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215.THE WORLD AROUND US (ОКРУЖАЮЩИЙ НАС МИР)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Г.А. Сисалиева
THE WORLD AROUND US
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов
1 курса отделения географии и экологии
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«ОРЕНБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Г.А. Сисалиева
THE WORLD AROUND US
(ОКРУЖАЮЩИЙ НАС МИР)
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов 1 курса отделения географии и экологии
Оренбург
2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-92.3
С 40
Рецензенты:
М.А.Пахомова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры теории и практики
перевода ОГПУ
Е.В.Синкина, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Сисалиева Г.А.
The world around us (Окружающий нас мир): учебно-методическое пособие для
студентов 1 курса отделения географии и экологии / Г.А.Сисалиева; Мин-во
образования и науки РФ; Оренб. гос. пед. ун-т. – Оренбург, 2013. – 130 с.
УДК811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-92.3
С 40
© Сисалиева Г.А., 2013
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Оглавление
Предисловие
7
Part 1. Фонетика. Особенности английского произношения
9
Правила чтения. Типы слогов.
11
Чтение диграфов
14
Part 2. Revision Course
Lesson 1
Грамматика
Порядок слов в утверждениях
16
Местоимения
17
Существительные
20
The Present Simple
23
Тема. Let Me Introduce Myself
29
Lesson 2
Грамматика
Притяжательный падеж существительных
29
Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий
30
Числительные
33
Тема. My family
35
Lesson 3
Грамматика
Типы вопросительных предложений
37
Оборот there is / there are
39
The Present Continuous
41
Тема. Seasons and Weather
44
Lesson 4
Грамматика
The Article
48
Неопределенный артикль
48
Определенный артикль
49
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Нулевой артикль
50
The Present Perfect
52
Тема. Му Working Day
53
Part 3. The Basic Course
55
Lesson 5
Грамматика.
The Past Simple
56
Правильные и неправильные глаголы
57
Предлоги места, времени, направления и
движения
58
Тема. My University
60
Lesson 6
Грамматика
The Future Simple
63
Конструкция “to be going to”
65
Формальное подлежащее “it”
66
Тема. Orenburg – My Native City
68
Lesson 7
Грамматика
The Passive Voice
70
Словообразование
72
Тема. Great Britain
74
Lesson 8
Грамматика
The Present Perfect Continuous
77
Повелительное наклонение
80
Тема. Discover London
82
Lesson 9
Грамматика
Неопределенные местоимения
84
Модальные глаголы. Can, may, must и их эквиваленты
86
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89
Тема. The USA
Lesson 10
Грамматика
The Past Continuous
93
Модальные глаголы.
94
Should, ought to, need, dare
94
Тема. Washington
95
Lesson 11
Грамматика
Модальные глаголы. Shall, will, would
97
The Past Perfect
99
Тема. The Russian Federation
99
Lesson 12
Грамматика
Many, much, few, little
102
The Future Continuous
103
Тема. Moscow
105
Appendix I Аудиторная лексика
108
Appendix II Таблица наиболее употребительных неправильных глаголов 110
Appendix III
Список географических названий
114
Карты
124
Библиография
130
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Предисловие
Перед
вами
учебник,
предназначенный
для
студентов
1
курса
естественнонаучного факультета отделения географии и экологии. Он рассчитан на 2
учебных семестра: 36 часов практических аудиторных занятий в 1-м семестре и 48
часов во 2-м.
Пособие состоит из 3 частей и приложений.
Первая часть содержит краткий коррективный фонетический курс, основные
сведения по английской орфографии и правила чтения.
Вторая часть носит общеобразовательный характер, содержит необходимый
грамматический материал в соответствии с требованиями программы по английскому
языку для неязыковых специальностей вузов и тематикой занятия.
Каждый
урок
второй
части
содержит
тематический
текст
по
таким
обязательным вузовским темам, как Let me introduce myself, My family, Seasons and
Weather, My working day.
В третьей части основное внимание уделяется таким общевузовским темам, как
My University, My Native City, а также циклу страноведческих тем – Great Britain,
Discover London, The USA, Washington, The Russian Federation, Moscow. Тексты
страноведческого характера взяты из оригинальных источников и адаптированы с
учетом специфики неязыкового отделения.
Задачей этого курса обучения является усовершенствование уже имеющихся
знаний
по
английскому
языку
(умение
читать,
переводить,
пересказывать
описательный и впоследствии научный текст на английском языке, навыки
монологической и диалогической речи). Тематический отбор текстов обусловлен
требованиями вузовской программы, а также учебно-методическими задачами данного
этапа обучения.
Каждый урок рассчитан на 6-8 часов
аудиторных занятий и состоит из 2
компонентов:
1) грамматического материала с упражнениями на закрепление и
2) описательного текста, содержащего усвоенную ранее грамматику, с
вокабуляром и упражнениями, способствующими развитию навыков устной речи.
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Целью данного учебного пособия является:
Развитие навыков чтения и письма на английском языке и обучение
переводу с английского языка на русский;
Овладение
навыками
диалогической
речи
и
монологического
высказывания по пройденной теме.
Развитие практических навыков работы с физической картой мира.
Пособие завершают приложения:
Аудиторная лексика;
Таблица наиболее употребительных неправильных глаголов;
Список географических названий.
Кроме того, пособие содержит физические карты изучаемых стран для лучшего
усвоения страноведческого материала.
Пособие может использоваться и для обучения других естественнонаучных
специальностей, так как рассчитано на лиц, начинающих изучение английского языка,
а также продолжающих его изучение на базе знаний, приобретенных в средней школе.
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Part 1. Фонетика. Особенности английского произношения
Между написанием
слова
и его произношением
возможно значительное
расхождение. Фонетическая транскрипция – это система специальной записи звуковой
оболочки слова, которая помогает правильно прочитать и произнести слово.
Транскрипционные значки звуков заключаются в квадратные скобки.
Звуки английского языка
Гласные
Монофтонги
Напряжённые
Ненапряжённые
[ i:] read, sea, need, see, be
[ ı ] list, system, it, is, in, with, listen
[E:] bird, learn, work, her
[e ] red, bread, get, friend
[L] board, daughter, talk
[æ ] bad, have, am, at, January
[α: ] are, hard, heart, car
[ә ] forget, reader, a book
[u: ] who, too, true, two
[ Λ ] duck, fun, must, come
[P ] hot, crop, Austria, geography
[V] book, put, good, wool, would
Правило 1: при произнесении напряженных гласных нужно оттянуть корень
языка, тональность голоса низкая. Ненапряженные гласные – высокие по тональности.
Дифтонги – гласные, состоящие из 2 элементов, первый из которых произносится
дольше:
[ıә ] here, dear, era, serious [`sıәrıәs]
[eı] may, train, straight, grey, eight, basic, name
[aı ] try, buy, night, like
[εә ] Mary, scarce, rarely, mayor, hair
[aV] down, mountain, count, out
[OI ] boy, point
[Vq ] poor, fluent, tour
[qV] no, coat, though, own, most
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Трифтонги – гласные, состоящие из 3 элементов, первый из которых произносится
дольше:
[eıә ] layer, crayon
[aıә ] liar, fire, tyre
[aVә ] hour, flower, our
[әVә ] lower
[Oıә ] loyal
Правило 2: все английские гласные перед звонкими согласными произносятся
долго, а перед глухими – кратко.
Согласные
Звонкие
Глухие
(в англ. языке они слабые)
(сильные)
[b] be, boy
[p] pay
[d] do, add
[t] eat
[g] go, egg
[ k] cat, seek
[v] eve, live
[f] fee
[z] zoo, bags
[s] say
[Z] measure
[ S] she
[ð ] they
[θ] thin
[G] just, sandwich, Greenwich
[C] each
[h] hot, hear, hi
Сонорные – согласные звуки, которые имеют тон:
[m] my
[j ] yes
[n ] no
[w] why
[ l ] live
[r ] read
[ŋ] sing
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Правило 3: звонкие согласные в конце слов оглушать нельзя, иначе изменится
смысл слова, например:
sad [sæd] - печальный
sat [sæt] - P.S. и P.P. глагола «сидеть»
Правила чтения
Гласные a, e, i, o, u, y читаются в зависимости от:
1) типа слога, в котором они стоят;
2) ударения в слове;
3) того, какие буквы стоят за ними или перед ними.
Типы слогов
I
I
II
Открытый
Условно-открытый
Закрытый
Слог
оканчивается
ударную
гласную,
на Ударная гласная
Слог оканчивается на 1 или
она (читается, как в алфавите) + несколько
читается, как в алфавите
согласная
+
безударная (ударная гласная закрыта 1
гласная (немая е)
no, hi, she, by, blue
согласных
или несколькими согласн.)
bake, role, gene, nice, mute, big, must, less, gym, cost, had
byte
i [aı] hi, lie
i [aı] time, tidy, climate
i [ ı] sit
y [aı] my, bye, try
y [aı ] byte, Clyde, style
y [ ı ] gym, system
e [ i: ] she, be, he
e [ i: ] theme, Peter
e [e ] get, tell
o [әV] go, no
o [әV] home, Poland, photo
o [P] fond, cost
a [eı ] a
a [eı ] date, famous, name
a [x] dad, stand
u [ju:] или [u:] true, flu
u [ju:] tune, music, student
u [A] luck
Запомните слова, в которых u читается [V]: pull, put, push, full, bush, cushion, bull,
butcher, в остальных словах – по правилу: [ Λ ] - luck, nut.
Ex.1. Transcribe these words. Practise reading them.
mine
name
role
rude
theme
byte
time
late
home
mute
these
typing
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life
gate
phone
tune
gene
Clyde
guide
base
vote
cute
me
fly
file
make
Rome
clue
Pete
try
nice
date
note
true
we
apply
В III типе слога (за ударной гласной следует буква r):
Сочетание ar читается [α:] car, hard, farmer
er
ir
[E :] nerve, fir, hurt, myrtle, first
ur
yr
or
[O:] short, port, horse
or после w [E:] word, world, worse, work, worm
ar после w [L] warm, war, Warsaw.
В случае с удвоенной буквой r, как и со всякой другой удвоенной согласной, ударная
гласная двусложного слова читается по II типу.
e.g. marry ['mærı]
sorry ['sPrı]
Буква x читается [ks]: text, exercise, six.
Но перед ударной гласной буква x читается [gz]: exam, example.
B некоторых словах буква h не читается: hour, honest, honour.
Буква g читается [g] grow, big, get, give, girl.
Буква g перед e, i, y читается [G] - geography, gentleman, age, gym, кроме get, give, girl.
Буква с читается [k] catch, crop.
Буква с перед e, i, y читается
[s] - cell, juice, city, nice, Cyprus, кроме Сelt.
all [Ll] tall, fall, hall, all, mall, ball, wall, small
a перед –sk, -st, -ss читается [ ] task, fast, pass, grass, glass
ea читается [ i:] seat, peak, teacher
[e ] thread, feather, weather, bread, head, read (P.S. and P.P.)
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[eı ] break, great, steak
Правила чтения сочетаний согласных
ch, tch
[t∫]
catch, chest
sh
[∫]
dish, shake
th в прилагательных, глаголах, [θ]
think, three, thanks, twelfth
существительных, числительных
th в местоимениях, предлогах, [ð]
with, this, weather, bother,
союзах,
whether, they, gather,
артиклях;
между
гласными
the
Netherlands,
rather,
that, though, thus, either
wh + o
[h]
who, whole
wh
[w]
where, when
ng
[ŋ]
bring, hang
ck
[k]
clock, sick
nk, nc
[ŋk]
think, function, link
ph
[f ]
Geography, photo, phone
Непроизносимые согласные
igh
[aı]
flight, high
kn
[n ]
know, knife, knead
wr
[r ]
write, wrong, wrist
gn
[n ]
sign, design, align
mb
[m]
climb, bomb
lm
[m]
calm, palm
lf, lve
[ f], [ v]
half, halve
mn
[m]
solemn, column
Ex.2. Read the words in columns.
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high
palm
knife
wrong
chair
wish
calm
dumb
where
whole
watch
shape
right
sick
which
church
might
thumb
know
match
what
thank
they
rank
Чтение гласных диграфов ai, ei, oi, au, ou, oa, ee, ea, ay, ey, oy, eu, oo
Чтение диграфов
Диграф – сочетание 2 букв, произносимых как 1 звук (фонема).
Первая группа
Вторая группа
Третья группа
ei [eı ] vein
oo [u:] too, soon, moon
ai [eı] fail, main
oi [Oı ] oil, moist, point
au [L] August
ay [eı ] day, May
oy [Oı] boy
ou [aV] out, count
oa [әV] coat, coast
ee [ i: ] see, tree
ey [eı ] they
ea [ i: ] sea, mean
eu [ju:] neutral
Ex.3. Practise reading these words.
autumn
found
teach
boat
dream
around
Australia
cloud
reach
boil
please
mount
clay
may
mail
avoid
read
house
about
meet
employ
grey
stout
easy
Буква i перед ld и nd читается [aı ]: kind, mild, find, wild.
Буква o перед ld читается [әV]: gold, cold, told, hold, mold.
Сочетание букв ture читается [Cә]: picture, cultural, mixture, feature, temperature.
Буква о перед буквами m, n, v, th в большинстве случаев читается [ Λ ]: come, son,
mother, love, some.
Сочетание букв ow читается 2 способами: [aV ] now, town, cow, owl; и [әV] low, blow,
snow, own, Moscow.
Сочетание букв ou читается 2 способами: [aV] house, outstanding, found, about, county; и
[әV] poultry. Но: country [ Λ ], route, group [u: ].
Диграфы au, ou перед ght читаются [L ]: daughter, thought, brought, bought.
Буква a перед сочетанием th и перед n, s, f читается [R]: path, grass, past, after, fast.
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Чтение диграфов перед буквой r
Диграф + r
Звук
Примеры
ai + r
[εә ]
air, chair, affair
ei + r
[εә ]
their
ee + r
[ıә ]
deer, beer
ea + r1
[εә ]
bear, wear
[ıә ]
near, dear, real
oa + r
[L ]
hoarse, board
oo + r2
[υә ]
moor, poor
ou + r3
[aυә ]
hour, our
1
Но: learn [E:]
2
Но: floor, door [L]
3
Но: tour [Vә ].
Ex.4. Read and remember the words.
hair
month
ask
mind
taught
bold
appearance
lowland
nature
pass
crowd
sought
done
brother
feature
hear
task
borrow
told
father
bathroom
Чтение гласных a, e, o, u, y, i в IV типе слога
IV тип слога графически напоминает I условно-открытый слог, только между ударной
гласной и е (или безударной гласной) стоит не любая согласная, а буква r:
a + re1 [εә]
e + re2 [ıә]
o + re [L]
i + re [aıә]
u + re3 [jVә]
y + re [aıә]
fare
here
more
fire
pure
caring
serious
bore
tiring
curious
prepare
sphere
boring
tyre
lure
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1
are [α:]
2
there [ðεә], where [wεә], were [w3:]
3
sure [∫Vә ]
Part 2. Revision Course
LESSON 1
Грамматика. Порядок слов в утверждениях. Местоимения. Существительные. The
Present Simple
Тема. About Myself
Порядок слов в предложении
В утвердительном английском предложении порядок слов фиксированный,
прямой, каждый член предложения, как правило, имеет свое определенное место. В
русском языке отношения между словами выражены падежными окончаниями,
поэтому мы можем менять местами подлежащее и сказуемое, и это не будет ошибкой,
например:
Студентам нравятся занятия в университете.
Занятия в университете нравятся студентам.
В простом распространенном английском предложении порядок слов такой:
1. подлежащее (my name, I, our country)
2. сказуемое (is, have, opened, goes, can go)
3. дополнение (прямое, без предлога, с предлогом – me, exams, to the sea)
4. обстоятельство (образа действия, места, времени – with success, in Orenburg,
now).
Ex. 1. Make up a sentence:
1. has, a dog, she.
2. Anna, a university student, is.
3. sports, like, I.
4. my, subjects, are, favourite, Geography, English, and.
5. do, they, sports.
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6. Katy, very, hard, works.
7. an, she, excellent, is, student.
8. was, Sarah, in, born, London, 1985, in.
9. the, he, university, entered, year, last.
10. languages, she, two, speaks, fluently.
Местоимения
Местоимения употребляются в предложениях вместо существительных или
прилагательных. Они называют людей, предметы или признаки, ранее упомянутые,
например: Anna does her exams with success. – She does them with success.
Личные местоимения
Именительный падеж
Объектный падеж
Кто? Что?
Кого? Чего? Кому? Чему? и т.д.
I–я
we – мы
me – мне, меня,
us – нам, нас, нами
мной
you – ты
he – он
you – вы
they – они
you – тебе, тобой,
you – вам, вас,
тебя
вами
him – ему, его
them – им, их, ими
she – она
her – ей, ее
it *– он, она,
it – его, ей, ему, ее
оно
* Все неодушевленные предметы, понятия, а также животные (a cat, a bird и т.д.) и
дети, если их пол неизвестен, относятся к среднему роду и выражаются местоимением
it.
Ex. 2. Replace the words in bold by pronouns (замените выделенные слова
местоимениями):
1. Anna opened the door.
2. My mother and father are at home at the weekend.
3. This pen won’t write.
4. The teacher brings maps to the classes.
5. The dog barks at people in the street.
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6. The mobile phone belongs to John.
7. Katy has got a good laptop.
8. James hasn’t read the e-mail that Barb and I sent yesterday.
Указательные местоимения
Единственное число
Множественное число
this – этот, эта, это
these – эти
that – тот, та, то
those – те
Указательное местоимение such имеет 1 неизменяемую форму: I like such
weather. Мне нравится такая погода. I like such films. Мне нравятся такие фильмы.
Указательное местоимение the same всегда употребляется с определенным
артиклем: We are students of the same group. She is the same as before.
Притяжательные местоимения
Чей? Чья? Чьё? Чьи?
Относительная форма
Абсолютная форма
(перед
(за местоимением нет существительного)
существительным)
my house
This house is mine.
your pen
The pen is yours.
his car
That car is his.
her room
The room is hers.
its climate
The bone is its.
our city
The city is ours.
their notebooks
These notebooks are theirs.
Ex.3. Complete the sentences. Use the suitable words from the box:
mine
her
your
yours
my
our
its
your
their
theirs
hers
1. Sara shouldn’t interfere*. It’s not _ business.
2. Jim, _ bike is not as fast as _. (Boast!)
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3. _ pen is broken. Could I take _?
4. Kate says these copies are _. Don’t take them.
5. Don’t touch that sandwich. Mike says it’s _.
6. We live in a nice house but Lisa’s house is nicer than _.
7. We often borrow* their CDs and they borrow _.
*вмешиваться;
*заимствовать, брать на время.
Ex.4. Replace the singular forms with the plural:
1 This pen won’t write.
2 Take that book. I don’t need it.
3 Such a nice day!
4 I have never seen such a terrific film.
5 This test is too easy for me.
6 Where did you get that book?
Возвратные местоимения
Их различают по лицам, родам и числам.
Личное местоимение
Возвратное местоимение
I
myself
you
yourself, yourselves
he
himself
she
herself
it
itself
we
ourselves
they
themselves
На русский язык возвратные местоимения переводятся с помощью:
1. возвратных местоимений – сам, себе, собой и т.д.
2. возвратных глаголов с окончанием –ся, -сь (мыться, одеваться, очутиться).
Они употребляются для усиления значения существительного.
She herself closed the door and locked it.
We saw the president himself.
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Местоимение “oneself” обычно употребляется с инфинитивом, чтобы показать
возвратное значение глагола.
It is nice to find oneself in such a beautiful place. Приятно очутиться в таком красивом
месте.
Ex.1. Translate the sentences. Which pronouns in bold mean with no help / company?
1. Sunday is the chance to relax and enjoy oneself.
2. Let me introduce myself.
3. Do the test by yourselves.
4. He himself can study Italian to translate books.
5. They get good results because they believe in themselves.
6. Susan has a strange haircut – she probably cuts her hair herself.
7. Why don’t you do it yourself? It’s a waste of money to hire a decorator.
8. I cook food myself. I think it’s delicious .
9. He wants to go there himself to see what is on.
10. The children promise to behave themselves at a party.
Cуществительное
Это часть речи, обозначающая предмет: лицо, понятие, животное, явление,
общую группу и т.д. Оно отвечает на вопрос: кто это? что это?
По своему значению существительные делятся на имена нарицательные и
собственные.
К
нарицательным
относятся
собирательные
(family,
crowd,
team),
вещественные (water, sugar, snow), отвлеченные (knowledge, power, time, strength),
конкретные (desk, pen, printer) существительные.
Нарицательные существительные делятся на исчисляемые (counts) и
неисчисляемые (non-counts).
Исчисляемые (counts) существительные имеют формы единственного и
множественного числа, их можно пересчитать, e.g. a test – many tests, etc.
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Неисчисляемые (non-counts) называют вещества и понятия, которые нельзя
пересчитать, они употребляются в единственном числе, e.g. friendship, light, air, gas, oil,
etc.
Имена собственные указывают на географические названия или имена людей,
клички животных и т.д., e.g. the Ural, the “Beresford” hotel, Mary Smith, the “Moscow
News”.
Существительные имеют 2 числа:
Единственное
Множественное
a student
students [s]
an exam
exams
a party
parties [z]
a life
lives
a hero
heroes [z]
a bus, a dish, a box, a face, a
buses, dishes, boxes, faces, matches, pages
match, a page
[ız]
a house[haVs]
houses[ 'haVzız]
[z]
[laIvz]
Запомните некоторые исключения:
a man – men, people
a child – children
a woman – women
a foot – feet
a tooth – teeth
a mouse – mice
a goose – geese
an ox – oxen
У некоторых
существительных формы единственного и множественного числа
совпадают.
a sheep – sheep
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a deer – deer
a fish – fish
a series – series
a species – species
a means – means
a gas works – gas works
Некоторые существительные имеют только форму множественного числа:
clothes – одежда
scissors – ножницы
glasses – очки
shorts – шорты
trousers, pants (AE) – брюки
goods – товары
looks – вид, внешность
customs – таможня
outskirts – пригород, окрестности
e.g. Where are my glasses?
My clothes are in the wardrobe.
Существительные money, news, economics, physics, politics, advice, progress, contents
употребляются в единственном числе.
e.g. No news is good news. Ill news travels fast. “Money makes the world go round.”
Существительные police, cattle, public, jury употребляются во множественном числе.
e.g. He has many cattle. The police were questioning the suspect.
Ex. 1. Open the brackets.
1. I see two (man) and three (woman) in the hall.
2. They need five (kilo) of (potato).
3. The (book) are on the (shelf).
4. They put on their (coat) in winter as it is cold.
5. The summer (holiday) last three (month).
6. We are full-time (student).
7. Our teacher knows three foreign (language).
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8. They travel to many (country) every year.
Ex. 2. Translate into English.
1. Эти новые брюки хорошо сидят на тебе. (fit smb)
2. Ножницы на столе.
3. Летом дети играют во дворе.
4. Мне нужен твой совет.
5. У него много друзей.
6. Какие новости?
7. География – интересная наука.
8. Они живут в пригороде.
9. Теплая одежда в чемодане.
10. Вы делаете успехи.
11. Полицейские уже едут.
12. Они изучают разные виды растений и животных.
13. Женщины составляют большую часть населения.
Tenses. The Present Simple
V1
V1 + s (-es)
Глагол в настоящем простом времени имеет форму инфинитива без частицы “to” – V1,
например:
to swim – плавать
In summer I swim in the river.
Это время обозначает действия, которые происходят обычно, регулярно, постоянно.
Это констатация факта совершения действия в настоящем.
I live in Orenburg. I have a lot of friends. We study Geography and Ecology in our classes.
В 3 лице ед.ч. к глаголу добавляется суффикс –s (-es):
She swims well. Sandy goes to school. He studies Geography. She lives in Russia.
Суффикс –s читается:
[s]после глухих согласных;
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[z]после гласных и звонких согласных.
Суффикс –es прибавляется, если глагол оканчивается на:
-o – goes, does;
-y после согласной, при этом она меняется на i, - flies, tries.
-s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -tch, -x, звуки [s], [G] , при этом –es читается [ız] - changes, washes,
misses, fixes, watches, brushes, matches, catches, etc.
Глагол to have в 3 л. eд.ч. имеет форму has.
She has lunch at the university. He has a car. Our university has several buildings.
В вопросах и отрицаниях нужен вспомогательный глагол – do или в 3 л. ед. ч. does
[dΛz].
I do not work, I study. Do you work?
My mum does not like rock music. Does your father go to rock concerts?
Запомните, что в вопросе к подлежащему вспомогательный глагол не используется, а
сказуемое имеет форму 3 л. ед. ч.
They like Geography. – Who likes Geography?
Указатели времени – often, never, sometimes, usually, always, seldom, every day, on
weekdays, twice a year, occasionally, daily, at the weekend и т.п.
She often comes early.
She is often early.
Глагол в настоящем простом времени может выражать будущие действия:
1) по официальному расписанию, приказу, особенно если речь идет о поездках.
We leave for Moscow next week.
2) в придаточных предложениях времени, условия и уступки.
He will be a Geography teacher when he graduates from the university. – Oн будет
учителем географии, когда окончит университет.
Если в предложении не происходит никакого действия, то используется глаголсвязка to be в нужной форме, за которым следует прилагательное, существительное,
местоимение, числительное, иногда наречие:
Positive form
Negative form
Questions
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I am – I’m
I am not = I’m not
Am I?
You are = You’re
You are not = You aren’t
Are you?
We are = We’re
We are not = We aren’t
Are we?
They are = They’re
They are not= They aren’t Are they?
He is = He’s
He is not = He isn’t
Is he?
She is = She’s
She is not = She isn’t
Is she?
It is = It’s
It is not = It isn’t
Is it?
I am a student.
We are friends.
She (he) is at home.
You are good at swimming.
It is warm today.
They are happy to see you.
В вопросах используется обратный порядок слов (инверсия):
It is cod today. - Is it cold today?
They are first-year students. - Are they first-year students?
Запомните выражения с глаголом-связкой “to be” – to be tired, to be fond of smth, to be
keen on smth, to be into smth, to be interested in smth, to be sure, to be sorry, to be fine, to be
good at smth, to be bad at smth, to be ill/sick, etc.
I’m keen on ball games. My friend is into water sports. They are interested in ecological
problems. He is tired, he is sleepy. She’s good at English but she’s bad at computing.
Ex. 5. Choose the correct variant.
1. I (like, likes) sport and music.
2. They (go, goes) to Moscow next week.
3. If the weather (change, changes) for the better we will go to the park.
4. (Do, Does) your friend live in Sochi or in London?
5. When (do, does) you usually have dinner?
6. How (do, does) they get to the university?
7. Who (speak, speaks) English well?
8. We (don’t, doesn’t) enjoy this climate.
9. Does Nick (have, has) my CD?
10. Who (have, has) an extra copy of the text?
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11. She usually (do, does) the shopping on Sundays.
12. You (know, knows) my address, (don’t, doesn’t) you?
13. She (am, is, are) good at English.
14. (Do, Does, Are) his friends fond of computer games?
15. When the geographers (use, uses) the word “lowland” they just (mean, means) that the
land (be, is, are, am) low-lying, but it (not mean, do not mean, does not mean) that the
place (be, is, are, am) flat.
Ex. 6. Put the verb in the correct form to complete the dialogue.
Example: What she (do) if she (get) ill?
What will she do if she gets ill?
A: But what (happen) if she (lose) her passport?
B: Well, if she (do), she (go) to the Embassy.
A: If Jack (be) late, you (get) angry?
B: No, but if he (be) late, I (not wait) for him.
A: If Nancy (lose) her money, what she (do)?
B: She (call) us if that (happen).
A: If Pat (ask) you to her party, you (go)?
B: Yes. And if I (go), you (come) with me?
Ex. 7. Translate into English. Use the verbs in the box.
be
have
leave (go out)
live
go
travel
come from
study
go round
speak
1. Как тебя зовут?
2. Откуда ты родом?
3. Где ты живешь?
4. Ты студент?
5.Где ты учишься?
6. Вы говорите по-английски?
7. Я люблю джазовую музыку и водные виды спорта.
8. У него голубые глаза и светлые волосы.
9. Моя мама врач.
10. У Дениса много друзей.
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11. Мы живем в Оренбурге.
12. Я хочу стать географом или экологом.
13. Когда я приду домой, я тебе позвоню.
14. Вы сможете выйти после того, как сдадите свои работы.
15. Мы поедем за город, если будет тепло.
16. Даже если я буду занят, я тебя встречу.
17. Он много путешествует.
18. Земля вращается вокруг Солнца.
19. Поезд отбывает завтра в 22.00.
20. Разве ваши друзья не учатся в университете?
Let me Introduce Myself
I’d like to introduce myself. My full name is Anna Andreeva. I was born on the
twelfth of January in Orenburg, an industrial city in the Southern Urals.
Now I am a first-year student of Orenburg State Pedagogical University. I study at
the department of Geography and Ecology of the Institute of Natural Science and
Economics. I passed my entrance exams with success and I am a full-time student now.
I’d like to say some words about myself and my hobbies. First let me describe
myself. I am tall, slender; I have long dark hair and brown eyes. They say I am pretty and
easy to go along. I take after my mother in appearance and I resemble my father by nature.
I like music and sports. In summer I swim in the river and in winter I go skiing in the
country, in the mountains, with my family.
I’m rather sociable, so I’ve got many friends.
I finished school № 5 in Orenburg. My favourite subjects were IT, Nature Study and
Geography. I also enjoyed English classes.
I am interested in Geography, English and Ecology. I think a geographer or ecologist
is a profession of current importance now. Besides it is fun to learn about your native land
and the world around us. And I am sure my knowledge of English will help me to make
contacts with people from other countries when I travel abroad.
Vocabulary notes:
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to introduce oneself – представиться
the Southern Urals – Южный Урал
a first-year student – первокурсник
Natural Science – естествознание
an entrance exam – вступительный экзамен
success – успех
a full-time student – студент дневного отделения
describe – описывать
slender – стройный
easy to go along – легкий в общении
take after smb. – быть похожим на кого-то
in appearance – по внешности
by nature – по характеру
ecologist – эколог
make contacts with smb. – устанавливать связи с кем-то.
be sure – быть уверенным
Ex. 1. Answer the questions using the new words:
1. What is your name?
2. Where do you live?
3. When and where were you born?
4. Where do you study?
5. Do you take after your mother or father?
6. What are your hobbies?
7. What subjects are you interested in?
8. Why do you want to be a geography teacher / a geographer?
Ex. 2. Describe your group-mate but do not say his/her name. Let the others guess who it is.
Use the chart below.
tall, short, slim, slender, good-looking, easy to go
is
This person
has
along, sociable, shy, quiet, smart, fun to be with
long / short hair; grey/blue/green/brown eyes
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a formal suit, casual clothes; his/her hair loose;
wears
glasses; a beard / moustache
was born
My group-mate
in Orenburg, in the country, in the Orenburg region
studies
well, hard, from time to time
likes
water sports, rock music, computer games, etc.
doesn’t like
to study/studying, loud companies, noise, History,
fast food, public transport, etc.
My friend
is into
ballet, boxing, judo, swimming, karate, gymnastics,
/ interested in
Italian, etc.
is good at
computer science, cooking, singing, dancing, English,
etc.
Learn new words.
Personality adjectives
Question clusters. Face your partner. For one minute we will talk about №1 –“absentminded”. Keep talking because you only have 60 seconds. Then go through all questions.
1. Are you absent-minded (рассеянный)? How often do you forget things? Where do
you put your keys when you come home? Do you find it hard to organize things? Do
you know someone who is absent-minded?
2. Who is the most hard-working person you know? Do you think yourself hardworking or lazy or both? Do you know any workaholics?
3. Are you clumsy? Do you often drop things?
4. What activities do you find really boring? Why do you get bored?
5. What was the last generous thing that you did?
6. What makes you grumpy? What kind of weather makes you grumpy? Do you know
a person who is a grump?
LESSON 2
Грамматика.
Притяжательный
падеж
существительных.
прилагательных и наречий. Числительные.
Тема. My family.
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Притяжательный падеж существительных
В английском языке 2 падежа:
1) общий (по функции в предложении проявляется как именительный, винительный и
дательный) – a book, the dean;
2) притяжательный (обозначает принадлежность предмета или понятия и отвечает на
вопрос: чей?). Он употребляется в качестве определения и стоит перед определяемым
словом, например: my father’s name – имя моего отца.
’s (’ = апостроф) добавляется к существительным в ед. ч. – Тom’s book, а также к
существительным во мн. ч., не имеющим суффикса –s: men’s wear, the children’s toys.
’ добавляется к существительным, оканчивающимся на s: the students’ tests, my
parents’ flat.
Ex. 1. Translate the phrases.
My brother’s car, his sister’s computer, the boy’s rollerblades, their friend’s name, the
student’s report, the teacher’s questions, Leo Tolstoy’s novel, the girl’s laptop, my parents’
mobiles, St. Andrew’s Church, Spielberg’s films.
Ex.2. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets.
Example: The dictionary is yours, Paul. (your)
It’s your dictionary, Paul.
1 The mini-disc player is Anna’s. (belong to)
2 The video camera belongs to David. (’s)
3 The TV belongs to us. (ours)
4 The mobile belongs to John. (’s)
5 The radio is Meg and Jo’s. (theirs)
6 It’s Caroline’s watch. (her)
7 Katy has got a camera. (’s)
8 The laptop belongs to Daniel. (’s)
Ex.3. Translate into English. Make up sentences with these phrases.
1 телефон моего друга
2 стол нашего преподавателя
3 друзья моих родителей
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4 реки Канады
5 дом моей тети
6 словарь этого студента
7 кабинет декана
8 учебники моих одногруппников
Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий
Прилагательные и наречия имеют 3 степени сравнения:
 Положительную (small),
 Сравнительную (smaller),
 Превосходную (the smallest).
Таблица поможет вам понять, как образуются эти формы.
Положительная
Сравнительная
Превосходная
1 слог
+ er
+ est
long
longer
the longest
big
bigger
the biggest
large
larger
the largest
2 слога, слово
+ er
+ est
happy
happier
the happiest
clever
cleverer
the cleverest
shallow
shallower
the shallowest
simple
simpler
the simplest
2 слога и более
more + прилаг.,
the most + прилаг.,
наречие
most + наречие
popular
more popular
the most popular
сlearly
more clearly
most clearly
оканчивается на
-y, -er, -ow, -le
Исключения
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good - хороший
better
the best
well - хорошо
better
best
bad - плохой
worse
the worst
little - мало,
less
(the) least
more
(the) most
far - далеко,
farther
the farthest
дальний
(по расстоянию)
маленький
many - много
much
further
the furthest
(по порядку)
old
оlder (старше по
the oldest
возрасту)
еlder (старший в
the eldest
семье)
late
later
the latest
latter (последний из 2
the last
упомянутых)
Например:
In Orenburg winter is colder than in London. - В Оренбурге зима холоднее, чем в
Лондоне.
Australia is one of the least inhabited countries. – Австралия – одна из наименее
населенных стран.
Russia is the largest country in the world. – Россия – самая большая страна в мире.
The Lake District is one of the most popular holiday districts in Great Britain. – Озерный
край – один из самых популярных курортов Великобритании.
Запомните:
as…as…
так(ой) же … как … He is as tall as his father.
not as (so)… as…
не так(ой) … как … He is not as tall as his father.
the + сравнительная степень, the … - чем … тем … e.g. the more the better.
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Ex.1. Translate into Russian.
1. British Airways London Eye is the highest observation wheel in the world.
2. The worst thing about the English weather is its rains.
3. We see the finest collection of paintings in Europe.
4. Many larger animals like bear or wolf are rare now.
5. Wheat grows well in southern regions.
6. They spend most of the day away from home.
7. England has a good climate and, which is more important, a long tradition for gardening.
Ex.2. Compare these persons. Use the words from the box.
strong
funny
light
slow
famous
tricky
lucky
fast
lazy
cute
tall
talented
trendy
Mickey Mouse – Harry Potter
Madonna – Cinderella
Little Red Riding Hood – Arnold Schwarzenegger
President Putin – my best friend
Queen Elizabeth II – Barbie doll
Example: My sister sings as well as Celine Dion. Or My sister is less famous than Celine
Dion. Or My sister dresses funnier than Celine Dion.
Now make your own comparisons. Use your imagination.
Ex.3. Open the brackets.
The differences between men and women are obvious from a very early age. At school, boys
are (messy) and (competitive) than girls: boys like to win! But girls are (good) students: they
are (hardworking) than boys and they do (much) homework. Girls may be (talkative) than
boys, but boys are (noisy). Some doctors believe that baby girls are (strong) than baby boys.
But at school girls aren’t as (strong) as boys. Why?
Числительные
Количественные
Порядковые
Сколько?
Который?
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1 one
the first
2 two
the second
3 three
the third
4 four
the fourth
5 five
the fifth
6 six
the sixth
7 seven
the seventh
8 eight
the eighth
9 nine
the ninth
10 ten
the tenth
11 eleven
the eleventh
12 twelve
the twelfth
13 thirteen
the thirteenth
14 fourteen
the fourteenth
15 fifteen
the fifteenth
16 sixteen
the sixteenth
17 seventeen
the seventeenth
18 eighteen
the eighteenth
19 nineteen
the nineteenth
Десятки
20 twenty
the twentieth
21 twenty-one
the twenty-first
22 twenty- two
the twenty-second
23 twenty-three и т. д.
the twenty-third
30 thirty
the thirtieth
40 forty
the fortieth
50 fifty
the fiftieth
60 sixty
the sixtieth
70 seventy
the seventieth
80 eighty
the eightieth
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90 ninety
the ninetieth
Сотни
100 one hundred
the hundredth
101 a hundred and one
the one hundred and first
200 two hundred
the two hundredth
Тысячи
1,000 one thousand
the thousandth
5,340 five thousand three hundred the …and thirtieth
and forty
Миллионы
1,000,000 a million
Запомните:
номера
страниц,
домов,
квартир,
транспорта
обозначаются
количественными числительными. В этих случаях артикли не употребляются.
Например: exercise 67, flat 42, bus 13, Flight 376.
Годы произносятся парами цифр следующим образом:
1674 – sixteen seventy-four;
1985 – nineteen eighty-five.
Но: 1400 – fourteen hundred
2000 – two thousand
2005 – two thousand and five;
2012 - twenty twelve (BrE), two thousand thirteen (AmE).
Слово year после обозначения года не употребляется, но может употребляться перед
ним: in the year nineteen thirty.
Ex. 3. Write the following as numbers.
Example: thirty hundred = 3,000
1. four hundred and ninety-six
2. fifty- seven thousand and forty- two
3. one thousand eight hundred and ten
4. eighty three thousand five hundred and twenty
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5. six million three thousand
6. seventy-eight million
7. twenty-three thousand nine hundred and forty-one
Ex. 4. Translate and make up sentences:
Первое сентября, в 2006 году, на странице 123, упражнение 36, тридцатого января, в
аудитории 316, на четвертом этаже, второй семестр, семьдесят две страницы,
пятнадцать минут, девятнадцать копий, тринадцатое марта, девятая строка, третий
абзац.
My Family
Now I’d like to tell you about my family. There are five people in it: my mother, my
father, my elder sister Lisa, my younger brother Denis and me. We live in a big house in the
Orenburg region so I need housing in Orenburg now. I can rent a room or flat.
My parents are very nice people; they are intelligent and always ready to help. My
dad’s name is Oleg Petrovich. He is 47. He works for a big company as a travel agent. He
spends most of his time at work. By character he is quiet and sensible. He is tall and broadshouldered, he is a sporty person.
My mum’s name is Inna Dmitrievna. She is three years younger than my father. She
is a beautiful slim woman with fair hair and blue eyes. She keeps fit and attends a gym and a
swimming pool. She is a teacher of Maths and Physics at college. She is more energetic and
talkative than my dad.
Lisa is two years older than I am but we have a lot in common. She has a good sense
of humour. She is a third-year student of our university. I wonder how she manages to do
well in all subjects. She is very clever. Eventually she will be a university lecturer herself.
Denis is Lisa’s opposite. He is in high school now, he has ability but he rarely does
his best. He is popular with his friends and fun to be with. He easily makes friends and gets
on well with people.
In general our family is close-knit and friendly. We are happy when we are together
and we miss one another when we are apart.
Vocabulary notes:
housing – жилье
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intelligent – умный
by character – по характеру
sensible – здравомыслящий, практичный
to keep fit – быть в форме, поддерживать фигуру
to attend – постоянно посещать
energetic – деятельный
talkative – разговорчивый
to have a lot in common – иметь много общего
to manage to do smth. – удаваться сделать что-то
to do well – хорошо учиться
opposite – противоположность
to be in high school – учиться в средней школе
to get on well with smb.– ладить с кем-то
in general – вообще
to be apart – быть врозь, вдалеке
Learn the new words.
Ex .1. Work in pairs. Ask each other about your families. Use the new words.
Ex.2. Underline the correct adjectives.
1. Mike’s very talkative / hardworking. He studies every night.
2. My brother is a very messy / tidy person. He never cleans his room.
3. You need two hours to phone Linda. She’s very sporty / talkative.
4. Helen is very cooperative / competitive. It’s great to work with her.
5. Your house always looks nice. You’re very aggressive / tidy.
6. I’m good at tennis but I don’t often win. I’m not very noisy / competitive.
7. Jack’s very industrious / aggressive. Nobody wants to work with him.
Ex.3. Make up your own text about yourself and your family.
LESSON 3
Грамматика. Типы вопросительных предложений. Оборот there is / there are.
The Present Continuous
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Тема. Seasons and Weather
Типы вопросительных предложений
Чтобы задать вопрос, нужно помнить, что в таких предложениях обратный
порядок слов.
Запомните: перед подлежащим всегда стоит вспомогательный глагол (do/does;
did; will/shall и т.д.) или глагол-связка (am/is/are; was/were) или модальный глагол
(can/could, must, may/might, should и т.д.).
Сначала найдите подлежащее и сказуемое в предложении и определите время
глагола и соответствующий вспомогательный глагол.
Различают 5 типов вопросов:
1. Общий (Yes/No question) – начинается с глагола-связки или вспомогательного
глагола или модального глагола, требует краткого ответа.
e.g. Do you speak English? – Yes, I do.
Is Phil a student? – No, he isn’t.
Can you do this test? – Yes, I can.
2. Альтернативный – предлагает выбор с помощью союза or, задается на основе общего
вопроса.
Do you speak English or French?
Is Phil a student or an environmentalist?
Can you do this test or exercise?
Такой вопрос требует полного ответа.
3. Специальный – помогает узнать как можно больше информации во время беседы. Его
называют wh-question, т.к. многие вопросительные местоимения начинаются с “wh” –
when, why, what, whom, which, where, whose, а также how, how many (much), how long,
how old. Они ставятся перед глаголом-связкой или вспомогательным глаголом или
модальным глаголом.
What languages do you speak?
Where is Phil?
When can you do this test?
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4. Вопрос к подлежащему – разновидность специального вопроса, но строится он иначе.
Вместо подлежащего подставляем who или what, вспомогательный глагол не требуется,
сказуемое при этом должно быть в 3 лице ед. ч.
Who speaks English? – I do.
Who is a student? – I am.
What is the coldest season? – Winter is.
5. Разделительный (a tag-question) – за утверждением следует переспрос (не так ли?).
Помните: правило батарейки! Если первая часть вопроса утвердительная, то во
второй должно быть отрицание и наоборот. При этом подлежащее, выраженное
существительным, в переспросе заменяется на соответствующее местоимение.
You speak English, don’t you?
Phil is not a student, is he?
Mary and Clair can help you, can’t they?
Помните: I am a very pretty girl, aren’t I?
Somebody called you yesterday, didn’t they?
Ex.1. Read these sentences and ask 5 questions to them.
1 Our university is in Sovetskaya Street.
2 Students have four classes a day.
3 Margie gets up at 7 a.m.
4 This girl speaks English fluently.
5 Students must not be late for classes.
Ex.2. Translate into English. Define the type of the question.
7. Вы учитесь в субботу?
8. У вас много предметов в расписании?
9. Как вам нравится наш город?
10. У кого есть лишняя ручка?
11. Вы хотите стать экологом или экономистом?
12. Сегодня хорошая погода, не так ли?
13. Когда вы приходите домой после занятий?
14. Сколько времени вам нужно, чтобы доехать до университета?
15. Сколько пар у вас в понедельник?
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16. Где вы живете?
17. Он не часто бывает в библиотеке, не правда ли?
18. Что привлекает вас в этой профессии?
Оборот there is / there are
Эта конструкция выражает наличие или отсутствие какого-либо лица или
явления в определенном месте. После оборота there is / there are ставится подлежащее.
Перевод таких предложений начинается, как правило, с обстоятельства места.
There are four seasons in a year. В году 4 сезона.
There is a good language lab in our building. В нашем корпусе есть хорошая
лингвистическая лаборатория.
Если за оборотом следует существительное в единственном числе, то и глагол
to be ставится в единственном числе.
В Past Simple глагол to be имеет формы was или were, e.g. There was a great
holiday in November.
There were no problems with books in the library.
В Future Simple глагол to be имеет форму will be, e.g. There will be an English
class at 3 o’clock.
В вопросах используется инверсия, т.е. глагол to be или вспомогательный
глагол в аналитической форме ставится перед there, e.g. Will there be an English class at
3 o’clock?
Are there four seasons in a year?
Was there a great holiday in November?
Ex.1. Fill in the gaps and translate into Russian:
1. There … twelve students in our group.
2. There … much snow last winter.
3. There … some tests next week.
4. There … many exotic countries in the world.
5. There … nobody in the next room.
6. There …a map of the world in the classroom.
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7. I’m afraid there … no milk in the fridge.
8. … there any dictionaries left?
9. I’m not sure if there … any news.
10. What … there in your bag?
Ex.2. Translate into English:
1. В нашем городе есть несколько театров и музеев.
2. Сегодня 3 пары, а завтра будет 4.
3. В октябре 31 день.
4. В следующем году будет много новых предметов.
5. Вчера никого не было в университете.
6. В нашей квартире 3 комнаты.
7. В нашей области много исторических мест.
Ex.3. Describe the room you are in. Use constructions “there is”, “there are”.
The Present Continuous
am
is
V1 + ing
are
+ It is raining.
- It is not raining.
? Is it raining?
1. Это время описывает процесс, происходящий непосредственно в момент речи
или в этот период времени.
Указателями the Present Continuous являются:
today, this week, now, at present, at the moment, still, just.
e.g. Where are you going? – I’m going to my judo class.
Lesley is reading a thrilling book. Don’t disturb him.
2. The Present Continuous передает изменения, происходящие в этот период
времени:
The climate is getting warmer.
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Unemployment is growing.
Our computer is getting out of date, we need a new one.
a. Это время может передавать личные намерения, касающиеся ближайшего
будущего:
I’m playing tennis at the weekend.
We’re seeing the Raynolds tonight.
b. Временное состояние:
She’s staying with her parents as she’s renovating her flat.
Запомните:
- ie меняется на y: lie – lying; die - dying; vie – vying; tie – tying;
- l удваивается (BrE): travel – travelling; signal – signalling;
- 1 согласная в закрытом слоге удваивается: run – running; begin – beginning;
sit – sitting; dig - digging;
- немая гласная e после согласной выпадает: take – taking, write- writing;
- y после согласной не выпадает: study – studying; try – trying, etc.
Ex.1. Answer the questions:
1. Are you studying English or French this year?
2. It is snowing, isn’t it?
3. What are you doing now?
4. Is it getting warmer or colder?
5. Are you going anywhere after classes?
6. Who is coming to visit you at Christmas?
Ex.2. Put in verbs in the Present Continuous or the Present Simple.
Nora Mill is an environmentalist. She is being interviewed by a journalist.
J.: Well, why is it so important to save the rainforests?
N.: I’m sure you’ve heard of global warming?
J.: You (mean) the idea that the world (get) warmer?
N.: That’s right. The forests (have) an important effect on the earth’s climate. They
(disappear) at a terrifying rate. Many scientists (believe) that temperatures (already rise). If
ice caps (melt), the level of the sea will rise and cause terrible floods. We must prevent global
warming and that (include) preserving the rainforests.
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J.: Thank you, Nora, and good luck in your campaign.
N.: Thank you.
Ex.3. Right or wrong? If wrong, write down the correct variant.
1 It is often snowing in winter.
often snows
2 I never go to university on Sunday.
__________
3 James is never late. He is always coming to work on time.
4 The moon go round the earth in about 27 days.
5 The River Nile is flowing into the Mediterranean.
6 How’s your English? – Not bad. It gets better slowly.
7 Rachel is in London at the moment. She is staying at the Park Hotel. She always stay there
when she is in London.
8 Hurry up! We are waiting for you.
9 I must go now. It gets late.
10 Look! That guy tries to open the door of your car.
11 What do they talk about? I don’t understand a single word.
12 The river flows very fast today – much faster than usual.
13 I do a driving course now. I want to get a driving licence.
14 Sophia is looking for a place to live. She stays with her sister till she find somewhere.
15 Does they speak English well?
Ex.4. Put the verb in the correct form – the Present Simple or Continuous.
1 Don’t put the dictionary away – I (to use) it.
2 Don’t put the dictionary away – I (to need) it.
3 Who is that man? What (he / want)?
4 Who is that man? Why (he / look) at you?
5 She says she (to be) forty but nobody (to believe) her.
6 Air (to consist) of nitrogen and oxygen.
7 I (to think) of selling my computer. It (to get) out of date now.
8 I (to think) you are right. I agree with you here.
9 Who (this umbrella / belong to)? – I (to have) no idea.
10 Excuse me. (anybody / sit) here? – No, it’s free.
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Learn the poem.
Thirty days have September,
April, June and November
All the rest have thirty-one
February has twenty-eight alone,
Excepting leap-year, that’s the time
When February’s days are twenty-nine.
Remember these words:
Seasons of the year:
winter – зима
in (the) winter
spring – весна
in (the) spring
summer – лето
in (the) summer
autumn – осень
in (the) autumn
Months:
January – январь
July – июль
February – февраль
August – август
March – март
September – сентябрь
April – апрель
October – октябрь
May – май
November – ноябрь
June – июнь
December – декабрь
Days of the week:
Monday – понедельник
Tuesday – вторник
Wednesday – среда
Thursday – четверг
Friday – пятница
Saturday – суббота
Sunday – воскресенье
Learn the poem:
Days of the week
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday – sad.
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Thursday, Friday – they aren’t bad!
Saturday and Sunday – great!
Tomorrow’s Monday – don’t be late!
Ex.1 Answer the questions about the weather where you live.
1. Do you have spring, summer, autumn and winter?
2. What is the average temperature in these months?
a) December
b) April
c) August
3. What is your favourite time of year? Why?
Seasons and Weather
There are four seasons in a year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Every season
has its own charm and faults, I think. But there is a song “Nature has no bad weather”, so we
should enjoy every moment of our life even if the weather is tricky.
As we live in the continental climate we experience all seasons. Winter is the
coldest one. Winters are usually frosty, with blizzards and severe winds. The temperature is
often 300 below 0. There is thick snow on the ground.
Sometimes it gets rather warm and the snow melts. Then there is sleet. People have
outdoor activities in good weather. We can go skiing or skating, children enjoy playing
snowballs and sledging down the hills. When the sun shines, the snow sparkles in its lights.
People wear warm clothes and footwear.
After a long period of cold, spring comes; and the nature awakens from its winter
sleep. Spring lasts from March to May. Days become longer and nights become shorter.
The nature transforms. It gets warmer and the grass comes out and trees become
green. But it often rains and people carry umbrellas and wear raincoats and boots. There are
puddles and mud though it soon changes for the better.
My favourite season is summer; it is a period from June to August. The sun shines
brightly, the sky is blue and we have holidays. After the summer examinations it is nice to
have a swim or to lie in the sun. I practise outdoor activities: gardening and sports.
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Sometimes it gets really stuffy and the heat is unbearable. We go out of town to the
river or lake and enjoy the fresh air in the forest. Some pick berries and mushrooms. Others
like fishing.
Then autumn comes. It starts with Indian summer and we enjoy the last sunny days.
Eventually the weather changes for the worse, it is wet and rainy. Though our climate is
gradually changing you can not predict what will happen next.
Vocabulary notes:
charm – очарование
fault – недостаток
tricky – капризный
to experience – испытывать
blizzard – метель
severe – суровый
to melt – таять
sleet – дождь со снегом, слякоть
to sledge – кататься на санках
to sparkle – сиять
to awaken – пробуждаться
to transform – преображаться
puddle – лужа
mud – грязь
stuffy – душный
unbearable – невыносимый
eventually – со временем
gradually – постепенно
to predict – предсказывать
Ex.2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the present simple or the present
continuous.
1 I know (know) the UK ___ (not usually have) very cold weather, but it’s very cold at the
moment. It ____ (snow) and the temperature is -8 C. People ____ (stay) at home.
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2 It’s usually cold in February and it ____ (rain) a lot, but today the sun ____(shine) and it’s a
very warm 22 C. People ____ (wear) their summer clothes and they ___ (not carry) umbrellas
as they usually ___ (do).
3 I ___ (think) spring in the UK ___ (be) very beautiful. People usually ____ (wear) sweaters
and jackets.
4 It often ___(rain) in summer in the UK and sometimes it’s quite cold. But occasionally we
___ (have) very hot weather with temperatures above 30 C. Today ___ (not be) one of those
days. It ___ (rain) and everyone ___ (wear) raincoats.
5 In the autumn it ___ (get) dark at about 6 p.m. but in summer it ___ (not get) dark until 10
p.m.
Ex.3 An American friend is coming to your country for a year. Write an e-mail
answering his or her questions.
Hi. I’m packing my bags and I don’t know what to bring. I need some information.
- What season is it now?
- What’s the weather like at the moment and what are people wearing?
- What’s the weather like in other seasons and what types of clothes do people
usually wear?
- Do you have any dangerous weather conditions and when do they occur?
- What do people do and wear in such conditions?
Thanks. See you very soon.
J
Ex.4. Study the Weather Forecast. Learn new words.
London / South-East
Mostly hot and sunny again, but cooler near the coast due to sea breezes. Max 34 C (93 F).
South
Another dry, hot, sunny day. Cooler on the coast in refreshing sea breezes.
South-West
Dry, hot and sunny inland. Cooler on the coast with mist lingering in places. Max 28C (82
F).
Channel Islands
Dry. Very warm inland. Cooler on the coast where mist or fog may persist. Max 27C (81 F).
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Midlands
Early mist, fog or low cloud will clear to leave a dry, hot day with plenty of sunshine.
Wales
Mist and low cloud near some coasts. Otherwise dry and hot with sunny spells. Max 33C (91
F).
East Anglia
Another hot, sunny day but sea breezes will keep coastal areas cooler. Max 32C (90 F).
North East / Yorks
Mist and low cloud in some coastal regions. Becoming hot and sunny inland. Max 28C ( 82
F).
North West
Early mist and low cloud persisting near some coasts. Max 27C (81 F).
Scotland
The chance of an isolated shower in the west but mostly dry with sunny spells. Max 28C (82
F).
Ireland
Misty in places. Max 29C (83 F).
Summary: Hot and sunny.
Tomorrow: Mostly dry, hot and sunny again. Misty on some coasts.
Weekend outlook: Scotland and Ireland will have some showers. Elsewhere will be dry and
hot.
LESSON 4
Грамматика. The Article. The Present Perfect
Тема. Му Working Day
The Article
Артикль – это служебное слово (самостоятельно не употребляется), которое в
предложении относится к существительному и стоит перед ним или перед словом,
которое его определяет.
Различают 2 артикля:
1) Неопределенный – a / an: a map, an exercise-book, a new computer, an original version;
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2) Определенный – the: the Thames, the third of May.
Артикль a ставится перед словами, начинающимися с согласного звука, а an – перед
гласным звуком.
Если перед существительным стоит артикль, то указательные, притяжательные и
неопределенные местоимения употреблять нельзя.
Неопределенный артикль
A / an ставится только перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе,
он происходит от числительного “one” – 1: a text = one text, a flat = one flat.
Он используется:
1. когда впервые говорится о предмете какого-то класса: A student entered the room.
В аудиторию вошел студент.
2. в значении «1», «какой-то», «некий», «любой»: Саn I have a pen? He goes to a
sport club.
3. перед существительным, обозначающим род занятий, профессию: She is an
environmentalist. I am a full-time student.
4. в словосочетаниях для выражения цены, скорости, соотношения: five days a
week, seventy miles an hour;
5. в восклицаниях после слов what (какой, что за), such (такой), rather (довольно),
(совсем, довольно), as (в качестве, как): What a good idea! She is such a doll! She
works as a manager.
6. в выражениях: a few – несколько, немного, a little - немного, слегка: a few days, a
little tired;
7. если существительное, обозначающее вещество, становится конкретным: glass
(стекло) – a glass (стакан), ice (лед) – an ice (мороженое).
Во множественном числе неопределенный артикль не ставится, e.g. a notebook –
notebooks.
Ex.1. Fill the gaps where necessary.
1. There is … little time left. You can do one more exercise.
2. … English people inhabit the British Isles.
3. I am … first-year student. So I’m …freshman here.
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4. I am going to buy … number of … presents for … holidays: … CD, … wallet, …
interesting board game and … dictionary.
5. We study six days … week.
6. There was … little snow last year, we could go skiing.
7. What … lovely party! There are … lot of familiar faces.
8. There was … crowd of people in the doorway. I could hardly squeeze in.
Определенный артикль
Основные случаи употребления артикля
The ставится только перед:
1. названиями уникальных явлений, т.е. единственными в своем роде предметами:
the Sun, the Present Simple, the president, the capital, the Beatles, the south, the world.
2. существительными, обозначающими что-то хорошо известное собеседникам или
уже упомянутое в тексте или беседе. Did you see the film? Or Russia is a rich
country. The country has vast deposits of gas, oil and other mineral resources.
3. географическими названиями водных пространств, групп островов, горных
цепей, пустынь: the Volga, the Ural Mountains, the British Isles, the Gobi.
4. названиями стран, в которых есть слова “united, union, commonwealth, kingdom,
federation”: the Russian
Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States, the
United Arab Emirates.
5. некоторыми исключениями: the Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Crimea, the Lebanon, the
Hague, the Netherlands, the Riviera, the City, the East End, the Bronx.
6. названиями групп людей, национальностей: the English, the rich, the French.
7. прилагательными в превосходной степени: the best, the most exciting.
8. порядковыми числительными: the first astronaut, the ninth of December.
9. названием семьи: the Nikolaevs, the Browns.
10. названиями газет, журналов, отелей, кораблей, самолетов, музеев: the Times, the
Ritz Hotel.
Отсутствие артикля
Основные случаи употребления
нулевого артикля
Артикль не ставится перед:
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1. названиями наук и учебных предметов: geography, history.
2. именами и титулами людей: President Putin, Professor Johnson.
3. существительными, выражающими вещества и абстрактные понятия: water, air,
freedom, light.
4. существительными во множественном числе, упоминаемыми впервые: There are
flowers in the garden.
5. названиями стран, континентов, городов, улиц, площадей; London, Africa, Russell
Street, Piccadilly Circus.
6. названиями языков: French, English, Russian. Но: если за ними следует
существительное ”language”, требуется определенный артикль, e.g. the English
language.
7. названиями дней недели, месяцев: Thursday, August.
8. названиями приемов пищи: breakfast, lunch, brunch, dinner, tea, supper.
9. существительными, за которыми следует количественное числительное: room
316.
10. в устойчивых выражениях: in hospital, go home, at (to) school, in prison, to town,
by bus, on foot, at college, etc .
11. словами “few”, “little” в отрицательном значении с оттенком «слишком мало»,
«почти нет»: Few people can travel abroad.
Ex.2. Fill the blanks with a / an / the / X where necessary.
Example: I live in X Orenburg, an industrial city.
1. Discover … delights of … Greece on … tour which lasts … five days.
2. Is … Madrid … capital of …Germany?
3. Is …Paris in …France or …United Kingdom?
4. Where is … Sahara Desert?
5. What is … capital of India?
6. Is …Arctic Ocean bigger or smaller than … Pacific Ocean?
7. What is … highest mountain in … world?
8. … Smiths left for …Moscow last week.
9. What … cute kitten!
10. …English is … international language.
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11. When they visited London they stayed at …Hilton hotel.
12. Does …Amazon run through …Africa or South America?
13. He is quite … famous man in …Russia.
14. She was … Geography teacher before retirement.
15. Take … brunch on the outward journey and … dinner on the return.
Ex.3. Denis is in Australia this summer. This is his story about the country but he doesn’t
know how to use articles. Help him to complete the letter.
Hi! You are asking me about my trip. It’s great here! Australia is … interesting and
unique country. Besides … Australians are very friendly, happy people. Some of
…strangest animals in … world live here. In … Great Victoria Desert you can find …
kangaroos and coala bears. And … most famous city in Australia is … Sydney.
That’s all so far. Bye! See you soon!
Best wishes,
Denis
The Present Perfect
have
+ V3 (V+ed)
has
+ She has already read the text.
- She hasn’t read the text yet.
? Has she read the text yet?
Это время обозначает:
 действия, закончившиеся к моменту речи и связанные с нынешней ситуацией.
Для нас важен результат.
Jill has just come. = Jill is here.
I have learnt to use the Present Simple. = I know this tense.
Предложения переводятся на русский язык в прошедшем времени.
 действия, которые когда-то начались и все еще продолжаются. В этом случае
употребляются стативные глаголы (see, hear, taste, smell, think, believe, like,
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dislike, agree, mean, understand, want, wish, need, consist of, be, have и т.д.), т.е.
глаголы, выражающие состояние.
How long have you known him? – Since childhood.
I have lived here all my life.
We’ve been good friends for 10 years.
Предложения переводятся на русский язык в настоящем времени.
 в придаточных времени после when, as soon as, after, чтобы подчеркнуть, что
действие в главном предложении начнется после того, как закончится действие в
придаточном предложении.
When you’ve done your homework, you’ll go for a walk.
Используются указатели времени:
just, ever, never, already, always – перед смысловым глаголом:
I have never been to Africa.
He has just got your e-mail.
this week, today, this month, this year – если период времени еще не истек.
Today has been really busy – and it’s only lunchtime!
recently, lately, so far, yet, since …, for … - в конце предложения.
Have you seen your uncle yet? – Yes, he has just arrived.
I’ve learnt so many new things at the university lately.
Ex.1. Put the verbs into a form of the Present Perfect.
1 Are you sure it isn’t working? … (you / try it)?
2 I … (never see) such a boring presentation.
3 We … (already spend) quite a lot of money.
4 … (they / reply) to your last email?
5 Sorry, she isn’t here. She … (just leave).
6 Railway fares … (fall) by 15% since September.
7 We … (know) each other for more than 20 years.
8 … (you / be) to London or Washington this year?
9 This tour to Paris … (prove) tremendously popular.
Ex.2. Fill in a suitable word.
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already
yet
ever just
never
for
always
since
recently
this week
1 The goods will be with you soon. They’ve … left our warehouse.
2 I’ve … had a great idea! Why don’t we go to a swimming-pool?
3 They’ve had this house … 25 years.
4 I’ve … used my credit card on the Internet. I don’t think it’s safe.
5 I haven’t had a chance to speak to Margie …, but I’m sure she’ll agree.
6 I’m sorry I haven’t called you back. I’ve been in a meeting … lunchtime.
7 I’ve … worked in insurance, ever since I left university.
8 Have you … been to Cyprus? It’s completely different to Russia.
9 Congratulations! You’ve got a driving licence …!
10 I’ve done so much …, and it’s only Thursday.
Му Working Day
As I have already said, I have entered the university. I’m a first-year student of the Faculty
of Geography of Orenburg State Pedagogical University. As I’m a full-time student, my
working day is very busy.
On week-days I have to get up rather early, at 6.30 a.m. My mobile alarm-clock wakes me
up, I make my bed, air the room and sometimes I do morning exercises. Then I go to the
bathroom to take a shower, clean my teeth and brush my hair. I get dressed and go to the
kitchen to make breakfast.
I don’t have a substantial meal in the morning. I have a cup of tea or coffee and a
sandwich. Sometimes I like some yoghurt or cornflakes with milk. I wash up and watch the
latest news on TV.
I leave the house at 7.15 a.m. As I live rather far from the university, it takes me quite a
while to get there. It usually takes me 40 minutes but it’s a problem to catch a bus because of
rush-hour crowds.
I come to the university at 7.55 a.m. My classes begin at 8 sharp. We usually have lectures
and seminars, that is four classes a day. My favourite subjects are Geography, Cartography
and English. I learn many new things at the classes. During the big break we have lunch at
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our university canteen. Sometimes we go to have a snack at the nearest cafe because the
break lasts thirty minutes. Other breaks last ten minutes.
After classes I go to the library to get ready for tutorials or to write a report. So I come
home at 5 p.m. I have supper and then a short rest before doing homework. It takes me two
hours to read up for classes.
Then I watch TV or surf the Net or go for a walk with my friends. But as a rule I have little
free time on week-days. So by the end of the week I feel tired and I usually go to bed at 11
p.m. I haven’t got used to my new schedule so far but I am trying hard.
Vocabulary Notes:
to enter the university – поступить в университет
have to + Infinitive передает вынужденность, вызванную обстоятельствами
on week-days – по будням
mobile – сотовый телефон
alarm-clock – будильник
to air the room – проветривать комнату
to take a shower – принимать душ
a substantial meal – плотный прием пищи (завтрак, обед и т.д.)
it takes me… to + Infinitive – у меня уходит (мне требуется) …, чтобы …
rush-hour crowds – толпы в час пик
to have a snack – перекусить
canteen – столовая
tutorial – семинар
to surf the Net – сидеть в интернете, искать информацию в интернете
to get used to – привыкнуть к
Ex.1. Read the story. Who is late – Jack or Jane?
My sister Jane and I have an argument about the bathroom every morning. I like to sleep
until about 8 a.m. and I get up 8.15 a.m. This means I only have 14 minutes to get ready
before I leave the house to catch the 8.40 bus to college.
Jane always gets up about 6 a.m. and then she spends hours in the bathroom. I get really
angry. Her classes don’t start until 10 and she never leaves the house before 9.30 a.m., but
she’s always in the bathroom when I need it. Jane’s never late for class! I’m late every day!
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Jane always tells me to get up earlier. I tell her to get her own bathroom. The Mum tells us
both to be quiet. Not a good way to start the day.
b. Form questions about the story.
1 When / Jack /? 8.15 a.m.
2 Who / never late for class?
3 Who / the 8.40 a.m. bus?
4 Who / 6 a.m.?
5 Why / Jack / angry?
6 Who / hours in the bathroom?
7 When / Jane / the house?
Ex.2. Describe your usual working day. Is it different from your weekend?
THE BASIC COURSE
LESSON 5
Грамматика. The Past Simple. Правильные и неправильные глаголы. Предлоги места,
времени, направления и движения
Тема. My University
The Past Simple
V2
V1 + ed
+ It rained yesterday.
-
It did not rain yesterday.
? Did it rain yesterday?
Это время передает законченные или повторяющиеся действия в прошлом.
Неправильные глаголы используются во 2 форме (см. таблицу неправильных глаголов),
а к инфинитиву правильных глаголов добавляется суффикс –ed.
В отрицаниях и вопросах требуется вспомогательный глагол did , а смысловой глагол
используется в форме инфинитива без частицы to.
Указателями этого времени являются:
yesterday, last year, in 1975, a few weeks ago, last month, when I was 15 и т.д.
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Глагол to be имеет 2 формы прошедшего времени – was / were.
Did you learn to drive when you were 18?
I was busy yesterday.
Were you a success at the exam?
Суффикс –ed читается:
d
t
ıd
после звонких
после глухих
после глаголов,
согласных и
согласных
оканчивающихся на –d, -t
try – tried
work – worked
want – wanted
enter – entered
stop – stopped
hand – handed
travel - travelled
pass - passed
need - needed
гласных
Ex.1. Open the brackets.
1 I (buy) a great CD yesterday.
2 I (not go) to the beach at all last summer.
3 I (meet) a lot of interesting people when I (be) a student.
4 You (spend) so much money last night?
5 When you (start) this job?
6 He (start) this job two years ago because he (need) money to pay for his studies.
7 I (think) I would like it but I (be) wrong.
Ex.2. Complete the table and learn these verbs.
Infinitive
Past
Past
Present
Simple
Participle
Participle
be
broke
done
giving
take
sent
written
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reading
get
spent
gone
leaving
come
had
spoken
knowing
say
bore
bought
choosing
think
Ex.3. Use either the Past Simple or the Present Perfect.
1 Yesterday I phoned / have phoned you, but you have been / were out.
2 I worked / have worked here since the end of last week.
3 Your taxi just arrived / has just arrived.
4 We are enjoying our trip. We have made / made a lot of friends.
5 I’ve seen / saw a film with Hugh Grant a few days ago.
6 We have been / went to a very informative seminar last week.
7 Today has been / was really busy. It’s 7 p.m. I should leave now.
8 Are you sure we have come / came to the right address?
9 Have you seen / did you see my laptop? I’m sure I have left / left it here earlier.
10 I’m afraid Pam isn’t here. She has left / left the office.
11 I’m afraid Pam has left / left the office an hour ago.
Ex.4. Circle the best time expression.
1. Did you learn to drive when you were 19 / ever / in your life?
2. I didn’t go to the cinema lately / last month.
3. So far, I’ve been to other countries twice / last year.
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4. He wanted to have a career in the police but he failed the entrance exam this year / two
years ago.
5. He had not many days off recently / last year.
6. He had a problem with his computer in his life / last term.
Предлоги
Это служебные слова, которые
указывают на отношение существительного,
местоимения, числительного или герундия к другим словам в предложении.
В русском языке это отношение выражается посредством падежных окончаний или
предлогов и падежных окончаний.
Вот наиболее употребительные:
Предлоги места
Предлоги времени
above – над
before – до, перед
against – на фоне, у
after – после
at – в, на, у
at – в, на, при, во время
by – у, рядом, около
during – во время
in – в, на
for – в течение
in front of – перед
from…to (till) – с…дo
near – около
in – в
opposite – напротив
since – с
under – под
within – в течение, за
оn – на
Предлоги направления и движения
from –от, из, с, у
into – в, внутрь
off – с, с поверхности
out of – из, изнутри
to – к, в, на
Предлоги with и by + сущ. или местоимение передает творительный падеж.
Remember: at 6.15 p.m.
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at the weekend
on Monday
on week-days
in 2007
Remember: 7.00 – seven o’clock
7.05 – five (minutes) past seven
7.15 – a quarter past seven
7.30 – half past seven
7.40 – twenty (minutes) to eight
7.45 – a quarter to eight
Ex.1. Translate into Russian.
1 I lost the key to my room yesterday.
2 Take care of yourself.
3 She did the translation by herself.
4 They decorated the walls of the room with nice pictures.
5 Give this medicine to your mother.
6 Our university is in the centre of the town.
7 The bus-stop is in front of my house.
8 Take your pens and copy-books out of your bags.
9 He came from the university, left his bag and went to the gym.
10 I don’t usually come home before 3.30 p.m.
11 The first class begins at 8 a.m. and we stay at the university till 3 p.m.
Ex.2. Fill in the blanks. Use the suitable prepositions.
1 Put your books … your bags.
2 Take your rulers, pens, pencils and copy-books … your bags and get ready … the lesson.
3 Look … the words … the blackboard.
4 When you answer the topic, don’t look … your copy-books.
5 There is a light fixture … the desks … the classroom.
6 I go … the university … Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday.
7 We have holidays … summer and winter.
8 At classes we sit … the desks and our professor is … the blackboard.
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9 Steve isn’t … work today.
10 I’ll be back … two hours.
11 If you don’t know the words look them up … the dictionary.
12 I come home … from the university …6 p.m.
Warm-Up
What famous universities do you know in our country and abroad? What do you know about
the university you study at?
My University
I’d like to tell you about our university. As you know I’m a first-year student of Orenburg
State Pedagogical (Teacher Training) University.
I study full-time at the Institute of Natural Science and Economics, at the department of
Geography.
Studying at our university gives a solid background in different spheres of knowledge and
prepares for practical work.
Our university is quite large though it is not very old in comparison with Moscow State
University. But it is the oldest university in our region. It was founded in 1919, later it was
named after a famous pilot V. Chkalov. Today it is a large higher education institution
where more than 10,000 students are currently enrolled. The majority are full-time students
and the rest are part-time and correspondence students. After graduation some former
students do a post-graduate course. They conduct independent research work and have
pedagogical practice.
The course of study lasts five years. Students get higher education at different faculties.
There are three institutes and many faculties at our university: the Institute of Natural Science
and Economics, the Institute of Physical Culture and Sport and the Institute of Pedagogy
and Management; the faculties of philology, foreign languages, primary education, history,
psychology, mathematics and so on.
There are several buildings and the main building is in Sovetskaya Street. There are large
lecture halls and laboratories, libraries, computer centres, gyms and other facilities.
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There are several cafes and canteens at our university where students can have a snack
between classes. The food is affordable and sometimes rather tasty.
Students from other cities and countries live in hostels, but some rent flats or rooms.
Our university has a high rating among applicants and ranks among the best universities
of our city.
Vocabulary Notes:
a solid background – твердая база
knowledge - знания
in comparison with – по сравнению с
region - область
to be founded – быть основанным
to be named after – быть названным в честь
higher education institution – высшее учебное заведение
to be currently enrolled – числиться в списках студентов
majority – большинство
correspondence – заочный
graduation – окончание вуза
to do a post-graduate course – учиться в аспирантуре
research – научное исследование
the main building – главный корпус
facilities – помещения, средства обслуживания
to have a snack – перекусить
affordable – приемлемый, доступный
hostel – общежитие
applicant – абитуриент
to rank among – занимать место среди
Ex.1. True or false?
1. Orenburg State Pedagogical University is not the oldest university in our region.
2. It was founded in 1947.
3. More than 8,000 students are currently enrolled here.
4. After graduation some former students do a post-graduate course.
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5. The course of study lasts four years.
6. The main building is in Gagarin Avenue.
7. Students from other cities and countries live in hostels, but some rent flats or rooms.
8. The majority are full-time students and the rest are part-time and correspondence
students.
Ex.2. Complete the lifeline with the correct years.
Was born_____went to school_____learnt to swim____left school_____entered
university____ took dancing (judo, tennis, ballet, boxing etc.) classes____ did a silly thing
Ex.3. Rewrite this text in the past simple. Begin like this:
Yesterday Donna Sendon worked very hard …
Donna Sendon works very hard. She starts her day rather early, at 6 a.m. She has a meeting
with her directors at 10 a.m. They give her ideas for new projects. She doesn’t want to work
late but she doesn’t leave until 8 p.m. She sends faxes, reads reports, makes business calls and
takes important decisions. When she comes home, she feels really tired. She has dinner,
washes up and watches TV. In fine weather she goes to the swimming-pool or to the court to
play tennis. She goes to bed late after she writes emails to her friends and partners.
LESSON 6
Грамматика. The Future Simple. Конструкция “to be going to”. Формальное
подлежащее “it”
Тема. Orenburg – My Native City
The Future Simple
shall
+ V1
will
+ I think it will rain today.
-
It will not rain today.
? Will it rain today?
1. Означает однократное или повторяющееся действие в будущем, но не выражает
особого отношения к будущему действию в отличие от модально-окрашенных форм.
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Оно просто констатируется как гипотетическое действие, которое будет иметь место в
будущем.
2. В сложных предложениях с придаточными времени, условия и уступки.
If you don’t study well you’ll feel lack of knowledge.
Gerry will meet you at the airport when you arrive.
Even if it snows hard we’ll go out.
3. Выражает прогноз, предположение в сочетании с глаголами hope, feel, think, suppose,
а также со словами probably, possibly, perhaps.
I think I’ll have some pizza and Coke.
Perhaps she’ll be late.
4. Решение, принятое в момент речи.
Where are you going? – To the station. – OK, I’ll give you a lift.
Как вы уже заметили, сокращенная форма вспомогательного глагола – ’ll.
А в отрицании will not = won’t
shall not = shan’t.
Указатели будущего времени – tomorrow, next week, in 2030, in a year, tonight, the day
after tomorrow, some day.
Ex.1. a) Disagree. Prove your opinion.
Pattern: Nick will come next week. – No, he won’t. I’m afraid he will be on a business trip.
1 Frank and Pam will go picnicking at the week-end.
2 You will take exams in November.
3 Kelly will help you when she comes from work.
4 We will be at home after 9 p.m.
5 He will take a taxi to get there.
6 I shall get up at 6 tomorrow.
7 She won’t tell you the secret.
8 She will never travel by plane.
b) Ask your questions to these sentences.
Ex.2. Say what you will / will not do when you graduate from the university. Make up 10
sentences. Use the phrases:
go to the army
have a large family
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apply for a good job
build a comfortable house
get married
protect the environment
travel abroad a lot
continue education
make a career in…
teach at school
Ex.3. Translate into Russian.
1. If services prohibit a visit inside Westminster Abbey we will visit St. Paul’s Cathedral.
2. There will be plenty of opportunities to take photographs.
3. The Palace’s own guide will help you with any further information you may require.
4. On arrival to Paris you will enjoy a fully guided panoramic tour of the city.
5. There will be a luxury coach waiting to take us to Rome, won’t there?
6. Your evening will begin in the heart of London’s West End.
6. You won’t return soon, will you?
Ex.4. On New Year’s Eve many people make resolutions about what they will or will not do
the next year. Imagine it’s New Year’s Eve. Write down three resolutions. Go around the
room and share your resolutions with the other students. Find someone else who has the same
resolution(s) as you.
Example: I will give up smoking.
I will lose weight.
Конструкция “to be going to”
Эта конструкция – одно из средств выражения действий в будущем.
1. Она передает намерения, касающиеся будущего и переводится «собираться делать
что-то». Это уже запланированное решение.
E.g. + She is going to look for a new job.
- I’m not going to wait.
? Are your friends going to come today?
2. Она передает действия, которые неизбежны и произойдут в ближайшем будущем.
E.g. Look at those big black clouds! It is going to rain.
I have a terrible headache. I’m going to have a bad day today.
Look out! You’re going to fall!
Сравните:
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will
be going to
Более официальный
Более неформальный
Менее зависимый от нынешней
Употребляется, когда что-то
ситуации, прогноз, решение,
указывает на то, что это действие
принятое в момент речи, мнение.
должно произойти или оно
запланировано.
Pollution will get worse in 20 years.
We are going to visit France.
Cars will run on solar power.
When are you going to leave?
Ex.1. Fill in the blanks with the affirmative or negative form of be going to.
1. Watch out! You … hit him!
2. Hurry up! We … miss the bus.
3. I am exhausted! I … take a nap.
4. Watch her, Jack! She … fall into the pool!
5. He … attend a swimming pool.
Ex.2. Match the phrases from 2 columns.
1. Christine just called. She’s
A. Great! I’ll cook.
coming over for dinner.
B. Great! I’m going to cook.
2. What are you doing with
A. I’ll take your picture.
that camera?
B. I’m going to take your picture.
3. Do you need a ride home
A. No, thanks. Jason will take me home.
today?
B. No, thanks. Jason’s going to take me home.
4. We don’t have a thing to eat
A. I’ll call up and order a pizza.
in the house.
B. I’m going to call up and order a pizza.
5. Why are you meeting Jane
A. She’ll help me with my homework.
in the library tonight?
B. She’s going to help me with my homework.
6. Are you off the phone yet?
A. I’ll be off in a minute.
B. I’m going to be off in a minute.
7. Why did she break the date
for Saturday night?
A. Her parents will take her away for the
weekend.
B. Her parents are going to take her away for
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the weekend.
Формальное подлежащее “it”
Местоимение “it” имеет некоторые особенности употребления.
1. Оно заменяет существительные, обозначающие неодушевленные предметы, а
также некоторые одушевленные существительные, пол которых неизвестен.
Don’t disturb the baby. It is sound asleep.
He has bought a new computer. It is versatile.
2. В качестве формального подлежащего при обозначении:
а) времени.
What time is it? – It is 7.15.
What date is it today? – It is the seventh of November.
What day of the week is it? – It is Saturday.
б) расстояния.
How far is it from here? – It’s a five minute walk.
It’s a twenty mile distance from London.
в) погоды.
What is the weather like today? – It is warm but windy.
It is raining heavily.
г) температуры.
It is stuffy in this room.
What is the temperature today? – It is 270 C.
3. В качестве формального подлежащего с глаголами, выражающими сомнение,
вероятность, случайность и т.д.
It seems that he is ill. Кажется, он болен.
It appears to be true. Кажется, это правда.
4. Для эмфазы, т.е. для большей выразительности, если за ним следует придаточное
предложение.
It is he who (that) broke the window. Это он разбил окно.
It is here that we see the tombs of King Henry VIII and Charles I.
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5. Как указательное местоимение (= this).
What is this? – It’s an English-Russian dictionary. Это англо-русский словарь.
6. В следующих конструкциях, где оно вводит настоящее подлежащее:
It is difficult to learn grammar rules without examples. Трудно учить правила
грамматики без примеров.
It was terrific to learn more of this country. Было здорово узнать побольше об этой
стране.
Ex.1. Translate into English using “it”.
1. Что это? - Это мой новый электронный словарь.
2. Какое сегодня число? - Сегодня пятое октября.
3. Какой сегодня день недели? – Четверг.
4. В коридоре очень шумно. Кажется, идет перемена.
5. Зимой часто идет снег, а летом бывает очень жарко.
6. Какая сегодня погода? – Тепло и солнечно.
7. Наш город – Оренбург. Он был основан в 1743 году.
8. Нелегко переводить с русского языка на английский.
9. Именно они помогли нам добиться успехов.
10. Было приятно познакомиться с вами.
Ex.2. Translate into Russian.
1. It was nice to see your family.
2. It is difficult to qualify for this job.
3. It has happened this week.
4. It was Clair who helped me to cope with it.
5. It’s your turn to answer the question.
6. It seems to be clear now.
7. It is interesting to note that the sea has always been important for Great Britain.
8. London is the capital of the UK. It is the financial centre as well.
9. It often rains in autumn and spring.
10. Is it snowing? No, it’s raining heavily.
Orenburg – My Native City (see the map p.125)
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I’d like to tell you about my native city. I was born and live in Orenburg, a provincial
city on the Ural River in the Southern Urals. It stands on the border between Europe and
Asia. Our city borders on Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan and other regions.
It is an administrative, trade, industrial, cultural and educational centre of the
Orenburg region.
The history of the city goes back to the early 18th century but there are many historical
places of interest in the area around it. The camps and caves of the Sarmatians have been
found here. It was founded on the 19th (30th) of April in 1743. As far as I know it was the
third attempt to found the town. Its governor I. I. Nepliuyev decided to place the town
where it is now. It was both a town and a fortress in the past. The composition of the name
Oren + burg means a stronghold with ears, an outpost on the border with Asia.
Now it is a rather large city with the population under 600,000 people. It is a multinational and multi-cultural area with representatives of 80 nationalities and 23 religions.
It is famous for its fine down-shawls, wheat and gas-mining, which are the main
points of export. Orenburg is called “the Breadbasket of Russia” and “the Gateway to
Asia”.
It is agriculturally self-sufficient and rich in mineral resources such as oil, natural gas,
salts and so on. It has well-developed mineral, manufacturing and mining industries. There
are many large plants and factories here: the Gas works (refinery), the TNK-BP, the
“Radiator” plant, a silk complex, a down-shawl factory and others.
There are many educational establishments as well as places of culture: the Museum of
Regional Studies, the Museum of Fine Arts, the A. S. Pushkin Museum, the Drama theatre,
the Musical Comedy theatre, the Puppet-show theatre, cinemas and parks.
My favourite places are the Embankment and Sovetskaya Street – the historical centre
of the city.
Vocabulary
native city – родной город
pro'vincial – провинциальный
the Southern Urals – Южный Урал
to border on – граничить с
region – область
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to go back to – уходить корнями в
area – район
cave – пещера
the Sar'matians – сарматы
attempt – попытка
governor – губернатор
fortress – крепость
'stronghold – крепость
outpost – охраняющий пост, отдаленное поселение
'down-shawl – пуховый платок
'breadbasket – житница
«the Gateway to Asia» - «Врата в Азию»
'self-suf'ficient – независимый
Em'bankment - набережная
Ex.1. Answer the questions.
1 What river does Orenburg stand on?
2 What does the name mean?
3 When was it founded?
4 How many people live here?
5 What is Orenburg famous for?
6 What is Orenburg called?
7 What industries are well-developed?
8 What places of culture can you visit here?
9 What is your favourite place in Orenburg?
Ex.2. Imagine you are a tour guide. Describe your city to foreign visitors.
Ex.3. Make up a dialogue asking each other about your native city.
LESSON 7
Грамматика. The Passive Voice. Словообразование.
Тема. Great Britain
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The Passive Voice
to be + V3 (V+ed)
Страдательный залог используется, когда факт или предмет действия представляет
больший интерес, чем само лицо; когда действующее лицо неизвестно или упоминание
о нем по каким-то причинам считается ненужным.
English is spoken in many countries of the world.
She was asked on the phone.
Страдательный залог образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в
нужном времени, лице и числе и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола,
причем изменяемой частью является глагол to be.
e.g. This book is published in Orenburg.
This book was published last year.
This book has been published recently.
This book will be published again next May.
Подлежащее в страдательном залоге образуется от дополнения в действительном
залоге.
He offered me a nice СD. – I was offered a nice CD by him.
He offered me a nice CD. – A nice CD was offered to me.
В страдательном залоге подлежащее не выполняет действие, а испытывает его
на себе.
Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. – Великобритания омывается
Атлантическим океаном.
Предлог by передает, кем или чем совершается действие.
Предлог with передает, с помощью чего, каким инструментом совершается
действие.
The letter was written with a felt-tip pen. – Письмо было написано фломастером.
Глаголы в страдательном залоге переводятся на русский язык:
1) глаголом быть + краткая форма причастия:
Our university was founded in 1919. – Наш университет был основан в 1919 году.
2) глаголом с частицей - ся (сь):
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She was expected to come. – Ожидалось, что она придет.
3) неопределенно-личным оборотом:
He was asked on the phone. – Его позвали к телефону.
4) глаголом в действительном залоге при наличии исполнителя действия:
The clown was laughed at by all children. – Все дети смеялись над клоуном.
Ex.1. Mind the sentences in the Passive Voice and explain the use.
The TV is broken
We are very upset. Our TV is broken. The TV repairman was called by our parents, but he
couldn’t come yesterday. Some other TVs were being fixed by him at that time. He is
expected to come today but he can’t come either. His car is broken. And he won’t be able to
come tomorrow because he is invited to a birthday party and he will be out of town. We are
afraid we won’t be able to watch TV the whole week. We hope a new TV will be bought then
or our favourite programmes will be missed forever.
Ex. 2. Translate into Russian.
1. Windsor Castle was founded by William the Conqueror.
2. Viewing is restricted on Sundays.
3. This impressive castle has been occupied by the royal family for over 900 years.
4. The British climate is often unjustly criticized.
5. The rains are brought on to the British Isles by the winds.
6. Practically the whole south and most of the east of the island of Great Britain is occupied
by the lowlands.
7. This part of the country is called Yorkshire Dales.
8. The British Isles were originally covered with forests.
Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks.
1 He much (speak) about last year.
2 The students (give) a lot of homework yesterday.
3 Our city (visit) by foreign guests every year.
4 The problem (discuss) at the meeting now.
5 Many books (publish) by this writer for three years, another one (publish) next year.
6 The experiment (complete) last June.
7 He (knock down) by a car.
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8 His lecture (listen to) with great interest.
9 Many new department stores (build) annually all over the country.
10 Russia (wash) by 12 seas of 3 oceans.
11 Orenburg (situate) in the steppe zone.
12 The children (take) to museums during summer holidays.
Словообразование
В английском языке слова образуются различными способами:
1 путем прибавления суффиксов:
office – official
king – kingdom
north – northern
small – smaller
great – greatly
mountain – mountainous
populate - "popu'lation
depend – dependent
travel – traveller
fluent – fluently
Запомните: если в слове 4 слога и более, то в нем должно быть 2 ударных слога.
Главное ударение падает на предпоследний слог, т.е. на слог, стоящий перед такими
суффиксами:
-tion: "edu'cation, "consti'tution, "situa'tion
-ic: "eco'nomic, "geo'graphical, "scien'tific
-ial: "terri'torial
-ian: "poli'tician, a"cade'mician
-ity: "uni'versity, "oppor'tunity
А второстепенное ударение падает на слог, от которого образовалось производное
слово.
2 путем прибавления приставок:
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a) re- (пере-, заново): tell – retell, write-rewrite
b) выражающих отрицание:
lucky – unlucky
agree – disagree
regular-irregular
legal-illegal
social-antisocial
possible-impossible
c) over- (пере-, слишком) overdo
d) under- (недо-) underlie
3 путем перехода одной части речи в другую – конверсии:
to help – помогать
help – помощь
to separate – отделять
separate – отдельный
to iron – гладить, утюжить iron – железо
iron – железный
Запомните: если суффикс –ate в глаголе, то он читается[eıt ]- 'situate, 'educated,
e'vacuatе; а если –ate в существительном или прилагательном (наречии), то он
читается[ıt] или [әt]- 'separately, university 'graduates. Ударение падает на слог
через 1 от суффикса.
Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на суффиксы
–ize (ise) и –fy, как правило, имеют 1
ударение на третьем слоге от суффикса:
'classify, per'sonify, a'pologize.
4 путем словосложения из 2 или 3 слов:
time + table = timetable
black + board = blackboard
writing + desk = writing-desk
Ex.1. Using the dictionary, make up corresponding adjectives. Mind the pronunciation.
North, south, west, east, industry, Britain, Russia, office, England, Wales, geography,
success, province, region, culture, education, history.
Ex.2. Turn verbs into nouns.
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Populate, concentrate, travel, write, unite, temper, explore, build, correct, explain, compose,
type, illustrate, appoint, establish, represent.
Ex.3. Choose a suitable prefix from the box to complete the adjectives. Ask and answer the
questions.
dis-
pre-
bi-
multi-
anti-
sub-
inter-
mono-
over-
under-
1. Do you know anyone who is ……lingual?
2. Why is it a good idea to use a ……. Lingual English dictionary?
3. Have you ever felt ……dressed for an occasion?
4. Who do you think is the most ….rated actor at the moment?
5. Do you think smoking in public places …. social?
6. Have you ever been on an ….. continental flight?
7. How often do you have …..zero temperatures in your region?
8. What ….purpose gadgets can you think of?
Great Britain (see the map p. 123)
The language we are studying is spoken in many countries of the world – the USA,
Canada, New Zealand, Australia and many others. One of them is Great Britain.
The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. It consists of four parts – England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their
capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast.
It is an island state. It lies on the British Isles – a large group of islands to the northwest of Europe. It is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the Strait of Dover
and the North Sea in the east. In the west it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The British Isles consist of two large islands – Great Britain and Ireland and a number
of smaller islands. The total area of the United Kingdom is 244 square kilometers. It is twice
smaller than France or Spain. It ranks 75th in the world in its territory.
The nature of Great Britain is greatly affected by the sea. There is no place more than
100 kilometres from the sea.
The mountains cover the greater part of northern, western and middle Great Britain.
The highest mountain is Ben Nevis, 1,343 metres tall, in the Highlands in Scotland.
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The rivers of Britain are short; most of them flow east since the west coast is
mountainous. The most important rivers are the Severn and the Thames. The capital and the
largest city of the UK – London – stands on the Thames.
The climate of the country is mild and humid with warm winters and cool summers.
The Gulf Stream tempers its climate.
The population of the United Kingdom is made up by the English, the Welsh, the Scots
and the Irish, all of them are called the British. English is the official language of the UK, but
is not the only one used there. Would you like to learn more of the country?
Explore the real Britain for yourself on a touring holiday. Britain is one of the safest
and most convenient places in the world for independent travellers.
Vocabulary:
to consist of – cостоять из
the British Isles – Британские острова
total area – общая площадь
to affect – влиять на
'mountainous – гористый
the Thames – р. Темза
humid – влажный
the Gulf Stream – течение Гольфстрим
Ex.1. Find in the text sentences in the Passive Voice and write them out. Translate them into
Russian.
Ex.2. Answer the questions.
1 What is the official name of GB?
2 What place does it rank in its territory?
3 What are the constituent parts of the UK?
4 Where is it situated?
5 It is an island state, isn’t it?
6 What is the climate of the country like?
7 Why do most British rivers flow east?
8 What river does London stand on?
9 What have you learnt of the population of the United Kingdom?
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10 If you had a chance to visit GB, why would you go there?
Ex.3. a) Read the passage from the guide-book to get some more facts about GB. First read it
to yourselves (skim over it).
Coming to Britain for a city break? Explore the beauty of the countryside; discover
Roman ruins; admire the glorious gardens of the grand historical houses.
The heart of England is Kent, known as the Garden of England. It is filled with splendid
castles and has a varied coastline. You can visit the town where Charles Dickens spent his
youth, Rochester.
Brighton is one of Londoners’ favourites and is a stylish and lively coastal resort.
Bristol is Britain’s finest waterfront city with a rich maritime heritage.
Bath is a golden-stone city famous for its hot spring.
Situated in the very heart of Britain, Birmingham is a perfect gateway to some of
England’s most beautiful countryside.
Liverpool is a historic port city, but is more famous for the Beatles.
Enjoy your great days out!
b) Find English equivalents in the text.
Горячий источник, великолепные замки, разнообразная (богатая) береговая линия,
морское наследие (прошлое), морской курорт, развалины римских сооружений,
прибрежный город, величественные дома, восхитительные сады, перерыв (отдых,
благоприятная возможность).
c) Read the text thoroughly. Retell it.
Ex.4. Revision. a) Complete the dialogue using the Present Simple, the Past Simple or the
Present Perfect.
Val.: Hi, Fred. I (not to see) you for ages!
Fred: Hi, I’m sorry that I (not to be) in touch with you recently. I really (to be) busy.
Val.: So how are you doing now?
Fred: Fine, thanks. I (to pass) all my exams successfully and now we can see a lot of each
other.
Val.: Congratulations! It (to sound) good!
Fred: Why don’t we go out today? I (to know) a very nice place nearby. They (to cook) a nice
pizza there.
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Val.: What a shame! Actually I’ve got an appointment with our professor. We (to arrange) it
last week and I can’t put it off. We’re working on a new project.
Fred: No problem! That (to be) really very important.
Val.: See you tomorrow. Bye!
Fred: It was nice seeing you. I’ll call you after 6.
Val.: Great! I’ll be back by that time.
b) Turn the sentences in italics into the Passive Voice.
LESSON 8
Грамматика. The Present Perfect Continuous.
Повелительное наклонение
Тема. London
The Present Perfect Continuous
have been
+ the Present Participle (V4 )
has been
+ I have been translating the text for half an hour.
- I haven’t been translating the text for half an hour.
? Have you been translating the text for an hour?
В разговорной речи употребляются те же сокращения, что и в the Present Perfect:
have =’ve; has =’s;
have not =haven’t; has not = hasn’t.
e.g. She hasn’t been studying here for three years.
She’s been studying here for four years.
We’ve been looking for you everywhere.
We haven’t been waiting for you.
The Present Perfect Continuous выражает процесс:
- действие, которое началось в прошлом и до сих пор продолжается:
She has been reading the whole day.
Глагол переводится на русский язык в настоящем времени.
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Это действие отвечает на вопрос How long …?
Период времени протекания действия обычно выражается обстоятельством
времени с предлогом for … - в течение …, а время, с которого началось действие,
обозначается союзом since… - с …, e.g. He has been travelling since early summer.
He has been travelling for two months.
- действие, которое продолжалось определенное время и совсем недавно закончилось,
но объясняет нынешнюю ситуацию.
Someone has been smoking here.
Why are you so wet? – I’ve been walking in the rain.
Глагол переводится на русский язык в прошедшем времени несовершенного вида.
Ex.1. Work out the questions making up a mini-dialogue.
Example: How long have you been studying English? – I’ve been studying it since school.
1. We’ve been looking for the book for an hour.
2. Yes, I have.
3. Since September.
4. For two months.
5. She has been ruling the country for several decades.
6. The whole day.
7. Since early morning.
8. For ten years.
9. No, I haven’t.
10. For two centuries.
Ex.2. Fill in the verb in an appropriate form (the Pr. Perfect or the Pr. Perf. Cont.).
1. The birth rate (to increase) steadily.
2. You (to eat) for an hour and you are still hungry.
3. I never (to see) the Queen.
4. How many pages you (to read)?
5. How long he (to drive) home? – For four hours.
6. We never (to travel) by air-conditioned coaches.
7. They (to pay) already for the guided tour.
8. I (to use) a shuttle service to the hotel from the airport.
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9. You (to collect) the coins since childhood?
10. This tour company (to operate) for 15 years.
Ex.3. Translate into Russian.
1. I’ve been watching the events on TV the whole week.
2. We’ve been studying English grammar since September.
3. Mary’s been discussing the issue for a week already.
4. How long have they been staying with their friends?
5. What have you been doing since I left?
6. What’s up with the lap-top? Have you been playing about?
Ex.4. Match the 2 parts of the sentences. One is odd.
1 My legs hurt because
a) she’s been sitting in the sun for too long.
2 Her face is red because
b) she’s been revising a lot recently.
3 Her eyes are red because
c) they’ve been packing for their holidays.
4 They’ll be late because
d) she’s been crying.
5 She’s tired this morning
because
e) I’ve been running for a long time.
6 It is stuffy in the room
f) it has been raining all night long.
because
g) they have been papering the walls and couldn’t
open the window.
7 The streets are wet because h) somebody has been smoking here.
Повелительное наклонение
(The Imperative Mood)
Различают 3 наклонения: изъявительное, повелительное и сослагательное.
Повелительное наклонение выражает просьбу, повеление, приказание, приглашение
говорящего или его волю. Повелительное наклонение образуется от инфинитива
глагола без частицы “to”.
e.g. Translate the passage. Переведи(те) отрывок.
Отрицательная
форма
повелительного
наклонения
образуется
вспомогательного глагола “do” с отрицательной частицей “not”.
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e.g. Do not (Don’t) translate the passage.
Для выражения просьбы употребляется please или в конце фразы добавляется will you
или won’t you.
e.g. Help me, will you? Помогите, пожалуйста.
Please take care of all personal property while travelling at all times.
If you have any comments about the sightseeing tour, please make them to The Sightseeing
Manager.
Для усиления просьбы перед глаголом в повелительном наклонении ставится “do”.
Do come and see us some day.
Для выражения желания говорящего используется “let” + существительное или
местоимение в объектном падеже.
Let us (let’s) take a trip. Let him go. Let me have a look at it. Let us not discuss it now.
Ex.1. Translate into Russian.
1. Don’t miss our events running throughout 2005.
2. Please wait by the concierge desk 10 minutes before the time shown.
3. When booking please confirm with your booking agent the exact location of the pickup point.
4. Be part of the interactive experience at Madame Tussaud’s!
5. Pose for photos with the film stars Premiere Night.
6. Let us take you back 500 years for an authentic look back in time to London’s colouful
past.
Ex.2. Render the sentences in English.
1. Проверьте значения этих слов по словарю.
2. Не пишите карандашом.
3. Давайте сходим в кафе и попробуем местную кухню (local cuisine).
4. Пусть они посмотрят этот фильм и выскажут свое мнение.
5. Попробуйте перевести текст без словаря.
6. Дайте мне взглянуть на эту картину.
7. Не дайте им уйти.
8. Заполните, пожалуйста, анкету и передайте ее мне.
Memory work:
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Roadways
By John Masefield
One road leads to London,
One road runs to Wales,
My road leads me seawards
To the white dipping sails.
One road leads to the river
As it goes singing slow.
My road leads to shipping
Where the bronzed sailors go.
My road calls me, lures me
West, east, south and north,
Most roads led men homewards,
My road leads me forth.
Discovering London (see the map p. 128)
Welcome to London - the capital and the largest city of the United Kingdom. It
dominates the life of the country. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions, resorts and
the biggest English ports.
London is a very old city. It began life two thousand years ago. A Roman
fortification was at a place where it was possible to cross the River Thames.
A cruise on the Thames is a “must” for those who want to understand more about
London and its people!
On the bank of the river you can ride on the British Airways London Eye, the highest
observation wheel in Europe. It provides a stunning birds-eye view.
London contains more people than the whole of Scotland and Wales taken together.
It covers about 1600 square kilometers. It is a number of cities, towns and villages that have
grown together to make one vast urban area.
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Let us have a tour of one of the most attractive cities ever built. In the centre of
London there are 2 small towns from which it has grown up – the City and Westminster. The
City is the Commercial Capital of the country. There are many banks, offices and Stock
Exchange there.
Westminster is the government centre. It has many buildings important for cultural
and intellectual life:
the Houses of Parliament, the University of London, the British
Museum, the National Gallery, the Tate Gallery and so on.
When you are in London you feel the city’s close connection with the Crown. There
are royal palaces, parks and colourful ceremonies. Buckingham Palace is the official
residence of the Queen. Make sure to visit the former and the present royal residences and
palaces!
London’s size and population, its history, industries and trades make it really one of
the greatest cities of the world. Don’t miss a chance to see it with your own eyes! Do come to
London to discover its charms!
Vocabulary Notes:
to 'dominate – преобладать, главенствовать
fortification – укрепление
a “must”- зд. то, что непременно нужно увидеть/сделать
stunning – ошеломляющий, великолепный
birds-eye view – вид с высоты птичьего полета
the whole of - весь
urban - городской
Stock Exchange – фондовая биржа
Crown – корона, королевская власть
Ex. 1. Write out sentences with the imperative mood.
Translate them into Russian.
Ex. 2. Answer the questions.
1. What is London?
2. What was it in the past?
3. What is a “must” in the tour?
4. Where does London stand?
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5. Is BA London Eye the biggest bridge?
6. How great is the population of London?
7. What is the area of the city?
8. Where are the City and Westminster?
9. What are they famous for?
10. Why do you feel the city’s close connection with the Crown?
Ex. 3. Read the extract from the leaflet about London. Get some more information of the city.
Our morning tour starts with a drive through Westminster, past Downing Street, home of
the Prime Minister, then on to the Houses of Parliament and the famous Big Ben. The tour
stops for a visit inside Westminster Abbey, site of many royal coronations. We visit the
Poet’s Corner and the tombs of many well-known scientists and artists. We then stop at
Buckingham Palace to see the colourful ceremony of the Changing of the Guard.
Driving through busy streets and past peaceful parks, the tour continues to Piccadilly,
home of London’s Theatreland. We pass Trafalgar Square with its impressive Nelson’s
Column and fountains, before reaching our traditional London pub for lunch. A wide range of
unique gifts will be on sale at the Gift Shops.
Ex. 4. Imagine that you are a tour guide. Make an excursion about London.
Ex.5. Revision. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous form of the verbs
in brackets.
1. People (be) interested in traveling since the wheel was invented.
2. Scientists and designers (develop) safer cars.
3. We (be) stuck in the traffic jam for hours.
4. They (build) the new by-pass since 2011 – I don’t think they’ll ever finish it.
5. They (have) that car since 2012.
6. She learnt to drive in 2012 so she (drive) for some years.
7. Your marks are bad this term. – I’m sorry, I (not work) hard.
8. Is this your first cycling holiday in Spain? – No, we (come) here each summer for three
years.
9. The company Sandy … (work) for … (be taken) over by a larger company.
10. It’s just the job I … (dream) of.
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LESSON 9
Грамматика. Неопределенные местоимения. Модальные глаголы. Can, may, must и их
эквиваленты
Тема. The USA
Неопределенные местоимения
К неопределенным местоимениям относятся:
one;
some и его производные – somebody, someone, something;
any и его производные – anybody, anyone, anything, etc.
В отрицаниях используется отрицательное местоимение no и его производные –
nobody, no-one, nothing, etc.
Местоимения some и any и их производные обозначают некоторое количество и
употребляются
перед
существительными
во
множественном
числе
неисчисляемыми существительными.
I’d like some black coffee.
Some students are missing today.
Some (people) say it is difficult to study foreign languages and some say it’s not.
Местоимениe some и его производные употребляются:
1) В утверждениях в значении «несколько», «немного», «некоторые»:
There is some juice in the fridge.
Someone is knocking at the door.
There is some time left, we can role-play the dialogue.
2) В вопросах, выражающих просьбу или предложение:
Can I have some more?
Would you like something to eat?
3) Перед числительными в значении «около», «приблизительно»:
There are some twenty students in the group.
4) В вопросах, если подразумевается ответ «да».
Is there somebody at the door? I heard the bell.
Запомните: в вопросах и отрицаниях вместо some используем any:
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+ There are some maps on the wall.
? Are there any maps on the wall?
- There are not any maps on the wall.
Below are some humourous quotations:
Be not simply good, be good for something.
Work is the greatest thing in the world, so we should always save some of it for tomorrow.
Местоимениe
any и его производные употребляются в утверждениях в значении
«любой», «практически каждый»:
You can get to any destination from this airport.
Anyone can do it.
Ex.1. Fill in the blanks:
1 … students are missing today.
2 Is there … time left?
3 Would you like … to drink?
4 There is … at the door.
5 … 75 % of the people of Wales live in urban areas.
6 … people speak Scottish in Western Scotland.
7 Can you name … large cities in Russia?
8 Do you know … about the geography of the USA?
9 The chief rivers of GB are the Severn, the Thames and … others.
10 They don’t know … in this city, they are new here.
11 Do you have … questions?
12 The London Eye gives the passengers totally new perspectives of … of the capital’s most
famous landmarks.
Ex.2. Make the sentences negative. Use not ... any or no. Translate from English into
Russian.
1. There are some rivers in the region.
2. You have to take some exams in winter.
3. There is some notice on the door.
4. Some papers need checking.
5. He told me something about our city.
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6. Someone is waiting for you downstairs.
Ex.3. Translate the sentences and explain the use.
1. Very seldom a hard winter keeps snow on the ground for some weeks.
2. The British say “We do not have any climate. We just have the weather”.
3. Nobody can really like such weather.
4. Anyone can do it.
5. Has anybody got an extra pen?
6. Some say it was snowing yesterday.
7. She saw something which made her very angry.
Модальные глаголы
Модальные глаголы выражают не само действие, а отношение говорящего к
действию, передают модальность: необходимость, желательность, приказ, запрет,
вероятность и т.д.
Модальные глаголы: can (could), may (might), must, should, ought to, need, dare, will,
would.
Эти глаголы не имеют категорий лица, числа, у них отсутствуют многие видовременные формы, поэтому их называют дефектными.
Они употребляются с инфинитивом смыслового глагола без частицы “to” (кроме
ought to).
E.g. You must show or purchase your ticket as you board. In some places of GB even palm
trees can grow. Hurricanes may destroy the crops.
Отрицательная форма образуется путем добавления частицы ”not” после модального
глагола. E.g. The Atlantic winds can not affect the south and the east so much.
В вопросах вспомогательные глаголы не требуются, используется инверсия. E.g. Can I
help you?
Can, may, must и их эквиваленты
1. Модальный глагол can (could) выражает физическую или умственную способность;
просьбу или разрешение в неофициальной обстановке; в вопросах и отрицаниях
неверие, сомнение; возможность при данных обстоятельствах.
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What can I do for you? Чем могу вам помочь?
Can I lend your car? Можно мне взять твою машину?
It can’t be true. Не может быть, чтобы это было правдой.
She couldn’t do it. Не может быть, чтобы она сделала это.
У этого модального глагола 2 формы – настоящего и прошедшего времени.
В отсутствующих формах его заменяют на “to be able to”.
Will you be able to come on holidays?
2. Модальный глагол may (might) выражает предположение, официальное разрешение
или просьбу, вероятность.
May I come in?
If you are dissatisfied with the response you may write to the London Tourist Board.
В отрицании выражает запрет. You may not walk during the class.
Он имеет 2 формы – настоящего и прошедшего времени.
Его модальные эквиваленты – “to be permitted to”, “to be allowed to” (получить
разрешение).
You will not be permitted to use any Big Bus Service unless you have a valid ticket.
3. Модальный глагол must выражает приказ, настойчивый совет, строгий запрет,
предположение, граничащее с уверенностью.
Any application for a refund must be made in writing (tickets must be enclosed).
You mustn’t smoke here.
He must be in now. I saw him on the way home.
Его модальные эквиваленты – to be to (согласно договоренности), to have to
(необходимость, вызванная обстоятельствами), to be supposed to, to be expected to
(менее категоричны).
You are supposed not to be late.
I have to go, it’s high time.
What were you to do for today?
Примечание: более подробное изучение этой темы предлагается в III, IV семестрах.
Ex.1. Translate the sentences.
1. Children must be accompanied by an adult at all times.
2. When the ticket expires you must leave the bus or purchase another ticket.
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3. Only one child under 5 years accompanied by an adult may travel free.
4. At certain times during the summer there may not be a Changing of the Guard. On these
occasions we will visit Horseguards Parade.
5. The tour ends here, but you can choose to stay a little longer to make the most of your
visit.
6. The English climate is good but you cannot say the same about the English weather.
7. A fine morning can turn into a nasty afternoon.
8. In other cases things may be similar from the geological point of view.
9. Mountaineers have to wear special clothing to protect themselves against the cold and
wind.
10. You are expected to reply as soon as possible.
11. The fact that the Americans can’t do without a car is self-evident.
Ex.2. Package holiday! I was asked if I had some exceptional students that would like a free
trip. There’s one catch though: everyone in your group has to agree. That means you’ll need
to practise skills of persuasion. Decide which trip to take! Use the modal verbs and phrases:
I really do think that ….
Я на самом деле полагаю, что …
I’m sure that …
Я уверен (а), что …
There is no doubt in my mind that … Я нисколько не сомневаюсь, что …
I definitely think …
Я определенно считаю, что …
Egypt
 14 nights at the 2-star Hotel Akbar in Cairo.
 Meals included.
 Excursions to the Pyramids at Giza, including Light and Sound Show in the evening.
 A day trip to see the Sphinx.
 A ½ day boat trip down the Nile.
Adventure Trip down the Amazon
 2 nights in Rio de Janeiro at the 2-star Hotel Rio.
 A 6-day canoe trip down the Amazon River.
 All supplies included. You will be camping in tents along the river.
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 A free “I Did the Amazon” T-shirt.
Ex.3. Replace the words in italics with the phrases in brackets. Make up dialogues.
A: I shan’t be able to go for a walk tomorrow.
B: Why?
A: I’ll have to do my homework.
B: Then we might meet next week.
(A: to join you, to write a report, to read up for the exam).
Ex.4. Rephrase these notices using mustn’t.
NO SMOKING
DON’T STOP
NO FISHING
NO ENTRY
NO PARKING
SILENCE
NO CYCLING
NO TRESSPASSING
Example: You mustn’t smoke.
The USA (see the map p. 124)
The first Americans had to come to terms with a huge, wild country. Today the United
States is the fourth largest country in the world, in both size and population. It covers an area
of 3,618,465 square miles. The USA is divided into 50 states. Those which border one
another on the continent are grouped into seven regions. In addition, Hawaii and Alaska are
grouped separately. The Northeast can be called the “melting pot” – the fusion of people
from many nations into Americans.
The population is 236 mln. people. 77% of the population lives in urban areas and 23% - in
rural areas. The peoples of the USA represent cultures from around the world. There are
many ethnic groups: Afro-Americans, Native Americans – Indians, Spanish-speaking people
and people from Asian countries.
The United States is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the
west. It has land borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. Partly the border
with Canada is formed by the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
The Mississippi is the traditional dividing line between “East” and “West”. It is one of the
world’s great continental rivers. Other important rivers are the Colorado, the Columbia, the
Rio Grande and the Missouri. In the mountains and hills of New England rocks created
numerous waterfalls that could be used for water power.
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The relief is various. The Rocky Mountains stretch from Mexico to the Arctic and the
Appalachian Mountains stretch on the east.
The climate can vary greatly from the subtropical South to the arctic North. Earthquakes
may take place in California and other places as well. Tornadoes are dangerous because they
can come about very quickly. When there is no rain for long periods of time, droughts may
occur.
The capital is Washington, D.C., named after the first US president, but the largest city is
New York. The USA is a federal republic headed by the President. The legislative power
belongs to the Congress. It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The
executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (the Vice-President and the
Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of
federal, state and district courts.
Vocabulary:
to come to terms with – примириться с
land borders – сухопутные границы
the St. Lawrence River – р. Святого Лаврентия
relief – рельеф
the “melting pot”- «плавильный котел»
fusion – интеграция, объединение, сплав
urban – городской
rural – сельский
'earthquake - землетрясение
tornado - торнадо
drought – засуха
to occur – бывать, происходить, встречаться
Ex.1. Answer the questions. Use the map.
1 What place does the USA rank in size and population?
2 It covers the area of 4 mln square miles, doesn’t it?
3 How many states is it divided into?
4 What is it washed by?
5 What does it border on?
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6 What are the main rivers of the USA?
7 Are there mountain chains in the USA?
8 What are the most common ethnic groups in the USA?
9 What is the capital of the USA?
Ex.2. Write out sentences with modal verbs, explain their use.
Ex.3. Describe the USA using the map. Pay attention to the use of articles with place names.
Ex.4. What do you think this text is about? Read the text.
Made in the USA
The American way of life has an enormous influence on people in countries as far apart as
Russia and Brazil. The influence can be seen in all kinds of ways, from the clothes we wear to
the food we eat. When you switch on the TV to watch a feature film, chances are 9 out of 10
that the film will be an American movie. The most obvious influence of American culture is,
of course, through the use of English as the international language of communication. If it
were not for the importance of American economic influence in the world, many people
would not bother to learn English at all. English has the advantage over other languages of
offering a complete package: it has been the language of international science for a long time
now; it is the language of computers, pop music and many international organizations. Above
all, English is the first or the second language in many countries of the world.
Comprehension check. True or False? Disagree if the statement is false.
Example: - The American way of life has no influence on people in other countries.
- I’m afraid, it’s wrong.
Or - Just the other way round.
Or – It’s false. It has an enormous influence on people in countries as far apart as Russia and
Brazil.
1 The influence of the American way of life can’t be seen anywhere.
2 Most films we watch on TV are American movies.
3 French is the international language of communication.
4 Many people would not learn English if American economy didn’t have influence in the
world.
5 German is the first or the second language in many countries of the world.
Ex.2. Complete the text with the words from the box.
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work permit
green card
residence permit
tourist visa
ID (identification) card
driving licence
immigration
Going to the USA
Before you visit the USA, check if you need a tourist visa in your passport. Some
nationalities need to have one, but others don’t. If you want to stay longer than 90 days, you
can apply to the 1_____ department. It is also useful to carry an 2_____ or 3_____ with you
so you can prove who you are. If you want to work in the USA, you need a 4____. You also
need a 5____ so you can live there. When you have these permits, you get a 6____which
proves you have permission to live and work in the USA.
Ex.3. Revision. Complete with mustn’t / don’t have to / doesn’t have to.
1. You … give bread to the animals. They’ll get ill if you feed them.
2. You … forget to phone her, it’s very important.
3. We … to leave yet. We have lots of time.
4. He’s got a beard so he … shave.
5. You … tell anyone, it’s a secret.
LESSON 10
Грамматика. The Past Continuous.
Модальные глаголы. Should, ought to, need, dare
Тема. Washington
The Past Continuous
was
+ the Present Participle (V4 )
were
+ They were surfing in the Net all the evening.
- They were not surfing in the Net all the evening.
? Were they surfing in the Net all the evening?
Это время обозначает процесс или действия, которые длились в определенный момент
или период времени в прошлом. Действие не закончено.
e.g. What were you doing yesterday at 7 p.m.? – I was swimming at a health centre.
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В отрицании частица “not” ставится перед смысловым глаголом.
В вопросах вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.
Указатели времени – all day, all that year, the whole morning, yesterday.
Note: I was reading when they came back.
В этом предложении was reading обозначает процесс, длящийся в определенный
момент речи, а came – однократное действие, которое прерывает этот процесс.
Ex. 1. Ask your group-mates what they were doing yesterday at different time of the day.
Ex. 2. Fill in the Past Simple or the Past Continuous.
Alex: Hey Vicky, what … (do) last weekend?
Vicky: Me? I … (help) my dad at home. My cousins … (come) to stay with us.
Alex: But that’s not all weekend. I … (go) to a concert on Friday night. That new group …
(play) in the sports centre. You … (see) it?
Vicky: No, my cousins … (arrive) at 6 o’clock and we … (pick) them up. We … (show)
them our city and its attractions.
Ex.3. Choose the best verb form.
Last Sunday was nice. Helen walked / was walking in the park when she saw / was seeing
something that made / was making her very angry. In the street just outside the park a man
shouted/ was shouting at a woman who cried / was crying. But the man didn’t stop / wasn’t
stopping. Helen immediately ran / was running to help the woman. When she got to her Helen
started / was starting to laugh because she heard / was hearing another man say “OK, stop.
Let’s do that again”. Helen realized / was realizing that the people acted / were acting. They
made / were making a film.
Модальные глаголы.
Should, ought to, need, dare
Модальные глаголы should и ought to синонимичны и выражают совет, обязанность,
моральный долг, необходимость.
You shouldn’t tell lies.
You should go out and enjoy fresh air.
Модальный глагол need употребляется только в вопросительной и отрицательной
форме. Он выражает необходимость или отсутствие необходимости.
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Need I come tomorrow?
You needn’t copy the text.
Should I translate the sentence? – No, you needn’t.
Модальный глагол dare означает «осмелиться, сметь».
How dare you say so?
Ex.1. Translate the sentences. Explain the meaning of the modal verbs.
1. They should feel responsible not only for themselves but for their employees, too.
2. They should take care of themselves rather than think about others all the time.
3. It’s his business. You shouldn’t interfere.
5. She dare not protest.
6. Should I take another card? – No, you needn’t.
7. His company is not promoting him on the grounds that there are others who should go first,
but he has enough experience.
8. You needn’t pick me up from school; I can get home with my friend.
9. How dare you take other people’s things?
Ex.2. Translate the sentences into English.
6. Вам следует приехать завтра.
7. Тебе нужно сходить к Тому. Он в больнице.
8. Мне принести папки? – Нет, не нужно.
9. Как вы смеете так вести себя?
10. Они не посмели ничего ответить ему.
11. Им не следует так беспокоиться об этом.
12. Следует ли нам попросить его о помощи?
13. Ей не нужно покупать билеты, я их уже забронировал (to book, to reserve).
Washington (see the map p. 127)
The largest city in the USA is New York with its famous Statue of Liberty. It is a
place to have fun. San Francisco is great for a holiday. But Washington is the capital of the
country and wonderful for tourists. There are so many famous and historical places there.
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The best known building is the White House, home of American Presidents since
1800. Next on the tourist’s list is the Capitol with white marble columns. 535 members of
Congress meet here to discuss the nation’s business. From the Capitol there is a magnificent
view down the Mall and the Lincoln Memorial.
Washington is the only city in the District of Columbia and its main function and
industry is administration.
In 1790 Congress decided that a capital city should be built. George Washington, the
first US President, and six other men chose a plot of ground partly in Maryland and partly in
Virginia. In 1800 the government offices were moved into the city on the Potomac River.
Now this beautiful city draws people from all over the world like a magnet. It is not a
very large city. There is a law against building structures in Washington higher than the
Capitol. So it is different from New York with its skyscrapers.
The streets were planned to reach out in all directions from the Capitol Building –
like the spokes of a wheel. The streets were given the names of states. Pennsylvania Avenue
runs from the Capitol to the White House. It has been the route of many parades. When a
new President goes into office, there is always a parade along it to honour the occasion.
Washington is a city of monuments and museums. They include the National Gallery
of Art with the finest collections of paintings and sculptures; the Philips Museum, the first
museum of modern art in the country and many others.
Vocabulary:
the Statue of Liberty – Статуя Свободы
the Capitol - Капитолий
magnificent – великолепный
a plot of ground – участок земли
against building – против строительства (V+ing – герундий), запрещающий
строительство
skyscraper – небоскреб
to reach out - простираться
like the spokes of a wheel – как спицы колеса
the route - маршрут
to go into office – вступать в должность
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to honour the occasion – зд. в честь данного события
Ex.1. Answer the questions.
1. Is Washington the largest city in the USA?
2. What is the best known building in Washington?
3. Why is Washington different from New York?
4. Where is Washington built?
5. Are there any buildings higher than the Capitol?
6. Why is this city named after Washington?
7. What can you say about the city planning?
8. What can you see there if you visit this city?
Ex.2. Translate into English.
1. Вашингтон – столица США и единственный город в округе Колумбия.
2. Он притягивает туристов со всего мира.
3. Здесь находятся известные музеи, Белый Дом, Капитолий и многие другие здания и
памятники.
4. Первый президент США выбрал место для будущей столицы на берегу рек
Потомак.
5. Вашингтон отличается от Нью-Йорка с его небоскребами и Статуей Свободы.
6. Улицы Вашингтона были названы в честь штатов США.
LESSON 11
Грамматика.
Модальные глаголы. Shall, will, would
The Past Perfect
Тема. The Russian Federation
Модальные глаголы. Shall, will, would
1. Модальный глагол shall выражает решимость со стороны говорящего, принуждение,
приказ, угрозу, предупреждение или обещание.
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Он употребляется в этих значениях во втором и третьем лице и выделяется сильным
или слабым ударением.
She shall regret it!
Don’t be afraid, you shall not be punished.
В вопросах он употребляется, чтобы спросить разрешение или желание собеседника.
Shall I come with you?
2. Модальный глагол will выражает волеизъявление, настойчивость или намерение со
стороны говорящего, а также привычные действия, предположение или неизбежность.
Иногда он употребляется в придаточных условия после союза if.
You may go if you will. Можете идти, если хотите.
I will achieve my goals and do my best to succeed.
Он также встречается в вежливых просьбах.
Will you have a cup of tea?
My pen won’t write. Моя ручка не пишет.
That will be the postman. Это, наверное, почтальон.
3. Модальный глагол would
выражает волю, главным образом в отрицаниях,
настойчивость и относит действие к прошлому, а также предположение.
I told her to follow your advice but she would not. Я сказал ей последовать твоему совету,
но она не хотела.
We asked them not to bang the door but they would. Мы просили их не хлопать дверью, но
они все равно это делали.
Note: would like to – хотелось бы
Would you like to join me? – I’d love to.
Ex.1. Translate into Russian.
1. She said, “I won’t tell you any lies – I promise”.
2. She made her way back to the boat deck and then, for the first time, saw some lights in
the sea. “They will be boats,” she decided.
3. Shall I tell you what I did?
4. I don’t know his opinion. He won’t say “yes” and he won’t say “no”.
5. Her name is Faith Randal. – That would be Jack Randal’s wife.
6. We think you are both wonderful. You shall both have a prize.
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7. It is your right that every child shall have a complete education.
Ex.2. Translate into English.
1. Они не станут это делать.
2. Это, вероятно, наш новый коллега (colleague).
3. Я обязательно верну твой словарь.
4. Мне пойти с вами?
5. Я просила тебя не выходить на улицу, но ты все равно вышел.
6. Вы можете помочь нам, если хотите.
7. Они еще пожалеют о своих словах.
8. Машина не заводится (to start).
9. Я обещаю, я тебе непременно позвоню.
10. Хотели бы вы чего-нибудь перекусить?
The Past Perfect
had + the Participle II (V3 (V+ed))
+ I had come before they entered the room.
- I had not come before they entered the room.
? Had you come before they entered the room?
закончилось раньше другого действия в
Это время обозначает действие, которое
прошлом или до определенного момента. На него может указывать предлог “by” – к
или глагол в the Past Simple .
e.g. They had finished the test by 12 o’clock.
They had finished the test when the bell rang.
Глагол в the Past Perfect обычно переводится на русский язык глаголом в прошедшем
времени совершенного вида.
Ex. 1. Translate the sentences.
1. It all happened by accident. His wife had sent him out to buy a new toaster, when he found
himself standing in front of a computer display at the Banana Computer Store.
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2. But Harvey didn’t come out in a minute. He had become completely obsessed with his
computer.
3. He printed and re-printed and soon even he became exhausted. He hadn’t slept for days.
He couldn’t work any more at his computer.
4. Rachel saw an advertisement for the pop festival and she really wanted to go. Her friends
had been to the festival the year before and liked it.
5. Dad picked us up from the station. I think he had been quite worried about us but it wasn’t
dangerous at the festival.
6. We put up our tents. But, of course, I had taken too much food and too many clothes.
There were food stalls everywhere.
The Russian Federation
Russia ranks first in the world in its territory, stretching over Eastern Europe and Northern
Asia. It covers almost twice the territory of either the United States or China. Russia is
bounded in the west by Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine and in the
south by Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and North Korea.
It is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans. It faces the Baltic and the Black Seas in the west, the
Arctic Ocean and the conjoined seas in the north, and the Pacific Ocean and the conjoined
seas in the east.
The country has a variety of relief and climatic conditions. Russia is a land of rivers and
deep lakes. The most economically important rivers are the Volga and the Don. The Caspian
Sea, partially within the territory of the country, is the greatest inland body of water in the
world. Lake Baikal, in Eastern Siberia, is the deepest lake in the world.
The Ural Mountains, the traditional boundary between Asia and Europe, run for over 2,000
kms. from north to south. The highest peak, Mount Narodnaya, reaches 1,895 metres.
The area is so large that Russia has 11 time zones. The climate varies from arctic and
subarctic to temperate and subtropical.
Russia is rich in mineral resources, especially coal, natural gas and ores. The main
agricultural product has always been grain, mainly wheat, barley and rye.
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The official language of the country is Russian but as Russia is a multinational and
multicultural country many different languages are spoken here.
People live mostly in urban areas. The capital of the country is Moscow.
The Russian Federation is a constitutional republic. The head of the state is the President
who controls 3 branches of power. The legislative power belongs to the Federal Assembly,
consisting of the Council of Federation and the State Duma. The executive power belongs
to the President and the Cabinet of Ministers or the Government. The judicial branch consists
of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and lower courts.
Vocabulary
to rank first – занимать первое место
either … or … - либо … либо
to bound – граничить, служить границей
con'joined – соединенный, объединенный
inland body of water – внутренний водоем
time zones – часовые пояса
grain - зерно
'legislative - законодательный
the Federal As'sembly – Федеральное Собрание
the Council of Federation – Совет Федерации
e'xecutive – исполнительный
ju'dicial – судебный
Ex.1. Give the English equivalents.
Простираться по; омываться 3 океанами; занимать первое место в мире по;
климатические условия; глубочайшее озеро; граница между Европой и Азией; быть
богатым природными ресурсами; официальный язык; ветви власти; принадлежать
кому-то; состоять из.
Ex.2. Answer the questions.
1. Is Russia the largest country in the world?
2. What territory does it stretch over?
3. What countries can you compare Russia with?
4. What countries is it bounded by in the west and in the south?
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5. It is washed by thirteen seas, isn’t it?
6. Which are the most economically important rivers?
7. Where is Lake Baikal?
8. Does Russia have 11 or 12 time zones?
9. What is the political system of the RF?
10. Is Russian the only language spoken in this country?
Ex.3. A quiz.
What is / are …
 the biggest lake in Russia?

the longest Russian river (in the European and Asian parts of the RF territory)?
 a city with subtropical climate?
 the deepest lake?
 old historical cities?
 places of recreation and tourism?
 the name of the city where Father Frost lives?
 the symbols of the RF?
LESSON 12
Грамматика. Many, much, few, little
The Future Continuous
Тема. Moscow
Many, much, few, little
исчисляемые существительные
неисчисляемые существительные
many – много, многие
much - много
а few – несколько
a little – немного, некоторое
количество
few – мало (недостаточно), немногие
little - мало (недостаточно)
Examples: Few people can travel abroad.
There a few books on the desk. I don’t which are yours.
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There is little snow this year.
Наречие much употребляется для усиления – «гораздо», «намного».
It is much more convenient to travel by car. Ездить на машине гораздо удобнее.
В разговорной речи вместо many и much употребляют a lot:
There were a lot of our friends at the party. – How did you like it? – A lot!
Но в отрицательных предложениях нельзя употреблять a lot, вместо него следует
говорить not many, not much: There is not much time left. Come on!
Not many students can afford to rent a flat.
Ex.1. Use many, much, a few, a little, few, little, a lot where necessary.
1. There was … rain last autumn, so I practically never took an umbrella with me.
2. Only … students wrote the test with no mistakes at all.
3. … rivers in GB flow in the eastward direction since the west coast is mountainous.
4. … parts of highland Britain have only thin, poor soils. As a result, there are large
stretches of moorland there.
5. How did you like your trip? – Not … . It was raining all days long.
6. The animal life of the British Isles is … poorer than it was … centuries ago.
7. With the disappearance of forests … forest animals have become practically
extinct.
8. There are … sea-birds which fly far inland in search of food or shelter in rough
weather.
9. The south of England is called “the Garden of England” because there are …
gardens and orchards there.
10. There is … hope, but still you shouldn’t give up.
Ex.2. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the use of “many, much, a few, a little, few,
little, a lot”.
A: Hello! I haven’t seen you for ages.
B: Hi! I was out of town.
A: So what’s the news?
B: I have so much to tell you. I have never had so much enjoyable time in the countryside.
There were very few campers there, so it was quiet and peaceful.
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A: I’m afraid I envy you a lot. I’ve been in town all the summer. So there is not much to tell
you about my holiday. There was little time to enjoy the nature. I had a lot to do virtually
every day.
The Future Continuous
shall
be + the Present Participle (V4)
will
+ He will be walking past the store as usual.
- He will not be walking past the store.
? Will he be walking past the store as usual?
Это время употребляется в 2 основных случаях:
1 для выражения длительного действия в определенный момент в будущем.
2 для выражения действия или события, которое было запланировано заранее или
происходит в ходе обычного курса событий.
You will recognize me easily. I’ll be wearing a straw hat and a blue dress.
Ex.1. Match the phrases and the explanation. Translate them.
1. I’ll be waiting for you. a) решение, принятое в момент речи
Settled?
2. I’ll be working in the b) длительное действие в определенный
library the whole day момент в будущем.
tomorrow.
3. I’ll be seeing Jane this c) происходит в ходе обычного курса
afternoon; you know I событий
haven’t seen her for ages.
4. Don’t be in a hurry, I’ll d) запланированное решение
wait.
5. You’ll be passing by e) решение, принятое в момент речи
the chemist’s, buy me this
medicine, please.
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6. What will you be doing f) запланированное решение
tomorrow after 6?
Ex.2. Use the Future Continuous or the Future Simple.
14. Sit down and fasten your seat belts. We (take off) in a few minutes.
15. Do you think you still (work) her in ten years’ time?
16. They (reach) the top of the mountain at this time tomorrow?
17. I (work) as a teacher next year.
18. I (wait) for you at the theatre at 6 p.m. tomorrow.
19. They (have) a party on Saturday as usual.
20. I wonder what she (do) tomorrow at this time.
21. When you come back I still (copy) the text, it’s so big.
22. At 8.30 tomorrow she (fly) to Manchester.
23. What you (do) at 9 a.m. on Monday?
Moscow (see the map p. 126)
Moscow is spread over a vast area of a thousand square kilometers. It was a small fortress
in the past. Founded in 1147 by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, Moscow was named after the
Moskva River. In the course of time it grew into a big city.
By 1480 Rus had grown into a
powerful state that could repulse any enemy.
It is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, scientific and cultural heart. On the one
hand, it is noisy and busy, but on the other hand it is very beautiful and worth seeing.
About 9 mln. people live there. The President and the Federation Assembly of Russia,
other important organizations, embassies and all ministries are in Moscow.
The Kremlin is the symbol of Russian politics as all main official organizations are located
there. The President’s residence, the State Kremlin Palace, the Grand Kremlin Palace are on
its territory. The towers of the Kremlin are the symbol of Russia. And the Red Square is the
heart of the capital where official ceremonies and parades take place.
There are more than 70 educational and research institutes and universities, including the
greatest Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov.
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There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The most famous are the State Tretyakov
Gallery, the so-called Diamond Fund, the Museum of Fine Arts and many others. The Tsar
Bell and the Tsar Cannon are examples of skills of Russian craftsmen.
Moscow was being decorated by all tsars and rulers with beautiful churches, palaces and
monuments. It is called golden-domed because of a great number of cathedrals with gilded
domes, for example the Cathedral of Basil the Blessed.
Moscow is also the city of theatres. There are more than 30 theatres popular with both
Muscovites and visitors – the State Academic Bolshoi Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the
Taganka, the Theatre of Satire and so on.
The tall Ostankino TV tower has a revolving restaurant and an observation platform.
Moscow is the port of 5 seas. The Moscow Canal, the Moskva River, the Volga-Don Canal
link Moscow with the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, the Sea of Azov and the
Caspian Sea. The Moscow Metro is the oldest in Russia. It is famous for its marble-walled
stations. Anyway it is better to see it once with your own eyes to form your own opinion of
the capital of our country.
Vocabulary:
prince - князь
to grow into – превратиться в, вырасти в
to repulse – дать отпор
on the one hand … on the other hand – с одной стороны … с другой стороны
to be worth doing smth. – стоить того, чтобы сделать что-то
embassy - посольство
ceremony - церемония
to take place - проходить
the so- called – так называемый
golden-domed - златоглавая
the Cathedral of Basil the Blessed – собор Василия Блаженного
Muscovite – москвич
revolving - вращающийся
Ex.1. Answer the questions.
1. What is the capital of Russia?
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2. Is its area a thousand square kilometers or miles?
3. What facts from the history of Moscow have you learnt?
4. What important political buildings are there in Moscow?
5. What are the symbols of the capital?
6. Moscow is a great educational centre, isn’t it?
7. Why is Moscow called gold-domed?
8. Can you say that it is a great cultural centre?
9. Where are official ceremonies and parades?
Ex.2. Find the equivalents in the text and use them in your retelling.
Быть основанным; быть названным в честь; дать отпор врагу; сердце столицы; стоит
посмотреть ее; соборы с позолоченными куполами; популярны среди москвичей.
Ex.3. Work in pairs. Make up a dialogue between a foreigner in Moscow and a Muscovite
about its attractions. Use the words from the text.
Ex.4. True or False?
1. Moscow was founded in 1145 by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky.
2. Moscow was named after the Moskva River.
3. Moscow is a quiet place.
4. The greatest Moscow State University is named after M.V. Lomonosov.
5. Moscow is also the city of theatres.
6. The President and the Federation Assembly of Russia, other important organizations,
embassies and all ministries are in St. Petersburg.
7. Moscow is the port of 6 seas.
8. The Moscow Metro is the newest in Russia.
9. The towers of the Kremlin are the symbol of Russia.
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Appendix I. Classroom expressions
1 The bell has gone. Звонок прозвенел.
2 Clean the board. Вымойте доску.
3 Wipe it off. Сотрите с доски.
4 Open the text-books and the copy-books. Откройте учебники и тетради.
5 Close your text-books. Закройте учебники.
6 Revise the grammar material. Повторите грамматический материал.
7 Take your time. Не спешите.
8 Read the text (the passage), please. Прочитайте, пожалуйста, текст (отрывок).
9 Read the passage from the very beginning. Прочитайте отрывок c самого начала.
10 Speak up, will you? Говорите громче, пожалуйста.
11 Translate the text (the passage), will you? Переведите, пожалуйста, текст (отрывок).
12 Translate into Russian. Переведите на рус. язык.
13 Translate into English. Переведите на англ. язык.
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14 Pronounce the word. Произнесите слово.
15 Come to the board. Идите к доске.
16 Go to your seat. Идите на свое место.
17 Take a seat. Присаживайтесь.
18 Make up a dialogue. Составьте диалог.
19 Use the words and expressions from your active vocabulary. Употребите слова и
выражения из активного словаря.
20 Please act out the dialogue. Разыграйте диалог.
21 Exchange the parts. Поменяйтесь ролями.
22 Memorise the dialogue. Заучите диалог.
23 Learn the poem (dialogue) by heart. Выучите стихотворение (диалог) наизусть.
24 Write in pen. Пишите ручкой.
25 Give in (hand in) your works. Сдайте работы.
26 Could you give out (hand out) the papers? Раздайте работы, пожалуйста.
27 Give out the hand-outs/worksheets. Сдайте раздаточный материал.
28 Pass me your test papers. Передайте мне контрольные работы.
29 Pass the works to the front desks. Передайте работы на передние парты.
30 You are to retell the text. Вы должны пересказать текст.
31 You are supposed to make up a story of your own. Вы должны составить свой рассказ.
32 You are expected to learn the topic. Вы должны выучить тему.
33 Round up. Заканчивайте работу.
34 It’s time you finished writing. Пора закончить письменное задание.
35 Put down the date / your homework. Запишите дату / домашнее задание.
36 The class is over. = We are through. Занятие окончено.
37 You may be free. Вы можете быть свободны.
Students’ vocabulary:
1 Shall I start reading? Мне начать читать?
2 Shall I translate the text? Мне переводить текст?
3 Could you help me? Вы могли бы мне помочь?
4 What is the Russian / English for …? Как будет … по-русски / по-английски?
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5 What does the word … mean? Что означает слово …?
6 May I come in? Можно войти?
7 May I go out? Можно выйти?
8 I’m sorry for being late. Извините за опоздание.
9 Do you mind if I open (close) the window? Вы не возражаете, если я открою окно?
Appendix II
A list of the most commonly used irregular verbs
Infinitive
1.
abide
Past Simple
abode
Participle II
abode
Participle I
abiding
Translation
пребывать,
держаться чегото
2.
arise
arose
arisen
arising
подниматься
3.
awake
awoke
awoken
awaking
будить
4.
be
was / were
been
being
быть, являться
5.
bear
bore
born
bearing
вынашивать,
терпеть
6.
beat
beat
beaten
beating
бить
7.
become
became
become
becoming
становиться
8.
begin
began
begun
beginning
начинать
9.
bend
bent
bent
bending
гнуть
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10.
beset
beset
beset
besetting
окружать,
осаждать
11.
bet
bet
bet
betting
клясться
12.
bid
bid /bad(e)
bid(den)
bidding
велеть, предлагать цену
13.
bind
bound
bound
binding
связывать
14.
bite
bit
bitten
biting
кусать
15.
blow
blew
blown
blowing
дуть
16.
break
broke
broken
breaking
ломать
17.
breed
bred
bred
breeding
воспитывать
18.
bring
brought
brought
bringing
приносить
19.
broadcast
broadcast
broadcast
broadcasting
транслировать
20.
build
built
built
building
строить
21.
burn
burnt
burnt
burning
гореть, жечь
22.
burst
burst
burst
bursting
разразиться
23.
buy
bought
bought
buying
покупать
24.
cast
cast
cast
casting
бросать
25.
catch
caught
caught
catching
ловить
26.
choose
chose
chosen
choosing
выбирать
27.
come
came
come
coming
приходить
28.
cost
cost
cost
costing
стоить
29.
creep
crept
crept
creeping
ползать
30.
cut
cut
cut
cutting
резать, сечь
31.
deal
dealt
dealt
dealing
иметь дело с
32.
dig
dug
dug
digging
копать
33.
dive
dived / dove
dived
diving
нырять
34.
do
did
done
doing
делать
35.
draw
drew
drawn
drawing
рисовать
36.
dream
dreamt
dreamt
dreaming
видеть во сне
37.
drink
drank
drunk
drinking
пить
38.
drive
drove
driven
driving
вести машину
39.
eat
ate
eaten
eating
есть
40.
fall
fell
fallen
falling
падать
41.
feed
fed
fed
feeding
кормить
42.
feel
felt
felt
feeling
чувствовать
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43.
fight
fought
fought
fighting
драться
44.
find
found
found
finding
находить
45.
fly
flew
flown
flying
летать
46.
forbid
forbad
forbidden
forbidding
запрещать
47.
forget
forgot
forgotten
forgetting
забывать
48.
forgive
forgave
forgiven
forgiving
прощать
49.
freeze
froze
frozen
freezing
замерзать
50.
get
got
got
getting
получать
51.
give
gave
given
giving
давать
52.
go
went
gone
going
ехать, идти
53.
grow
grew
grown
growing
расти
54.
hang
hung
hung
hanging
вешать
55.
have
had
had
having
иметь
56.
hear
heard
heard
hearing
слышать
57.
hide
hid
hidden
hiding
прятать
58.
hit
hit
hit
hitting
толкать
59.
hold
held
held
holding
держать
60.
hurt
hurt
hurt
hurting
ранить
61.
keep
kept
kept
keep
хранить
62.
kneel
knelt
knelt
kneeling
преклонять
колени
63.
know
knew
known
knowing
знать
64.
lay
laid
laid
laying
стелить
65.
lead
led
led
leading
вести
66.
leap
leapt
leapt
leaping
прыгать
67.
learn
learnt
learnt
learning
узнавать
68.
leave
left
left
leaving
покидать
69.
lend
lent
lent
lending
одалживать
70.
let
let
let
letting
позволять
71.
lie
lay
lain
lying
лежать
72.
light
lit
lit
light
освещать
73.
lose
lost
lost
losing
терять
74.
make
made
made
making
заставлять,
делать
75.
mean
meant
meant
meaning
112
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76.
meet
met
met
meeting
встречать,
знакомить
77.
pay
paid
paid
paying
платить
78.
put
put
put
putting
класть
79.
read
read
read
reading
читать
80.
ride
rode
ridden
riding
кататься
81.
ring
rang
rung
ringing
звонить
82.
rise
rose
risen
rising
вставать
83.
run
ran
run
running
бегать
84.
say
said
said
saying
говорить
85.
see
saw
seen
seeing
видеть
86.
sell
sold
sold
selling
продавать
87.
send
sent
sent
sending
посылать
88.
set
set
set
setting
устанавливать
89.
sew
sewed
sewn
sewing
шить
90.
shake
shook
shaken
shaking
дрожать
91.
shine
shone
shone
shining
сиять
92.
shoot
shot
shot
shooting
давать побеги
93.
show
showed
shown
showing
показывать
94.
shrink
shrank
shrunk
shrinking
садиться,
сжиматься
95.
shut
shut
shut
shutting
закрывать
96.
sing
sang
sung
singing
петь
97.
sink
sank
sunk
sinking
тонуть
98.
sit
sat
sat
sitting
сидеть
99.
sleep
slept
slept
sleeping
спать
100. slide
slid
slid
sliding
скользить
101. smell
smelt
smelt
smelling
пахнуть
102. sow
sowed
sown
sowing
сеять
103. speak
spoke
spoken
speaking
разговаривать
104. speed
sped
sped
speeding
превышать
скорость
105. spell
spelt
spelt
spelling
писать/называть
по буквам
106. spend
spent
spent
spending
113
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107. spill
spilt
spilt
spilling
проливать
108. spin
span / spun
spun
spinning
кружить
109. spoil
spoilt
spoilt
spoiling
портить
110. spread
spread
spread
spreading
простираться
111. stand
stood
stood
standing
стоять
112. steal
stole
stolen
stealing
красть
113. stick
stuck
stuck
sticking
клеить
114. sting
stung
stung
stinging
жалить
115. strike
struck
struck
striking
ударять
116. strive
strove
striven
striving
стремиться
117. swear
swore
sworn
swearing
клясться
118. sweep
swept
swept
sweeping
мести
119. swell
swelled
swollen
swelling
набухать
120. swim
swam
swum
swimming
плавать
121.
took
taken
taking
брать
122. teach
taught
taught
teaching
обучать
123. tear
tore
torn
tearing
рвать
124. tell
told
told
telling
рассказывать
125. think
thought
thought
thinking
думать
126. throw
threw
thrown
throwing
бросать
127. understand
understood
understood
understanding
понимать
128. wake
woke
woken
waking
просыпаться
129. wear
wore
worn
wearing
носить
130. weep
wept
wept
weeping
рыдать
131. win
won
won
winning
побеждать
132. wind
wound
wound
winding
заводить
133. withdraw
withdrew
withdrawn
withdrawing
отводить
take
(войска)
134. write
wrote
written
writing
писать
Appendix III Список географических названий
Country
1. Afghanistan
2. Albania
LIST OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES
Capital
Kabul
Tirana
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3. Algeria
4. Andorra
5. Angola
6. Antigua and Barbuda
7. Argentina
8. Armenia
9. Australia
10. Austria
11. Azerbaijan
12. Bahamas
13. Bahrain
14. Bangladesh
15. Barbados
16. Belarus
17. Belgium
18. Belize
19. Benin
20. Bhutan
21. Bolivia
22. Bosnia and Herzegovina
23. Botswana
24. Brazil
25. Brunei
26. Bulgaria
27. Burkina Faso
28. Burundi
29. Cambodia
30. Cameroon
31. Canada
32. Cape Verde
33. Cayman islands
34. Central African Republic
35. Chad
36. Chile
37. China
Algiers
Andorra la Vella
Luanda
St. John's
Buenos Aires
Yerevan
Canberra
Vienna
Baku
`Nassau
Al-Manámah, Manama
Dhaka
Bridgetown
Mensk (Minsk)
Brussels
Belmopan
Porto-Novo; Largest city and
seat of government: Cotonou
Thimphu
Sucre; Administrative capital: La Paz
Sarajevo (unofficial)
Gaborone
Brasília
Bandar Seri Begawan
Sofia
Ouagadougou
Bujumbura
Phnom Penh
Yaoundé
Ottawa, Ontario
Praia
George Town
Bangui
N'Djamena
Santiago
Beijing (Peking)
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38. Christmas Island
39. Cocos Islands
40. Colombia
41. Comoros
42. Congo, Democratic Republic
of the
43. Congo, Republic of
44. Cook Islands
45. Costa Rica
46. Côte d'Ivoire
47. Croatia
48. Cuba
49. Cyprus
50. Czech Republic
51. Denmark
52. Djibouti
53. Dominica
54. Dominican Republic
55. East Timor
56. Ecuador
53. Egypt
54. El Salvador
55. Equatorial Guinea
56. Eritrea
57. Estonia
58. Ethiopia
59. Fiji
60. Finland
61. France
62. Gabon
63. Gambia
64. Georgia
65. Germany
66. Ghana
67. Greece
The Settlement
West Island
Santafé de Bogotá
Moroni (on Grande Comoro)
Kinshasa
Brazzaville
Avarua
San José
Yamoussoukro (official) Largest city
and administrative center: Abidjan
Zagreb
Havana
Lefkosia
Prague
Copenhagen
Djibouti
Roseau
Santo Domingo
Dili
Quito
Cairo
San Salvador
Malabo
Asmara
Tallinn
Addis Ababa
Suva (on Viti Levu)
Helsinki
Paris
Libreville
Banjul
Tbilisi
Berlin (capital since Oct. 3, 1990)
Accra
Athens
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68. Grenada
69. Guatemala
70. Guinea
71. Guinea-Bissau
72.Guyana
73. Haiti
74. Honduras
75. Hungary
76. Iceland
77. India
78. Indonesia
79. Iran
80. Iraq
81. Ireland
82. Israel
83. Italy
84. Jamaica
85. Japan
86. Jordan
87. Kazakhstan
88. Kenya
89. Kiribati
90. Korea, North
91. Korea, South
92. Kuwait
93. Kyrgyzstan
94. Laos
95. Latvia
96. Lebanon
97. Lesotho
98. Liberia
99. Libya
100. Liechtenstein
101. Lithuania
102. Luxembourg
St. George's
Guatemala City
Conakry
Bissau
Georgetown
Port-au-Prince
Tegucigalpa
Budapest
Reykjavik
New Delhi
Jakarta
Tehran
Baghdad
Dublin
Jerusalem
Rome
Kingston
Tokyo
Amman
Astana (formerly Aqmola; capital since
1997)
Nairobi
Tarawa
Pyongyang
Seoul
Kuwait
Bishkek (formerly Frunze)
Vientiane
Riga
Beirut
Maseru
Monrovia
Tripoli
Vaduz
Vilnius
Luxembourg
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103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
118.
Montenegro
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
125.
Netherlands
126. New Zealand
127. Nicaragua
128. Niger
129. Nigeria
130. Norway
131. Oman
132. Pakistan
133. Palau
134. Palestinian State
(proposed)
135. Panama
Skopje
Antananarivo
Lilongwe
Kuala Lumpur
Malé
Bamako
Valletta
Majuro
Nouakchott
Port Louis
Mexico City
Palikir
Chisinau
Monaco
Ulaan Baatar
Podgorica (administrative capital),
Cetinje (capital city)
Rabat
Maputo
Rangoon (Yangon)
Windhoek Summer capital: Swakopmund
Yaren
Kathmandu
Amsterdam (official) The Hague
(administrative capital)
Wellington
Managua
Niamey
Abuja
Oslo
Muscat
Islamabad
Koror
Undetermined
Panama City
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136. Papua New Guinea
137. Paraguay
138. Peru
139. Philippines
140. Poland
141. Portugal
142. Qatar
143. Romania
144. Russia
145. Rwanda
146. St. Kitts and Nevis
147. St. Lucia
148. St. Vincent and the
Grenadines
149. Samoa
150. San Marino
151. São Tomé and Príncipe
152. Saudi Arabia
153. Senegal
154. Serbia
155. Seychelles
156. Sierra Leone
157. Singapore
158. Slovakia
159. Slovenia
160. Solomon Islands
161. Somalia
162.
South Africa
163.
Spain
164.
Sri Lanka
165.
166.
167.
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Port Moresby
Asunción
Lima
Manila
Warsaw
Lisbon
Doha
Bucharest
Moscow
Kigali
Basseterre (on St. Kitts
Castries
Kingstown
Apia
San Marino
São Tomé
Riyadh
Dakar
Belgrade
Victoria
Freetown
Singapore
Bratislava
Ljubljana
Honiara (on Guadalcanal)
Mogadishu
Pretoria Legislative capital
and largest city: Cape Town Judicial
capital: Bloemfontein
Madrid
Colombo; Legislative and judicial capital:
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
Khartoum
Paramaribo
Mbabane Royal and legislative capital:
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168. Sweden
169. Switzerland
170. Syria
171. Taiwan
172. Tajikistan
173. Tanzania
174. Thailand
175. Togo
176. Tonga
177. Trinidad and Tobago
178. Tunisia
179. Turkey
180.Turkmenistan
181. Tuvalu
182. Uganda
183. Ukraine
184. United Arab Emirates, the
185. United Kingdom, the
186. United States, the
187. Uruguay
188. Uzbekistan
189. Vanuatu
190. Venezuela
191. Vietnam
192. Western Sahara (proposed
state)
193. Yemen
194. Zambia
195. Zimbabwe
Lobamba
Stockholm
Bern
Damascus
Taipei
Dushanbe
Dodoma
Bangkok
Lomé
Nuku'alofa
Port-of-Spain
Tunis
Ankara
Ashgabat
Funafuti
Kampala
Kyiv (Kiev)
Abu Dhabi
London
Washington, DC
Montevideo
Tashkent
Port Vila
Caracas
Hanoi
El Aaiun
Sanaá
Lusaka
Harare
Asia ['eı∫ә] – Азия
the Arctic Ocean [' ktık 'ә∫әn] – Северный Ледовитый Океан
Alaska [ә'læskә] - Аляска
the Appalachian Mountains [æpә'leıt∫әn 'mantınz] – горы Аппалачи
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Australia [s'treıljә] – Австралия
the Baltic Sea ['b:ltık 'si:] – Балтийское море
Belarus [belә'rs] – Беларусь
the Black Sea – Черное море
Lake Baikal [baı'kα:l] – о. Байкал
Brighton ['braıtn] – г. Брайтон
the British Isles ['brıtı∫ 'aılz] – Британские острова
Cairo ['kΛıәrәυ] – г. Каир
Canada ['kænәdә] – Канада
the Caspian Sea ['kæspıәn] – Каспийское море
the Caucasus ['k:kәsәs] – Кавказ
China ['aınә] – Китай
the Colorado [klә'rα:dәυ] р. Колорадо
the Columbia [kә'l Λmbıә] р. Колумбия
the Crimea [kraı'mıә] – Крым
Cyprus ['saıprәs] – Кипр
Edinburgh ['edınbәrә] г. Эдинбург
Estonia [es'tәnıә] –Эстония
Europe ['jәrәp] – Европа
Finland ['fınlәnd] – Финляндия
France [frα:ns] – Франция
Germany ['3:mәnı] – Германия
Great Britain ['greıt 'brıtn] – Великобритания
the Great Lakes – Великие Озера
Greenwich ['grını] – Гринвич
the Gulf Stream ['gΛlf 'stri:m] – Гольфстрим
the Hague [heıg] – г. Гаага
Hawaii [hα:'waıi:] – Гавайи
Kazakhstan [kα:zәk'stα:n] – Казахстан
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Latvia ['lætvıә] – Латвия
Lithuania [lıθj'eınıә] – Литва
London ['lΛndn] – г. Лондон
Madrid [mә'drıd] – г. Мадрид
the Mediterranean Sea [medıtә 'reınjәn] – Средиземное море
Mexico ['meksıkә] – Мексика
the Mississippi [mısı'sıpı] – р. Миссисипи
the Missouri [mı'zәrı] – р. Миссури
Mongolia [mŋ 'gәlıә] – Монголия
the Netherlands ['neðәlәndz] – Нидерланды
the Nile [naıl] – р. Нил
North Korea [… kә'rıә] – Северная Корея
Northern Ireland ['aıәlәnd] – Северная Ирландия
Paris ['pærıs] – Париж
the Potomac River [pә'tәmәk] – р. Потомак
Rio de Janeiro ['ri:әdәә 'nıәrәυ ] – г. Рио-де-Жанейро
the Rio Grande ['ri:ә 'grændı] – р. Рио-Гранде
the Riviera [rıvı'eәrә] – Ривьера
the Rocky Mountains – Скалистые горы
the Russian Federation – Российская Федерация
the Sahara Desert [sә'hα:rә] – пустыня Сахара
Scotland - Шотландия
the Severn ['sevn] – р. Северн
Siberia [saı'bıәrıә] – Сибирь
the Strait of Dover ['streıt әv 'dәvә] – пролив Ла-Манш
the St. Lawrence River [snt 'l:rәns] – р. Святого Лаврентия
Sydney ['sıdnı] – г. Сидней
the Thames [temz] – р. Темза
(the) Ukraine [ju:'kreın] – Украина
the United Arab Emirates [… 'ærәbe'mıәrәts] – Объединенные Арабские Эмираты
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the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Соединенное Королевство
Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
the United States of America – Соединенные Штаты Америки
Wales [weılz] – Уэльс
Warsaw ['w:s:] – г. Варшава
Washington ['w∫ıŋtәn] – г. Вашингтон
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The Map of the United Kingdom
124
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the Map of the USA
125
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the Map of the Orenburg Region
126
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the Map of Moscow
127
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Washington
128
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London
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Библиография:
1. Голицынский Ю.Б. Великобритания – СПб.: КАРО, 2004 (Страноведение)
2. Крылова И.П., Гордон Е.М. Грамматика современного английского языка.-М.:
Книжный дом «Университет», 2000
3. О Британии вкратце: Кн. для чтения на англ. яз. в ст. классах ср. школы./Сост.
В.В.Ощепкова, И.И.Шустилова. - М.: Просвещение, 1993
4. Практический курс английского языка. 1 курс: Учеб. для пед. вузов по спец.
«иностр. яз.»/Под ред. В.Д.Аракина. – 5-е изд., испр. – М.: Гуманит. изд. центр
ВЛАДОС, 2000
5. Сему городу, с Богом, вновь строить назначенному, именоваться Оренбург
…./Сост. А.И.Аверьянов, В.В.Дорофеев. - Оренбургское Книжное
Издательство,1996
6. Токарева Н.Д.., Пеппард В. Америка? Какая она?: Учебник по страноведению
США. – Учеб.: - М.: Высш. Шк., 2000
7. English Cultural Studies (Михайлов Н.Н. Лингвострановедение Англии): - М.
Издательский центр «Академия», 2003
8. Evan Evans Tours. London, Britain and Paris /guidebook/, 2003
9. Great Days Out in Britain/ Your Complimentary Guide/, 2003
10. Language To Go. Gillie Cunningham, Sue Mohamed. - Pearson Education Limited,
2003
11. Topics for discussion. Устные темы по английскому языку. Серия: Изучаем
иностранные языки. – СПб.: «Издательство СОЮЗ», 2000
12. Waterway Holidays UK /guidebook/.- Centurion Press Ltd, 2003
130
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