apostasy, says only court can release his client
A lawyer for Meriam Ibrahim has expressed scepticism that the Sudanese
mother will be freed from death row in the next few days, saying only a court
could authorise her release – not government officials.
Elshareef Ali Mohammed told the Guardian: "Nothing has changed. Meriam
is still in prison. This was a political statement made under pressure from an
international campaign."
Abdullah Alazreg, an official with the Sudanese foreign ministry, told the
BBC on Saturday that Ibrahim's release was imminent. "The related authorities are
working to release Meriam through legal measures. I expect her to be released
soon," he was reported as saying.
Ibrahim's lawyers have lodged an appeal against her convictions for
adultery and apostasy, but Elshareef said the court had claimed the documentation
was incomplete. Human rights organisations have said they expect the normally
slow appeals procedure to be expedited in Ibrahim's case because of international
pressure.
Ibrahim was convicted after her marriage to a Christian man was declared
unlawful. She was sentenced to 100 public lashes for adultery and to death by
hanging for apostasy.
The 27-year-old told the court she had been brought up as a Christian after
her Muslim father left the family home when she was six. She married Daniel
Wani, a Christian Sudanese who now lives in Manchester, New Hampshire, and is
a US citizen, in 2011.
Ibrahim is being held in Omdurman's women's prison, near Khartoum, with
her 20-month-old son Martin and her newborn daughter Maya. She gave birth to
Maya last Tuesday while shackled to the floor of the prison clinic. Wani has been
permitted brief visits to his wife and two children.
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Ibrahim has refused to bow to pressure to renounce her Christian faith,
despite being told she will be hanged in two years after weaning her daughter. "My
wife is very strong. She is stronger than me," Wani said last week.
Exercise 8. Read a news survey article on your own. Write out the
unknown words and use them in the rendering of your own.
Barack Obama to urge European leaders to keep up pressure on
Russia
Associated Press in Washington; 30 May 2014; Article source
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/01/barack-obama-europe-visit-russiapoland-ukraine
President Barack Obama will press European leaders this week to keep up
pressure on Russia over its threatening moves in Ukraine, while seeking to assuage
fears from Poland and other Nato allies that the west could slip back into a
business-as-usual relationship with Moscow.
Obama's four-day trip to Poland, Belgium and France comes against the
backdrop of successful national elections in Ukraine and signs that Russia is
moving most of its troops off its shared border with the former Soviet republic. Yet
violence continues to rage in eastern Ukrainian cities and there remains deep
uncertainty about whether Ukraine's new president-elect can stabilise his country.
US officials contend that, even with some signs of progress, Russia has not
taken the necessary steps to ease tensions and could still face additional economic
sanctions. Obama will look for western allies to show a united front during a
meeting of the Group of Seven major industrial nations that was quickly arranged
after leaders decided to boycott a meeting Russia had been scheduled to host this
week.
But at least some parts of Obama's visit will challenge the notion that the
west has isolated Moscow. Russia's President Vladmir Putin is scheduled to join
US and European leaders in France Friday for a day of events marking the 75th
anniversary of the D-Day invasion at Normandy. Putin will also hold one-on-one
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talks with the French president, Francois Hollande, his first meeting with a western
leader since the Ukraine crisis began.
"Putin may not get to host the G-8 but if he gets to go to Normandy with
everybody, it begins to diminish the appearance of isolation," said Steven Pifer, the
former US ambassador to Ukraine who now serves as a senior fellow at the
Brookings Institution.
The White House says Obama will not hold a formal bilateral meeting with
Putin, though the two leaders are expected to have some contact. Officials also
disputed the notion that Putin's presence constituted a return to normal relations,
noting that Obama and other leaders have talked with the Russian president
throughout the crisis with Ukraine.
Yet those reassurances may be of little solace to Nato allies who sit near the
Russian border, particularly Poland, where Obama will open his trip Tuesday. In
April, the US moved about 150 troops into Poland to try to ease its security
concerns, but Obama is likely to get requests from Polish leaders for additional
support.
"He's going to hear a very strong message from Polish officials that the
mission has not been accomplished," said Heather Conley, a Europe scholar at the
Centre for Strategic and International Studies. "In fact, the work has only begun."
While in Warsaw, Obama will also meet regional leaders who are in town to
mark the 25th anniversary of Poland's first post-communist free elections. Among
those leaders will be the Ukrainian president-elect, Petro Poroshenko, who won
Ukraine's 25 May election and will hold his first bilateral meeting with Obama.
Exercise 9. Read another news article on your own. Write out the
unknown words and use them in the rendering of your own.
Mars: we're going to need a bigger parachute, says Nasa
Associated Press in Los Ageless; 30 May 2014; Article source
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/01/mars-bigger-parachute-nasahawaii
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The skies off the Hawaiian island of Kauai will be a stand-in for Mars as
Nasa prepares to launch a saucer-shaped vehicle in an experimental flight designed
to land heavy loads on the red planet.
For decades, robotic landers and rovers have hitched a ride to Earth's
planetary neighbour using the same parachute design. But Nasa needs a bigger and
stronger parachute if it wants to send astronauts there.
Weather permitting, the space agency will conduct a test flight Tuesday high
in Earth's atmosphere that is supposed to simulate the thin Martian air.
Cameras rigged aboard the vehicle will capture the action as it accelerates to
four times the speed of sound and falls back to Earth. Viewers with an internet
connection can follow along live.
Engineers cautioned that they may not succeed on the first try.
"As long as I get data, I'll be very happy," said the project manager, Mark
Adler of the Nasa Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The search for a way to land massive payloads on Mars predates the
existence of Nasa. Back then, engineers toyed with sending a winged spacecraft
that would land like an airplane, but the idea was not feasible, space historians say.
When the twin Viking landers became the first spacecraft to set down on
Mars in 1976, they relied on parachutes to slow down after punching through the
Martian atmosphere. The basic design has been used since, including during the
Curiosity rover's hair-raising landing in 2012.
With plans to land heavier spacecraft and eventually humans, Nasa needed a
heftier solution. So it designed a supersonic parachute that's 110 feet in diameter –
twice as big as the one that carried the one-ton Curiosity. It is so gigantic that it
cannot fit into the wind tunnels that Nasa typically uses to test parachutes.
Since it is impractical to test unproven technology on Mars, Nasa looked to
Earth as a substitute.
During the flight, a high-flying balloon will loft the disc-shaped vehicle
from the US Navy's Pacific missile range facility in Kauai to 23 miles over the
Pacific where it will be dropped. Then it will fire its rocket motor to climb to 34
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miles, accelerating to Mach 4. The environment at this altitude is similar to Mars's
thin atmosphere.
As it descends to Earth, a tube around the vehicle should inflate, slowing it
down. Then the parachute should pop out, guiding the vehicle to a gentle
splashdown in the Pacific.
Robert Braun, space technology professor at Georgia Institute of
Technology, called the project a "high-risk, high-reward effort".
The latest test programme "is advancing capabilities and creating the
engineering knowledge needed for the next generation of Mars landers," Braun,
who served as Nasa's technology chief, said in an email.
Nasa plans more test flights next year before deciding whether to use the
new parachute on a future Mars mission.
Exercise 8. Team work. In groups of 3 or 4 students choose one
and the same article source and prepare rendering of 6 news
articles. Each of you does his/her part of the work. One of you
is to get a presentation of your articles in class. Be ready to
compare the way the news is given on different news sites.
Follow the link to find the news - http://www.theguardian.com/uk,
http://rt.com/news/, http://www.bbc.com/news/ (picture 12).
Picture 12
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2 Summary writing
2.1 General notes on summary writing
A summary is an essential condensation of the paragraph read
in your own words. It answers the question «what is the author really
wants to say about the problem stated?». A summary is the result of
careful «listening» to the author and it remains faithful to the author's
emphasis and interpretation. No disagreement with critique of the author's opinion
is given in a summary.
To Summarize a Paragraph one should read the paragraph twice; isolate
the topic sentence; if it conveys reliably the meaning of the paragraph, consider it
your summary.
▪ Underlining key phrases and looking for any crucial distinctions or
contrasts which form the framework of the paragraph you will get a proper
summary of the article.
▪ And the last important idea but not least is writing your own summarizing
sentence which makes use of those key phrases or distinctions.
How to Summarize an Article.
▪ Ask yourself why the article was written and who is the intended audience.
▪ Consider the author's background. Does he have a special bias or point of
view?
▪ Compare the opening and closing paragraphs.
▪ Read the entire article more than once, if necessary.
▪ Underline key or repeated words and phrases.
▪ Distinguish the author's main idea from details which support that idea or
are repetitions and variations on the same theme.
▪ Draft a several-sentence summary which defines the author's main idea
broadly enough to account for most of the supporting material introduced.
How to Summarize a Complex Article.
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▪ Preview the article, skimming headings and first sentences; clarify any
difficult terms with a dictionary or glossary.
▪ Read the opening and closing paragraphs.
▪ Read the article at least twice.
▪ Isolate each important point as it occurs in the article and write it down in a
complete sentence.
▪ State the thesis of the article in one sentence.
▪ Note how ideas are related to each other - comparison/contrast, causeeffect relationships, problem-solution patterns.
▪ Write your summary by reconstructing the author's argument from your list
of important ideas; draw attention to the relationships among ideas by using
transitional phrases (like nevertheless, however, in contrast) [1].
In summarizing, you want to capture the essence of what the author has said,
but in fewer words. There is no point in a summary that is as long as the original.
Exercise 1. Here are some passages from an article about the
novels revealing the relationships between men and women.
Summarize them using the scheme below, limit your summary to 5065 words.
To summarize, follow the scheme:
▪ Read the passage at least twice or even more if the topic is completely new
to you.
▪ Decide on the essential points; write down key words and expressions that
remind you of these essential points. (These may come from the text or from you.)
Expand your key words into some sentences (3-4). One can write in the third
person (she, he, for example) even if the passage is given in the first person (I).
Adultery in Foggy London
By Marcus Clark Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8538056
This novel, published in 1961, is largely about relationships between
English academics in London. There is a mix of people, an American
psychotherapist, a wealthy wine producer, Martin, who relates the story, his artistic
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brother, a London School of Economics lecturer, and the mysterious Honor Klein,
half German and not to be trifled with.
Before long we find the characters in a turmoil of adultery, deception, and
infidelity, which gets messier with every page.
A Severed Head, is interesting and worthwhile to read. Don't be dissuaded
by the title: the severed head in question is a metaphor, not real. The novel is
basically about confused adultery between the seven characters, none of whom are
truthful to anyone, least of all themselves.
The protagonist, Martin, years into his affair with a much younger LSE
lecturer, is shocked and disgusted to discover his wife has been having an affair
with her psychiatrist for months. Martin does not even confess his affair after his
wife tells him about her affair. He hides it, to make sure she feels guilt, and this
allows him to hold onto hope that she might not leave him, which after all could be
inconvenient. He doesn't seem to be aware of his hypocrisy, or his avoidance of the
truth. He sees everything from his own perspective, anything that goes wrong is
someone else's fault.
His mistress, Georgie, keeps asking to meet Martin's brother, but he always
finds an excuse - he tells her he always passed his girlfriends off to his brother, the
truth is his brother always took his girlfriends away from him. Before long this
happens again, with Georgie becoming infatuated with Martin's brother.
Martin becomes infatuated - he says in love - with the psychiatrist's German
stepsister - it is not clear why. They hardly know each other, and have little in
common, but Honor Klein exudes some sort of power, intellectual or emotional,
that he feels, but does not understand. Oh but wait, it becomes more complicated
when he discovers the psychiatrist in bed, incestuously, with his stepsister.
Write out the key words from the paragraph given, it is done in the first
three passages for to get the idea, continue this work and compare the key words
chosen in small groups. Discuss the main idea(s) offered by the author in class
taking into account the key words chose.
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Exercise 2. Here are some passages from an article about Famous
Fantasy Adventure Novels That Became Movies. Summarize them
using the scheme below, limit your summary to 50-65 words.
To summarize, follow the scheme:
▪ Read the passage at least twice. Pay attention to the way it is organized. As
it is an article it has got a lot and very short passages. Compress the information
small passages contain in 3-4 sentences.
▪ Decide on the essential points; write down key words and expressions that
remind you of these essential points. Expand your key words into some sentences
(2-3).
Famous Fantasy Adventure Novels That Became Movies
By Rowan Casey Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8506274
What is it that makes a book a classic? What does it take to write a novel
that not only gets read through generations, and also gets watched as a huge
Hollywood movie?
This article examines the most famous fantasy adventure books of all time,
and what made them classics, with millions of die hard fans around the world.
The Lord Of The Rings
Some would say that this book is right up there in the top ten most read
books of all time, and it's definitely in the top ten most watched movies of all time.
Lord Of The Rings fans are sometimes called "ringers" and there's even a
term for fans of J.R.Tolkien.
There are "Tolkienists", "Tolkienites" and "Tolkienology" is a study of the
works of this amazing author.
He started writing the trilogy in 1937, and much of it was written during
World War two.
It's an epic adventure, the struggle between good and evil, taking you to a
world that contains demons, elves, dwarves, magic and wonder.
It took a long time for the movie to be made, because the CGI technology
was not available until the twenty first century that could do justice to the story.
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For a start, the main character is a halfling, a hobbit who is literally half the
size of men and wizards.
Tolkien said that the story was inspired by his faith, he was a devout Roman
Catholic.
The evil characters are very similar to demons, whether they be orcs, goblins,
or the leader of them all, Sauron, who represents the devil.
What makes these stories so great is they take you to another world that
doesn't exist, where an epic battle between good and evil takes place.
Harry Potter
The Harry Potter books are a good example of this theme as well. They take
you to a world where magic is an everyday thing, and where the evil Voldemort is
constantly seeking to destroy the hero.
Harry Potter is treated like the messiah, a very special little boy who grows
up knowing that he must one day save the world from destruction.
Both of these stories focus on a small boy, who starts out as a complete
nobody, but is called upon to save the whole world from an unimaginable magical
terror.
Harry Potter fans are called "Potterheads" or "Pottermaniacs" and they are
literally mad about the books and the movies.
Writing A Classic Fantasy Adventure Novel
If you are a writer yourself, all you need do is study these two trilogies, and
you will find the patterns in them needed to write your own classic.
1. A young child or poor nobody, who goes on to become very important.
2. A battle between good and evil with lots of action and violence.
3. Good friends, who stick together through it all.
4. A love story or two, to make it interesting.
If you follow that basic theme, let good triumph over a powerful evil, you
may succeed in writing a classic fantasy novel that will be read and perhaps
watched as well for generations.
Write out the key words from the paragraph given, compare the key words
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chosen in small groups. Did your classmates choose the same details that you did?
Discuss the main idea(s) offered by the author in class taking into account the key
words chose.
Exercise 3. Here are some passages from a bigger news article about.
Summarize them using the scheme below, limit your summary to 80100 words.
To summarize, follow the scheme:
▪ Read the passage at least twice. Pay attention to the way it is organized.
Compress the information small passages contain in 3-4 sentences.
▪ Decide on the essential points; write down key words and expressions that
remind you of these essential points. Expand your key words into some sentences
(2-3).
Qatar World Cup 2022: Fifa vice-president 'would support' re-vote
Fifa vice-president Jim Boyce says he would support a re-vote to find a new
host for the Qatar World Cup in 2022 if corruption allegations can be proven.
1 June 2014 Article Source - http://www.bbc.com/sport/0/football/27654587
The Sunday Times alleges Fifa officials accepted payments totalling £3m in
return for support of the Qatari bid.
Fifa's chief investigator Michael Garcia is already conducting a long-running
inquiry into the allegations.
"I would have no problem if the recommendation was for a re-vote," Boyce
told BBC Radio 5 live.
"If Garcia reports that wrongdoing happened for the 2022 vote then it has to
be looked at very seriously," Boyce told 5 live's Sportsweek programme.
"The Fifa executive committee are 100% behind Garcia," he continued. "He
will be allowed to go and speak to anyone from around the world to complete his
mission. All evidence should go to him and we will then await a full report on his
findings."
The allegations of corruption centre on former Fifa official Mohammed bin
Hammam, with the Sunday Times claiming to have obtained millions of secret
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documents that implicate the former Asian Football Confederation president in
corrupting members of football's governing body to win the 2022 World Cup.
The newspaper alleges the documents, seen by BBC sports editor David
Bond, show that Bin Hammam, 65, was lobbying on his country's behalf at least a
year before the decision to award the country hosting rights.
They also allegedly show he had also made payments into accounts
controlled by the presidents of 30 African football associations and accounts
controlled by the Trinidadian Jack Warner, a former vice-president of Fifa.
Qatar 2022 and Bin Hammam have always strenuously denied any
wrongdoing and that he actively lobbied on their behalf in the run-up to the vote in
December 2010.
When approached by the Sunday Times to respond to their fresh claims of
obtaining secret documents, Bin Hammam's son Hamad Al Abdulla declined to
comment on his behalf.
Bin Hammam has previously been at the centre of controversy in the
football world. He was initially banned from the sport for life in July 2011 after
being found guilty of attempted bribery over votes in that year's Fifa presidential
election.
However his ban was annulled a year later by the Court of Arbitration for
Sport which said there was insufficient evidence to support the punishment.
Fifa issued him with a second life ban in December 2012 for "conflicts of
interest" while he was president of the Asian Football Confederation.
In March 2014, the Daily Telegraph reported a company owned by Bin
Hammam had paid Warner and his family more than £1m. Payments were claimed
to have been made shortly after Qatar won the right to host the 2022 World Cup.
Qatar insists Bin Hammam never had any official role supporting the bid
and always acted independently from the Qatar 2022 campaign.
Garcia is already conducting his inquiry into allegations of corruption and
wrongdoing during the 2018 and 2022 decisions. He is due to meet senior officials
from the Qatar 2022 organising committee in Oman on Monday.
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Exercise 4. You are to make a summary of a bigger news article.
Do you best to make it at least twice smaller its size.
Cameron warned UK might quit EU over president - Spiegel
German magazine Der Spiegel says British PM David Cameron
warned that the UK could leave the EU if Luxembourg ex-PM Jean-Claude
Juncker became president of the European Commission.
It reported Mr Cameron as saying that the appointment could destabilise his
government, which might bring forward referendum plans on EU membership.
Downing Street has not yet commented.
Mr Juncker's European People's Party won the largest number of seats in the
European parliament in the May polls.
The centre-right grouping, which also includes German Chancellor Angela
Merkel's Christian Democrats, won 213 out of 751 seats in the Parliament and
chose Mr Juncker as its candidate for the presidency to succeed Portugal's Jose
Manuel Barroso.
But Mr Cameron and several other European leaders have voiced opposition
to his appointment, which has received the backing of Chancellor Merkel.
Brussels warning
Correspondents say Mr Cameron, at an informal EU summit earlier this
week, made his views clear - that he wanted a reformer to take charge of the EU
executive.
Der Spiegel says the British prime minister issued the warning to Angela
Merkel during the meeting in Brussels.
Quoting "sources close to the participants" of the summit, the influential
magazine said Mr Cameron told Chancellor Merkel that selecting Mr Juncker
could destabilise his government to such an extent that an in-out referendum on
Britain's EU membership would have to be brought forward.
The magazine quotes Mr Cameron as telling the German chancellor that "a
face from the 1980s cannot solve the problems of the next five years".
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A senior government source told the BBC it did not recognise the language
about destabilisation and that it is not something the prime minister would have
said.
But the BBC's Chris Morris in Brussels says it is no secret that Mr Cameron
opposes Mr Juncker and that the UK view is that the need for change is wellestablished.
The report comes a day after Angela Merkel made her clearest statement yet
of support for Mr Juncker and leaves her in a difficult position, our correspondent
says.
He adds that much of the German political establishment believes Mr
Juncker should get the job because his party will be the largest political grouping.
EU leaders traditionally choose the Commission head on their own, but
under new rules have to "take into account" the results of the European elections.
Downing Street has emphasised that it will be national governments - not the
European parliament - which will have to agree on the president.
Mr Juncker's main rival is the Socialist candidate Martin Schulz.
Mr Juncker is known for his role in chairing the Eurogroup of eurozone
finance ministers that had to make tough decisions about struggling debt-laden
countries.
Mr Juncker is not thought to be amenable to a wide-ranging renegotiation of
Britain's relationship with Brussels.
Other leaders opposing the appointment include Sweden's Fredrik Reinfeldt
and Hungary's Viktor Orban.
2.2 Writing an Assignment Summary
Of all the writing tasks so far, summary writing may well be the
one you are most familiar with. We make summaries of many different
things, including conversations, lectures, and readings. Our summaries
may be quite elaborate, or they may only involve one or two key
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words, depending on our purpose for writing them. These summaries of what
others have written or said are our own private material. Most often we use this
material for future reference. At the university especially, it can form an essential
part of our preparation for an exam, a class discussion, or a term/research paper. In
these situations, we are free to concentrate on what we think is important or
interesting about the source.
Sometimes, however, writing a summary becomes a task in itself, such as
when your boss or instructor assigns a summary. In this case, you are given the
opportunity to display your understanding of some material. This type of public
summary is relatively common in graduate student writing and may be a
foundation for other writing tasks.
In the first half of this textbook, you could successfully complete most of the
writing tasks by relying either on information that you already possessed or on
information that we provided. In the second half, you will pay more attention to
writing that involves the use of sources. This part deals with assignment summary
writing.
Writing an Assignment Summary.
Assignment summaries can be extremely challenging to write. A good
assignment summary has three principal requirements.
1.It should offer a balanced coverage of the original. (There is a tendency to
devote more coverage to the earlier parts of the source text.)
2.It should present the source material in a neutral style.
3.It should condense the source material and be presented in the summary
writer's own words. (Summaries that consist of directly copied portions of the
original rarely succeed.)
Notice that we have not said anything about the length of a summary,
because this will largely be determined by your boss/instructor. Often, instructors
will ask for a one-page summary of an article (or maybe a two-page summary of a
book). They may also ask for a paragraph-length abstract or even a minisummary
of 1 to 2 sentences (as is typical of annotated bibliographies). Since the sample
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texts we provide here are quite short, we expect that the summaries you write will
be half a page to a full page.
To do a good job, you must first thoroughly understand the source material
you are working with. Here are some preliminary steps in writing a summary.
1. Skim the text, noting in your mind the subheadings. If there are no
subheadings, try to divide the text into sections. Consider why you have been
assigned the text. Try to determine what type of text you are dealing with. This can
help you identify important information.
2. Read the text, highlighting important information or taking notes.
3. In your own words, write down the main points of each section. Try to
write a one-sentence summary of each section.
4. Write down the key support points for the main topic, but do not include
minor detail.
5. Go through the process again, making changes as appropriate.
Exercise 5. Read this adaptation of "Transformation of the Nile River Basin"
and underline the information you think is significant and should be included in a
summary. Next to each underlined section, briefly explain why you think the
information is important. The first paragraph has been done for you. Then in as
few words as possible, write in the margin what each paragraph is about.
Transformation of the Nile River Basin (adaptation)
The Egyptian landscape has been changing for
centuries. One area which has undergone dramatic
change over the last 7.000 years is the Nile River
basin. One of the most notable aspects of this
transformation is the year-round irrigation of land
for agricultural purposes, rather than a strict
reliance on the annual flood. Conversion to
continuous irrigation, which began around 1500
and was limited only by the level of technology, led
to improved agricultural productivity. This in turn
contributed to an increase in the population of the
area.
Large-scale conversion of agricultural land
involving perennial irrigation began in 1800 with
the availability of more modern technology. Water
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Reason for Highlighting
This is the
passage.
topic
of
the
The effect of the change in
irrigation
patterns
is
significant.
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could be retained, raised, and distributed to summer
crops with the aid of barrages (a bank of earth or
stones constructed over to provide water for
irrigation) constructed on the Nile below Cairo and
at sites on 30,000 km of new canals. Large dams
were built on the Nile at Aswan in 1902, 1912, and
1933.
_________________________
The final transformation to continuous
irrigation was finished with the completion of the
Aswan Dam in 1960. This full-scale change
brought about a major shift and expansion in
agriculture. Cash crops such as cotton, sugar cane,
and vegetables tended and still tend to be produced
at the expense of subsistence crops. Because
Egyptians have historically preferred to live within
or near the cultivated land area, agricultural
expansion has also had an impact on the
environment and livelihood of the Nile population.
As the amount of land available for _________________________
agriculture increased, so did the population. Egypt's
population has increased from 2.5 million in the
early 1800s to 9.7 million in the late 1800s, 18.8
million in the 1940s, 37 million in the mid-70s, 46
million in 1984.
_________________________
The population is projected to be 65 million
by the beginning of the next century. In 1907,
urban dwellers constituted only approximately 17
% of Egypt's population. By 1976, however, they
were 43 % of the total. Recent studies have
indicated that approximately from 1 to 2 % of
Egypt's arable land is lost annually to human
encroachment [2].
Exercise 6. The "Nile" passage is fairly easy to summarize because it is
factual, has three clear-cut sections, and follows a chronology. Take a look at
some attempts at summarizing some of the details in the third paragraph. Which
summary provides the right amount of detail? Explain your choice.
1.In the early 1800s the population of Egypt was 2.5 million. By the late
1800s it was 9.7 million. In the 40s the population reached 18.8 million; by the
mid-70s it had reached 37 million. In 1984 the population was 46 million. In the
year 2000 it is estimated that there will be 65 million Egyptians. One to two
percent of Egypt's fertile land is disappearing annually as a result of the growth.
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2.In the 1800s Egypt's population increased from 2.5 million to 9.7 million.
In the 1900s it grew again, from 18.8 million in the 1940s to 46 million in 1984.
By the next century, population will be 1.5 times that in 1984. A result of this
population growth is an annual 1 % or 2 % loss of agricultural land.
3.The Egyptian population has increased from 2.5 million in the early 1800s
to 46 million in 1984. It is expected to reach 65 million by the year 2000. Along
with this population growth, Egypt has also experienced a yearly 1 % or 2 % loss
in the amount of fertile land.
4.The Egyptian population has dramatically increased since the 1800s and is
expected to continue to increase. A small percentage of agricultural land is lost
each year because of the growth in population.
5.The Egyptian population in 1984 was nearly 20 times that in the early
1800s. By the next century, it should reach 65 million. Egypt is also losing
agricultural land as a result of the population increase.
Exercise 7. Now attempt your own summary of the third paragraph. Here is
a passage written by one of the students. It is more difficult to summarize than the
"Nile" passage because it is more argumentative. Read it and consider the parts that
have been underlined because they were considered significant. Do you agree that
the underlined sections are significant and for the reasons provided?
Global Implications of Patent Law Variation
This first sentence is a general
definition. It may be safe to assume that
your audience is already familiar with
patents; thus you do not have to include
it in your summary.
A patent is an exclusive right to
use an invention for a certain period of
time, which is given to an inventor as
compensation for disclosure of an
invention. Although it would be
beneficial for the world economy to have
uniform patent laws, each country has
its own laws designed to protect
domestic inventions and safeguard
technology.
Despite
widespread
variation, patent laws generally fall
under one of two principles: the first-tofile and first-to-invent. The first-to-file
principle awards a patent to the person
This is the main idea.
The classification of the two principles is
important.
Ignore specific details about the
different principles. The terms are selfexplanatory.
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or institution that applies for a patent
First, while the first-to-invent principle
grants the patent to the person or institution that was first to invent—and can
prove it. Most countries have adopted
the first-to-file system. However, the
United States maintains a first-to-invent
system despite obvious shortcomings
A result of countries employing
different patent law principles is
inconsistency of patent ownership.
Patent
ownership
is
not
recognized globally. On the contrary,
ownership may change depending on the
country. It is not uncommon for an
invention to have two patent owners one in the United States and one in the
rest of the world. This unclear
ownership
often
has
economic
consequences. If a company is interested
in using a patented invention, it may be
unable to receive permission to do so
from both patent owners, which in turn
may prevent manufacture of a particular
product. Even if permission is received
from both owners, paying royalties to
both may be quite costly. In this case, if
the invention is useful enough, a
company may proceed and pass on the
added cost to consumers.
International economic tension
has also been increasing as a result of
differing policies. Many foreign individuals and companies believe that they
are at a serious disadvantage in the
United States with regard to patent
ownership because of the logistical
difficulties in establishing first-to-invent
status.
It is important to point out that most of
the world follows one system and the
United States another.
Include a description of the problem
surrounding variation in patent laws.
Provide some support/ explanation for
the problem, but not all the details.
Describe this other problem associated
with differing patent principles.
Further, failure of the United
States to recognize patent ownership in Provide some explanation, but not all the
other countries is in violation of the details.
Paris Conventions on Industrial
Properties, which requires all member
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nations to treat all patents equally. The
conflict surrounding patents has
prompted the World Intellectual Describe the action solve the problem.
Properties Organization (WIPO) to
lobby for universality in patent laws.
"WIPO maintains that the first necessary
step involves compelling the United
States to reexamine its patent principle.
Taking into account the reality of a
global economy. This push may indeed
result in more global economic
cooperation.
You may have realized that this is a problem-solution text. A
preliminary summary of this passage should contain the key elements:
situation, problem, and solution. In the next step, these elements can be
strung together to form the basis of a formal summary. Of course,
special care has lo be taken to ensure a logical flow of ideas. Here is a draft.
Although it would be beneficial for the world economy to have uniform
patent laws, each country has its own laws. Despite widespread variation, patent
laws generally fall under one of two principles: the first-to-file and first-to-invent.
Most countries have adopted the first-to-file system. However, the United Stales
maintains a first-to-invent system. As a result of countries employing different
patent law principles is inconsistency of patent ownership. Patent ownership is not
recognized globally. This unclear ownership often has economic consequences,
international economic tension has also been increasing as a result of differing
policies. Further, failure of the United States to recognize patent ownership in
other countries is in violation of the Paris Conventions on Industrial Properties.
The conflict surrounding patents has prompted the World Intellectual Properties
Organization (WIPO) to lobby for universality in patent laws. WIPO maintains
that the first necessary step involves compelling the United States to reexamine its
patent principle, taking into account the reality of a global economy.
This draft is perhaps a reasonable beginning. The writer has retained the
important parts of a problem-solution text. Most of the sentences are short, as we
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would expect in a summary. However, this summary has three faults.
1. It is probably a bit too long. The original contains 399 words, and the
summary contains 168. It could be condensed further without any loss of meaning.
2. It is written entirely in the words of the original, although no whole
sections were borrowed. It is an example of plagiarism. Notice that sentence 1 in
the summary is identical to the first highlighted part of the original, sentence 2 is
identical to the second highlighted section, and so on.
3. It does not display a high level of understanding of the source passage.
While it does show that the writer can pull out important information, it does not
convince the reader that the summary writer understands the information and how
it is interrelated.
Overall, this summary is fine as a set of personal notes, but it is too close to
the original to be used as a written assignment.
Now, let us consider how this summary could be improved. One obvious
approach would be to paraphrase the original. A paraphrase is a restatement (in
your own words) of the ideas in the original. The most common strategy used to
accomplish this involves replacing words in the source with synonyms and perhaps
changing the grammar. Look again at the first sentence.
Although it would be beneficial for the world economy to have uniform
patent laws, each country has its own laws.
A paraphrase of this could be - Every country has unique patent laws, even
though the world economy would be improved if they were consistent.
Is this paraphrase a reasonable representation of the original?
This method can often be successful, but if you do this sentence by sentence,
you will most likely not demonstrate your full understanding of the passage.
Another weakness is that the resulting summary is not original and would be
considered plagiarism by many people. Simple synonym substitution is often not
considered to be original work. Far more needs to be changed from the original
source. A better but more difficult strategy for summary writing would be to
carefully consider the elements you consider important, put the original away, and
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write down what you have understood. This may allow you to condense the ideas
in the source even further.
When you write a formal summary of someone else's ideas, you should keep
in mind the following guidelines. (Remember, if you are taking notes for yourself,
direct copying is OK, but it is a good idea to indicate in your notes when you are
directly copying.)
1. Always try to use your own words, except for technical terms.
2. Include enough support and detail so that the presentation is clear.
3. Do not try to paraphrase specialized vocabulary or technical terms.
4. Include nothing more than what is contained in the original. (Do not
include your own comments or evaluation.)
5. Make sure the summary reads smoothly. Use enough transition devices
and supporting detail. You do not want a collection of sentences that do not flow.
Exercise 8. Read these two summaries and answer the questions that follow.
Although it would be beneficial
for the world economy to have uniform
patent laws, each country has its own
laws. Despite widespread variation,
patent laws generally fall under one of
two principles: the first-to-file and firstto-invent. Most countries have adopted
the first-to-file system. How-ever, the
United States maintains a first-to-invent
system. A result of countries employing
different patent law principles is
inconsistency of patent ownership.
Patent ownership is not recognized
globally. This unclear ownership often
has
economic
consequences.
International economic tension has also
been increasing as a result of differing
policies. Further, failure of the United
States to recognize patent ownership in
other countries is in violation of the Paris
Conventions on Industrial Properties.
The conflict surrounding patents has
prompted the World Intellectual
Properties Organization (WIPO) to
Lack of consistency in the
world's patent laws is a serious problem.
In most countries, patent ownership is
given to the inventor that is first to file
for a patent. How-ever, the United States
maintains a first-to-invent policy. 4In
view of this, patent ownership can
change depending on the country.
Multiple patent ownership can result in
economic problems; however, most
striking is the international tension it
causes. The fact that the United States
does not recognize patent ownership in
other countries, in violation of the Paris
Convention on Industrial Properties, has
prompted the World Intellectual
Properties Organization (WPO) to push
the United States to review its existing
patent law principles.
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lobby for universality in patent laws.
WIPO maintains that the first necessary
step involves compelling the United
States to reexamine its patent principle,
taking into account the reality of a global
economy.
1. How closely do the two summaries follow the five guidelines given on
page 114?
2. Does the rewrite summary present the main idea of the original text in
Task three? Is there adequate support and explanation?
3. Is the rewrite summary objective?
4. Is it too long or too short?
5. Has the writer of the rewrite used his or her own words?
6. Is there anything missing from the rewrite summary?
7. What changes were made from the draft summary to the rewrite?
8. Which vocabulary items were not paraphrased in the rewrite? Why?
One important element is still missing from the summary. The source has
not been provided. Since many of the summaries you write will be woven into your
own original text, it is very important to identify at least the source author, if not
the title as well. Here is one way to identify your source.
In his paper “Global Implications of Patent Law Variation,” Koji Suzuki
states that lack of consistency in the world’s patent laws is a serious problem.
2.3 Focus on Language while writing a summary
Language Focus: The First Sentence in a Summary
The following language focus provides some additional
suggestions on how to begin your summary.
Most summaries begin with a sentence containing two elements:
the source and the main idea. Notice the use of the present tense in the last three
examples.
In Anthony Tyson’s article “Mapping Dark Matter with Gravitational
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Lenses,” (main idea)_______________________________________________ .
According to Yvonne Boskin in her article “Blue Whale Population May Be
Increasing off California,” (main idea)_________________________________ .
Young and Song’s 1991 paper on fluoridation discusses (main topic)_____.
Author Peter Bernstein in his book Capital Ideas states that claims / argues
/ maintains _______________________________________________________.
Marcia Barinaga, in her article “Is There a Female Style in Science?” states
that argues ___ (main idea)__________________________________________.
Maintains
suggests
claims
Although, in theory, summaries are supposed to be objective, this is not
entirely true. A wide range of reporting verbs can be used in summary writing,
many of which reveal the summary writer’s personal attitude toward the source
material. These evaluative verbs should be used sparingly in summaries. Notice
how the evaluative verbs in the following examples allow the writer of the
summary to convey his or her attitude.
Marcia Barinaga in her article “Is There a Female Style in Science?” alleges
that men and women exhibit differences in the way they pursue science.
Marcia Barinaga in her article “Is There a Female Style in Science?”
assumes that men and women exhibit differences in the way they pursue science.
Some reporting verbs are less objective than others. Can you identify which
verbs in the next exercise seem to be objective and which verbs tend to be
evaluative? The first answer has been provided for you.
Exercise 9. Tick the column; decide on the objectivity of the reporting verbs.
Table 9 – Objectivity of the reporting verbs
Verb
Objective
Evaluative
1
2
3
describe
x
discuss
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Table 9 continued
1
2
3
state
present
explain
maintain
examine
affirm
argue
reveal
presume
assume
assert
contend
allege
imply
Marcia Barinaga in her article "Is There a Female Style in Science?" mentions
that men and women exhibit differences in the way they pursue science.
How does this sentence compare to the first example presented in this
language focus?
Mention is used for information that was most likely given without detail or
support. The example sentence using mention makes it seem as if the difference
between men and women is a minor point in the article. We suggest that you avoid
using mention at all in summaries.
Exercise 10. Here are some introductory statements that students wrote for a
summary of the "Nile" passage in Task One. Which, if any, would you prefer to have
written? Why? Edit the weaker sentences.
1. Author Steven Goodman in "Transformation of the Nile River Basin" states
that how the region has changed as a result of continuous irrigation.
2. "Transformation of the Nile River Basin" by Steven Goodman claims that
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changes in irrigation have led to an increase in population.
3. According to "Transformation of the Nile River Basin" Steven Goodman
suggests that the Nile River basin has been changed.
4. Goodman in "Transformation of the Nile River Basin" mentions that
irrigation has had an impact on the environment and the population.
5. In Goodman's "Transformation of the Nile River Basin," the Nile River
basin has been transformed by the introduction of perennial irrigation.
Exercise 11. If you are summarizing another author's work as part of a longer
paper, you may make a reference to your source material. Analyze the summary
given. Make a summary of book you’ve recently read.
Noble House: A Novel of Contemporary Hong Kong Summary
James Clavell
Noble House is the continuation of James Clavell's exciting story of
the biggest and most important trading house in Hong Kong. The
original tai-pan devised a list of promises that all succeeding tai-pans must swear
to uphold. Now a new tai-pan, Ian Dunross is to be sworn in and he also is
expected to swear to uphold the pledge.
The continuing story of the Noble House, Asia's biggest trading company, is
as exciting as in the previous novels. The new tai-pan faces many problems that his
predecessors faced along with involvement with Chinese spies, a Russian spy ring,
drugs and arms smuggling, and now stock market manipulations. Ian must uphold
the legacy of Dirk Struan, the original tai-pan and honor the oath that all tai-pans
must swear to uphold. He also inherited the legacy of intense rivalry and hatred for
Quillan Gornt and his rival company.
Unlike previous...
Exercise 12. Follow the link. Study the summaries of the recently published
books. Make a survey on the novels you’d prefer to read, referring to the
summaries studied.
Link - https://www.goodreads.com/book/ (picture 13).
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tur
e
13
L
an
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Focus: Nominal that-Clauses
In formal academic English, many reporting verbs are followed by a thatclause containing both a subject and a verb. Can you identify the verbs in table 9
that are not followed by that? List them here.
That-clauses have a variety of functions. In the following sentence, the thatclause is the direct object of the verb states.
Marcia Barinaga in her article "Is There a Female Style in Science?" states
that men and women are indeed different.
In spoken English, that-clauses which function as direct objects are often
omitted, as in the following example. Notice also that in this spoken English
alternative the choice of verb is less formal.
In her article, Marcia Barinaga says there is a difference in the way men
and women pursue scientific research.
You may have wondered why we have not said anything about the verb
mention in the opening sentence of a summary. Notice that if you were to use
mention instead of one of the other verbs suggested, you would greatly change the
importance of the information following
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Language Focus: Summary Reminder Phrases
In a longer summary, you may want to remind your reader that you are
summarizing.
The author goes on to say that. . .
The article further states that. . .
(author's surname here) also states/maintains/argues that. ..
(author's surname here) also believes that...
(author's surname here) concludes that...
In the second half of the paper, (author's surname here) presents . ..
In fact, you may want to mention the source author's name at three points in
your summary - the beginning, the middle, and the end. In a short summary, it
would be rather awkward to mention the author so frequently, and the text would
not flow well if each sentence began with the author's name; however, in a longer
summary, mentioning the author three times would be quite appropriate. When you
do mention the author in the middle or end of the summary, be sure to use the
surname only.
Goodman goes on to say ... Suzuki also believes that. . .
Some of the following linking words and phrases may be useful in
introducing additional information.
additionally
in addition to
also furthermore
further
moreover
The author further argues that. . . Task Six
Here are some summary reminder sentences written by our students. Which,
if any, of these would you prefer to have written? Try to improve the weaker
sentences.
1. Harmon finally says people are making a big fuss over the nuclear waste
problem.
2. In addition, the article also discusses about the dangers of current disposal
methods.
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3. In Saleska's article, he also points out that low-level radioactive waste can
be harmful.
4. Harmon concludes that current regulations need to be reexamined.
5. Saleska concludes about the current changes in regulations.
Exercise 13. Here again is the summary of the Suzuki. Would it be improved
by adding a reminder phrase? Where would you insert it?
Summary
In his paper "Global Implications of Patent Law Variation," Koji Suzuki
(1991) states that lack of consistency in the world's patent laws is a serious
problem. Inmost of the world, patent ownership is given to the inventor that is first
to file for a patent. However, the United States maintains a first-to-invent policy. In
view of this, patent ownership can change depending on the country. Multiple
patent ownership can result in economic problems; however, most striking is the
international tension it causes. ""The feet that the United States does not recognize
patent ownership in other countries, in violation of the Paris Convention on
Industrial Properties, has prompted the World Intellectual Properties Organization
(WIPO) to push the United States to review its existing patent law principles.
Exercise 14. Read "Reducing Air Pollution" and try to determine the texttype. Then read the summaries that follow. Decide which of the summaries you like
best. Write 1 to 2 sentences after each summary, explaining what you liked or
disliked about each. Finally, discuss each of the summaries with a partner.
Reducing Air Pollution in Urban Areas:The Role of Urban Planners
Yasufumi Iseki
Recently, increasingly significant problems regarding energy use have
emerged. Enormous amounts of pollutants are being emitted from power plants,
factories, and automobiles, which are worsening the condition of the earth. This
environmental degradation is a clear result of acid rain, increased levels of carbon
dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and other forms of air pollution.
Acid rain and air pollution, for instance, are devastating forests, crops, and
lakes over wide areas of Europe and North America. In fact, in Europe nearly 50
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million hectares have been identified as damaged, representing 35 % of the total
forested area. In the United States, approximately 1,000 acidified and 3,000
marginally acidic lakes have been reported. Since the midcentury, CO2 levels in
the atmosphere have increased by 13 %, setting the stage for global warming. As
atmospheric temperatures rise, grain output may significantly decrease, making it
more difficult for farmers to keep pace with the growth of population. In urban
areas, air pollution is taking a toll on buildings and human health.
To reduce the amount of environmental damage in cities specifically,
developed countries have devised technology to control the harmful emissions.
However, as these countries already have an abundance of vehicles that continues
to grow in number, the efficacy of these measures is diminished. Since cars and
other vehicles create more air pollution than any other human activity, the most
effective means to reduce pollution is to decrease the number of vehicles. A major
shift away from automobile usage in urban areas may be possible with the aid of
urban planning.
1. According to Yasufumi Iseki, air pollution can be controlled through
effective urban planning.
2. Yasufumi Iseki in "Reducing the Air Pollution in Urban Areas: The Role
of Urban Planners" states that pollutants are worsening the condition of the Earth
as a result of acid rain, increased levels of C02, and other forms of pollution. In
fact, 35 % of the total forested area in Europe has been damaged, and in the United
States, approximately 1,000 acidified lakes and 3,000 marginally acidic lakes have
been reported. Since the midcentury, CO2 levels have increased by 13 %. Cars and
other vehicles create more pollution than any other activity; thus, decreasing the
number of vehicles is the most effective way to reduce pollution. This may be
possible with urban planning.
3. Yasufumi Iseki states that because cars and other vehicles are the greatest
single source of air pollution, a reduction in the number of vehicles in urban areas
would be an effective approach to improving the urban environment. This
reduction could be achieved through urban planning.
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4. Yasufumi Iseki claims that urban planning can play a role in improving
air quality in urban areas by prompting a shift away from heavy vehicle use. This
will be difficult to achieve because of the overabundance of vehicles in developed
countries.
Language Focus: the vocabulary shift.
A distinctive feature of academic writing style is choosing the more
formal alternative when selecting a verb, noun, or other part of
speech.
There are two variants of expressing an action or occurrence in the English
language. The choice is often between a phrasal verb and a single verb. For
summaries writing style the preferred choice is a singe verb wherever possible.
Researchers looked at the way these Researchers observed the way these
texts are built up.
texts are organized.
Exercise15. Choose a verb from the list that reduces the informality of each
sentence. Note that you may need to add tense to the verb from the list.
assist
reduce
create
investigate
raise
establish
increase
determine
fluctuate
eliminate
1. Expert System can help out the user in the diagnosis of problems.
2. This problem was set up to improve access to medical care.
3. Research expenditures have gone up to nearly $350 million.
4. The use of optical character readers should cut down the number of
problems with the US mail service.
5. Researchers have found out that drug has serious side effects.
6. Building a nuclear power plant will not get rid of the energy problem
completely.
7. Researchers have been looking into this problem for 15 years now.
8. This issue was brought up during the investigation.
9. Engineers can come up with better designs using CAD.
10.The emission levels have been going up and down.
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Exercise 16.Reduce the informality of each sentence by substituting a single
verb for the one in italics.
1. The implementation of computer-integrated-intellect has brought some
serious ethic problems. 2. The process should be done over until the desired results
are achieved. 3. Plans are being made to come up with a database containing
detailed information of the phenomena. 4. Subtle changes in the earth’s crust were
picked up by these new devices. 5. Proposals to construct new nuclear reactors
have met with great resistance from environmentalists.
Exercise 17. Which of the underlined words would be more suitable for
summary wring style? For the last four sentences supply a more formal word or
phrase for the one underlined in each sentence.
1. The government has made good / considerable progress in solving these
problems. 2. We got / obtained encouraging results. 3. The results of a lot of /
numerous different projects have been pretty good / encouraging. 4. A loss of jobs
is one of the things that will happen / consequences if the process id automated. 5.
The reaction of the officials was sort of negative. 6. The economic outlook is
mighty nice. 7. The future of Federal funding is up in the air. 8. Its major markets
are planning to get together on the research needed for more efficient cars.
2.4 Summarizing a scientific article
While making a summary of a paragraph the main topic is too be discussed
first, In Russian we usually have passive constructions in present or past with the
inverted word order. In English we would have passive constructions with the
direct word order, e.i. subject standing first.
Исследовались основные параметры
General characteristics of test
функционирования текстов.
functioning were studied.
The topic of the article may be identified with the help of active construction
and subject in the first person, plural, nouns – study, authors, theory, investigation
and so on.
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Мы рассмотрели ряд характеристик
We have considered a number of text
текста.
properties.
Был рассмотрен ряд характеристик
текста.
В статье рассматриваются основные The paper studies the essential text
properties.
свойства текста.
Exercise 18. Translate the following sentences into English, pay attention to
passive constructions used to identify the topic.
1. Авторы работали над теоретическими моделями функционирования
рекламных текстов.
2. Был найден новый подход к решению этой проблемы.
3. Это исследование касается проблемы организации учебных текстов.
4. Автор проанализировал эмпирический материал.
5. В статье рассматриваются вопросы когнитивной вариативности в
текстах рекламы.
6. Автор делится полученными данными, которые описывают
основные параметры исследуемого объекта.
The Present Simple forms are used in summary of an article concerning
some scientific points, Past Simple is used while describing the work undertaken,
Present Perfect is to be used to underline the definite results of the experiments.
Анализируются свойства текста.
Text characteristics are analyzed.
Были изучены параметры
The time functioning characteristics of
темпоральной организации текста.
text have been studied.
В 1980 г. была разработана данная
This model of analysis has been
модель анализы.
developed in 1980.
The following verbs are used to describe he topic of the article.
to analyze
to consider
to examine
to study
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to investigate
Изучается новый аспект.
A new aspect is studied.
Была исследована вся парадигма.
The whole paradigm has been
investigated.
Изучались англоязычные тексты.
English texts were examined.
Рассматриваются основные
General characteristics are considered.
характеристики.
There are verbs which are used to describe the general process of studies.
to describe
to discuss
to outline
to consider
Описываются когнитивные процессы. Cognitive processes are described.
The theory fundamentals are discussed.
Обсуждаются основные положения
разработанной теории.
Описаны преимущества нового
The advantages of a new method are
метода исследования.
outlined.
Рассмотрены основные параметры
The general test characteristics are
организации текста.
considered.
The results of the investigation undertaken can be expressed with the
following verbs and phrases.
to obtain
to derive
to determine
to produce
to find
to calculate
to establish
to evaluate
Pay attention to the use of tenses and constructions.
Pattern – Были получены следующие результаты. The following results
were obtained.
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Exercise 19. Make a summary of the following article. Pay attention to the
language of the summary, take into account all the above mentioned information
about scientific article summary.
Humans Sacrificed Brawn for Brains, Study Suggests
By Charles Q. Choi, Live Science Contributor | May 27, 2014 06:13pm
ET Article source - http://www.livescience.com/45910-humans-sacrificed-brawnfor-brains.html
Humans may be smart because energy once devoted to brawn was given up
for brains, researchers say.
The most powerful computer known
is the brain (picture 14). The human
brain possesses about 100 billion neurons
with about 1 quadrillion - 1 million billion connections known as synapses wiring
these cells together.
Picture 14
Humans possess more complex, powerful
brains than humanity's closest living relatives, such as monkeys and apes. One
reason behind this jump in brainpower may lie in how much of the human
metabolism is devoted to the human brain — it consumes a whopping 20 percent
of the body's total energy. [10 Surprising Facts About the Human Brain]
How the brain evolved
To gain insights into how the human brain evolved, scientists compared the
metabolisms of humans and animals such as chimpanzees, mice and rhesus
monkeys. They focused on how much energy each species devoted to the brain and
body.
The researchers analyzed more than 10,000 compounds known as
metabolites, which are small molecules formed by, or necessary to, metabolism,
such as sugars and fats; the building blocks of proteins, DNA and cell membranes;
and chemical signals given off by cells. They investigated metabolite levels in the
kidney, thigh muscle and three brain regions — the primary visual cortex, which is
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involved in vision; the cerebellar cortex, which helps coordinate muscular activity;
and the prefrontal cortex, which plays a major role in complex mental behavior,
decision making and social behavior.
The investigators next compared how much the metabolisms of these
animals differed with how far apart these species are evolutionarily. By analyzing
human and other genomes, prior studies revealed when the ancestors of
humans and other animals diverged. For instance, the ancestors of humans and
rodents diverged about 75 million years ago, while divergence happened about 25
million years ago with the ancestors of rhesus monkeys and about 6 million years
ago with the ancestors of chimpanzees.
For the most part, the scientists found the levels of differences between the
metabolisms of these species matched how far apart they were evolutionarily. (The
further apart evolutionarily, the greater the metabolism differences were.) However,
they discovered the rate of change in the metabolism of the human prefrontal
cortex was about four times faster than that of chimpanzees. Even more
surprisingly, the rate of change in the metabolism of human muscle was more than
eight times faster that that of the chimpanzee.
"Even after so many years of research of humans and human evolution, we
still can uncover large unknown differences between humans and other species,"
said study author Philipp Khaitovich, an evolutionary biologist at the Chinese
Academy of Sciences' Key Laboratory of Computational Biology in Shanghai.
Humans vs. chimps
To rule out the possibility that these changes simply reflected the modern
human couch potato lifestyle, the scientists performed additional experiments on
rhesus monkeys, moving them from a spacious countryside facility to small indoor
homes and serving them fatty and sugary food for several weeks, all to imitate the
environment and behavior of contemporary humans. These lifestyle changes had
only a small effect on the metabolisms of the monkeys' muscles.
"For a long time we were confused by metabolic changes in human muscle,
until we realized that what other primates have in common, in contrast to humans,
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is their enormous muscle strength," said lead author Katarzyna Bozek, of the
Chinese Academy of Sciences' Key Laboratory of Computational Biology in
Shanghai. [The 7 Biggest Mysteries of the Human Body]
Chimps are far stronger than humans. Kevin Hunt, director of the Human
Origins and Primate Evolution Lab at Indiana University, once told of watching an
85-pound (38.5 kilograms) female chimp in Africasnap branches off an ironwood
tree with her fingertips, one that took Hunt two hands and all his strength to break.
To see just how much stronger chimps and rhesus monkeys are than humans,
the researchers conducted muscle strength tests that involved pulling weights
upward. All of the human volunteers in the experiment — who included
professional athletes — were outcompeted by their primate opponents by more
than twofold.
"According to our results, an average adult chimpanzee is approximately two
to three times stronger than an average adult human," Khaitovich told Live Science.
The fact that metabolic changes in human muscle are paralleled by a drastic
reduction in muscle strength leads the researchers to hint that human ancestors may
have swapped brains for brawn.
"It is a very simple explanation, and it could be completely wrong,"
Khaitovich said. "In evolution, however, simple explanations often work well."
"Our work opens a door to further studies of human metabolic uniqueness,"
Khaitovich said. "It is a huge field that is virtually untouched by scientists."
The scientists detailed their findings online today (May 27) in the
journal PLOS Biology.
Exercise 20. Make a summary of the following scientific article yourself.
Brace for Record Heat as El Niño Approaches
By Becky Oskin, Senior Writer | June 02, 2014 04:43pm ET
Article
source
http://www.livescience.com/46049-el-nino-record-hot-
temperatures.html
A massive oceanic heat wave is rolling toward the eastern Pacific Ocean
right now, a telltale signal of a brewing El Niño.
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An El Niño is a natural
climate cycle marked by warmerthan-average temperatures in the
waters of the equatorial Pacific
Ocean. Forecasters won't make
their final call until later this
summer, but all signs point to anEl
Niño this year, perhaps one as
powerful as what occurred in 1982
ddddddddddddddPicture 15
or 1997. But even a weak El Niño
could hike global temperatures to record levels, scientists think (picture 15).
"If we have the El Niño that most are predicting, I think there's a good
chance that it'll end up breaking the global temperature record set in 2010," said
Andrew Dessler, a climate scientist at Texas A&M University in College Station.
That's because Earth's temperature is already rising, so any year with a boost
from El Niño could easily break records. [How El Niño Causes Wild Weather All
Over the Globe (Infographic)]
The warmest years in the past decade, 2005 and 2010, followed weak El
Niño years, according to NASA temperature records.
This year's predicted El Niño could increase global surface temperatures by
0.18 to 0.36 degrees Fahrenheit (0.1 to 0.2 degrees Celsius), depending on the
intensity of the event, said Wenju Cai, a climate scientist at CSIRO Marine and
Atmospheric Research, a government research organization in Aspendale,
Australia.
When an El Niño occurs, the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean experiences
several months of higher-than-average sea-surface temperatures (picture 16). Since
1950, years during or just after an El Niño were hotter than average because this
surface ocean warming adds to the planet's overall temperature, according to
NASA records.
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Picture 16
Chart of the temperature anomalies for 1950 to 2013, also showing the phase
of the El Niño-La Niña cycle.
Here's how it works: An El Niño pumps up heat from deeper ocean layers to
the surface. Then, some of the ocean's resulting surface heat is released to the
atmosphere, warming the air.
Most of this stored ocean heat comes from sunlight, but the release adds to
the overall rise in temperatures caused by global warming, Cai said. "There's no
doubt the underlying trend is caused by greenhouse warming," he said.
However, the record-setting temperature record may not occur until 2015.
The fever from El Niño tends to lag a few months behind the start of the associated
climate event, so the heat may not hit next year. During the 1997 El Niño, the
Pacific Ocean heating kicked off in May 1997, but global temperatures peaked in
1998, at four times above average.
"Usually, the increase occurs more toward the latter part of the El Niño,
when there is a mini-global warming," said Kevin Trenberth, a climate scientist at
the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado.
Exercise 21. Team work. In groups of 3 or 4 students choose
one and the same article categories and prepare rendering of 4
scientific articles on the topic chosen. Each of you does his/her
part of the work. One of you is to get a presentation of your
articles in class.
Follow the link - http://www.livescience.com/ (picture 17).
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Picture 17
3 Mixed bag: articles to render and summarize on your own
Article 1. Render the content of the following article. Translate the words
before reading. Think of the key words for this article.
Benefits Of Face-To-Face Online Learning
By Natasha Burke Article source – ezinearticles.com
on-campus education
feedback
electronic teaching
to ensure
to drop out
prior
to carry out
drawback
multiple
to clarify
interaction
a large age-range
webinar
a background
Online learning has been established to be one of the best ways to get an
education. Online learning occurs when knowledge or educational materials are
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obtained from the internet. We have all had interaction with face-to-face learning
in the traditional classroom setting. We seem to be most comfortable with these
forms of settings and seem to learn most by taking part in them. If you love the
flexibility of online learning, but still treasure the effectiveness of face-to-face
learning, you are probably wondering if the two can be blended together to form a
teaching method that is both flexible and effective. Blended learning or face-toface online learning is the process of combining traditional classroom setting
learning and online learning.
In a traditional classroom setting, students and instructors face each other,
face-to-face. The instructor tells the students what to do and the students follow. In
some instances, the instructor might write something on the board and the students
could write it down if they need to. On the other hand, online learning does not
usually require the instructor and the student to even be online at the same time. At
times the instructor might only be required to mail instructional material to the
student. However, today, it is being demanded that these two education settings
coalesce somehow. Advancement in technology is increasingly making it possible
for an online face-to-face to become a reality.
Video chats between instructors and students are the closest thing to make
face-to-face online teaching a reality. It allows instructors to speak directly to their
students without having to rely on things like DVDs and VHS tapes. Some of the
video chatting systems used by online tutors today include Skype, Microsoft
NetMeeting, webcams and Adobe Connect among others. Research has shown that
students are able to better concentrate when they can see their instructor, as
opposed to when they only hear them via voice recordings or email or chat. Video
teaching is a promising instructional material.
There are so many advantages presented by face-to-face online learning,
which is why it is becoming a trend today. Below are some of its advantages.
- Instructors present a sense of leadership; providing an opportunity to the
students to closely follow their instructors as part of the overall training.
- Students are more involved in the classroom discussions, since they can be
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picked upon by their instructors to participate at any time.
- Students and instructors are usually able to give immediate feedback.
When students have questions, they can ask the instructors and get answers in the
same session. Therefore, no questions are left unanswered or lingering.
- Great attention is paid to the work of each student, since the instructor is
able to both chat with the students and look at what they are working on. This is
true for websites that allow for active online participation.
There are so many benefits to this online learning method and it poses a
great opportunity for those opting this type of learning. Online training not only
offers freedom of time and choice but also enhances once decision making
capacity as the final choice to take up such an opportunity lies solely with the
student.
DoubleInfinity Networks (also known as DI Networks) is a one-stop online
portal that promotes to improve your lifestyle. DI Networks has various different
categories that cover every topic relating to each individual's daily routine. Our
distinguished array of topics include solutions, suggestions, tips and tricks and
many other details, relating to every individual's daily needs. Visit us to read more
articles on online education courses.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Natasha_Burke
Article 2. Render the content of the following article. Think of the key words
for this article.
Difference Between On-Campus Education and Online Education
By Mathew Simond
On-campus education vs. online education! Is one better than the other? Can
one completely replace the other? Indeed it seems that online education is the way
of the future. Educational institutions, corporations and government organizations
alike already offer various forms of electronic teaching. However, can a computer
truly replace a teacher and a blackboard?
How people learn
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Each individual has a form of learning that suits them best. Some individuals
achieve fantastic results in courses taught online, however most people drop out of
100 % computer-led courses. Educational institutions, as well as companies in
carrying out staff training, must recognize that there is no ideal way to carry out
the teaching of a large group of individuals, and so must design programs that best
suits the needs of the group as a whole.
People learn using multiple senses. This involves learning through both
theoretical components of a course, as well as social interaction with both
instructors and other students. Students learn from each other's mistakes and
successes, not just from what they are told by instructors.
Each individual student has an ideal learning pace. Instructors are therefore
faced with the challenge of designing courses that move forward such that those
students with a slower learning pace do not get left behind, while not moving so
slowly that students with faster learning paces get bored.
Online education
In the age of high-speed information transfer, online education is becoming
a popular and cheap means for delivering teaching to individuals outside the
classroom, and in some cases all over the world. Teaching can be via CD, websites,
or through real-time online facilities such as webcasts, webinars and virtual
classrooms. However, different methods of online education each have their own
advantages and disadvantages.
Online education is still a relatively new concept, and in many respects still
in the teething stages. As such, various problems arrive across different online
education environments. For example:
1. Lack of immediate feedback in asynchronous learning environments:
While some online education environments such as webcasts, webinars and virtual
classrooms operate live with the addition of an instructor, most do not. Teaching
that is delivered through a CD or website, although having the advantage of being
self-paced, provides no immediate feedback from a live instructor.
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2. More preparation required on the part of the instructor: In an online
education environment, an instructor can not simply stand in front of a whiteboard
and deliver a class. Lessons in online education environments must be prepared
ahead of time, along with any notes and instructions that may accompany the
teaching.
In many cases it would also be necessary that the instructor not only
understands the concepts being taught, but the technology used to deliver that
teaching. This therefore increases the skill-levels needed of online education
instructors, placing greater demand on educational institutions.
Staffing levels may also be higher for courses run in an online education
environment, requiring for example:
The Instructor - able to teach both course content and be skilled in the use of
technologies involved
The Facilitator - to assist the instructor in delivering content, but may do so
remotely
Help Desk - to offer assistance to instructors, facilitators and students in the
use of both software and hardware used to deliver the course.
3. Not all people are comfortable with online education: Education is no
longer only sought by the world's youth. With an increased trend towards adult and
continuing education, there is a need to design courses suitable for students over a
larger age-range, as well as students from different and varied backgrounds. It is
difficult, however, to design online education environments suitable for everyone.
4. Increased potential for frustration, anxiety and confusion: In an online
education environment, there are a greater number of parts making up the system
that can fail. Server failures may prevent online courses from operating. Software
based teaching applications may require other specific components to operate.
Computer viruses may infect software necessary to run online education
environments. If these systems are complex, students may choose the ease of Oncampus education rather than taking the additional time and effort necessary to
master the use of online education systems.
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5. The Digital Divide: Many people who live in remote areas and developing
countries do not have access to computers, making any form of online education
virtually impossible. For this reason, online education is only able to be targeted at
the people lucky enough to be able to take advantage of the technology involved.
Similarly, offering live teaching across the world means that different time zones
and nationalities increase the demand for multi-skilled instructors.
In addition to these, there are also several legal issues associated with
maintaining an online education environment. For example, intellectual property
laws, particularly those relating to copyright, may or may not fully cover
electronically created intellectual property. For example, information on a website
is not necessarily considered to be public domain, despite being available to
everyone. However, the Australian Copyright Act was amended in 2001 to ensure
that copyright owners of electronic materials, including online education
environments, could continue to provide their works commercially.
On-Campus Education
Still the most common form of instruction is traditional classroom-style
learning. These instructor-led environments are more personal than online
education environments, and also have the advantage of allowing for immediate
feedback both to and from student and teachers alike. However, the classroom
allows for less flexibility than courses run in online education environments.
Instructors in modern classroom environments are still able to take
advantage of several forms of electronic teaching tools while still maintaining the
atmosphere associated with the traditional classroom environment. For example,
PowerPoint slides can be utilized instead of a whiteboard or blackboard. Handouts
can be distributed via course websites prior to the event. However, on the day,
students are still able to actively participate in the lesson.
Like online education environments, On-campus education comes with
certain drawbacks, the most common of which is the classroom itself. This requires
a group of people which, in a university for example, could reach a few hundred
people in size, to gather in the same place at the same time. This requires enormous
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time and financial commitment on behalf of both the students and the educational
institution.
However, it is this sort of environment that is most familiar to students
across the world. People of all ages can access a classroom environment feeling
comfortable with the way that a classroom-run course is carried out. Older students
who may not be comfortable with the use of information technology are not
required to navigate their way through possibly complex online education
environments, making On-campus education the most accessible form of teaching.
On-campus education has one advantage that 100 % electronically delivered
courses can not offer - social interaction. Learning comes from observing, not only
what is written on a page or presented in a slideshow, but what is observed in
others. Most students are naturally curious, and so will want to ask questions of
their instructors. The classroom environment allows students to clarify what is
being taught not only with their instructors, but with other students.
So, Which is Better?
There is no style of instruction that will best suit every student. Studies have
shown (Can online education replace On-campus education) that courses where
online education is used to complement On-campus education have proved more
effective than courses delivered entirely using only one method. These courses
take advantage of both online education materials and a live instructor, and have
produced results higher than those of students in either 100 % online education or
classroom environment courses. Students have the advantage of the immediate
feedback and social interaction that comes with the classroom environment, as well
as the convenience of self-paced online education modules that can be undertaken
when it best suits the student.
It would seem that online education environments will never completely
replace On-campus education. There is no "one size fits all" method of teaching.
Teaching styles will continue to adapt to find the method that best fits the learning
group. Using a mix of online education environments and classroom sessions,
educational institutions, corporations and government organizations can ensure that
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training is delivered that is convenient and effective for both instructors and
students alike.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/981014
Article 3. Render the content of the following article. Think of the key words
for this article.
Labour plan to 'bust open' Whitehall to 'working class'
7 April 2014
It has vowed to "bust open" what it says is the domination of Whitehall by a
white, middle and upper-class elite.
It will aim to get 18 % black and ethnic minority candidates and 24 %
"working-class" candidates into the Fast Stream graduate training programme.
The party has yet to discuss its proposals with civil service bosses.
But it says they will be included in Labour's 2015 general election manifesto.
Candidates will qualify as working-class if their parents are judged to have
"routine" occupations, such as unskilled or semi-skilled factory work, according
to Office for National Statistics socio-economic classifications, under the Labour
plans.
'Closed shop'
The civil service recruits more than 300 high-flying graduates every year, for
its Fast Stream programme, which aims to groom candidates for jobs running
government departments.
But Labour says it is dominated by a narrow group of privately-educated
Oxbridge candidates.
Shadow Cabinet Office minister Michael Dugher said: "Labour would make
sure kids from working-class backgrounds can help run the country by busting
open Whitehall.
"We want ordinary kids to have the chance to go to frontline government;
from the classroom to the corridors of power.
"The civil service is like a closed shop, with fewer women, fewer ethnic
minorities and fewer kids with working-class parents.
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"Politics can often feel distant and remote from working people - Labour's
answer is to put them at the heart of our system.
"We want a One Nation civil service which looks more like those it is
intended to serve."
Mr Dugher is to announce the reform plans in a speech to the Institute for
Public Policy Research (IPPR) think tank on Tuesday.
Labour would expand an internship scheme and reform the graduate
recruitment process with the aim of increasing the number of successful candidates
from working-class backgrounds from 2.4 % to 24 %.
'Global race'
This would add up to an extra 360 working-class candidates entering the
Fast Stream over the course of the next Parliament, it says.
The target for black and ethnic minority individuals would be 18%, up from
the current 9.8 % - an extra 305 over the five-year Parliament.
Labour says reforming the Fast Stream would be the quickest way to change
the culture of the civil service as a whole and encourage a more diverse range of
applicants at all levels.
But the government said it was already trying to make it easier for
candidates with non-traditional backgrounds to climb the civil service career ladder.
A Cabinet Office spokeswoman said: "To win the global race we need the
best civil servants regardless of their background.
"This government's reform programme will ensure we have an exceptional
civil service delivering high-quality public services more cheaply.
"As part of our reforms, we launched a new apprenticeship scheme to open
up Whitehall to those without a degree.
"We know that for too long talent management in the civil service has been
weak.
"That's why Francis Maude has commissioned research to examine the
blockages preventing women from reaching the most senior levels of the civil
service."
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The Labour Party has also attempted to recruit general election candidates
from a wider variety of backgrounds through its future candidate programme, amid
fears it is losing touch with its working-class roots.
According to research by the House of Commons Library, there are now just
25 former manual workers on the Commons benches - 75% fewer than when
Margaret Thatcher came to power in 1979. All but three are on the Labour benches.
The number of MPs with a professional background has gone down from
45% to 35% over the same period - but political advisers and other insiders have
increased from 3% of MPs in 1979 to 16% in 2010.
Article 5. Render the content of the following article. Translate the words
before reading. Think of the key words for this article.
to relieve
substantial
venue
ample
intimacy
worthwhile
lounge
scalper
assault
ridiculously
hiatus
wherein
reuniting
pre-sales
enticing
Tips When Buying Concert Tickets
By Dareen F Victoria
For many people, listening to music is one way to relieve stress and relax.
When you hear your favourite music being played, you will naturally feel more
alive even if you are driving your car, cleaning the house or even inside the mall.
You can surely listen to music just about anywhere. You can purchase and
download songs and upload these into the device of your choice or simply listen on
your laptop or desktop computer while you are working or studying.
No matter what way you choose to listen to your music, nothing beats seeing
your favourite artist perform live in a large venue. Sure, there is an incomparable
intimacy between a band and its live audience in a small venue, like a lounge or
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bar. However, words often fail to describe the concert-going experience. A concert
is a pleasurable assault on one's senses - from the artist performing, to the stage
and light design, and even to singing in unison with other passionate fans.
Of course, watching an artist or band perform after a long hiatus or reuniting
after a long breakup can also make attending a live concert even more enticing even a hundred times better than watching the same performance online.
But how do you get to buy the best concert seats? Before tickets are released
online, a substantial portion of tickets are allocated for online pre-sales. Pre-sales
of tickets for concerts typically fall under two categories, the first one being
allocated for fans and the second being allocated for sponsoring companies
(typically, credit card companies).
In order to purchase tickets, prospective buyers must know beforehand a
specific code. To get these codes, you either have to be a member of a fan club or
subscribe to a particular credit card company. If you fail to purchase pre-sale
tickets, you will have to wait until tickets are released for the general public. Do
note that during this period, you may be competing with other fans for a limited
amount of tickets. As such, try to go online as early as possible to increase your
chance of purchasing tickets. This also gives you ample time to register.
Another worthwhile strategy you can try is to use as many devices as you
can in logging to the ticket seller's website, including using your smartphone and
tablet. However, if you fail to purchase a ticket, you do not necessarily have to
resort to purchasing tickets from a scalper selling them at a ridiculously high price.
Sometimes, there are instances wherein additional tickets are sold a few days
before the actual date of the event. Know more tip on buying concert tickets here.
Visit this site to know more about available tickets for Motorpoint Arena
Sheffield.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Dareen_F_Victoria
Article 6. Render the content of the following article. Translate the words
before reading. Think of the key words for this article.
to claim
to urge
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to be protected sufficiently
county
to be restricted
to lob in a grenade
to trackle the risk
to reckon
to flourish
to intervene
conservatory
to wrangle
to push to the line
from the sidelines
fevered brows
to be passed
councilors
to scrap money
to play hard ball over
to convince
Norfolk Greens push budget talks to the line
19 February 2014 Deborah McGurranPolitical editor, bbcnews.com
There were a good number of fevered brows on the faces of Norfolk
councillors as the Green Party played hard ball over the county budget.
After five months of tip toeing around negotiations in this delicate
"Rainbow" coalition, the Green Party lobbed in a grenade.
It left the Labour led administration with a real day of reckoning when
agreement had to be reached or the Government may have had to intervene.
It was the biggest crisis to face the alliance of Labour, Lib Dem and UKIP
councillors, who are supported by the Greens, since it came to power last May.
The Conservatives predicted four years of chaos then and watched this
budget wrangle from the sidelines.
Greens' Demands
The weekend before the budget was to have been passed, the Greens,
holding the balance of power, wrote have to the council leader, with seven
demands - otherwise they wouldn't support the plans.
These included scrapping money set aside for the northern distributor road, a
20 mile an hour speed limit in Norwich and a promise to increase council tax in the
future.
George Nobbs, the Labour Leader of the Council, says it wasn't an easy
meeting with so many political groups to convince.
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In the end, passed by just two votes after a debate lasting five-and-a-half
hours at County Hall, a new budget was finally approved.
Some of the the Greens were won over after the council agreed to spend
more money on adult social care and childrens' services.
Norfolk will freeze council tax and bring in cuts of £66 million pounds.
Compromise
Councillor Nobbs said:" The electorate voted for five parties and one
independent and actually I'm quite proud of the fact that at the end of the day, four
parties and the independent all came together.
He denied that he'd been held to ransom "but it is about compromise", he
admitted.
Meanwhile, Councillor Richard Bearman, Leader of the Green group denied
underhand tactics. He said:"I don't know if it's the right way to behave but it's the
only option we have sometimes with the way the council is structured at the
moment and we'll use it to get the best deal we can for the Green Party in Norfolk."
We said last year council life would be interesting under this alliance.
Setting the budget appeared to be the first major flashpoint but it's unlikely to be
the last.
Article 7. Render the content of the following article. Translate the words
before reading. Think of the key words for this article.
evildoer
oligarch
villain
reliable
sadistic
troop
to be deployed in
Crimea
stakes
diabolical
to discard
inept
combustible
capture
intense
vaguely
mobster
mean
assassin
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Russian baddies are back
By Tara McKelveyBBC News Magazine
Russians are popular evildoers in Hollywood. From assassins to oligarchs,
Russian characters are as scary as they ever were.
For decades the Russian has been a reliable villain.
"He smokes and he sweats a lot," says Harlow Robinson, the author of a
book called Russians in Hollywood, Hollywood's Russians. "He's also sadistic."
The Russian's role as evildoer dates back to the 20th Century. At the time
communism became a political force, and US film-makers reflected a national
anxiety about the Soviet Union.
Today Russian troops are deployed in Crimea.
It is another East v West struggle, the biggest since the Cold War, and stakes
are high. US officials are imposing visa bans on Russian officials, claiming they
are overly aggressive.
Long before this conflict, however, Russians were portrayed in a negative
light on the big and small screens.
Yet they were not always the bad guys.
The North Star (1943)
In the 1940s Ukrainian-born director Lewis Milestone made The North Star.
In his film Russians are heroic and courageous. The film reflected a time in history
when the Soviet Union was an ally of the US.
Later Milestone made elaborate films such as a remake of Mutiny on the
Bounty. Over the years he tried, and failed, to get backing for additional films that
celebrated Russia, says Robinson.
Times had changed.
The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show (1961)
Russians cornered the market on evil characters in the years that followed.
"They are still the default baddies," says Robinson. "It's the ideological thing.
Many of the people who grew up in the Cold War period find it hard to discard
these images."
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The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, a popular cartoon about the adventures of
a moose and squirrel, had a Russian character called Boris Badenov.
He was diabolical, had an explosive temper and was inept, the "world's
champion no-good-nik", as Robinson puts it.
The Manchurian Candidate (1962)
In other cases the Russian evil-doer is brilliant.
Zilkov (Albert Paulsen) represented one of America's worst nightmares - a
power-mad Soviet scientist.
He helps transform a US sergeant into a quasi-robot. "His brain has not only
been washed but dried clean," says Zilkov.
Dr Strangelove (1964)
Dr Strangelove, which was made at the height of the Cold War, captures the
terror people felt about nuclear weapons - and cast Soviets as combustible.
The Hunt for Red October (1990)
The break-up of the Soviet Union marked a new phase in Hollywood's
portrayal of evil.
The Soviet Union was no longer a threat, at least ideologically, and Russian
characters now came in two types - good and bad.
In The Hunt for Red October, Marko Ramius (Sean Connery) is a good
Soviet, at least from a US perspective. A submarine commander from Lithuania, he
wants to defect to the West.
Air Force One (1997)
The portrayal of evildoers in film changed in other ways, too, with the
break-up of the Soviet Union. Some of them were not even Russian. In Air Force
One, Ivan Korshunov (Gary Oldman) is from Kazakhstan.
He is just as dangerous, though. He takes over a plane with the US president
on board and proclaims his love for "Mother Russia".
Rounders (1998)
The conflict between the US and Russia was no longer politically motivated.
Now it was about money - and just as intense.
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Russian mobsters become the villains in the 1990s. John Malkovich plays
Teddy KGB, a card shark in New York with a vaguely Russian accent, in
Rounders.
In this film and others, Russian villains are clever - and adaptable.
Iron Man 2 (2010)
Mickey Rourke's Ivan Vanko embodies the new Russian bad guy.
Covered in prison tattoos, he has been through a lot.
Yet he seems indestructible - a classic Russian villain.
The Americans (2013)
The FX series is set during the Cold War in the 1980s and offers a presentday interpretation of the past.
Russians look like ordinary Americans. In fact they are spies and assassins.
In this version the Russians are also fully developed characters.
Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit (2014)
With Vladimir Putin as president, the picture of Russia has changed again.
Russian characters in Hollywood films no longer talk about politics. But they are
intensely patriotic.
The Russians in Jack Ryan love their country so much that they are willing
to die for it. In the meantime they are trying to hurt the US economically.
Hollywood's portrayal of Russia is entertaining, but it has a downside. Prime
Minister Dmitri Medvedev says producers are overly simplistic in their portrayal of
Russians.
"People are mean. All they can do is drink vodka all the time. They're
aggressive. They like to fight. They can attack you at any moment," he said in a
May 2010 interview.
"These stereotypes prevent us from understanding each other."
That was true decades ago - and also today.
Article 8. Render the content of the following article. Translate the words
before reading. Think of the key words for this article.
overwhelming
regardless
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itinerary
loose
to emerge
dense
to adjust
available
pedestrians
on arrival
rural
reduced rates
amenities
within easy reach
to attest
would appeal to
enchanting
How to Plan Your First Trip to Ireland
By Christopher Woolson
Planning a trip to Ireland can be overwhelming whether you know nothing
about Ireland or you've been inundated with information from friends and family.
Regardless, a vacation to Ireland should not be stressful therefore we've broken
down the steps to make it more manageable and portable to any vacation in the
world:
Must-See List
Regardless of your knowledge of Ireland, we highly recommend a good
travel book to begin researching what there is to see and do in Ireland. Our favorite
is the Eyewitness Guide to Ireland, featuring both the major sites like the Cliffs of
Moher and Blarney Castle but also diving a bit further into off-the-beaten-path
sites that many first-time visitors would overlook -- like Aillwee Cave or Skellig
Michael. Ask friends and family who have visited Ireland for their favorites to help
incorporate them into your trip, being mindful that this part can be overwhelming
as everyone will insist you put their favorite sites on your list. Make a list of "must
see" sites and relegate the others to a secondary, "like to see" list.
If there is a group compiling this list, make sure the "must see" list contains
a majority vote for each site to help narrow down your travel scope and ensure the
group is in agreement. There will be nothing worse that driving hours out of your
way for one person while the rest of the group is bored or unhappy with the
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excursion. Once you have your lists, you're ready for the next step - turning it into
a working itinerary!
Create Itinerary
With your "must see" and "like to see" lists handy, you can easily turn this
into an itinerary by plotting them out loosely on a map of Ireland. Rather than
purchasing a map right now, you can go online and use Google's map of Ireland,
print it and mark it up as you like. Plot out each "must see" site and attractions on
your Ireland map with a red dot, returning with your "like to see" list in another
color. As you plot your vacation, an itinerary will begin to emerge with a path
starting to emerge and overnights jumping out near the dense parts of your map. If
your map appears as a Pollack painting, you may need to go and revisit your "must
see" list to narrow it down a bit further, refining those sites and determining if you
need to see it this trip or you can move it to a return visit.
Transportation
While you already know whether you want to drive, hire a chauffeur or take
a group bus tour, your Ireland itinerary will help quite a bit regardless of your
mode of transportation.
If you plan on a taking a bus tour, your itinerary will help you find the right
bus tour to satisfy your "must see" Irish sites and attractions. While no tour will
completely satisfy your list completely, there is typically a tour that will meet most
of your needs.
For those who do not find a tour to see all of your "must see" sites or you
want more flexibility in your schedule and not have to drive, a chauffeur will likely
fit your needs. While expensive, the cost is comparable to a bus tour when four or
more travelers split the cost of a chauffeur.
Finally, for those who want complete control over their daily touring,
driving is most flexible option - and easier than most travelers think. Yes, the roads
in Ireland tend to be smaller than those back here at home. Yes, you drive on the
opposite side of the road and car in Ireland. Driving in Ireland is actually quite
simple and once you relax and remind yourself that you've driven a car before... in
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a city or town unfamiliar to you... you'll be find. Take it slow and easy the first day
to adjust and by day two you'll head for the driver's side automatically rather than
the passenger's side of the car. If you plan on visiting Dublin at the beginning or
end of your vacation, we highly recommend not taking a car into downtown
Dublin but rather pick it up or drop it off at the airport during your stay. Driving in
any city is difficult, with one-way streets, traffic and pedestrians make it more
stressful for the driver and passenger alike. We also find it unnecessary to pay for a
car rental, car insurance as well as parking when Dublin city is so pedestrianfriendly. We also recommend starting in Shannon for those who are extremely
nervous about driving. Shannon is more rural and the new roads just outside the
airport are easy to navigate and drive, allowing you to get accustomed to the car
and the left-side of the road.
Accommodations
Now that you know your itinerary for your Ireland vacation, what you want
to see and do as well as how you will travel to see each site, it's time to determine
accommodations -- and Ireland has plenty of accommodations to choose from. The
most cost-effective method of traveling Ireland is the Irish Bed and Breakfast,
operated by Irish citizens and dedicating a portion of their home to tourists. You
will have a key to the front door as well as your room so you can come and go as
you please, though you must be mindful of other guests when coming in at night.
A large, filling traditional Irish breakfast is served while American favorites like
french toast and pancakes are starting to make their way into many menus. Irish
B&Bs are starting to receiving ratings and will be priced accordingly starting in
2012.
Next is the Irish hotel, located in just about every Irish town and village and
offering clean, private rooms of every standard. 3-star hotel rates can be
comparable to an Irish B&B or slightly higher while 4- and 5-star hotels will
obviously cost more while offering more amenities.
Irish Manor House Hotels are unique properties that make you feel like a
Lord or a Lady, if but for a night. Each property is known not only for the grand
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amenities they provide but for fantastic restaurants offering fresh local ingredients
each night. While more than a standard hotel or B&B, Manor Homes are
affordable to sprinkle throughout your trip to Ireland - and not break the budget.
Ireland Country Castles are dotted throughout the Irish countryside and are
comparable, in price, to the Irish Manors. Everyone we've encountered wants to
stay in Ireland for at least one night and our 4-star Ireland Country Castles allow us
to provide that at a cost that is affordable to our clients.
Finally we have 5-star Deluxe Castles, including Dromoland Castle,
Waterford Castle, Ashford Castle and Adare Manor, each offering unparalleled
service and amenities that make any trip to Ireland memorable! We've reviewed
each property over the years and can attest that you will want for nothing from the
moment your car pulls up to the moment you leave! While expensive, a last night
in one of these castles is the perfect last night in Ireland.
Airfare
While it may seem logical to take care of the airfare first, it is listed as one of
our "Top Five Ireland Booking Mistakes" and for good reason -- you can fly into
one airport in Ireland and out of the other without penalty. Car rental agencies
don't charge fees for a different drop location in Ireland either because the island is
so small. Everyone has heard of Dublin airport and too often our clients purchase
airfare in and out of Dublin only to spend the bulk of their time on the west coast
of Ireland, adding a 9-hour round-trip drive. Shannon airport sits on the west coast
of Ireland just 20 minutes outside of Limerick and just 2 hours south of Galway, a
perfect location to start your vacation. For those who will be driving, it also allows
you a more rural start to your trip rather than navigating the city of Dublin while
adjusting to the left-hand side of the road. For short vacations of 7-days or less,
start in Shannon and end in Dublin or the reverse. For vacations longer than that,
and depending on the itinerary, you may save drive times by flying in and out of
the same airport.
Enjoy Your Trip
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A little pre-planning on your part not only gets you familiar with Ireland but
also makes you more comfortable with your plans, making your trip more relaxed
and enjoyable. Ireland doesn't disappoint and while we keep telling clients, "You'll
return" and they insist that this is their dream trip and they don't think they'll return
- they typically start planning their next trip before they leave Ireland. Enjoy... take
lots of photos and while we would like to keep Ireland our own special secret, we
think it's nice to share!
Christopher Woolson, owner of EnchantingIreland.com, has specialized in
self-drive vacations to Ireland for over 16 years. Enchanting Ireland has helped
plan hundreds of customized vacations to Ireland since 2001 as well as escorted,
chauffeur and group tours to the Emerald Isle.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Christopher_Woolson
Article 8. Make a summary of the following article.
St Patrick
Those who wish to pay homage to St Patrick on 17 March could attend a
parade, don an outlandish green costume or swig a pint (or several – twice as much
Guinness worldwide is consumed on St Patrick’s Day than on any other day of the
year). An alternative way to celebrate the saint's legacy, however, is far more
peaceful and spectacular: visiting the sites where he brought Christianity to Ireland
– including mighty hilltops, vast mountains and exquisite alpine lakes.
Facts about Patrick's life and work are as misty as Ireland's mountains, and
they’re mingled (or mangled) with folklore and legend. Scholars generally believe
that he was born sometime around 373 AD in Roman Britain. As a 16-year-old,
Patrick (Patricius in Latin) was captured by Irish raiders and sold as a slave to a
druid (a Celtic priest) in today’s County Antrim in Northern Ireland, though the
exact location is unknown. For the next six years, he toiled as a shepherd,
developed his spirituality through prayer and became fluent in Irish.
According to his autobiographical letter Confessio, thought to have been
written around 450 AD and first published in the early 9th Century (the Book of
Amagh, containing the earliest copy believed to exist, is in the Library of Trinity
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College, Dublin), an angel appeared in a dream urging him to flee from his
enslavement. After being reunited with his family in Britain, he had a divine
calling to the priesthood. He trained in France and returned to Ireland as a
missionary in about 433 AD.
At the time, the Hill of Tara, located 43km north of Dublin in fertile County
Meath, was the ceremonial capital of the High Kings. They practised Celtic
paganism and believed Tara to be both the dwelling place of the gods and the
gateway to the Otherworld. Today the hill, a vast green expanse rising 197m with
sweeping vistas of the surrounding countryside, remains a palpably sacred site with
a wealth of remains including a Stone Age passage tomb (a narrow passage made
of large stones containing multiple burial chambers) and prehistoric burial mounds
up to 5,000 years old. The Heritage Ireland information centre runs 40-minute
guided tours of the site and screens a 20-minute film entitled Tara, A Royal
Sanctuary about the area’s impact on Ireland's Celtic history.
While it's not known when Patrick first visited Tara, he certainly saw the
High Kings' power base across the valley not long after his return to Ireland. While
Celtic festival fires were burning on Tara, the High Kings forbid other fires in the
area. But Patrick defied convention, lighting a paschal (Easter) fire on the Hill of
Slane, near today's village of Slane, located about 16km northeast of Tara. From
the Hill of Tara, you can see the Hill of Slane across the valley on a clear day.
High King Laoghaire and his attendants (including Erc, who later was baptised as a
Christian and would become the first bishop of Slane shortly thereafter) went to
confront the interloper. According to legend, Patrick plucked a shamrock from the
ground, using its three leaves (and his Irish language skills) to explain the Church’s
paradox of the Holy Trinity: the union of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit in
one. Convinced by the stranger, Laoghaire agreed to let Patrick continue his
missionary work. The weathered, silvery stone ruins scattered across the grassy,
158m-high Hill of Slane today include a foundational outline of a church, a round
tower and a monastery associated with St Erc, and a later Norman motte and bailey
on the hill's western side, built by Archembald Fleming, who came to Ireland with
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Henry II in 1171. Every year on Holy Saturday (the Saturday before Easter), the
local parish priest lights a fire on the Hill of Slane in Patrick's honour.
Patrick's accomplishments at Slane marked only the beginning of his
missionary career. He headed to another significant Celtic site, the Rock of Cashel,
in the town of Cashel, County Tipperary, about 94km north of Cork, which then
rivalled Tara as a centre of power in Ireland. It was here that Patrick is said to have
baptised Aengus, the son of the King of Munster, in the mid-5th Century. The
Rock is still sometimes referred to as St Patrick's Rock. Edged by jagged limestone
outcrops, it rises from the plains just outside the town of Cashel. Its walls enclose a
still-intact 12th-century round tower, 13th-century Gothic cathedral and exquisite
12th-century Romanesque chapel. In the courtyard, the stone St Patrick's cross
replicates the worn original in the Rock of Cashel's 15th-century Hall of the Vicars
Choral, which was built to house the cathedral's male choristers.
Ireland's “holiest mountain”, Croagh Patrick, aka “The Reek” — a soaring
765m-high, conical mountain near Westport, County Mayo — was already a place
of Celtic pilgrimage to celebrate the beginning of the harvest season when Patrick
arrived. Around 441 BC, he reputedly took a 40km route from County
Mayo’s Ballintubber Abbey to Croagh Patrick via the pathway Tóchar Phádraig
(Patrick’s Causeway), and fasted atop the mountain for 40 days and nights during
Lent. On the last Sunday of July (Reek Sunday), devout pilgrims follow his
original route, traditionally without shoes. Mass is celebrated at the modern-day
chapel at the top of the mountain. Otherwise, any time of year, hikers can start the
two-hour climb from the base of the mountain to the summit in the village of
Murrisk, next to the visitor centre Teach na Miasa. The views over picturesque
Clew Bay, which is dotted with 365 islands, are dazzling, especially at sunset.
Those less trekking-inclined can contemplate Croagh Patrick aboard an idyllic
cruise around the bay with companies such as Clewbay Cruises, whose 90-minute
cruises also take in seal colonies and unspoilt sand dunes.
Croagh Patrick is just one of several places where St Patrick is famously
claimed to have banished snakes from Ireland, chasing them into the sea during his
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mountaintop fast. Another is the Serpent’s Lake, in the Gap of Dunloe. Located
just outside of Killarney National Park in County Kerry, the lake is where Patrick
is alleged to have tricked and imprisoned the last of Ireland’s snakes in a chest –
then thrown the them into the waters. The Gap — a glorious mountain pass with
crystal-clear streams, rugged peaks and wildflowers — is best explored by walking,
cycling, or, most atmospherically, jaunting car (horse and cart) with entertaining
commentary from a jarvey (driver). At the northern end, the landmark 19th-century
pub Kate Kearney's Cottage, still owned by Kate Kearney’s descendants, is a great
resource for information on the area. (Of course, it is now widely accepted that
there never were any snakes in Ireland in the first place, and that the legends
surrounding Patrick's exploits are symbolic of eliminating pagan culture.)
Patrick spent some 30 years spreading the Gospel and founding churches
and monasteries, eventually becoming the first bishop of Armagh, Primate of All
Ireland toward the end of his life. He retired to what is now County Down, where it
is believed he died in 461 AD on 17 March — hence his feast day — in
Downpatrick. He is said to be buried in the grounds of the 12th-century Down
Cathedral.
Below
St
Patrick's
alleged
burial
site,
the
enlightening,
highly
interactiveSaint Patrick Centre is the only dedicated exhibition centre in the world
dedicated to Ireland's patron saint. The centre makes an ideal starting - or ending point for discovering other St
Patrick
sites
throughout
the
Emerald Isle.
Article 9. Make a summary
of the following scientific article.
Top 5 Signs It's Time to Stand Up
for Science (Op-Ed) (picture 18)
Seth
sdddddddddddddPicture 18
Shulman,
Union
of
Concerned Scientists (UCS) | June 05,
2014 05:12pm ET Article source http://www.livescience.com/46140-mbarrasing106
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government-assaults-on-science.html
Seth Shulman is a senior staff writer at the Union of Concerned Scientists
(UCS), a veteran science journalist and author of six books. This opted, and
Shulman's other Got s Science? Columns, can be found on the UCS website.
Shulman contributed this article to Live Science's Expert Voices: Op-Ed &
Insights.
Polls consistently show that strong majorities of Americans trust
independent scientists and believe in the importance of using the best available
science to help guide decision making. But you wouldn't know it from some of the
recent developments around the country. On too many occasions, politics and
vested interests have trumped the solid scientific evidence people need to help
make decisions at the state and federal level. Here, from the Got Science desk, is a
roundup of the month's top five reasons it's high time to stand up for science.
1. The Congressional House Science Committee held more hearings on
extraterrestrial life than on climate change
You read that right. National Journal documented recently that, since 2013,
the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee in the U.S. Congress, led by
Texas's Republican Rep. Lamar Smith, actually has held more hearings on the
search for extraterrestrial life than it has devoted to climate change . In fact, the
three hearings it held on extraterrestrial life were part of some 15 separate hearings
related to space exploration, while the committee has held just two hearings
addressing global warming.
Of course, space exploration, and even extraterrestrial life, are bona fide
science topics, but by almost any measure, climate change is the most
consequential science issue of our time. With two preeminent reports - the U.S.
National Climate Assessment and the latest update from the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - highlighting the urgent need for action in the
most dire terms yet, it's past time for the House Science Committee to phone
home.
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Instead, Chairman Smith has continued to express skepticism about climate
change, saying, for instance, that "there is little science to support any connection
between climate change and more frequent or extreme storms." In reality, both the
climate assessment and the IPCC report make the evidence for such a connection
clear.
Taking on Rep. Smith's comments directly, Dr. Andrew Rosenberg, director
of the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists,
noted that the National Climate Assessment, mandated by Congress and developed
by a broad, non-partisan group of scientists from across the country, "is exactly the
type of independent advice we need in major policy debates." Rosenberg, who
himself served as an author and scientific advisor on the National Climate
Assessment, publicly called upon Smith to read the report before issuing any more
unsubstantiated assertions to try to discredit it.
2. Ohio turns its back on clean energy - and the facts
The Ohio state legislature approved a bill recently that will make it the first
state in the nation to halt its renewable energy standard. Sadly, the legislature made
the choice to stop the standard for at least the next two years despite overwhelming
evidence that, since it came into effect, Ohio's electricity rates have dropped by
almost a percent and a half, saving ratepayers roughly $230 million according to
the nonprofit American Council on Renewable Energy. During this same period,
research by Ohio State University has shown that Ohio's clean energy sector has
provided some 25,000 jobs, and a collection of business leaders operating in the
state claim the sector has attracted more than $1 billion in private-sector
investment.
Former Ohio Governor Ted Strickland, who signed the original renewable
energy standard into law in 2008 with near unanimous support from the legislature
at the time, blasted the move as "a giveaway to utility companies and the end of
Ohio's leadership in the renewable energy industries."
3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission ignores the science on nuclear waste
storage.
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The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), charged with regulating the
safety of U.S. nuclear power plants, voted recently to end all consideration of a
plan to accelerate the transfer of the growing stocks of nuclear waste at U.S.
nuclear plants from spent fuel pools to safer dry casks. The NRC's decision
overlooks a wealth of scientific data and ignores a key 2006 study by the National
Academy of Sciences that discusses the vulnerability of spent fuel pools to
potential terrorist attack. (For a simple explanation of how dry casks can make
nuclear power safer and help avoid the possibility of a Fukushima-like accident,
see this infographic.)
As David Wright, director of the global security program at the Union of
Concerned Scientists noted, the NRC's anti-science position on this issue is hard to
fathom. As Wright puts it: "Given the potential consequences of an accident or
terrorist attack on a spent fuel pool, the body responsible for ensuring public safety
should want to know all it could about the issue, and use that information to reduce
nuclear risks."
4. North Carolina enshrines communities' right not to know about
fracking
The rapid growth of fracking around the country has already led some 20
states to require the disclosure of industrial chemicals used in the fracking process .
Such information is vital to a community's ability to respond to an environmental
spill or other disaster.
Bucking such sensible right-to-know momentum, however, North Carolina
governor Pat McCrory recently signed a bill that makes it a crime to publicly
disclose information about fracking chemicals in the state. While the proposed bill
does establish procedures for fire chiefs and health care providers to obtain the
chemical information during emergencies, it requires even these emergency
responders to sign a confidentiality agreement if so desired by fracking
companies.
The proposed North Carolina legislation is a textbook case of letting
industry interests trump vital community concerns. For more a more sensible
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approach to what residents facing fracking around the country can do to insure they
have access to the information they need to make good decisions, check out this
helpful community toolkit.
5. Kentucky bankrolls creationism
Last, but surely not least, is the recent decision by the Kentucky Tourism
Development Finance Authority to grant more than $40 million in tax incentives
for a planned $172 million expansion of the Bible-based Creation Museum that
will feature a full-size replica of Noah's ark and further the notion that dinosaurs
and people roamed the earth simultaneously.
Even aside from the issue of the separation of church and state, the move by
the Kentucky government is a jaw-dropping affront to evolutionary science which
has overwhelming evidence to show that the Creation Museum is off in its
proposed depiction of when dinosaurs roamed by more than 60 million years.
As former New York Democratic Sen. Daniel Moynihan famously put it
years ago, people are entitled to their own opinions, but they're not entitled to their
own facts. Want your representatives to make better decisions? Let them hear from
you by standing up for science.
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Supplement material for you to use while rendering or
summarizing the articles (picture 19)
Picture 19
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Bibliography
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Rendering:
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2010. – 798 p. – ISBN 10 – 0 – 312 – 53904 – 5.
3. Berman, M. Who are You? Questionnaires for Self-discovery / M.
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