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216.Seducing the masses an introduction to advertising world

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
SEDUCING THE MASSES:
ANALYSES OF ADVERTISING
LANGUAGE
Student ………………………………………………………..
Group ………………………………………………………….
Compiled by Voitkova
Иркутск 2013
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ББК 81.43.1 – 923
В 65
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Иркутского
государственного лингвистического университета
Рецензенты:
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей
с общественностью ИГЛУ
Ю.С. Заграйская;
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
для спец.целей ИГЛУ Н.В. Елашкина
Войткова, А.Н.
В65 Seducing the masses: an introduction to advertising world : учеб. пособие/
авт.-сост. А.Н. Войткова. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2013. – 58 с.
Учебное пособие содержит обширный аутентичный практический текстовой и
аудиальный материал по актуальным проблемам рекламной деятельности и направлено на
формирование профессиональной дискурсивной иноязычной компетенции.
Предназначено для студентов среднего (среднепродвинутого) уровня, обучающихся
в вузах с расширенной сеткой преподавания английского языка, а также для студентов 24 курса лингвистического университета неязыковой направления «Реклама и связи с
общественностью».
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© авт.-сост. Войткова А.Н., 2013
© Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет,
2013
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Part 1
SEDUCING THE MASSES:
ANALYSES OF ADVERTISING LANGUAGE
Contents
Module 1 Introduction to the world of advertising
 Key vocabulary. Derivatives
 The Power of advertising
Module 2 Big Business: brand management
 Key idea in advertising. Will Anyone Notice the shoes?
 Product Policy
 Products & Brands
 Surplus Society
 Brands Names
The two famous brands: Starbucks coffee vs Apple Macintosh
Some other brand names & their policies in the supplement
1
Module 3 Globalization
 Logomania
Module 4 . Marketing: seducing the masses
Marketing Basics
What is Marketing?
 Defining marketing
 The centrality of marketing
 Market research
 Marketing mix
 Marketing brands
 Market strategies
1. Promotional Tools
 Promoting a new project
 Promotional strategies
 Developing a new product
2. Pan-European advertising
3. International advertising: cultural issues
Supplement 1
Brand names & their policies policies
 Apple, Nike, Brats vs Barbie, YouTube, Google, Vespa,
Harley Davidson, Ikea, Wiki
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Module 1 1
Introduction to the world of
advertising
1. A) Listening. Designer goods. What are
'designer goods'? Which famous names can
you think of for these products?
clothes and sportswear accessories…………. (bags, shoes, etc.) ……………
cars and motorbikes …………………..
perfume and cosmetics ……………
B) Check the meaning of the phrases in bold. Which
statements do you agree with? Compare answers.
a "A lot of people in my country want to own these designer goods.
b ''Most people in my country can't afford designer labels."
с ''Sometimes I save up for something really special.'
d "People only want these products because of all the advertising."
e "Products with a famous name are better quality and last longer,
f "products like this are a waste of money - you just pay for the label. Cheaper things are
often just as good,
g "People look better in designer clothes than in cheaper ones."
h "it worries me that people spend so much money on these things, and that they care so
much about possessions.
C) You will hear the people on the left giving their opinions
about these things. What do you think they will say? Are
they for or against designer goods, or do they have mixed
feelings? (Listening 1.1.)
Valerie, 71 a grandmother
Nicola,
daughter
4
40
her
Rory, 15 Nicola's son
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D) Listen again, and mark these statements true (T) or false
(F)
a. Valerie has always spent a lot of money on clothes.
b. She always prefers designer products.
c. Nicola is worried about how much money people spend on these things.
d. She thinks cheaper products are usually just as good.
e. Rory thinks people who are obsessed with designer clothes ore stupid.
f. He thinks all trainers and jeans are cool, and look good.
Exercises taken from New Headway Pre-Intermediate, 2004
2.1. a) Brainstorming. Which things generally come under
the heading of “advertising”?
Discuss your ideas in class
b) What is an advertising &
advertisement? Based on the
ideas mentioned in class think
over the definition of what their
concepts are.
Advertising
2.2. Key Vocabulary
*advertisement 1) a notice or announcement in a public medium promoting a product,
service, or event or publicizing a job vacancy;
# advertisements for alcoholic drinks
# We received only two replies to our advertisement
2) (advertisement for informal ) a person or thing regarded as a means of
recommending something; # unhappy clients are not a good advertisement for
the company
Origin: late Middle English (denoting a statement calling attention to something):
from Old French advertissement, from the verb advertir (see advertise ‘turn
toward’)
*advertising - the activity or profession of producing advertisements for
commercial products or services (Oxford American Dictionary)
1) the act of making a company, a product or a service
known to the public; the notices, pictures & short films that a
company uses to tell people about itself & its products:
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# cigarette advertising ;
# How much did we spend on advertising last month?
# Are you easily persuaded by television advertising?
# the company has a huge advertising budget.
# Only ten percent of recruitment adverting (= adverting for people to fill jobs);
# internet / online / television / press/ radio / point of sale adverting;
# an advertising campaign;
# adverting revenue (s) / sales ( Oxford Business English Dictionary)
2) the industry of adverting things to people on television, in newspaper
& magazines, etc: # the adverting business/ sector / industry
# He is in advertising.
# Movie audiences are receptive to advertising
Derivatives
advertise -
advertiser
advertising
agency
advertising mix
[trans.] describe or draw attention to (a product, service, or
event) in a public medium in order to promote sales or
attendance
#v a billboard advertising beer # many rugs are advertised as
machine washable
[intrans.] # we had a chance to advertise on television
2) seek to fill (a vacancy) by putting a notice in a newspaper or
other medium
# For every job we advertise we get a hundred applicants
# [intrans.] he advertised for dancers in the trade papers
3) make (a quality or fact) known # Meryl coughed briefly to
advertise her presence
A company or a person that advertises a product or service. #
She claims that tobacco advertisers target teenagers
A company that plans & designs advertisements for other
companies. # She is an executive at a leading New York
advertising agency.
(marketing) the different methods that a business uses to
advertise a product, such as television, newspapers, radio, etc: #
The regional press is a vital part of the national advertising mix.
# The internet makes up 2% of the company’s advertising mix.
http://www.lingvo-online.ru/ru
2.3. Listen to the dialogue & write out as many advertising
terms as possible. Consult the dictionary about their
meaning. (Listening 1.2.)
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3. Read through the following quotations
relating to advertising & discuss which
one appeals to you most & why.
1. “The Death of Advertising? I think that’s in the
book of Revelation. It’s the day when people
everywhere become satisfied with their weight, their
hair, their skin, their wardrobe, and their aroma.” -Jef I.
Richards
2. “Advertising: the science of arresting the human
intelligence long enough to get money from it.” Stephen B. Leacock
3. “The caterpillar does all the work but the butterfly gets all the publicity”
4. “Advertising is the art of convincing people to spend money they don't have
for something they don't need.”
5. “The man who stops advertising to save money is like the man who stops the
clock to save time”
6. Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You
know what you are doing, but nobody else does. ~Steuart Henderson Britt
7. What is the difference between unethical and ethical advertising? Unethical
advertising uses falsehoods to deceive the public; ethical advertising uses
truth to deceive the public. ~Vilhjalmur Stefansson, 1964
8. Advertisers constantly invent cures to which there is no disease.
9. I think that I shall never see
A billboard lovely as a tree.
Perhaps, unless the billboards fall,
I'll never see a tree at all. (~Ogden Nash, "Song of the Open Road," 1933)
10.Let advertisers spend the same amount of money improving their product
that they do on advertising and they wouldn't have to advertise it. ~Will
Rogers
11.It used to be that people needed products to survive. Now products need
people to survive. ~Nicholas Johnson
12.Advertising is the rattling of a stick inside a swill bucket. ~George Orwell
13.Advertising is the art of making whole lies out of half truths. ~Edgar A.
Shoaff
14.It is our job to make women unhappy with what
they have. ~B. Earl Puckett.
15.In general, my children refused to eat anything that
hadn't danced on TV. ~Erma Bombeck
16.Our society's values are being corrupted by
advertising's insistence on the equation: Youth
equals popularity, popularity equals success,
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success equals happiness. ~John Fisher, The Plot to Make You Buy, 1968
17.History will see advertising "as one of the real evil things of our time. It is
stimulating people constantly to want things, want this, want that." ~
Malcolm Muggeridge.
http://www.quotegarden.com/advertising.html
Surf the net & find some more quotes on advertising you
like. Comment on their meaning.
4. Render the extract below into English & comment on the
main issue in it.
Говард Рафф — один из основателей
инстшуга Джеф- ферсона — центра обучения
предпринимательству и инвестированию в
США — и издатель финансового бюллетеня,
выступая перед молодыми бизнесменами,
как-то сказал: «В мире успех приходит не к
тому, кто создал самую лучшую в мире
мышеловку. Говорят, что стоит только
создать мьшеловку, которая превзошла бы
все существующие образцы, и люди проторят
тропинку к вашей двери. Это — ерунда! Это — ложь! Сам по себе никто не
придет, если вы не организуете рекламу, которая убедит мир сначала в том,
что вы сделали самую лучшую мышеловку, потом объяснит, как и где ее
можно приобрести, и убедит людей, что им просто необходимо к вам
обратиться. Иногда надо убедить людей и в том, что у них есть мыши. Потом
убедить, что от мышей надо отделаться. Затем надо доказать, что ваша
мышеловка лучше других, и объяснить, чем она лучше. После этого надо
подтолкнуть людей к действию. Но для начала надо привлечь их внимание.
Самое гениальное новаторское изобретение может умереть как идея,
время которой еще не пришло, только потому, что никому не пришло в
голову это изобретение прорекламировать».
В этой, казалось бы, шутливой цитате дана великолепная и очень емкая
формулировка назначения и целей рекламы.
Директ-маркетинг сто лет спустя
http://www.comvay.ru/newspublications/100-let-direkt-marketingu
5. Make up a speech what advertising is for you. Would you
like to work in advertising? What is advertising like in your
specialization?
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6. A) Examine these examples of advertiser's language in
the pictures below. What is each advertisement suggesting
to the consumer?
B) Read the text
THE POWER OF
ADVERTISING
Advertising often uses language and
pictures to make us believe that we
should be ashamed of ourselves for not
buying a certain product for ourselves
or our families. They play on our
feelings, emotions, and especially our
wish to:
1 Be up-to-date and knowledgeable.
Advertisers expect us to believe
what 'the experts' say about their
products. We find expressions like
'a revolution in skin care' or
'scientifically developed'.
2 Be as good as others.
They challenge us to 'keep up to
date', 'keep up with the neighbours', or even 'keep one jump ahead'. The
message is to buy the product if we don't want to be left behind.
3 Be attractive.
Pictures of attractive people are used to draw attention to a product, and the
suggestion is that we will be desirable and socially successful if we use that
product.
4 Do things well.
The idea is that you must buy the product if you want to do your job properly.
Many soap powders are sold through the idea that they 'wash whiter than white',
'remove stains', etc.
5 Be responsible or act responsibly. Adverts for health foods, environmentallyfriendly products, and even charities, appeal to the caring side of human nature.
They aim to make us feel guilty if we ignore the appeal.
6 Have excitement in our lives.
Pictures of exciting or romantic events are used to suggest that exciting things
happen when we use a particular product.
7 Be one of the group ... or an individual. Some people like knowing that lots of
people have chosen the same product, so expressions like 'millions of satisfied
users' are used to reassure them. Sometimes advertisers try to convey the idea
that only 'special' people use their product. They will use expressions like ' a
unique experience'.
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8
Be shrewd and streetwise.
We sometimes feel guilty about spending money. Advertisers reassure us and
suggest that we are making a good decision by offering us 'great value',
'mammoth savings', and 'bargains of the century', etc.
c) Which feelings would you play on to sell these products?
washing-up liquid
designer jeans glucose 'sports' drink
Which of these adjectives would be most suitable. Why?
best safe
gentle free economical new luxury cheap
soft
super strong
sparkling healthy long-lasting refreshing
d) Produce an advertisement for one of the products.
Research: the aim is to analyze and present examples of adverts to show
which feelings they appeal to. Pay special attention to the combination of
language and illustrations.
Exercises taken from New Streetwise Intermediate, 1998
Module 2
Big business
Branded planet
1. A) How do you decide what items to buy? Complete the
chart.
Advertising
Friends Popularity Price Other
clothes
electronics (computer,
stereo, etc.)
car
food
restaurant
B) Think of two or three things that you would like to buy
right now. (It doesn't matter if you can afford them or not.)
How do you find out about each one? Why do you want each
one?
2. Key idea in advertising. Will Anyone Notice the shoes?
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a) Listening 2.1. A) Listen & Mark the
statements true (T) or false (F). What is the
main idea of advertising expressed in the
text.
_ _ 1. Candies are shoes.
_ _ 2. Jenny McCarthy and Kelly Clarkson are models.
_ _ 3. The bathroom ads made people buy more shoes.
_ _ 4. Young people didn't like these ads.
b) Listening 2.2. And the Winner Is ...
Listen & Mark the statements true (T) or false (F). Then go
back to the readings and look for the answers you are
unsure of.
And the Winner Is ...
__ 1. The Media and Democracy Congress gives awards for good advertising.
__2. Advertisers want to win Schmios.
__ 3. The Candie's TM shoe ad won a Clio".
__ 4. The Eddie Eagle ads won a Schmio.
__ 5. Nike got a special award for helping its workers
Exercises taken from Hot Topics 2, 2006
Product policy
3. a) Read the quote below & comment it on.
I am irresistible, I say, as I put on my designer fragrance. I am handsome, I say, as
I pull on my Levi's jeans. I am a merchant banker, I say, as I climb out of my
BMW.
John Kay, British economist
b) Discuss:
How 'brand-aware' are you? Make a list of all the wellknown brands you're wearing or carrying right now.
Use the suggestions in the box if you like. What are
your favourite brands of the following products? Why
do you prefer these to other similar brands?
clothes shoes mobile
palmtop/ organizer briefcase/handbag belt
shampoo cigarettes lighter watch pen tie/scarf sunglasses
perfume/aftershave/cologne soft drinks cars
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Compare with the rest of the class. Who are the most
‘branded’ people in the room?
 Give three examples of brands
to which you are loyal (i.e.
which you buy without giving
it a moment s thought). Why are
you loyal to them?
 Are there any products for
which you have no brand
preference or loyalty but are
what marketers call a 'brandswitcher'?
 Can you think of any products
for which the name of the
brand is totally unimportant, so
that you do not even notice it? (There may be some in your bag or
briefcase.)
 Give an example of a product line (a group of related products made
by the same company). Think of clothes, cosmetics, food, and so on.
4. A) Read the following text, and write a brief heading
for each paragraph.
PRODUCTS AND BRANDS
1………………………………………………………………..
Marketing theorists tend to give the word product a very broad meaning, using
it to refer to anything capable of satisfying a need or want. Thus services,
activities, people (politicians, athletes, film stars), places (holiday resorts),
organizations (hospitals, colleges, political parties), and ideas, as well as physical
objects offered for sale by retailers, can be considered as products. Physical
products can usually be augmented by benefits such as customer advice, delivery,
credit facilities, a warranty or guarantee, maintenance, after-sales service, and so
on.
2………………………………………………………………….
Some manufacturers use their name (the 'family name') for all their products,
e.g. Philips, Colgate, Yamaha. Others, including Unilever and Procter & Gamble,
market various products under individual brand names, with the result that many
customers are unfamiliar with the name of the manufacturing company. The
major producers of soap powders, for example, are famous for their multi-brand
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strategy which allows them to compete in various market segments, and to fill
shelf space in shops, thereby leaving less room for competitors. It also gives them
a greater chance of getting some of the custom of brand-switchers.
3. ………………………………………………………………..
Most manufacturers produce a large number of products, often divided into
product lines. Most product lines consist of several products, often distinguished
by brand names, e.g. a range of soap powders, or of toothpastes. Several different
items (different sizes or models) may share the same brand name. Together, a
company's items, brands and products constitute its product mix. Since different
products are always at different stages of their life cycles, with growing, stable or
declining sales and profitability, and because markets, opportunities and resources
are in constant evolution, companies are always looking to the future, and reevaluating their product mix.
4……………………………………………………………………………
Companies whose objectives include high market share and market growth
generally have long product lines, i.e. a large number of items. Companies whose
objective is high profitability will have shorter lines, including only profitable
items. Yet most product lines have a tendency to lengthen over time, as
companies produce variations on existing items, or add additional items to cover
further market segments. Additions to product lines can be the result of either
line-stretching or line-filling. Line-stretching means lengthening a product line by
moving either up-market or down-market, i.e. making items of higher or lower
quality. This can be carried out in order to reach new customers, to enter growing
or more profitable market segments, to react to competitors' initiatives, and so on.
Yet such moves may cause image problems: moving to the lower end of a market
dilutes a company's image for quality, while a company at the bottom of a range
may not convince dealers and customers that it can produce quality products for
the high end. Line-filling - adding further items in that part of a product range
which a line already covers - might be done in order to compete in competitors'
niches, or simply to utilize excess production capacity.
B) Comprehension

Why do the big soap powder producers have a multi -brand
strategy?

Why do companies' product mixes regularly change?

What factors influence the length of companies' product lines?

What are the potential dangers of line -stretching?

Why might companies undertake line -filling?
C) Vocabulary
Find words or expressions in the text which mean the
following.
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1. the possibility of paying for a product over a n extended period
2. a promise by a manufacturer or seller to repair or replace defective
goods during a certain period of time bf
3. a surface in a store on which goods are displayed
4. consumers who buy various competing products rather than being
loyal to a particular brand
5. the standard pattern of sales of a product over the period that it is
marketed
6. the extent to which an activity provides financial gain
7. possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs in sectors in which the company
can produce goods or services effectively
8. the sales of a company expressed as a percentage of total sales in a
given market
9. the set of beliefs that the public at large holds of an organization
10 a small, specialized, but profitable segment of a market
5. A) Work with a partner. Look at the logos of some
multinational companies. What is the name of each
company? What does it produce or sell?
D) Discuss these questions.
• Are these brand names well known in your country?
• Have you ever bought or used any of their products?
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• Do you buy particular brands of food or clothes? Why / Why not?
• What are brands for?
6. a) Read the book extracts & answer the questions.
The surplus society
This is the age of more. More choice. More consumption. More fun. More
fear. More uncertainty. More competition. We have entered a world of excess, an
age of superabundance. Shop till you drop.
Overcapacity is the norm in most businesses: 40% in automobiles,
100% in chemicals, 140% in computers.
Major label record companies launched 30,000 albums in the US in 1998
and the number of grocery product launches increased from 2,700 in 1981 to
20,000 in 1996. Disney's CEO Michael Eisner claims that the company develops a
new product - a film, a comic book, a CD - every five minutes!
b) Discuss:
 Do you agree with the authors that we are living in
the age of more'? Is it just 'more of the same'?
c) Find four words in the text which mean more than is
needed.
………………….., …………………… , ………………………, ……….
d) Is overcapacity the norm in your business? How can
companies deal with the problem of supply exceeding
demand? You may want to refer to some of the things
below.
5 brand loyalty
4 price sensitivity 7 product positioning
6 market segmentation 5 product development 8 strategic alliances
7 stock control
6 customer service 9 advertising budgets
e) Which six things in d involve:
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





collaborating with competitors?
customers sticking to the names they trust?
working out how much you can spend on promotion?
dividing up the market into sectors?
deciding whether your product is up- or downmarket?
customers shopping around for the cheapest option?
Brand names
7. a) Read the Text & Mark T (True) or F (False) for each
statement, according to the information in the text. Prove
your point of view.
1. Standard Oil Company of New Jersey wanted a name with an appropriate
meaning.
2. A brand name can be spoken. Xerox is a trademark.
3. Using a company name with a brand name is a brand-extension strategy.
4. Brand-extension strategies work best for well-established companies.
5. “Dove" is an appropriate name for a soap.
Brand name
The choice of a brand name
might be one of a marketing
communicator's most important
decisions. An appropriate, attentiongetting, memorable brand me
effectively communicates the product
concept and stays in consumers' minds.
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey
spent $100,000,000 to find a corporate
name.
They wanted one with no
meaning, so that they could build into
the name their own meaning and
image. A computer supplied 10,000
possible names, which research educed to one. That name was tested in 169
languages and dialects to see if it had a "negative meaning in any. (Standard Oil
wanted to avoid the problems of Shevrolet's Nova and American Motors'
Matador: "It doesn't go" [no va] and "killer" in Spanish.) The winner was Exxon,
one of history's most successful brand names.
Some terms used in branding may require definition. A brand is a name,
sign, symbol, design, term, or combination of those. It identifies one company's
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products and distinguishes them from a competitor's. A brand name is the part of
the brand that can be spoken. Л brand mark is the part of the brand that can be
recognized but not spoken. The style of lettering on a Coca-Cola™ bottle is
familiar throughout the world. That is the brand mark. The words "Coca-Cola"™
are the brand name. A trade me is the name under which a company operates:
Procter and Gamble, Kimberly Clark, Xerox. In the United States a trademark is
protected by law. It gives the seller sole rights to use a brand name or a brand
mark. Both Coca-Cola™ and "Coke"™ are trademarks.
Exxon's way of choosing a brand name was unusual. Several other strategies
are more common. Some companies use the company name with identification of
the product Kraft Barbecue Sauce, Kraft Mayonnaise, Kraft Salad Dressing. This
strategy is by well-established companies. The company name gives prestige and
value to the individual products, which are of a similar type. Other manufacturers
use the company name with a brand name: Polaroid One-Step™, Polaroid SX-70.
The brand names indicate product differentiation; the company name ties them
together. A third strategy is commonly employed by large corporations with
several diverse product lines. They use a brand name with product identification.
Thus Procter and Gamble (trade name) has its Duncan 'Mines (brand name) cake
mixes in various flavors, such as German chocolate (product identification). These
three are brand-extension strategies. An existing name extends to cover new
products. Brand extension works best if the company has established an excellent
reputation, and if the old and new product concepts are similar. A fourth naming
strategy is to use brand name only. Procter and Gamble, for instance, is a highly
respected company that underplays its size and diversity. It markets each laundry
detergent as a separate entity. Tide, Cheer, and Bold are examples. In general, a
brand name should:
1. Be original and distinctive. It should not imitate an existing name.
2. Be easy to understand, spell, recognize, pronounce, and write.
3. Support product features and benefits.
4. Be adaptable to advertisements of different sizes, to packaging, and to
other products in a line.
5. Avoid unpleasant or offensive connotations.
Selecting a name for its pleasing connotations is a
common technique. Dove soap conveys die idea of
something pure, white, soft; and gentle—attributes
consumers look for in soap. Clairol's Quiet Touch
does the same for a color rinse. A name may convey
prestige. Many American cigarettes have names that
sound British, which means prestige to many people
in the United States: Marlboro, Pall Mall, Barclay,
Kent Some names state the actual product benefit
General Foods' Hamburger Helper is added to ground
beef to make a variety of quick main dishes. Another
strategy is to choose a word that sounds forceful, then
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apply that meaning to die product "Shout," for instance, could be any of a
number of products. "Want a tough stain out? Shout it out!" communicates the
idea of a powerful laundry detergent.
Choosing an appropriate brand name is not easy, but the results for the right
name are worth the effort The name carries a message everywhere it goes. The
stronger the message, the clearer the communication.
b) Do the tasks:
1. Why is a brand name so important? Why did Standard Oil wait a name with no
meaning? What problem did they want to avoid?
2. Explain brand, brand name, and brand mark. Give examples of each
3. List some prominent trade names in your country. Do you have trademarks? Are
they protected by law? How is this demonstrated?
4. Give examples of these naming strategies for your country.
 company name plus product identification
 company name plus brand name
 brand name plus product identification
 brand name only
5. What are the characteristics of an effective brand name, according to the text?
Are they the same in your country? If not, how do they differ?
6. Add brand names from your country to these examples.
 Dove and Quiet Touch™ (appropriate connotations)
 Pall Mall, etc. (prestige)
 Hamburger Helper ™ (product benefit)
 Shout (forceful word)
8. There seem to be no limits to what the world's biggest
companies will do to raise brand awareness. Five of the
following are facts and three are hoaxes. Which are which?
Mark them F or H.
a. Swiss watchmaker Swatch has suggested replacing hours and minutes with their
own global branded time system called 'Swatch beats',
b McDonald's is negotiating with the city of New York to replace the Statue of
Liberty with a similar-sized statue of Ronald McDonald for 18 weeks,
с. Taking the idea from the Batman comics, Pepsi-Cola is proposing to project its
logo onto the surface of the moon,
d. Toy manufacturers Mattel celebrated 'Barbie Fink Month' by painting an entire
street in the UK bright pink - houses, cars, trees, even dogs,
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e. Nike has been given the
go-ahead by the Greek
government to place a neon
sign of its famous 'swoosh'
logo on top of the Acropolis
in Alliens,
f. In Kazakhstan a Russian
rocket due to dock with the
international space station
was launched with the Pizza
Hut logo displayed on its
side,
g. Gordon's Gin fills selected British cinemas with the smell of juniper berries
when its commercials are being screened to get the audience in the mood for a gin
and tonic, h Calvin Klein is proposing to clothe' the twin Petronas Towers in Kuala
Lumpur in a giant pair of CK jeans.
9. Listening 2.3.1 a) Discuss:
 What's your favourite advertisement at the moment?
What's it for? Does it have a story?
 Talk about an advertisement from a newspaper or
magazine. What's it for? Why do you like it?
b) Listen to six radio advertisements and answer the
questions. Write a number 1-6.
Which advert...
. is advertising a football match?
. is selling a chocolate bar?
. is selling soap powder?
. is for a new car with free insurance?
. is for car insurance for women?
. is advertising a shop's opening hours?
c) Complete the chart.
Name of the product Characters involved
1
2
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3
4
5
6
d) What is the selling point for each advert?
e) Answer the questions about each advert.
1 Describe Sarah's play shirt.
What's special about this washing powder?
2 What do the men think of the woman driver? Why and how do they
change their minds?
3 What has the daughter done that she's so proud of? Why is her father so
horrible to her?
4 How can the daughter afford a new car?
In what ways does she make fun of her father?
5 What does the man want to invite Sue to do? In what ways does he say the
wrong thing?
6 How does the vicar try to hurry
up the wedding? Why is he in
a hurry?
f) Writing an advert.
Devise
a
radio
or
television
advert.
Choose a product or service of your own, or one of the
following.
a BMW sports car Bonzo dog food Dazzle washing-up liquid
Blue Mountain coffee a bank for students
a restaurant in town
a computer
Exercises taken from New Headway Intermediate, 2004
11. TWO FAMOUS BRANDS
a) Discuss:
 What do you know about these brands? What is their reputation? Are they
popular among your friends and family? Who are their rivals?
b) Work in two groups.
Group A Read about Starbucks
Group В Read about Apple Macintosh
Read your article and answer the questions.
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1 When and where did the company begin?
2 Who founded it?
3 Where did the name of the company come from?
4 Why did the product become a success?
5 Has the company's progress always been easy?
6 What makes the brand special?
7 What features of the product or company do people see as negative?
8 What are some examples of the company's products?
c) Find a partner from the other group. Compare and swap
information.
d) Here are eight answers. Decide which four are about
your article. Then write the questions.
• In Silicon Valley.
• Three or four.
• $5 billion.
• In 1997. (When... launched?)
• Ten years. (How long... take ...?)
• Because he argued with his partner. (Why... resign?)
• Because they can't compete. (Why... out of business?)
• By selling some of their possessions. (Wow... ?)
TEXT 1
STARBUCKS COFFEE
ANYONE FOR COFFEE? What
about a Skinny Latte, or perhaps an Almond
Truffle Mocha, or even a Raspberry Mocha
Chip Frappuccino? These are just a few of the
many speciality coffees on offer at Starbucks,
the world's leading coffee roaster and retailer.
Starbucks serves over 25 million
customers a week in 7,500 stores around the world. And this figure is increasing
rapidly, with three or four new stores being opened every single day! So how did
a company currently worth $5 billion get started?
Starbucks Coffee, Tea and Spice, as it was originally known, roasted its
first coffee beans in 1971. This tiny coffee house in Seattle, named after a
character in the novel Moby Dick, was the vision of three men - Baldwin, Siegel,
and Bowker - who cared passionately about fine coffee and tea. Their
determination to provide the best quality coffee helped their business to succeed,
and a decade later, their fourth store in Seattle opened.
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Meanwhile, in New York, Howard Schultz, a businessman specializing in
kitchen equipment, noticed that a small company in Seattle was ordering a large
number of a special type of coffeemaker. Out of curiosity, he made the crosscountry trip to Seattle to find out more. Immediately he saw the Starbucks store,
he knew that he wanted to be part of it. The three founder members weren't
initially very keen, but a persistent Schultz was eventually hired to be head of
Starbucks marketing in 1982. He modelled the Starbucks stores on Italian
espresso bars, and made them comfortable places to relax. Within the next ten
years, Schultz had already opened 150 new stores and had bought the company!
There are now stores all over Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Today Starbucks
is one of the world's most recognized brands.
‘3 or 4 new stores open every day’.
But global success comes at a price. Although
Starbucks has a company policy of fair trade and
employee welfare, it has been the recent target of
anti-globalization protests. Many people feel that big
corporations, even responsible ones, are never a
good thing, as small, independent companies can't compete and go out of
business. However, Starbucks' continued success in the face of opposition shows
that its blend of commercialism and comfy sofas is still proving an irresistible
recipe for world domination.
TEXT 2
APPLE MACINTOSH COMPUTERS
Are you a MAC user? For ma many , home computers have become
synonymous with Windows and Bill Gates, but there has always been a loyal
band of Apple Macintosh users, whose devotion to the Apple brand and its cofounder Steven Jobs is almost religious.
Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak dropped
out of college and got jobs in Silicon Valley,
where they founded the Apple Computer
company in 1976, the name based on Jobs'
favourite fruit. They designed the Apple I
computer in Jobs' bedroom, having raised the
capital by selling their most valued possessions an old Volkswagen bus and a scientific
calculator. The later model, the Apple Macintosh,
introduced the public to point and click graphics.
It was the first home computer to be truly userfriendly, or as the first advertising campaign put
it, 'the computer for the rest of us'.
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When IBM released its first PC in 1981, Jobs realized that Apple would
have to become a more grown-up company in order to compete effectively. He
brought in John Sculley, the president of Pepsi-Cola, to do the job, asking him
'Do you want to just sell sugared water for the rest of your life, or do you want
to change the world?' Sculley and Jobs began to argue bitterly, however, and
after a power struggle, Jobs was reluctantly forced to resign.
‘The computer for the rest of us’.
By 1996 Apple was in trouble, due to the dominance of Windows
software and the increasing number of PC clones which could use it. Jobs,
having had great success with his animation studio Pixar, was brought back to
the ailing firm for an annual salary of $1, and the company gradually returned
to profitability.
Apple's computers cost more than most PCs, and have a more limited
range of software available for them, but their great appeal has been the
attention to design, making Apple the cool computer company. The launch of
the stunning multi-coloured Mac in 1997, followed by the sleek new iMac in
2002, marked the end of the computer as an ugly, utilitarian machine, and
brought the home computer out of the study and into the lounge. As Steve Jobs
put it, 'Other companies don't care about design. We think it's vitally
important.'
Apple's fortunes were transformed again with the development of the
iPod in 2003, which soon became a must-have gadget and brought about a
boom in Internet music sales. And of course, it was beautifully stylish.
Vocabulary work
e) Find adverbs ending in -ly in the texts that have these
meanings.
Starbucks
Apple Macintosh
a. at great speed
a. really/genuinely
b. at the present time
b. in a way that produces a successful
с. in the beginning, before a
result
change
с. in a way that shows feelings of
d. with strong feeling and
sadness or anger
enthusiasm
d. in a way that shows hesitation
e. at the beginning
because you don't want to do sth
f. after a long time, especially
don't want to do sth
after a delay
e. slowly over a long period of time
f. in a very important way
What do you think?
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What arguments do the anti-globalization protesters make against Starbucks
and other multinational corporations? Do you agree?
10 Do you have a computer? What sort? What are your favourite websites?
9
Exercises taken from New Headway Intermediate, 2004
12. Apple. Company Performance
a) Discuss:
 Do you have an iPod, or a Mac? What do you
think of the brand.
 What is the Halo Effect?
 How can a company maximize sales?
 If you buy an iPod will you buy an iPhone or an
iPad? Will you buy an iMac computer?
b) Listen and answer the questions.
1. When was Apple founded?
2. What three things did Steve Jobs do when he came back to Apple?
3. How many iPods have been sold by 2009?
4. What is the ‘halo effect’?
5. What percentage of people who use an iPod will buy an iMac computer?
c) VOCABULARY: Words to Describe Movement and Trends
Put these words into the correct category below
Shrink - boom - soar - shoot up - recover - rocket - slump - plummet - bomb plunge
Rise quickly
Go down quickly
Go down and then up
No change
At the top
At the bottom
surge
drop
rebound
plateau
peak
hit rock bottom
d) What do you know about the history of Apple? Read the
article and fill the gaps with word(s) from the vocabulary of
Movement and Trends exercise above and put into the
correct tense. More than one answer is possible.
The Highs and Lows of company performance
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1976: Jobs and Wozniak found Apple. Apple Computer Company was
started in a garage by Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, who wanted to exploit the
………………. in computer use.
1980: Apple goes Public. Apple had a valuation of $1.8 billion. More than
40 of Apple’s employees became instant millionaires thanks to the ……………….
of their shares.
1983: The Lisa Is introduced. The Lisa is the world’s first computer with a
mouse, but sales ………………..due to high cost, slow speed, and incompatibility.
1985: Steve Jobs resigns from Apple. After losing a boardroom battle
Steve Jobs resigned from Apple. The company ………………….
1992: Microsoft releases Windows 3.1. The situation get worse when
Microsoft introduces Windows 3.1 and Apple’s market begins to ……………..
They are heading for bankruptcy. The original iMac ……………………….
1997: Jobs returns and Jonathan Ive joins the company. Jobs becomes
chairman. Jonathan Ive joined Apple and he is the creative force behind the iMac,
a product that ………………Apple
2001: First iPod is launched
Nobody realized it at the time, but the iPod transformed Apple, and the entire
music industry. Apple share price …………………...
2003: iTunes Music Store opens. Apple opened the iTunes Music Store
with over 200,000 tracks available for 99 cents each. The company is on the
………. again.
2007: iPhone launch announced. Apple is set to launch its version of the
mobile phone called the iPhone. The world is waiting with a lot of excitement.
e) LISTENING 2. One of the great things about Steve Jobs is
his business philosophy and the way he communicates it.
Here are some of his ideas on
the importance of innovation.
Listen to the recording and
answer the questions.
1. What does Jobs say about money and
people?
2. What is great innovation all about?
3. What does Jobs say about design?
4. What did Jobs tell the innovation team
when he returned to Apple?
5. What is more important than
innovations?
f) ROLE-PLAY: Steve Jobs philosophy on Innovation
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Steve Jobs is the Chairman of Apple. He is the man who saved the company from
bankruptcy and made it into one of the biggest brands in the world.
THE MEETING: Management board talk about the company direction: music,
TV or computers. Divide into groups for role-play
COMPUTER TEAM: You think that APPLE is a computer company. Prepare a
presentation on why APPLE should make computers the priority product.
MUSIC TEAM: You think that the real growth market is in i-Tunes. Prepare a
presentation on why APPLE should concentrate on music.
TV TEAM: You think that the future is TV. Prepare a presentation on why
APPLE should concentrate on TV.
Business English Study
http://www.businessenglishstudy.com
Discuss Some other brand names & their policies in the
supplement 1
Module 3
Globalisation
1. The global economy
a) Work with a partner. What
do
you
understand
by
globalization
and
consumerism? What are their
pros and cons?
b) Are these sentences facts
(F) or opinions (0)?
1.There are severe environmental
changes taking place in the world.
2. Globalization is synonymous with Americanization.
3. Only 20% of the world's population lives in rich countries, but they consume
86% of the world's resources.
4. The more people are in debt, the richer the banks become.
5. The United States is a target for the have-nots of globalization.
6. Debt repayments by developing countries are nine times as much as the aid
they receive.
7. The global economy puts no value on morality, only profit.
8. Countries in the industrialized West exploit workers in poorer countries.
What is your reaction to the facts? Do you agree with the
opinions? Compare your answers with the class.
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c) Look at the title of the article. What do you understand
by it? Read the article. Which of the topics in exercise B
are mentioned?
d) According to the article, are these statements true or
false?
 'The economy' is not the same thing as the economy.
 People feel optimistic because their lives are so prosperous.
 The more we spend, the better life is.
 If people stop spending, the economy collapses.
 Companies respond to the needs of consumers.
 It's good that we can buy cheap goods from around the world.
 Many developing countries export food to pay back their debts.
 We know how to solve some of these problems, but we don't want to do it.
What do you understand by the words and phrases
highlighted in the text?
Economic growth is the route to examines the price we pay
for this growth global prosperity. Or is it?
I want to talk about the economy. Not 'the economy' we hear about endlessly
in tile news each day and in politicians' speeches. I want to talk about the real
economy, the one we live in day by day.
Most people aren't particularly interested in 'the economy'.'Share prices are
flying high, interest rates are soaring. The Dow Jones' index closed sixty-three
points down on 8472.35.' We hear this and subconsciously switch off.
Notice that 'the economy' is not the same as the economy. 'The economy' is
what men in suits play with to make vast personal wealth. The economy is where
the rest of us live on a daily basis, earning our living, paying our taxes, and
purchasing the necessities of life.
Something wrong
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We are supposed to be benefiting from all the advantages of a prosperous
society. So why do we feel drained and stressed? We have no time for anything
other than work, which is ironic given the number of labour-saving devices in our
lives. The kids are always hassling for the latest electronic gadgets. Our towns
become more and more congested, we poison our air and seas, and our food is full
of chemicals.
There's something wrong here. If times were truly good, then you'd think
we'd all feel optimistic about the fi.iture.Yet the majority of us are deeply
worried. More than 90 per cent of us chink we are too concerned about ourselves
and not concerned enough about future generations.
Producing and consuming
The term 'economic expansion' suggests something desirable and
benevolent, but expansion simply means spending more money.
More spending doesn't mean that life is getting better. We all know it often
means the opposite - greed, deprivation, crime, poverty, pollution. More spending
merely feeds our whole economic system, which is based on production and
consumption. Unless money keeps circulating, the economy collapses. Airlines go
bust, taking plane manufacturers and travel agents with them. If we don't keep
consuming, then manufacturers and retailers go out of business. People don't buy
houses, clothes, washing machines, cars. The whole system goes into stalemate.
Creating need
As a leading economist put it, consumer societies are 'in need of need'. We
don't need the things the economy produces as much as the economy needs our
sense of need for these things. Why, in our supermarkets, do we have to choose
from sixty different kinds of toilet paper and a hundred different breakfast cereals?
Need is the miracle that keeps the engines of expansion turning relentlessly. In
economics, there is no concept of enough, just a chronic yearning for more. It is a
hunger that cannot be satiated.
There is so much craziness in the world. There is an American company that
manufactures a range of food with a high fat content. This causes obesity and high
blood pressure. By coincidence, the same company also makes products that help
people who are trying to diet. Not only that, it even produces pills for those with
high blood pressure.
Nearly all of my mail consists of bills (of course), banks trying to lend me
money, catalogues trying to make me spend it, and charity appeals for the losers in
this ecstasy of consumption - the homeless, the refugees, the
exploited, the starving. Why is it possible to buy strawberries from Ecuador and
green beans from Kenya when these countries can hardly feed their own people?
It is because these are cash crops, and the countries need the money to service
their debts. Notice that servicing a debt does not mean paying it off. It means just
paying the interest. Western banks make vast profits from third world debt.
Making changes
How do we break the cycle? We need to become far more aware of the
results of our actions. We buy clothes that are manufactured in sweat shops by
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virtual slaves in poor parts of the world. We create mountains of waste. We
demand cheap food, mindless of the fact that it is totally devoid of taste and is
produced using chemicals that poison the land. We insist on our right to drive our
own car wherever we want to go.
The evil of the consumption culture is the way it makes us oblivious to the
impact of our own behaviour. Our main problem is not that we don't know what to
do about it. It is mustering the desire to do it.
e) What do you think?
•
What are some of the examples of craziness in the world that Jonathan Rowe
mentions? Can you add any more?
•
Is it economic colonialization to sell Kentucky Fried Chicken to the world, or
is it just giving people what they want?
•
What do you think are Jonathan Rowe's attitudes to the following? What are
your attitudes?
• multinational corporations
pollution and the environment
• anti-globalization protesters
supermarkets
• economists
Western banks
• public transport
companies who use cheap labour in
poor countries
The writer holds strong views on these issues. Can you
present some counter-arguments?
MultlNatioNal corporations keep prices down.
An interview with Anita Roddick
2. Listening 5. a) There are over 1,800 Body Shops worldwide.
What do you know about the business? Do you know anything
about Anita Roddick, who founded The Body Shop in 1976?
What do you think she will be like?
b) Listen to the interview & say: Which of these views does
she express?
1. Business school teaches sound business practices.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Business school kills creativity.
Successful business people are ruthless.
They are compassionate.
Their god is profit.
Money is just a means to an end.
If the environment is damaged, so what?
It is vital to protect the environment.
Think globally.
Think locally.
Amass wealth and count it.
Amass wealth and give it away.
c) Listen again and
answer the questions.
Part one
1 What can you do at business
school? What can't you do?
1 Why do immigrants make good
entrepreneurs? What are the
characteristics of a successful
entrepreneur?
1 What, according to Anita
Roddick, is the point of money?
1 What doesn't she want to be?
What does she want to be?
Part two
1 What does business control?
1 Why are multinational
corporations the big enemy?
1 What are her suggestions for
honourable business practices?
Part three
1 What are her children's two reactions to her decision not to leave them any
money?
1 What does she consider to be a great legacy?
10 What, for her, is the advantage of wealth?
d) Language work What do you understand by the
following?
• I was saved... by not doing the traditional route.
• ... they all dance to a different drum beat.
• ... we don't give a darn about money.
• We vomit ideas.
• ... multinational corporations bow down to nothing...
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e) What do you think?
• Do you agree that creative business people 'are terribly, terribly bad at
managing'?
• What does Anita Roddick see her strengths as?
• Why do you think she has chosen not to leave her great wealth to her
children?
3. a) Naomi Klein is the author of the world's bestselling
book on brands and globalisation No Logo. Read the article
about her. How would you counter some of the points made?
From the age of six. Naomi Klein was obsessed with brand names and what
she could buy. She used to stitch little fake alligators to her T-shirts so they would
look like Lacoste and her biggest fights with her 5 parents were over Barbie and
the price of designer jeans.
But. aged 30. Klein wrote a book. No Logo, which has been called "the Dos
Kopital of the growing anti-corporation movement'. The former teenager is
fixated on brand names has become a campaigner against our overbranded
world.
In No Logo. Klein shows how globalisation has hit the poor the most She
writes that Nike paid Michael Jordan more for endorsing its trainers ($20 million)
is than the company paid its entire 30.000-strong Indonesian workforce for
making them.
Klein's argument starts with what we all recognise. Logos, she says, are 'the
closest thing we have to an international language'. Most of the world's six billion
20 people could identify the McDonald's sign or the Coca-Cola symbol - we are
united by what we are being sold.
Furthermore, advertising today is not merely about selling products: it is about
selling a brand, a dream, a message. So Nike's aim is not to sell trainers but to
enhance people's lives through sport and fitness'. IBM doesn't sell computers, it
sells 'solutions'.
And while the corporations are busy doing what they think is important branding a way of life - 30 someone, somewhere, has to make the stuff. Very
often, it seems, it is produced under terrible conditions in free-trade zones in
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Indonesia, China. Mexico.Vietnam, the Philippines and elsewhere. In some of the
sweatshops Klein visited they have rules 35 against talking and smiling.There is
forced overtime, but no job security - it's 'no work, no pay' when the orders don't
come in.
Anti-corporate activism is on the rise precisely because branding has worked
so well, believes Klein. 40 Multinationals such as Nike. Microsoft and Starbucks
have sought to become the chief communicators of all that is good in our culture:
art sport community, connection, equality. But the more successful this project is.
the more vulnerable the companies become. 45 When in the US a group of black
13-year-olds from the Bronx - Nike's target market and the one exploited by it to
get a street-cool image - learned that the trainers they bought for $ 180 cost $5 to
make, it led to a mass dumping of their old trainers so outside New York's Nike
Town. One boy. reports Klein, looked straight into the TV news camera and said.
'Nike, we made you. We can break you.'
b) Find the words and phrases in the article you've just read
which mean:
a always thinking about (paragraph 1) __________
b improve (paragraph 5) _____________________
с factories where people work hard in terrible conditions (paragraph 6)
d easily harmed or damaged (paragraph 7) ___________
c) When No Logo was first published a long reply was
published in У be Economist. Read the extract. Are you
convinced by what it says?
Pro Logo Pro Logo
Opponents of globalisation claim that poor countries arc losers from global
integration. A new report from the World Bank demolishes that claim with one
simple statistic. If you divide poor countries into those that are 'more
globalised' and those that are Mess globalised' - with globalisation measured
simply as a rise in the ratio of trade to national income you find that more
globalised poor countries have grown faster than rich countries, while less
globalised countries have seen income per person fall.
d) Listen to two people discussing the articles above and
the whole issue of globalisation. Take notes. Who do you
agree with more?
e) Discuss your reactions to the discussion in
I'd no idea that ... It doesn't surprise me in the least that ...
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I'm not sure I believe that ... I totally agree with the idea that
...
I think I'd go along with the point that was made about ...
I think both speakers have missed the main point, which is ...
Frankly, the person who said ... clearly doesn't know what
they're talking about!
Exersises taken from New Headway Advanced
Student’s Book, 2004
Module 1 1
Marketing: seducing
the masses
Key Vocabulary
1. Listening 1. Listen to the text &
write it down highlighting the key
vocabulary
Marketing
2. Listening 4.1. Listen to the text & write it down highlighting
the key vocabulary
Make up sentences with the key words from the both listening
activities.
3. Marketing Basics
What is Marketing?
What exactly is marketing and why is it
important to you as an entrepreneur? Simply stated,
marketing is everything you do to place your product
or service in the hands of potential customers.
It includes diverse disciplines like sales, public
relations, pricing, packaging, and distribution. In order to distinguish marketing
from other related professional services, S.H. Simmons, author and humorist,
relates this anecdote.
"If a young man tells his date she's intelligent, looks lovely, and is a great
conversationalist, he's saying the right things to the right person and that's
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marketing. If the young man tells his date how handsome, smart and successful he
is — that's advertising. If someone else tells the young woman how handsome,
smart and successful her date is — that's public relations."
You might think of marketing this way. If business is all about people and
money and the art of persuading one to part from the other, then marketing is all
about finding the right people to persuade.
Marketing is your strategy for allocating resources (time and money) in
order to achieve your objectives (a fair profit for supplying a good product or
service).
Yet the most brilliant strategy won't help you earn a profit or achieve your
wildest dreams if it isn't built around your potential customers. A strategy that isn't
based on customers is rather like a man who knows a thousand ways to make love
to a woman, but doesn't know any women. Great in theory but unrewarding in
practice.
People don't just "buy" a product. They "buy" the concept of what that
product will do for them, or help them do for themselves. People who are
overweight don't join a franchise diet center to eat pre-packaged micro-meals.
They "buy" the concept of a new, thin, happy and successful self.
Just keep in mind that research attempts to predict the future by studying the
past. It reveals what people have done, and extrapolates what people might do —
not what people will do.
Planning is imperative, research is important, but there's no substitute for
entrepreneurial insight. After all, as Mark Twain wrote, "You cannot depend on
your eyes when your imagination is out of focus".
http://tenonline.org/art/mm1/9301.html
4. Listening 4.2. Undercover Marketing
a) Listen & Mark the statements true (T) or false (F). Then go
back to the readings and look for the answers you are unsure of.
__ 1. Young people often don 't trust advertisements.
__ 2. Undercover marketing uses models to advertise products.
__ 3. Undercover marketing works because everyone wants quality products.
__ 4. The MTV generation is over 50.
__ 5. Undercover marketing is done in schools and universities.
b) Analyze
1. What is the advertising technique & How is it in Listening 2 similar to the advertising
technique?
2. How do you think the Media and Democracy Congress feels about undercover
marketing? Why?
Writing A formal letter
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5. a) Listen to the advertisement for the BrainBoost course.
What does the course promise to do? What does the 'special
package' include and how much does it cost? What idea
does it sell?
BRAIN BOOST 10 minutes a day
b) Phillip buys the BrainBoost course, but is unhappy with it,
and telephones the company to complain. Read some of the
things he says to Mr Martin, the manager of BrainBoost. Why
is he unhappy with what he has received?
You told me I'd get it in forty-eight hours, but actually it took nearly three weeks.
Your ad said that the exercises only take ten minutes a day, but Fve worked out
that they take more like two hours a day.
And another thing - I just cannot understand how you can say these boring
exercises are enjoyable!
c) Phillip is asked to put his complaint in writing. Read his
letter and underline the words he uses to make his
complaints from exercise 2.
12 Priory Terrace
Bristol BS120RJ
Mr David Martin
BrainBoost
PO Box 327861
8 January Dear Mr Martin,
Dear Mr Martin,
Following our telephone conversation yesterday, I am writing to complain about
the 'BrainBoost special package' vvhich 1 purchased from your company over
the Internet six weeks ago.
I am dissatisfied with the product and service that I have received for a number
of reasons. Firstly, having paid €5.95 postage and packing! was told that I would
receive the course within forty-eight hours whereas in fact it took almost three
weeks to arrive.
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Your advertisement promised that the necessary exercises would be
enjoyable and take only ten minutes a day to complete. However, I have
calculated that in order to complete the exercises suggested» it would take closer
to two hours a day. Furthermore, I totally fail to comprehend how you can
describe these tedious exercises as enjoyable, or suggest that they will open up
your imagination'.
Finally, I have discovered that the vitamins and CDs which you describe as
'unique' can be purchased in my local supermarket for half the price that you
charge,
I am of the opinion that your course has been a total waste of both my time and
money, demand a complete refund of everything that I have paid, including
postage and packing.
Yours sincerely,
Phillip Mortimer
Phillip Mortimer
1.In what ways are the grammar and vocabulary Phillip
uses in the letter different from what he says?
2.Find more formal words and phrases in Phillip's letter
that mean the following.
1
I have worked out (3)
5
After (paragraph 1)
2
I just cannot understand (3)
6
buy(l)
3
I think (5)
7
unhappy (2)
4
I want a\\ my money back (S)
8
but actually (2)
9
to do(3)
3. Underline any other phrases in the letter that might be
useful in a letter of complaint.
D) Imagine you bought one of the language courses. Think of
at least four things that went wrong. Write a letter
complaining to the company and asking for your money
back.
EASY LINGUA
 Learn a new language in just 28 days
 Clear easy to follow course with modern illustrations & photographs
 12 top quality CDs/ cassettes with native speakers models
 High quality CD-ROMs
 Twenty four hour helpline with qualified teachers to advise you
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CHOOSE FROM 40 languages including:
French
Spanish
German
Russian
Italian
Turkish
Polish
Check
Japanese
Portuguese
6.1. Defining marketing
a) Vocabulary. Here is a modern definition of marketing (as
opposed to selling):
(Peter Drucker: Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices)
There will always, one can assume, be a need for some selling. But the
aim of marketing is to make selling superflu ous. The aim of marketing
is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or
service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a
customer who is ready to buy.
Here is another, more poetic definition.
(A crop is an agricultural product, especially cereals and fruit.)
Marketing is the creation of long -term demand, while sales is the
execution of marketing strategies. Marketing is buying the land,
choosing what crop to grow, planting the crop, fertilizing it, and then
deciding when to harvest. Sales is harvesting the crop. Salespeople in
general don't think strategically about the business.
(Robert X. Cringely: Accidental Empires)
b) Now complete the following definition of marketing, by
inserting these verbs in the gaps below:
design develop identify influence modify persuade
Marketers have to: (1) ....... I ......... ................ or anticipate a consumer
need; (2) ........................................... a product or service that meets that need
better than any competing products or services; (3)
target customers to
try the product or service; and, in the long term, (4)………………. It to satisf y
changes in consumer needs or market conditions. Marketers can (5)
particular features, attractive packaging, and effective advertising, that will
(6) ………………… consumers' wants. Marketing thus combines market research,
new product development, distribution, advertising, promotion, product
improvement, and so on.
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c) Which of the activities listed in the last sentence of the
third definition would you say most closely correspond to
Cringely's metaphorical concepts of the following?
1. choosing what crop to grow
2. planting the crop
3. fertilizing it
4. deciding when to harvest
d) Vocabulary. Match up the words or expressions on the
left with the definitions on the right.
1.distribution channel
2. to launch a product
3. market research
4. market
segmentation
5. packaging
6. points of sale
7. product concept
8. product features
9. sales representative
10.market
opportunities
A. a ll t he co mp a n ie s o r ind i vid u al s i n vo l v ed i n mo v i n g a
p ar ti c ul ar go o d o r ser v i ce fro m t he p ro d u cer to th e co n s u me r
B . a n id ea fo r a ne w p ro d uc t, wh ic h i s te sted wi t h
tar ge t co n s u me rs b e fo re th e a ct ua l p ro d u ct is
d ev elo p ed mar k et o p p o r tu n it ie s
С. at trib u te s o r c h ara cte ris ti cs o f a p ro d u ct :
q ua li t y, p r ice , re liab il it y, etc .
D. d i v id i n g a ma r ket i n t o d is ti n ct gro up s o f b u y ers wh o ha v e
d i f fere n t req u ire me nt s o r b u yi n g hab it s
E. p lace s wh ere go o d s ar e so ld to t he p ub l ic - s h o p s, sto r e s,
kio s k s, mar ke t st all s, et c.
F. p o s sib il iti e s o f fil li n g u n sa ti s fied ne ed s i n se cto r s i n wh i c h
a co mp a n y ca n p ro fit ab l y p ro d u ce go o d s o r ser v ice s
G. so meo ne wh o co nta ct s e x i sti n g a nd p o te nt ia l
cu s to mer s, a nd tr ie s to p ers u ad e t h e m to b u y go o d s o r
ser v ice s
H. co lle ct i n g, a n al ys i n g and rep o rt i n g d a ta rel e v an t to a
sp ec i fi c ma r ket i n g si t ua tio n ( s uc h a s a p ro p o sed ne w p ro d u ct)
I . to i ntro d u ce a ne w p r o d uc t o nto t he mar k et
J . wrap p er s a nd co n ta i n ers i n wh ic h p ro d uct s ar e so ld
6.2. A) Look quickly through the following text and decide
which paragraphs are about these subjects:
•
company-to-company marketing
•
identif ying market opportunities
• the marketing mix
• selling and marketing concepts
• the importance of market research
THE CENTRALITY OF MARKETING
…………………………………….
Most management and marketing writers now distinguish between selling and marketing.1
The 'selling concept' assumes that resisting consumers have to be persuaded by vigorous hardselling techniques to buy non-essential goods or services. Products are sold rather than
bought. The 'marketing concept', on the contrary, assumes that the producer's task is to find
wants and fill them. In other words, you don't sell what you make, you make what will be
bought. As well as satisfying existing needs, marketers can also anticipate and create new
ones. The markets for the Walkman, video games, personal computers, and genetic
engineering, to choose some recent examples, were largely created rather than identified.
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…………………………………….
Marketers are consequently always looking for market opportunities - profitable
possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs or creating new ones in areas in which the
company is likely to enjoy a differential advantage, due to its distinctive competencies
(the things it does particularly well). Market opportunities are generally isolated by
market segmentation. Once a target market has been identified, a company has to decide
what goods or service to offer. This means that much of the work of marketing has been
done before the final product or service comes into existence. It also means that the
marketing concept has to be understood throughout the company, e.g. in the production
department of a manufacturing company as much as in the marketing department itself.
The company must also take account of the existence of competitors, who always have
to be identified, monitored and defeated in the search for loyal customers.
…………………………………….
Rather than risk launching a product or service solely on the basis of intuition or
guesswork, most companies undertake market research (GB) or marketing research
(US). They collect and analyse information about the size of a potential market, about
consumers' reactions to particular product or service features, and so on. Sales
representatives, who also talk to customers, are another important source of information.
…………………………………….
Once the basic offer, e.g. a product concept, has been established, the company has to
think about the marketing mix, i.e. all the various elements of a marketing programme,
their integration, and the amount of effort that a company can expend on them in order to
influence the target market. The best-known classification of these elements is the '4 Ps':
product, place, promotion and price.2 Aspects to be considered in marketing products
include quality, features (standard and optional), style, brand name, size, packaging,
services and guarantee. Place in a marketing mix includes such factors as distribution
channels, locations of points of sale, transport, inventory size, etc. Promotion groups
together advertising, publicity, sales promotion, and personal selling, while price
includes the basic list price, discounts, the length of the payment period, possible credit
terms, and so on. It is the job of a product manager or a brand manager to look for ways
to increase sales by changing the marketing mix.
…………………………………….
It must be remembered that quite apart from consumer markets (in which people buy
products for direct consumption) there exists an enormous producer or industria or
business market, consisting of all the individuals and organizations that acquire goods
and services that are used in the production of other goods, or in the supply of services to
others. Few consumers realize that the producer market is actually larger than the
consumer market, since it contains all the raw materials, manufactured parts and
components that go into consumer goods, plus capital equipment such as buildings and
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machines, supplies such as energy and pens and paper, and services ranging from
cleaning to management consulting, all of which have to be marketed. There is
consequently more industrial than consumer marketing, even though ordinary consumers
are seldom exposed to it.
1
2
See Philip Kotler: Marketing Management, 7th edition, chapter two.
See E. Jerome McCarthy: Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach, and virtually all
marketing textbooks since.
b) Comprehension:
Which of the following three paragraphs most accurately
summarizes the text above, and why?
First summary:
Marketing means that you don't have to worry about selling your
product, because you know it satisfies a need. Companies have to
identif y market opportunities by market segmentation: doing market
research, finding a target market, and producing the right p roduct. Once
a product concept has been established, marketers regularly have to
change the marketing mix - the product's features, its distribution, the
way it is promoted, and its price - in order to increase sales. Industrial
goods - components and equi pment for producers of other goods - have
to be marketed as well as consumer goods.
Second summary:
The marketing concept has now completely replaced the old -fashioned
selling concept. Companies have to identif y and satisfy the needs of
particular market s egments. A product's features are often changed, as
are its price, the places in which it is sold, and the way in which it is
promoted. More important than the marketing of consumer goods is the
marketing of industrial or producer goods.
Third summary:
The marketing concept is that a company's choice of what goods and
services to offer should be based on the goal of satisf ying consumers'
needs. Many companies limit themselves to attempting to satisf y the
needs of particular market segments. Their choice of action is often the
result of market research. A product's features, the methods of
distributing and promoting it, and its price, can all be changed during the
course of its life, if necessary. Quite apart from the marketing of
consumer products, with whic h everybody is familiar, there is a great deal
of marketing of industrial goods.
c) Look at the following diagrams from Marketing Management
by Philip Kotler.
1. The first diagram contrasts the selling and the marketing concepts.
Fill in the four spaces with the following words or
expressions:
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■ Coordinated marketing ■ Market
customer satisfaction
Starting Point
Factory
■Customer needs
Focus
Products
Means
Selling &
Promoting
2. The selling concept
(1) ………………. (2) ………………. (3) ……………….
…………………… …………………… ……………………
…………………… …………………… ……………………
3. The marketing concept
■ Profits through
Ends
Profits through sales volume
(4) ……………….
……………………
……………………
D) According to the text in c) part, which of these
diagrams best illustrates a company that has adopted
the marketing concept?
B
Production
Finance
Marketing
Personnel
D
3. The importance of market research
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A) Listening (Steve
Moody). Listen to
Steve Moody, the
manager of the Marks
&Spencer store in
Cambridge, giving a
hypothetical example
of a marketing failure
— a product that reaches the shops but fails to sell.
2
3
4
5
6
7
What does Steve Moody say is the role of Marks & Spencer s head
office?
What is the example of a product that fails to sell?
In these circumstances, whose fault would it be that the product failed?
What had not been done properly, before the product was delivered to
the stores?
Who would be the only people in the company that would be able to
find out what is wrong?
с
What action could Marks & Spencer take?
How does Steve Moody describe the relationship between head office
and the individual stores?
B) Case study. In Steve Moody's hypothetical example, it
seems as if there has been a market research failure. Before
launching the product, the store did not have enough
information about the potential market and customers'
tastes and opinions.
Suppose that you were part of the marketing team
responsible for the following product concepts:
1 a new line of swim wear, to be Fresh
sold by a
Fries
chain
of
department
stores
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a new range of
expensive
hi-fi
equipment
a
new
English
dictionary
for
foreign learners
What market research would you do before developing the
products? What specific information would you need?
Where could you get it?
 In each case, which of the following sources of
information do you think would be the most useful, and
why?
Focus group interviews, in which several members of the target
market are invited (and paid a small fee) to meet and discuss
the product concept

Internal research: analysing data already available in the
company's accounts and sales departments, which keep records
of sales, orders, inventory size, and so on

Printed sources of secondary data, including business
newspapers, magazi nes and trade journals, competitors' annual
reports, official government statistics, and reports published by
private market research agencies

Questionnaire research, by telephone, mail, or personal interviewing
 The company's own sales staff

Other sources

6.4. The marketing Mix
Keynotes
The various activities of the marketing process are referred to as the marketing
mix and traditionally include the four Ps: product (characteristics and features),
price (appropriate market price), promotion (communicating the product's
benefits), place (distribution of the product in markets). In order to gain a
competitive advantage over rivals, companies create brands that represent
aspirations and a desirable image of life that the customer would like to identify
with.
Now choose one of the products you use and consider the
marketing mix for that brand. Think about the following.
product - what are the product's features?
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price - in comparison with similar products
promotion - where and how is it advertised?
place - where can you buy the product?
In pairs, make a list of the different techniques that companies can use for market
research.
6.5. Marketing Brands
A) People's attitudes to brands and marketing can be very
different. Which of these statements do you agree with?
'Marketing transforms brands, making them stand for things that they just don't stand for.
They don't deliver.' Naomi Klein author of No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies.
'Brands provide us with beliefs. They dфne who we are.' Wally Olins, a corporate identity
consultant.
B) Read the text on the opposite page and decide which of the
above views is closest to that of the author.
The Economist
Marketing brands
Glossary
manipulated influenced to do what someone else wants
corrupt make morally bad
aspirations hopes and wishes
bombarded repeatedly attacked veterans very experienced people
Money can buy you love
Are we being manipulated into buying brands?
BRANDS are accused of all sorts of evils, from threatening our health and
destroying our environment to corrupting our children. Brands are so powerful, it is said,
that they force us to look alike, eat alike and be alike. 1 This grim picture has been made
popular by many recent anti-branding books. The argument has been most forcefully
stated in Naomi Klein's book No logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. Its argument
runs something like this. In the new global economy, brands represent a huge portion of
the value of a company and, increasingly, its biggest source of profits. So companies are
switching from showcasing product features to marketing aspirations and the dream of a
more exciting lifestyle.
Historically, building a brand was rather simple. A logo was a straightforward
guarantee of quality and consistency, or it was a signal that a product was something
new. For that, consumers were prepared to pay a premium. Building a brand nationally
required little more than an occasional advertisement on a handful of television or radio
stations showing how the product tasted better or drove faster. There was little
regulation. It was easy for brands such as Coca-Cola, Kodak and Marlboro to become
hugely powerful. Because shopping was still a local business and competition limited, a
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successful brand could maintain its lead and high prices for years. A strong brand acted
as an effective barrier to entry for competing products.
Consumers are now bombarded with choices. They are also harder to reach. They
are busier, more distracted and have more media to choose from. They are "commercials
veterans" experiencing up to 1,500 pitches a day. They are more cynical than ever about
marketing and less responsive to messages to buy. Jonathan Bond and Richard
Kirshenbaum, authors of Under The Radar - Talking To Today's Cynical Consumers, say
"some of the most cynical consumers are the young." Nearly half of all US college
students have taken marketing courses and "know the enemy". For them, "shooting down
advertising has become a kind of sport' "
Marketers have to take some of the blame. While consumers have changed beyond
recognition, marketing has not. Even in the USA, home to nine of the world's ten most
valuable brands, it can be a shockingly old-fashioned business. Marketing theory is still
largely based on the days when Procter & Gamble's brands dominated the USA, and its
advertising agencies wrote the rules. Those rules focused on the product and where to
sell it, not the customer. The new marketing approach is to develop a brand not a product
- to sell a lifestyle or a personality, to appeal to emotions. (It is a much harder task than
describing the features and benefits of a product.) However, brands of the future will
have to stand for all of this and more. Not only will they need to be a stamp of product
quality and a promise of a more desirable lifestyle but they will also have to project an
image of social responsibility
C) Read the text again and match the headings a-f with
paragraphs 1-5. There is one extra heading.
a. Brands past
b. Advertising brands
с. The new consumers
d. Guilty
e. The case against brands _
f. The importance of brands
D) Read paragraph three again. Are the statements true or false?
1
It was relatively easy in the past to create a new brand.
2 Buying a branded product did not cost customers more.
3 Brands were developed for the international market.
4 The government closely controlled the markets at home.
5 Brands deterred other companies from entering the market.
E) The author suggests young people no longer believe
advertisements. Do you agree? What does influence young
people's buying decisions?
F) Vocabulary. Find words in the text to complete the wordmap.
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2. A) Complete the magazine article with the following words.
cynical consumers competition
markets
effective pitches customers
marketers impressed
When young couples get married in the USA they also receive a gift hag marked
'newly-wed kit'. ____
In a world of ever increasing …………….. many companies are
happy to use this new way to reach
2………………... Corporate 3…………….. say that
certain points in life make people especially vulnerable to sales 4………………………
Companies such as Procter & Gamble have found this to be a very 5 ………………….way to
target extremely profitable
6…………… such as young couples.
US newly-weds spend an average of $70bn in the first year of marriage. One
study shows that 67 per cent of women wear the same perfume they wore when they got
married and a Bride's magazine study showed that after three years of marriage women
were still 7 …………………of the same stores they
had shopped in before the wedding. While the gift bags do appeal to a lot of young
couples, others are a little less 8…………… As one rather 9 ………… young man said
when he found a sample of deodorant and an offer for a new cheque book in his gift
bag. 'does this mean that marriage stands for body odour and financial worries? This
stuff seems better suited for a divorce kit!'
B) What do you think about this method of marketing? Can you
think of other 'points in life' when people would be 'particularly
vulnerable' to marketing tactics such as these?
3. A) The importance of brands. Pat Hill is a brand strategy
consultant. Listen to her talk about the importance of brands and
answer the questions.
 Why do companies need to create brands?
 What are the five most important characteristics of a brand?
…………………………..
…………………………………
…………………………..
…………………………………
 Why has Chanel No 5 been successful for so long?
 What helped establish the No 5 brand in the 1960s?
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B) Can you think of other celebrity endorsements?
A successful brand appeals to people's emotions and desires.
Match the following slogans to the types of appeal.
Don't leave home without it
a patriotism
Think Different
b self-esteem
It keeps going and going and going
с insecurity
Because I'm worth it
d
originality
The great American chocolate
e
value for money
4. Dilemma: A scent of risk
Decision:
Bellissima is an Italian perfume and cosmetics business. The company has a highly
successful range of products in the luxury cosmetics market. It is planning to launch a
new fragrance and extensive market research has produced detailed profiles of two
potential target markets as described below. Bellissima now has to decide whether to
expand its current market base or risk branching out and reaching a new client.
Profile A
High-income women aged 25-30, who spend a high proportion of income on restaurants
and theatre. Currently loyal to our cosmetics range but change perfume brands from
time to time. However, they already have a positive image of our brand so a relatively
limited promotional campaign would be enough to create an awareness of the new
product. They accept high prices for quality products. Packaging should be simple but
elegant, using expensive materials in dark colours. The brand should appeal to a sense
of ambition and superiority. Suggested brand names: Sophistication or Cool Elegance.
Profile В
Women aged 18-25, who like popular music, clothes, going out and don't mind paying
high prices for quality or products that are 'in fashion'. Currently don't use our brands as
consider them slightly old fashioned. We would need to spend a lot on promotion to
attract this target who are not high earners but spend a high proportion of income on
clothes and cosmetics.
Packaging to represent a young, carefree lifestyle with a strong and rebellious
personality. Regular packaging updates needed to keep up with fashion trends.
Suggested brand names: Rebel Angel or She Devil.
Rosemary Weinberger, is a brand consultant at Scott & Ridley Associates.
Listen to her discuss the dilemma and find out which option she
would choose.
Useful phrases
... is a bit / slightly more ... ... is by far the better alternative ,.. is a lot / way too ... ...
is the best / most ...
Task 1. Work in groups. Discuss the advantages of each profile
and decide which option has most potential for Bellissima.
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Task 2. Now choose a brand name and plan your brand strategy.
Consider the four Ps of the marketing mix.
Task 3. Present your concept and brand strategy to the class.
Write it up
Write an action plan for the Marketing Director at Bellissima
with a summary of your group's strategy.
Supplement 1 Talking about brand names
Brands
1. Nike.
How to market your company
A) Discuss these questions:
What do you know about Nike? Is there any negative publicity about the company?
Read the text about Nike company & complete the
sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets
(past, present or future passive).
Take a look around. How many people in this
room are wearing Nike? A large percentage of the
training shoes sold in the world during the next year
( 1 ) … … … … … . (make) by the American company,
from Oregon in the USA, which is now the world's
biggest sportswear manufacturer. The company
(2) . … … … … … . (name) after the Greek goddess of
victory, and (3) … … … … … . (start) in the early
1970$. Nike (4) … … … … … .
(know) for its
clever advertising, using the world's best-known
sportsmen. In the 1980s, tennis star, John McEnroe,
(5)...... … … … … … . . (sponsor) by the company, and
in the eighties and nineties the basketball star, Michael Jordan, (6) … … … … … .
...... (ask) to appear in adverts. In 1997, a $40 million contract 7) … … … … … .
...... (sign) with golf star Tiger Woods. He
6 . ... (associate) with Nike until the year 2010! The famous Nike tick (9)
…………….
(recognise) all over the world nowadays. It (10) (create) by a
designer in Oregon in 1971, and h e ( 1 1 ) … … … … … .
(pay) just $35 for
his idea!
B) LISTENING 1: A spokesperson talks about Nike. Listen and
answer these questions.
Nike – goddess of victory
1. What are the criticisms of the company and what has Nike promised?
2. From where does the name Nike originate?
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3. Who founded the company?
4. What were company revenues in 2007?
5. What happened in 1980?
C) Business vocabulary: Acquisitions, Mergers, & Partnerships
Match the phrases (1-8) with their meaning (a-h)
1. Stake
a. Shares owned in a company
2. Parent company
b. Partnership of companies on a project
3. Acquisition/buyout
c. Company buys its suppliers and customers
4. Hostile takeover bid
d. Unwanted/uninvited attempt to buy a company
5. De-merger
e. Joining of two companies to make one
6. Vertical integration
f. Break/split a company up into parts
7. Joint venture
g. Buy another company
8. Merger
h. Owner of subsidiaries
NIKE Founders Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman
2. A) Lead-in question:
What do you know about Nike’s ‘Just Do It’ marketing strategy?
B) Read the article on Nike’s marketing message and place a
word from the box into the gaps.
Nike - JUST DO IT
Everyday life is mundane, and can be
boring, so it is important to push and
challenge ourselves. By something difficult,
something that is scary, we grow as a
person. It is only in the of ourselves, our
weaknesses, that we improve and feel true
development. It is imperative that we take
on the unwanted, for these things are
waiting for us to come and learn. While safe
and silent we learn nothing. We must step
out of the comfort zone and test ourselves.
This is the message from Nike’s ‘Just Do It’
campaign.
Even though the message is simplistic, the point is clear. Don’t wait too long,
don’t procrastinate; the time to act is now! It is often important when our goals to shoot
first and then aim. Of course we should prepare, but that we shouldn't over prepare and
convince ourselves that "we just need to know a little more," to the point where in off the
inevitable risk stops us acting.
Just Do It quotes:
• "Somebody should tell us at the start of our lives that we are dying. Then we might live
life to the limit, every minute of every day. Do it! I say. Whatever you want to do, do it
now! There are a limited number of tomorrows." Michael Landon
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• "Don't stand around and wait for something to happen. Don't be afraid to take chances.
Take risks! Make things happen!" Joe Paterno
• "Do not wait; the time will never be "just right." Start where you stand, and work with
whatever tools you may have at your command, and better tools will be found as you go
along." Napoleon Hill
C) Functional vocabulary: Expressing likelihood. This is used in
business to express certainty and possibility.
For example:
They can’t possibly sell footballs for less than a dollar
Nike is unlikely to open a factory in Georgia
The bad weather is bound to cause us logistical problems
Form: ODDS: Uses: odds can be used to express probability and scale of likelihood.
e.g. It is odds on the costs will increase. The odds are against it happening.
Certainty
Probability
I am (absolutely) sure that … costs will
It is very likely that sales will increase
increase
It is highly probable that sales will
certain that … costs will increase
increase
positive that … costs will increase
Sales should increase
Costs are certain to increase
Impossibility
bound to increase
I am (absolutely) sure that prices won’t
sure to increase
increase
There is no way that prices will increase
I am convinced that prices won’t increase
Possibility
Improbability
Productivity may increase
It is highly unlikely that advertising will
There is a chance that productivity could increase
increase
I very much doubt that advertising will
Productivity might well increase
increase
It is highly improbable that advertising
will increase
Choose the correct phrase for each gap. Some sentences have
more than one possibility.
1. I am production costs will remain stable.
2. Nike build a factory in India, if a suitable site can be identified.
3. After a disappointing year the Football Department restructured.
4. As a result of strong resistance to the takeover it is we will succeed.
5. Nike is having an excellent year. Company share price is go up.
6. I Phil Knight will resign.
7. Rubber prices fall next year, but we cannot rely on it.
8. It is that Nike will expand across Africa.
D) Cultural Awareness Point: ‘Just Do It ‘
In the USA it is common to start a company after a
limited amount of preparation and research. Doing too
much, or procrastinating, can be a fear of taking the risk.
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DISCUSS:
• How much research and preparation is necessary before you start to trade?
• What is the advantage of preparation and research?
• Are you a procrastinator or a doer?
E) Listening 2: You will hear the 2nd part of the recording where
the spokesperson talks about Nike’s marketing strategy. Listen
and answer the questions.
NOTE: they are not in chronological order
F) ROLE-PLAY
1. What is the contract with the Indian Cricket team worth?
2. What was the first Nike product and how was it sold?
3. How does Nike promote its products?
4. Which sponsorship was the biggest boost?
5. Which sports stars endorse Nike products?
Nike wants to be the main sponsor of the Olympic Games, and is offering $3 billion a
year on condition that it renames to the Nike Olympic Games. The Olympic Committee
needs the money but does not want the name.
Divide into groups.
NIKE believes that it can do a deal because the sponsorship fee is so great. It
argues that other sponsors have their name in the stadium so it isn’t new. Nike
promotes good sporting competition and no other motive.
Think of other reasons and argue your side.
Olympic Committee needs the money but does not want to have the name. It will
lose independence.
Think of other reasons and argue your side.
Try to make the role-play as authentic as possible. Remember to practice using the
target grammar and vocabulary studied in this module.
2. Brats vs Barbies.
How to compete with a global brand
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A) Discuss these questions:
what do you know about Barbie? Have you heard of Bratz? What is the market position?
B) LISTENING 1: A spokesman talks about Bratz and Barbie.
Answer the questions below.
1. Which company manufactures Barbie?
2. What is Barbie modelled on?
3. How are Bratz dolls different to Barbie?
4. Who produces Bratz?
5. How many Bratz dolls were sold in the first five years?
C) Read the text & put a
preposition of time into
the gaps
During – By – Until – After –
Always - No Longer
The Man who introduced
Bratz
Isaac Larian is the founder
of MGA Entertainments, the
company that produces Bratz
dolls.
Larian grew up in Iran, where his father owned a textile shop. When he was
seventeen, he told his parents he wanted to go to the United States. They sent him to Los
Angeles with $750, all the money the family had.
In his first job, he washed dishes from eleven at night ……………..seven in the
morning at a coffee shop. Later, he was a waiter tables and with his salary he studied civil
engineering at California State University, Los Angeles. ………………….this period he
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became interested in being an entrepreneur. ……………….graduating, he began
importing cheap products from South Korea.
In the 1980s, he persuaded Nintendo to give him the American rights to their
handheld games. " ………………………..the end of
the first year, we had sold twenty-two million dollars
in games, and we had a thirty-five-percent profit," he
said. "But the next year we had two million Nintendo
games that were ……………………fashionable. The
kids wanted something new."
A company marketing to children, he realised,
has to be quick to recognise when fashion changes.
"With Bratz, we ………………………need to
change them every three, four months," he explained.
"What you see in the stores today was not in the stores
last year and will not be there in three months time.
The key is to be fresh, to listen to the kids
carefully, because they change their ideas every week.
And you have to think, ‘what are they interested in
now?’ And we have to design products that they want
and their friends will want.
D) Do you know the meaning of these
words? You will hear them in the listening:
Capture – to face – banned – appeal – dispute - judge
LISTENING 2: Listen to the second part of the recording and
answer the questions.
E) ROLE-PLAY
1. By 2006 how much of the market did Bratz have?
2. What did Mattel do in 2007?
3. What does Mattel say about the design of Bratz?
4. What did a judge do in December 2008?
5. What is MGA’s reaction to the decision?
The meeting: The management team at Mattel meets to discuss how they can
compete with Bratz.
First group wants to expand the doll range.
Second group wants to fight them in the courts with legal challenges
Discuss the options and try to
come up with a compromise
solution.
Try to make the role-play as
authentic as possible.
3. Ikea: Customer Service
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A) Discuss these questions:
• What is flat-pack furniture? What do you know about IKEA?
• What do these words mean? (You will hear them in the listening exercise):
Matches - inventory
B) Listening Exercise 1: Listen to the spokesperson and answer
the questions below. Note: The questions are not in chronological order
1. How does the 10-minute time management plan work?
2. What was the first thing Ingvar Kamprad bought and sold?
3. What are the origins of the name ‘IKEA’?
4. How much revenue did IKEA generate in 2007?
5. How did the flat-pack furniture style begin?
CULTURAL AWARENESS POINT: Shopping Habits
In the UK, the shops are open every day, including Sundays, a traditional day of
rest. They are also open late (especially in the cities) and do not close for lunch. This
creates a lot more opportunities for the public to go shopping, but there is now a lot of
competition from on-line retail.
Speaking practice:
• Explain the shopping habits in your nationality or culture.
• How can they be improved?
• Is shopping convenience more important than a day of rest?
C) Read the text and put the, a, an, or zero article in the gaps
IKEA – The Secrets of Success
Ingvar Kamprad was a dyslexic farm boy who started work as 1…………..
enterprising door-to-door salesman of matches and string. He was eight years old, and
this small beginning led to 2………… $7 billion business, selling flat-pack furniture in
over 300 stores around the world.
At IKEA 3…………... idea that flat-pack is responsible for all of its success is
dismissed. True, it is revolutionary and the profit margins have been attributed to its cost
cutting effect, but there is a lot more to 4…………... IKEA than flat-pack furniture.
5…………... IKEA's business idea stems from democratic design, attractive form,
inexpensive production, and high functionality. This idea, 6. ………….. combined with
what Kamprad calls "7. ………….. entrepreneur’s obsession with always doing the
opposite of what others are doing," pushed him along 8. ………….. path of constant
innovation and experimentation.
The real secret of IKEA's success? "We are a concept company," answers
Kamprad. IKEA's concept is articulated in 9…………... document drafted by Kamprad in
1976 called: "a furniture dealer's testament." It sets down nine commandments including
the promotion of 10…………... "IKEA spirit" for enthusiasm, thrift, responsibility,
humbleness, and simplicity; and "always asking why we are doing this or that and
refusing to accept a pattern simply because it is 11…………... well established."
Kamprad is not afraid to make mistakes, and says this is always positive as it is
good for 12. ………….. …………..development. Only the dead don’t make mistakes, he
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says. The key is to learn from your mistakes and show 13. ………….world that you too
are human.
Does this include being 14. ………….. member of the Swedish Nazi party when
you were a
young man? This was a mistake he tried to keep hidden until it was made public in
the 1980’s and, as a consequence, it nearly destroyed his 15. ………….. reputation.
D) In pairs, discuss mistakes in
business.
Can you think of any serious mistakes that
entrepreneurs have made?
What mistakes have you made and what lessons
have you learnt?
E) Listening Exercise 2: Listen to the
recording and answer the questions
below.
Discuss these questions:
 How does IKEA, cut costs?
What do these words mean? (You will hear them in the
listening exercise): Figure out – set an example – dyslexic
Note: The questions are not in chronological order
1. What car does Kamprad drive?
2. Who is the target market for IKEA?
3. Why are the products given Swedish names?
4. Why doesn’t IKEA pay tax?
5. What is interesting about IKEA’s design strategy?
F) Role Play
A MEETING has been arranged between the CEO, Ingvar Kamprad,
and the marketing team. They discuss whether or not to create an online store that delivers to customers.
INGVAR KAMPRAD:
You are not in favour of a virtual store as one of the major selling
points for IKEA is that the customer must come to the store and experience the product
range. When they travel around the different departments they buy more. On-line will
limit the spontaneous sales and also create a huge
delivery problem.
MARKETING TEAM:
You see this as a must. All the competitors have on-line ordering and are gaining market
share through this sales strategy. Furthermore, it will increase sales significantly while
reducing visits to the store only
marginally. Most shoppers see IKEA as a visual experience but you are losing customers
who do not have enough time to visit the store.
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THE MEETING: You must promote your side of the argument using the vocabulary of
cause and effect and the business expressions learnt in this lesson to support your ideas.
Try to come up with a plan that involves some progress in one direction or another.
References
1. Soars, Joan. New Headway Pre-Intermediate English Course [Text] / Joan
and Liz Soars, Oxford University Press, 2004
2. Soars, Joan. New Headway Intermediate English Course [Text] / Joan and
Liz Soars, Oxford University Press, 2004
3. Soars, Joan. New Headway Advanced English Course [Text] / Joan and Liz
Soars, Oxford University Press, 2004
4. ABBY Lingvo [Electronic Resourse] http://www.lingvo-online.ru/ru
5. Директ-маркетинг сто лет спустя [Electronic resource]
http://www.comvay.ru/newspublications/100-let-direkt-marketingu (дата
обращения : 03.05.10)
6. Nolasco, Rob. New Streetwise Intermediate. Student’s Book [Text] / Rob
Nolasco, Oxford University Press, 1998
7. Pavlik, Cheryl. Hot Topics 2 [Text] / Cheryl Pavlik, Thomson. 2006
8. Pavlik, Cheryl. Hot Topics 3 [Text] / Cheryl Pavlik, Thomson. 2006
9. Business English Study [Electronic resource]
http://www.businessenglishstudy.com (дата обращения : 20.08.10)
10. Trappe T, Intelligent Business. Coursebook (Intermediate Business English)
[Text] / T. Trappe, G.Tullis, Pearson Longman, 2008. – 179 p.
11. Cotton D, Business Class [Text] / D. Cotton, S. Robbins, Pearson Longman, 1993.
– 184 p.
12. MacKenzie I, English for Business Studies. A course for business studies &
economics students [Text] / I. MacKensie, Cambridge University Press, 1997. –
180 p.
13. Nolasco R, Streetwise Upper-Intermediate [Text] / R. Nolasco, G.Tullis, Oxford
University Press, 1998. – 121 p.
14. Trappe, T, Head for Business [Text] / T. Trappe, G.Tullis, Oxford University
Press, 2002. – 179 p.
15. Tullis G, Insight into Business [Text] / G.Tullis, T. Trappe, Pearson Longman,
2008. – 168 p.
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Учебное издание
Войткова Анастасия Николаевна
Seducing masses:
(an introduction to talking about advertising)
Учебное пособие
Печатается в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 11.12.2013. Формат 60х90/16.
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