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230.Communicative Skills (1)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
Е. В. Турлова, А. В. Павлова, О. А. Хрущева
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Part 2
Рекомендовано Ученым советом федерального государственного бюджетного
образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет» в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального
образования по направлению подготовки 035700.62 Лингвистика
Оренбург
2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 811.111’27 (075.8)
ББК 81.432.1 я73
Т88
Рецензент - профессор, доктор педагогических наук В.Л. Темкина
Турлова, Е.В.
Communication skills. Part 2 = Коммуникативные навыки. Часть 2:
учебное пособие / Е.В. Турлова, А. В. Павлова, О. А. Хрущева;
Оренбургский гос. ун-т. – Оренбург : ОГУ, 2013. – 110 с.
ISBN
Т 88
В учебном пособии представлены задания и упражнения,
необходимые для успешного усвоения разделов «Свободное время»,
«Роль музыки в нашей жизни» и «Английское образование».
Учебное пособие предназначено для занятий по дисциплине
«Практический курс первого иностранного языка» для обеспечения
аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов очной формы
обучения по направлению 035700.62 Лингвистика, профиль «Теория и
методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур».
УДК 811.111’27 (075.8)
ББК 81.432.1 я73
ISBN
© Турлова Е.В., Павлова А.В.,
Хрущева О.А., 2013
© ОГУ, 2013
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Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………
4
1 Leisure……………………………………………………………………….
6
2 Music……………….………………………………………………………..
36
3 School life…………………………………………………………………...
87
Bibliography ………………………………………………………………….
110
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Introduction
«Communication skills. Part 2» - учебное пособие к практическому курсу
первого иностранного языка, предназначенное для обеспечения аудиторной и
самостоятельной работы студентов-бакалавров очной формы обучения по
направлению 035700.62 – Лингвистика, профилю «Теория и методика
преподавания иностранных языков и культур» с целью систематизации и
обобщения практического материала по темам «Свободное время», «Роль
музыки в нашей жизни» и «Английское образование» (в соответствии с 19,
21 и 30 разделами рабочей программы).
Настоящее пособие состоит из трех разделов: «Leisure», «Music»,
«School life». Каждый раздел предваряется материалом иллюстративного
характера, способствующим развитию навыков речевого общения, содержит
описание лексических, фонетических и грамматических аспектов, а также
упражнения по оптимизации навыков чтения, письма и аудирования,
необходимые для активизации, закрепления и контроля степени усвоения
учебной программы по указанной выше дисциплине.
Кроме того, идя в ногу со временем, отвечая современным требованиям
к качеству образования, а также учитывая всевозрастающую компьютерную
и интернет-грамотность студентов, материал каждого раздела изобилует
online
ресурсами,
включающими
отгадывание
кроссворда
по
теме,
прослушивание и просматривание аутентичного языкового материала; поиск,
выделение,
структурирование
и
воспроизведение
информации
с
высказыванием собственной точки зрения; прохождение психологического
тестирования для определения и обоснования личностных предпочтений при
выборе хобби и досуга; выполнение тестовых заданий и упражнений
проверочного характера с возможностью самоконтроля и т.д.
Необходимость создания данного учебного пособия продиктована
потребностью ознакомить студентов с представленными интернет ресурсами,
направить их способности владения компьютером в образовательное русло,
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обучать, используя современные информационные технологии, погрузить в
языковую
среду
с
помощью
аутентичного
сформировать опыт интерактивного взаимодействия.
5
языкового
материала,
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1 Leisure
Picture 1
Lead-in
Look at the pictures above (Picture 1, a-f) and answer the questions,
using the words below to help you.
1.
Where are the people?
2.
What are they doing?
3.
Why are they doing it?
4.
How do they feel? What are they like?
5.
What kind of leisure is shown (cultural, sport, intellectual)?
Picture a: river, rapids, raft, life jacket, helmet, paddle, adventurous, danger.
Picture b: sofa, living room, lazy, inactive, couch potato.
Picture c: pitch, strip, goal, fit, exercise, aggressive.
Picture d: chessboard, pieces, concentration, intelligence, quiet.
Picture e: audience, singer, stage, noisy, fun-loving, fan.
Picture f: texting, chatting, hanging out, gossiping.
Can you think of any other words to describe the pictures? Choose one
picture and describe it to the class.
Choose one activity shown in the pictures. Complete the questions about the
activity you choose: How much time…? When …? Why …? Ask other students in
the class your questions. Prepare a summary of their responses.
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Task 1. Answer these questions as a class.
1.
How much time do you usually spend each week doing homework?
2.
When do you enjoy your hobbies?
3.
Why do you think it is important to have time for your leisure
activities?
4.
How to combine wisely your duties and leisure?
Task 2. Work in groups of four. Complete the summary below using the
information your group mates gave in Task 1. Choose a person in your group
to present your summary to the others.
The students in our group spend between ____ and ____ hours on
homework every week. ________ the longest time: _____ hours, and ______
spends the least time: _____ hours.
Most people enjoy their hobbies __________. Other times mentioned were
_______. No one enjoyed their hobbies ______________.
People thought that leisure time was important because _____________.
The most common reason given was ____________.
The best way to combine duties and leisure has been suggested by _____. It
is _____________.
Task 3. Speak about your leisure activities; give five reasons why you
like them. Look at the language patterns to use when giving a talk.
I’m going to talk about …
I’d like to say something about …
So, what can I say about …?
Speaking personally, …
To begin with/First of all, …
Secondly/Next/Also …
To finish with/Finally …
Task 4. Look at Picture 2, comment upon its idea.
Recall how much you spend on leisure activities? Do
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you think you spend too much or rather little? Are the activities you spent
your money on really worth it?
Picture 2
Task 5. Follow the link to find out what leisure activities suit your
personality
http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2007/leisure/quiz/index.html.
Comment upon the result (Picture 3).
Picture 3
Task 6. Use the web-based resource (Picture 4) to plan your weekend.
Imagine you have invited a friend to stay with you this weekend. Look in
your local newspaper or\and on Internet. Find events that are happening in your
area this weekend. Plan weekend leisure activities for you to be occupied with and
report about your results.
Picture 4
Task 7. Which of the given quotations appeal to you most? Comment
upon the ideas they convey.
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1.
Guard well your spare moments. They are like uncut diamonds.
Discard them and their value will never be known. Improve them and they will
become the brightest gems in a useful life (Ralph Waldo Emerson).
2.
A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his
work and his play; his labor and his leisure; his mind and his body; his education
and his recreation. He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision
of excellence through whatever he is doing, and leaves others to determine whether
he is working or playing. To himself, he always appears to be doing both (L.P.
Jacks).
3.
If their work is satisfying, people don't need leisure in the old-
fashioned sense. No one ever asks what Newton or Darwin did to relax, or how
Bach spent his weekends. Work is the ultimate play, and play the ultimate work
(J.G. Ballard).
4.
Work is not always required. There is such a thing as sacred idleness
(George MacDonald).
5.
The only way to avoid being miserable is not to have enough leisure
to wonder whether you are happy or not (George Bernard Shaw).
Reading
Task 8. Read the article on leisure activities in the UK (by Karen
Hewitt, “Understanding Britain Today”). Have any facts surprised you?
How the British Enjoy their Leisure
Picture 5
«Free time» is not an easily definable term. For some people religious
observance is their priority and not a matter of choice. For others, their voluntary
activities become a binding commitment from which they do not wish to
disentangle themselves.
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Britain and Russia share many leisure activities – from computer games to
trips to Turkey. In Britain the range of activities is more diverse than in Russia,
partly because our society is more diverse, partly because we lack Russian long
traditions of organizing activities for everyone. In what follows, do not assume that
‘British people do this’ and ‘British children do that’. Some do, some do not,
generalizations are difficult, and, except from friends and oneself, there is
absolutely no pressure for anyone to take up any particular activity. In that sense at
least we are considering ‘free time’.
In 2009 the British Attitudes Survey found that ‘watching television remains
Britain’s most common leisure activity’, with 90% of our population watching
several times a week. ‘Watching television’ ranges from recovering-fromexhaustion-on-the-family-sofa to intense shared experiences where everyone is
sitting in the near-darkness, pop-eyed with excitement so perhaps it is not
surprising that only a third of these frequent viewers say that they enjoy television
very much, and nearly a quarter say that they do not enjoy it at all. By contrast,
only 42% read a book several times a week. However 85% of those readers told
the survey that they got ‘a great deal of enjoyment’ from reading.
People turn to computers, partly for games but increasingly to enjoy social
working sites. More than half the population use computers several times a week
as a leisure activity. In fact if we look at ‘leisure’ in its widest sense, perhaps the
most popular activities are using mobile phones and exchanging news on sites such
as Facebook and My Space. Meanwhile older people are fast catching up;
pensioners are not interested in computer games but are learning to use the internet
in order to follow their own interests – for example, discovering the history of their
family.
Listening to popular music, is as widespread in Britain as anywhere. One
distinctive thing about British attitudes to music is that – along with the USA – we
are its ‘history’: Beatles, Stones, Kinks, Who, Sex Pistols and on and on. The
success of these groups can make the British (and English in particular) very smug,
but a huge proportion of massive and influential acts are British. This does,
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however, have its downside, since many British acts are compared with these
pillars of popular music and understandably come up short.
These leisure-time activities occur mostly inside the house. Outside, the
British are indeed a nation of gardeners. Nearly half of us claim to spend time
gardening. Almost all houses have a small garden and the climate is ideal for
growing plants from most parts of the world, since with a little ingenuity we can
acclimatize them. I can walk out to admire the flowers in my garden during every
month including January. Those of us who grow vegetables enjoy the fact that
home-grown fruit and vegetables taste much better than those in shops. And, as
everyone knows, we have a passion for lawns of grass which stay green throughout
the year. For really enthusiastic gardeners who want more land, it is possible to
rent an allotment from the local authority. Whoever rents it must cultivate it or it
will be returned to the local authority since there is always a queue of people
waiting for one. Unlike your bigger dacha plots, we are not allowed to build houses
on allotments.
Even twenty years ago most people would have hesitated to include
shopping in their leisure-time activities. Shopping meant either going to the
supermarket for the household’s weekly necessities, or searching in department
stores or specialist shops for clothes, shoes, and so forth. We have become an
increasingly rich society with money to spare, so people have turned essential
shopping into ‘fun’ shopping. What they buy is not necessarily very glamorous or
expensive; much of it is short-term, to be bought and then thrown away. Going
shopping, especially at the weekend, is therefore now treated as a pleasure in itself.
Eating out is another pleasure which is characteristic of an affluent society.
In practice it can mean sitting around a table with friends in pizzeria or a simple
café; it can be eating at a very expensive, exclusive restaurant but obviously that is
for the few. Tens of thousands of pubs provide cheap but decent bar meals and
often, more elaborate meals, especially at lunchtime; cafes, restaurant and foodchain shops line our streets. Our enthusiasm for getting others to cook our meals is
maybe laziness. But eating socially with others in public seems to derive from
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habits in southern Europe where eating in the fresh air is almost essential during
the summer months. Sometimes, in good weather, cafes and restaurants here put
out tables on the pavement or in a little garden, but too often the rain and wind
disappoint them. So mostly our meals are served indoors.
Families with small children have their own priorities. Most parents try to
spend as much time as they can with their children in two typical ways. The first is
to read to the child or children, usually at bedtime. The second is to go out for a
walk, as a family, on Saturdays and Sundays. The walk may be to the local
playground equipped with swings, slides, climbing frames, often constructed
alongside a public space for playing family football, cricket or simply running
around. Sometimes the walk may be to a large municipal park, or to a local pond or
lake to feed the ducks. As children get older, families may make expeditions to
fairs, local celebrations or – if they live close to the sea – to the seaside. In any
town on any weekend some group or other will be performing or displaying crafts
or organizing a public party or arranging special activities for children. Town
festivals and art shows are increasingly popular way of bringing people together.
Some families – as well as millions of individuals – choose to visit
museums. British national art and antiquity collections are free to everyone. free
entry to the public is a right we have sometimes had to fight for, and we are, I
believe, rightly proud that our national glories are open to all, not just to those who
can afford to pay.
All of these activities imply a degree of spontaneous activity and
spontaneous participation. The fete or exhibition which was here today will be
gone tomorrow. And next week some other will appear.
Compare leisure activities that are popular with Russian and British people
(consider different age groups, social status, etc.)
Listening
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Task 9. Follow the link http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/ukculture/
leisure (Picture 6) and watch the video about leisure patterns in Britain. Do
the tasks suggested to check your comprehension.
Picture 6
Task 10. Follow the link http://www.esl-lab.com/nightlife/nightliferd1.
htm to listen to the conversation about leisure activities to do with friends.
Fulfill the given vocabulary exercises, note down your final score. Afterwards
do the tasks listed below (Picture 7).
Picture 7
1. Imagine that you want to get together with a few new friends from out of
town next weekend. What two or three leisure or recreational activities would you
consider doing to introduce your friends to your city?
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Use the Internet to plan your day and look up the cost, operating hours, and
location of each activity you plan. Discuss your results.
2. You are going on vacation to New York City for one week, but before you
go, you want to plan your leisure activities. Use the Internet to find information
and then plan your week.
You should look up details on times, cost, transportation, and other relevant
information:
- an outing to the Statue of Liberty;
- a visit to a famous art museum;
- a night out to see a broadway musical;
- dinner at an authentic local restaurant.
Share your plan with your group mates and comment upon their ideas.
Task 11. Look at the pastimes (Picture 8, a-e) and then look at the five
people (Picture 9). Which people do which pastimes, do you think?
Picture 8
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Marcus
Danny
Carmen
Ellie
Jack
Picture 9
Listen and check your answers.
a)
Listen again and identify who says …?
1.
It gives you time to think.
2.
I’ve begged her to stop.
3.
And that’s the truth.
4.
I’ve never had any trouble.
5.
I’ll take your word for it.
6.
The only downside is that it can be pretty cold.
7.
I’m not addicted to it or anything.
8.
You can’t be serious.
9.
It’s not for everybody.
10.
People call us nerds in anoraks.
b)
Look at the meanings and match them with the sentences above in
which they appear.
1. I've asked as strongly as possible.
2. I could easily stop doing it.
3. I believe you, but I don't want to try it.
4. Only some people enjoy it.
5. Very boring people who are interested in silly little details (slang).
6. The one disadvantage.
7. That's a ridiculous suggestion.
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c) Sentences from the track you have just listened to have got mixed up. Can
you re-write them, by crossing out the incorrect part and finding the correct second
half in each case? The first one is done for you.
1. I call it crawling through underground caves. It’s just wonderful.
2. It's just that feeling of surfing the sky, like my Dad.
3. Oh dear. But we aren't doing anybody any harm.
4. Oh no, I'm not addicted to it or anything. It gives you time to think.
5. People call us nerds in anoraks, I know, I suppose that means I am a bit of
an addict, doesn't it!
6. Sometimes, a little, but you get that rush of adrenaline, on your hands and
knees.
7. That's why I like it. It's something I do just for fun.
8. The only downside is that it can be pretty cold and I've never had any
trouble.
9. Well yes, but I've been potholing for ten years now just standing on a
station platform all day.
10. Yeah. I'm an angler, plunging through the air.
Language focus
Task 12. Match each of the beginnings of the questions with two
endings.
1. What are you
a) any plans for this evening?
2. Are you
b) doing tonight?
3. Have you got
c) anything on this weekend?
d) going out tonight?
e) up to at the weekend?
f) doing anything later?
Note: What are you up to? is more informal and would only be used
between people who knew each other fairly well.
Task 13. Use the correct form of these expressions to complete the
dialogues: meet up with, have a party, go round, come along, get together, bring.
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1.
What are you doing at the weekend? – Some friends of mine have just
moved into a new flat and they’re … on Saturday night. Why don’t you … too?
You can … Sally, if you like – I’m sure she’d like Tony and Jane.
2.
Are you doing anything tonight? – Nothing special. I’m just … a few
friends for a drink.
3.
What are you up to this evening? – Not much really. I might … to see
Steve and his wife later.
4.
Have you got anything special on this weekend? – Yes, I have
actually. I’m seeing some old school friends. We all try to … every couple of years
and have a big night out in London.
Task 14. Match these ideas with one of the activities below.
1.
I haven’t been to see a play for ages.
2.
Let’s go out for a meal at the weekend. We haven’t eaten out for a
long time.
3.
Shall we go and see a band? I haven’t seen any live music for ages.
4.
Do you fancy going out for a drink later?
5.
Do you fancy going clubbing tonight?
6.
Shall we go and see a film later?
a)
going to the pub;
b)
going to the cinema;
c)
going to the theatre;
d)
going to a restaurant;
e)
going to a nightclub;
f)
going to a concert.
Now use the correct form of these expressions to complete the dialogues:
-
have a quiet night in;
-
go to a party;
-
have a very active social life;
-
be stuck indoors;
-
have some fun.
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1.
Is everything OK with your new flatmate? – Yes, he seems to … .
He’s been out every night this week.
2.
Are you going out tonight, Alison? There’s a new club opened in the
High Street. – Not tonight. I’ve been out every night this week. I want to … for a
change.
3.
How’s the exam revision going? I bet you’re getting a bit tired of it,
aren’t you? – Absolutely! I’ve … all week. I want to go out and … .
4.
Are you doing anything exciting this weekend, Mark? – Yes, I’m …
up in London. Some friends of mine have just moved into a new house.
Task 15. Choose the correct endings for each sentence.
1.
Let’s just stay in and watch …
2.
My Mom and Dad came over to play…
3.
I’d rather just stay in and finish …
4.
A few friends came round…
5.
Let’s just get …
6.
We had …
a)
for dinner;
b)
my book;
c)
TV/a video;
d)
a video out;
e)
a few friends round for dinner;
f)
cards.
Which three sentences answer the question: What did you do last night?
Which two sentences answer the question: What shall we do tonight?
What do you like doing in your free time? Do you prefer a wild night out or
a quiet night in?
Task 16. Use do, play or collect with the following words.
1.
… coins.
2.
… chess.
3.
… crosswords.
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4.
… stamps.
5.
… antiques.
6.
… computer games.
7.
… jigsaws.
8.
… cards.
9.
… postcards.
10.
… old photographs.
11.
… a musical instrument.
12.
… an evening course.
Task 17. Use these words in the sentences below: a pack of cards, chess,
dice, dominoes, draughts, backgammon.
1.
… is a very popular game, now often played on computer. King,
queen, bishop and rook are the names of some of the pieces.
2.
… is played on a board similar to a … board, but with flat round
pieces. The pieces move only in very simple ways.
3.
You use … to play games such as bridge and poker.
4.
… is played with black pieces with white dots on them. You lay them
end to end until you have none left.
5.
… is played by two people with a board, round flat pieces and a dice.
It is very popular in Greece and Turkey.
6.
… have six sides. They are used in board games from many different
countries.
Task 18. Choose the correct ending for each sentence.
1.
Come on, it’s your turn – throw/roll …
2.
You need to shuffle the cards …
3.
It’s your go. Hurry up and move …
4.
Did you take …
a)
… one of my pieces just then? I wasn’t looking.
b)
… the dice.
c)
… before you deal them.
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d)
… one of your pieces. You’re taking too long.
Task 19. Answer the following questions.
1.
Which of these isn’t a board game?
Chess/draughts/dominoes/monopoly.
2.
Which of these isn’t a card?
Ace/king/queen/prince/jack/joker.
3.
Which of these isn’t a chess piece?
King/queen/bishop/knight/soldier/pawn.
4.
Label the images (Picture 10, a-d): hearts/clubs/diamonds/spades.
Picture 10
Note. Draughts is called checkers in American English and on many
computers. The general word for a chess figure is piece (cf. one of the black pieces
is missing). We also use piece for draughts, checkers and backgammon. In other
board games, the things we move are usually called counters. In modern English,
dice is the singular and plural form – one dice, two dice.
Task 20. Put the following words and phrases into the correct column
below: brushes, camera, cake decorating, material, develop a film, oil paints,
ingredients, easel, recipe, sewing machine, pastry, tripod, zoom lens, needle and
cotton, watercolour, pattern.
1.
Photography …
2.
Painting …
3.
Making clothes …
4.
Cooking …
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Task 21. Complete the sentences below with these prepositions: on, with,
into, of, in (2).
1.
I’m really interested … photography.
2.
I’m very keen … gardening.
3.
Claire’s absolutely obsessed … horses. She doesn’t think about
anything else.
4.
I’m a big fan … old black and white horror films.
5.
I never thought I’d get … computer games, but since my brother
bought me one for Christmas I haven’t stopped playing it.
6.
I like looking round secondhand bookshops … my spare time.
Task 22. Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the sentences:
relax, take, give it up, learn, get, spend, join, take up.
1.
I’m … to play the guitar.
2.
I … all my free time doing karate. I … a club three years ago and I’ve
just got my black belt.
3.
I used to go windsurfing every week but I had to … when I started
university because I didn’t have the time.
4.
I paint most evenings and weekends. I find it relaxing and it … my
mind off work.
5.
I go fishing quite a lot. It … me out of the house and it helps me …
and forget all my worries.
6.
I … golf when I was about 40, when I had to stop playing rugby.
Task 23. Read the sentences below and guess what leisure activity they
describe.
1.
I usually use three rods at the same time – you’ve got more chance of
catching something.
2.
We go to a park where there are some ramps and we practice different
3.
This is a nice spot. You start putting the tent up and I’ll get the
tricks.
sleeping bags.
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4.
People say it’s cruel but I never shoot anything that I can’t take home
5.
I need to buy a bigger saddle and some new boots.
6.
I prefer downhill to cross-country.
7.
I cut the grass at least once a week.
8.
You can usually get a pair of blades for around £40.
9.
The waves are best on the west coast.
10.
I use my smallest sail when it’s really windy.
11.
All you need is a good pair of walking boots, a rucksack and a
to eat.
waterproof jacket.
12.
All you need is a map, a compass, and some luck!
Writing
Task 24. a) Read the poem and point out the idea the author tried to
convey.
Leisure
by William Henry Davies
What is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
No time to stand beneath the boughs
And stare as long as sheep or cows.
No time to see, when woods we pass,
Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.
No time to see, in broad daylight,
Streams full of stars, like skies at night.
No time to turn at Beauty's glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance.
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No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began.
A poor life this is if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
b) Study the reviews of the poem and note down their positive and negative
features (structure, vocabulary, style).
Sample 1. This poem is a protest against the unnecessary commitment of
man with worldly affairs. We are always in a hurry and have no leisure time to
look at the beauty spread all around us. Man’s miserable life brings him nothing
but sadness and worries.
In lines 1-4 the poet bewails our rushed life. The poet says that we cannot
call this life a pure life, if it is full of worries and anxiety. We have no time to stand
at a certain place and look carefully at nature. Even we cannot spare a few
moments to stand under the branches of green trees and enjoy the beautiful and
restful shades of the trees. The common animals like sheep and cows are better
than us enjoying life. We have committed ourselves with worldly affairs
unnecessarily and cannot enjoy nature all around us.
In lines 5-6 the poet tells us, when we pass through some forest, we do not
have time to stop for some moments to look at the trees tall and short, and enjoy
their natural beauty. The dark green trees provide a soothing effect but we are
always sick-hurried and cannot admire at least the simple beauty. Also we cannot
look at the small animals like squirrels concealing their food-grain in the grass for
the winter. This minor scene can also give us relief.
In lines 7-8 the poet says that human beings cannot see the beauty that is
hidden in the streams. During daytime, when the sunrays fall upon the clear water
of the brooks, the water reflects and shines like stars in the sky during night.
Sometimes water of streams because of its clearness seems so beautiful that even
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stones beneath the water can be observed, which look like stars in the clear blue
water. This scene also resembles the stars shining in the sky at night.
The poet says we are so hard luck that we cannot watch a girl or a woman
who dances in the field. The feet of the dancing girl are very attractive and
bewitching but we cannot spare time to look at these feet and how they dance. The
poet also mourns that we have no time to wait for the words, the mouth of the
dancing girl has to utter. As a sort of smile has appeared in her eyes but we cannot
wait till the words from her eyes are transferred to her lips. Those words can amuse
us. In fact the poet uses personification, a poetic device to explain the natural
beauty scattered all around us. The poet personifies beauty as a young beautiful
dancing girl with a smiling face.
In the concluding lines the poet regrets to say that ours is a poor life. In a
way I cannot be life if it is full of cares and worries. Unluckily, we have no time to
stand at a place and look carefully at nature that can refresh us. As such our life is
nothing but lamentation through and through. As human beings we should spare
some moments and look at nature and natural beauty spread around us and enjoy
life.
Sample 2. ‘Leisure’ is a simple yet beautiful and thought provoking poem
written by William Henry Davies. In this poem, the poet wonders whether it is
worth leading a life which provides one with no time for leisure.
The poem ‘Leisure’ is divided into seven rhyming couplets.
Couplet 1: The poet, W. H. Davies, begins by questioning the purpose of a
life which is so full of worry that it does not allow us any time to simply stand still
and watch the world go by. In the next few couplets, he describes the various
things that people are not able to do due to lack of leisure.
Couplet 2: Sheep and cows can often be seen standing still in vast open
fields and staring into a distance. People living a busy life would not possess the
leisure to stand under the branches of trees and keep gazing on and on like such
ruminants.
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Couplet 3: W. H. Davies further adds that when such people pass a forest or
a woodland, they would be in too much of a hurry to notice the nooks and crannies
in the grass where squirrels conceal their nuts. They would not possess the leisure
to notice the various aspects of the natural world around them.
Couplet 4: In daylight, streams appear to be sparkling under the effect of
sunshine making it seem as if the streams are full of stars like the night sky.
However, such beauties of nature are likely to be missed by people overburdened
by anxiety and living a life of haste without any leisure, remarks W.H. Davies.
Couplets 5 and 6: There are two ways of looking at the fifth and sixth
couplets of the poem: literally and metaphorically. Looking at it literally- The poet
states that the rush of life provides people with no leisure to turn at the glance of a
beautiful maiden and marvel at her dancing feet. They are unable to leisurely
observe her as her mouth shapes out a smile that started from her eyes. Looking at
it metaphorically- W.H. Davies has personified the beauty of the world around us
which many often fail to observe due to a lack of leisure. The dancing feet and
enchanting smile refers to various aspects of the beauty around us.
Couplet 7: In the final couplet of the poem, Davies states that a life which is
so bogged down by worry that it allows one no time for leisure is indeed a
miserable life. If you read the first couplet of ‘Leisure’ carefully, you will notice
that although it ends with a full stop, (and is hence in the form of a statement) it
can also be interpreted as a question asked by the poet. In that case, the final
couplet can be seen as W. H. Davies’ answer to his own question.
c) Try your hand at writing a review of this poem; mind the conclusions you
have made while analyzing the review given above.
Extra practice
Task 25. Collecting is another kind of leisure activities. Have you ever
collected anything? Share your experience and opinion on this leisure pattern.
Afterwards read the article by Chris Wilson concerning the given issue and do
the tasks.
Match the words and phrases in the table to their definitions.
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1) sandalwood
a) causing a small worry
2) covet
b) a green stone used in jewelry
3) rummage
c) places where second hand and old
things are sold
4) flea markets
d) decorative but thought to be ugly
5) illegal
e) against the law
6) malachite
f) to search for things my moving stuff
around
7) deteriorate
g) to want something very much that
belongs to someone else
8) kitsch
h) to become worse
9) niggling
i) every now and again
10) periodically
j) hard wood from a tree in Asia
Collecting things – My Grandmother's elephant
My grandmother had a beautiful elephant carved out of sandalwood on her
dressing table which I secretly used to covet. I wanted it more than anything in the
world. It was about the size of a football and had a cheeky smile. It was inlaid with
tiny circular mirrors and mother of pearl, and had real ivory tusks and toenails.
One day my sister said “Oh Grandma, please can I have it?” and, to my fury and
disbelief, she just gave it to her! I immediately made two resolutions: 1) never to
speak to either of them ever again. 2) To find another elephant just like it.
Ever since I have been scouring the world. I have rummaged round junk
shops and antique shops all over Europe, I have been to garage sales and flea
markets in America, I have hung about in Arab souks and Indian bazaars, but I
have never seen anything quite the same.
Along the way, however, I have acquired all sorts of other elephants and my
collection has grown and grown. I have got black ebony elephants from Malawi,
and a couple of ivory – all, I hasten to add, made a long time ago, before the
ebony trees were chopped down and the ivory trade was made illegal. I also have
soap stone elephants from Zimbabwe, and an exotic Congolese one carved out of
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bright green malachite. I have a whole family of wooden Thai elephants marching
along the top of my piano – sometimes when I sit and play I could swear they are
marching in time to the music. I have two very heavy, long legged elephants which
I bought in Khan el Khalili, in Cairo, which I use as bookends, and an enormous
fat one from the Sudan which I use as a coffee table. My search goes on, but it gets
more and more difficult to find really good pieces. On recent trips to Africa I have
noticed how the quality of the workmanship has deteriorated. In craft markets all
over the continent you can find thousands of elephants, but they are nearly all
shoddily made, churned out for tourists by people who probably have never seen a
real elephant in their lives.
Why do people collect things? Probably many, like me, don’t set out to do
so. You just acquire something, then another and another and then, once you’ve
got a small collection you just keep adding to it. I have an uncle who collects key
rings – he has hundreds of them from all over the world – but he can’t remember
how it started. Other people collect stamps, stones, beer cans, beer mats, match
boxes, all sorts of things. For some it can become a total obsession and they will go
to any lengths to get something. One of my colleagues collects Royal memorabilia,
which to me is the ultimate in bad taste! Her house is crammed full of kitsch things
like Coronation mugs, ashtrays with pictures of Charles and Diana, British flags,
tea towels printed with Windsor Castle and even a toilet seat cover with Prince
Andrew grinning widely up at you. What is this urge to possess all these things?
I recently discussed this question with a group of students in Mozambique
and what rapidly became evident was that few of them had such an urge. “Why
not?” I asked. “I don’t know” said Antonio. “It’s just not in our culture”. “Does
that mean you’re not as materialistic as Europeans?” Antonio laughed. “No way!
We want cars and houses and fancy things just like anyone else, but we don’t
collect knick knacks, things we can’t use”. “I think it’s because of our recent war”
said Maria “and the state of the economy. For many years there was nothing to
collect, except shells off the beach perhaps”. “I collect shoes” said Teresa, who
comes from Angola. “I have over seventy pairs. But I buy them to wear, not just
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for the sake of having them”. “Oh come on!” laughed Antonio. “Anything you
don’t actually need you have for the sake of having it, and you can’t possibly need
seventy pairs!” “I do, I need every single pair!” she insisted. “So you are a
collector!” “No I’m not!” “Yes you are!” shouted the whole class.
Paula stuck up her hand. “I’m a collector” she said. “Ï am a fan of Julio
Iglesias and I have all his CD’s, everyone, even the latest which, I have to admit,
isn’t very good at all”. “So why did you buy it?” I asked. “Well, because I’ve got
all the others of course” she said. “And my son collects those little plastic
dinosaurs you find inside cereal packets. He’s only got to get T Rex and then he’s
got the whole set.” “They are exploiting you” said Antonio. “They encourage
children to become collectors so that you keep buying more and more. This is
something new in our country. Soon we will all be fanatically collecting things,
just like everyone else in the world”.
Harshill, who is of Indian origin, had been silent all this time. He cleared his
throat. “One good reason to collect things is that a collection is worth more - how
do you say in English? More than the sum of its parts. If you sold your elephants
one by one you wouldn’t get nearly as much as if you sold the whole collection. So
it is a way of saving money, a good investment.”
On the way back to my hotel a young boy was selling a badly carved
elephant by the side of the road. I didn’t want it but I bought it because I felt sorry
for him. Later I thought I should just have given him some money and let him try
to sell it to someone else. It would never be part of my collection, each in its own
special place in a different part of my house. I imagined walking round looking at
them all and thought about what Harshill had said – it’s a way of increasing the
value of what you already have - but as usual there was that niggling feeling that
my collection, not matter how valuable, would never be complete. Not without my
Grandmothers elephant! What a waste for it to be with my sister when it could be,
should be, with me! “Oh well, never mind, try not to be obsessed” I told myself.
Ever since though, I have been lying awake at night, thinking of it standing
there on a brass table in her hallway, next to the window she always leaves open
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for her cat. Her dogs know me, so they won’t be a problem when I climb over the
wall in my gloves and balaclava. The whole operation will be over in less than five
minutes. The only problem is, having acquired it, what will I do when my sister
comes barging in to nose around, as she periodically does, and sees it in pride of
place in my house? I’ll have to keep it hidden and then what will be the point of
having it? Oh dear. Perhaps I could have a special alarm that would only ring when
my sister is on her way. No that’s silly. I’ll just have to move. To another country,
under another name, far, far away. But even then, knowing her, she’ll track me
down. Oh – dear Reader, what would you do if you were me?
Read the statements below and decide if they are true or false.
1. The writer kept his resolution not to speak to his sister every again.
2. His grandmother was unaware of how much he wanted it.
3. Ebony is a kind of wood.
4. It is difficult to find ebony nowadays.
5. The writer’s Thai elephants actually move in time to the music.
6. Nowadays it is not easy to find well-made elephants in Africa.
7. The writer is fond of Royal memorabilia.
8. People often decide in advance to start a collection.
9. Mozambicans do not collect things because they are not materialistic.
10. “For the sake of having it” means having something which is a necessity.
11. Paula bought Julio Iglesias’ latest CD to “complete the set”.
12. Antonio thinks it is a good thing to collect things.
13. If something is worth “more than the sum of its parts” it means the
whole thing is worth more than the total value of all the individual parts.
14. The writer firmly intends to steal his sister’s elephant.
15. “To go to any lengths” to get something means to travel anywhere, no
matter how far, to get it.
16. If something in a room is “In pride of place” it means it is in the part of
the room where the owner displays all the objects of which he/she is most proud.
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Task 26. Follow the instructions below to learn some facts about two
collectors.
1. Discuss these questions as a class.
- What kinds of things do people often collect?
- Why do people collect things?
- Do you collect anything? Did you use to collect things when you were
younger? What? Why?
2. You are going to listen to two people who are both passionate collectors.
look at the photos (Picture 11). What can you see? What do they collect? What
questions would you like to ask them?
Picture 11
3. Work in two groups.
Group A. Listen to Andrea Levitt who collects dolls.
Group B. Listen to Jeff Parker who collects Star Wars memorabilia.
4. Answer the questions.
- Where does she/he live? Who with?
- What does she/he do for a living?
- How long has she/he been collecting?
- How many items has she/he collected?
- How many rooms of the house are taken up with the collection?
- What’s her/his favourite item?
- Where do the items come from?
- Is she/he in touch with other people who share the same hobby?
5. Find a partner from the other group. Compare and exchange information.
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Task 27. Follow the link to find out how people collecting various items
are called http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0769637.html (Picture 12). Report
to the group about the words you have learnt.
Picture 12
Task 28. Follow the link to find out some interesting facts about the
celebrities’ hobbies and leisure activities http://www.buzzfeed.com/jpmoore/11surprising-celebrity-hobbies (Picture 13). Share the information that made you
feel amused, surprised or shocked with your group mates.
Picture 13
Task 29. a) Read the text and answer the questions.
1.
What does a ‘hobby doctor’ do?
2.
How does a patient prepare for a consultation?
3.
What happens during the consultation?
Henry Dabbit, the Hobby Doctor
Many people find it difficult to relax. Bad news for them; good news for Dr
Henry Dabbit of New York. Henry (42) is a psychologist with an unusual
specialization. His goal in life is to help those who can’t manage to get away from
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it all. And since the ‘Big Apple’ is full of tired and agitated workaholics, Dr Dabbit
has plenty of clients. We asked him what it was like to be one of his patients.
‘What I usually do is have the patient sit down on a low chair or a couch,
just like you see in the movies. Then I ask them to tell me a little about themselves.
First of all, what kind of lifestyle do they have? How many hours do they work?
Can they sleep at night? Those kind of things. Then I want to know about their
likes and dislikes. Do they have any phobias, for example? Finally, I get them to
tell me about their hobbies and interests.’
‘It is important to let people talk during this part of the consultation. Before
the meeting, I give them a form to help them put their ideas together. Then, when
they come in, I say, “OK, you know what I need to know. Talk to me!” and they
tell me all those things.’
‘Then I ask them some really difficult questions. Something to probe their
inner mind. For example, “What is your biggest fear?” All that kind of stuff.’
‘Finally, I tell them how to change their life; what to do to enjoy their free
time better, and how to get rid of stress.’
c)
Work in two groups, A and B. look at the information below.
Group A.
Patient information form
Read the instructions and work together to In order to help you, your doctor
plan what you are going to say.
will need to know a little about you.
You are a hobby doctor. You are going to Be prepared to talk for about 3-4
have a consultation with a patient. He/she minutes. Your doctor will listen to
will have read your patient information what you say, and will then ask you
form, and will be ready to tell you about some questions. Use the questions
themselves. Prepare and write ten ‘difficult below to help you prepare for the
questions’ to probe their inner minds.
consultation.
Group B.
1. Give details about the following
Read the instructions and work together to areas of your lifestyle.
Job:
plan what you are going to say.
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You are a patient. You are going to have a Hours of work:
consultation
with
the
hobby
doctor. Diet:
Choose what job you have (a pop star, Family:
president of the USA, a Metro ticket 2. What are your likes and dislikes:
inspector, an English teacher, a tour guide at work, at home, and in life?
for your town, a football team manager, 3. What are your interests and
etc.). Use the patient information form to hobbies? Do you like sports, culture,
help you prepare for the consultation.
d)
and entertainment?
Work with a partner from the other group. Act out the consultation
between the hobby doctor and the patient.
e)
Class discussion. How effective do you think a consultation with Dr
Dabbit would be? Would you go to see him? Why/Why not?
Task 30. Follow the link http://disneyland.disney.go.com/disneyland/?name
=DisneylandParkLandingPage to visit the official site of Disneyland Park
(Picture 14). Watch the video to find out facts and details about its attractions.
Report to the group about the thematic area in the park you have chosen.
Picture 14
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Task 31. Follow the link to learn some facts about several activities
people tend to practise at present time http://mind-the-blog.eklablog.com/newfads-craze-planking-batmanning-and-others-consequence-of-the-net-a5648373
(Picture 15). Note down information you have learnt and express your
impression of those activities in class. Compare your reaction to that of the
children presented in the video.
Picture 15
Task 32. Follow the link to watch the clipart gallery containing advice
on how to enjoy your vacation period http://www.independent.co.uk/student/the20-best-things-to-do-this-summer-2013-8629651.html (Picture 16). Note down
the suggestions given and the reasons to follow them.
Picture 16
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Compile your own list of things to do on holiday, supply it with commentary
and details you find necessary to mention. After your next holiday is over, bring
your list back to class (it might be supplied with photos, memorabilia, souvenirs,
etc.). Discuss in groups what things you have ticked off the list, share your
impressions.
Task 33. Cut out these cards to use in the board game (Picture 17). Take
a card and answer the question with a complete sentence that contains an
adverb of frequency.
Picture 17
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2 Music
Picture 18
Lead-in
Look at the pictures above (Picture 18). What are your musical
predilections? What musical instruments can you play? Make up your
sentences according to the pattern.
I'm fond of ...
I'am keen on ...
Pattern:
I'm nuts about ...
I can't stand ...
I'm sick and tired of ...
Picture 19
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Task 1. Read the text and carry out the exercises.
The Orchestra
An orchestra is a group of musicians playing together. It most often includes
various string, woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. A musical group is
usually considered an orchestra only if it includes stringed instruments. A group
with only woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments is commonly called a
band.
Musicians in the string section play instruments related to the violin. Along
with violins, this section may include instruments such as violas, cellos, and string
basses. The strings are sometimes called the heart of a symphony orchestra.
The woodwinds include flutes, oboes, and clarinets. The brass section
includes such instruments as tubas, trumpets, French horns, and trombones. Drums
are the main percussion instruments. Percussionists may also play instruments such
as bells, cymbals, gongs, triangles, tambourines, or xylophones. Other instruments
are often added to an orchestra. These include the harp, organ, and piano.
Orchestra musicians work from musical scores. A score shows the notes to
be played by each instrument. During a performance, only the orchestra conductor
follows the complete score. Individual musicians have printed music that shows
only their own parts. The conductor directs the group with hand signals, gestures,
and facial expressions. “Lightly, lightly,” the conductor may signal high notes from
the violins, lifting his hands and raising his eyebrows. A serious look and hands
moving inward “pull” deep tones from the tuba.
Most major cities have large symphony orchestras. These are often made up
of more than 100 professional musicians. Smaller towns may have an orchestra of
15 to 40 amateur musicians. Many schools have student orchestras.
Task 2. Find the words according to their definitions.
1. What nine-letter noun from the reading means “a large group of musicians
playing together”? _O_______________________
2. What eight-letter compound word names a group of instruments,
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including the clarinet and flute, which have a mouthpiece into which the player
blows? _W______________________
Task 3. What ten-letter noun from the reading names a group of
instruments with which a sound is made by shaking or striking some part of
it? _P_____________________
Task 4. Instruments of the orchestra
These are the four sections of an orchestra:
strings
woodwind
brass
percussion
Label the following four sections, then match the names of the
instruments in colour with the pictures (Picture 20):
Section 1: ........................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
violin, viola, cello, double-bass, harp
Section 2: ........................................................................................
.........................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................
French horn, trombone, trumpet, tuba
Section 3: .......................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
oboe, clarinet, bassoon, flute
Section 4: ......................................................................................
.......................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................
cymbals, drum, timpani, triangle
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Picture 20
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Pattern
I'm fond of playing the piano, harp, guitar...
I've never played the bassoon, viola, cymbals...
I can't stand playing the trombone, flute, tuba...
I saw Martin strumming a guitar the other day. I didn't know he could play. He can't. He just likes people to think he can. He's got no musical talent
whatsoever.
I've taken up the violin. I've three lessons so far. - That's great. I love live
music. What can you play? - Well, the first week was all about tuning the
instrument. I've got to play a piece for my teacher next week.
Task 5. Move around the classroom and find someone in your group
who adores\hates\admires\dislikes\prefers ... Insert the answers into the table.
classical ...
techno ..
opera...
rock and pop ...
jazz..
heavy metal ...
soul ...
country ...
blues ...
folk ...
house ...
reggae ...
rap ...
world music ...
Task 6. Use these words to complete the definitions below:
concerto
1.
Overture
movements
symphony
Conductor
composer
The person who writes a piece of music is the ... - Beethoven, for
example.
2.
The person who directs the performance of an orchestra is the ... .
3.
A long musical compositions in several ... for the full orchestra is a ... .
4.
A ... is usually played by a solo instrument such as the piano or violin
and the full orchestra.
5.
An ... is a piece of music written as an introduction to an opera or
ballet.
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Task 7. Complete the sentences using these words:
music
voice
practice
solo
choir
ear
lessons
piece
1. Katy's got a beautiful ... . She sings in the local church ... .
2. A friend of mine plays the piano really well even though she can't read ...
She plays everything by ... .
3. I'm having piano ... at the moment. I try to do one hour's ... a day.
4. «The Four Seasons» is my favourite ... of music.
Pay attention: a choir sings in church (The Vienna Boys Choir); a chorus
sings in an opera house.
Task 8. Find and circle the words in the puzzle. The hidden words may
go up, down, across, backward or diagonally. Check off each word as you find
it.
____narrator
____audience
____theatre
____photograph ____author
____playwright ____scenery ____poem
____pianist
____musician
____design
____alliteration ____orchestra
____composer
____artist
____rhyme
____symphony
A
R
T
I
S
T
P
I
A
N
I
S
T
L
U
Z
A
C
A
P
C
R
P
O
D
V
L
R
D
J
A
L
L
O
T
U
P
M
E
I
H
R
I
R
Y
C
M
S
V
H
K
R
T
Y
G
E
E
Z
U
P
E
I
O
O
S
E
M
E
O
P
N
M
O
H
C
T
M
Y
R
E
H
A
N
R
C
S
C
A
O
U
M
A
U
T
H
O
R
G
E
R
A
G
S
P
T
Q
U
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M
T
T
R
O
N
R
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H
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C
H
T
H
E
A
T
E
R
A
C
O
O
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S
C
E
N
E
R
Y
M
P
I
N
N
G
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S
E
D
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L
Y
V
H
A
Y
N
P
L
A
Y
W
R
I
G
H
T
N
B
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Task 9. With what kind of music do you associate each of the following
instruments (Picture 21)? What other kinds of music do you listen to / know
of?
Picture 21
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Task 10. You will hear part of an interview with a young jazz musician
who has been called «the most important new musician in twenty years». In
pairs, think of three questions you would like to ask him.
Now listen to the recording. For items 1-9, fill the gaps with a word or
short phrase. Were your questions in answered?
Jonathan stated that «A love Supreme» and some other albums he listened to
in his childhood were to him the _________________ .
In his music, John Coltrane works with some very complicated _________,
but one doesn't have to understand those in order to appreciate it. According to
Jonathan, Coltrane did not care about ___________________ when he played music.
Jonathan says that some people who do not normally listen to jazz, will be able to
________________ to it if they are not made aware that it is actually free jazz.
The music Jonathan wrote for the theatrical play aims to place the listener in a
__________________ . Jonathan went to the play's rehearsals and even watched
videos of the rehearsals to ensure that there was __________ between his
composition and the play.
The reason Jonathan gives for never being able to shake off Cotrane's
influence is because music is part of ______________________ .
Four out of the twelve pieces on Jonathan's new album are ____________.
Jonathan has not changed his style much and is still __________________
playing easy-going jazz.
In the recording, Jonathan Redgrave says that music is part of who we
are. Do you agree with this statement?
Task 11. Word roots. The Greek root phone means «sound». The word
telephone, for example, means «a device for sending and receiving sounds».
Read the list of words containing phone. Then write a letter to match each
word with its meaning. Use a dictionary if you need help.
1) _____ symphony
a) the study of speech sounds as they are
represented in writing
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2) _____ saxophone
b) device for playing records
3) _____ phonetics
c) wind instrument with a curved metal body
4) _____ phonograph
d) long piece of music written for an orchestra
5) _____ xylophone
e) musical instrument with wooden or metal bars
which, when struck by a hammer, produce tones
Task 12. Add vowels (a, e, i, o, u) to complete a different form of a word
from the glossary. Use context clues for help. The first one has been done for
you.
1. Beethoven liked to be alone when he composed music.
2. An __r t__s t__c person uses his or her talents to create beauty.
3. An interior d__s__gn__r helps people decorate the inside of their homes
and other buildings.
4. The first s c__n__ of the play took place in a schoolyard.
5. Beethoven began playing the p__ __n__ when he was a child.
6. “Smile for the camera,” said the ph__t__gr__ph__r.
7. The sweet tones of the slow, beautiful m__s__c created a romantic mood.
8. A wounded soldier n__r r__t__d the exciting war story.
Task 13. Look at picture 21. Can you guess who is in it? You are going
to read the text entitled Ludwig Van Beethoven: The Moody Genius. Before
reading be sure you can read the words
correctly, write down the transcription opposite
each word.
Moody genius
Neat pigtails
Ludwig van Beethoven
Eccentric
Piano strings
Picture 22
Ludwig Van Beethoven: The Moody Genius
In 1774, four-year-old Ludwig van Beethoven had to stand on the piano
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bench to reach the keys. Eventually, he became known as Germany’s greatest
pianist. Beethoven’s talent attracted many friends. But he was a moody genius. If
people talked while he played, he would walk off in a huff. He was notorious for
rude behaviour. Once he got mad at a waiter and dumped gravy on the man’s head!
The fashionable hairstyle of the times was neat pigtails, but Beethoven wore his
hair long and wild. He cared nothing about stylish clothes. Beethoven scorned
company. He preferred being alone to compose symphonies. Sometimes he worked
for days without sleep. Beethoven’s most well-known notes begin his Fifth
Symphony. They are three short beats followed by one long beat. Some people
think these notes represent Fate knocking at the door. What is the worst thing you
could imagine happening to a musician? In his twenties, Beethoven began to lose
his hearing. He broke piano strings by pounding hard enough to hear the notes. The
deaf composer became even more eccentric. When conducting an orchestra, he’d
shout without realizing it. In his last performance, Beethoven could not hear the
audience. When someone turned him around to make him aware of the applause,
Beethoven began to cry. The great composer died at age 57. Until the very end, he
was a wild, defiant genius. According to legend, when a thunderstorm rattled the
room, Beethoven roused himself from his death bed and shook his fist at the sky.
Find the following words.
1. What eight-letter noun from the reading means “a long piece of music
played by a full orchestra”? _S__________________
2. What four-letter noun from the reading rhymes with puff and means “a fit
of anger”? _H_________________
3. What four-letter adjective from the reading means “incapable of hearing”?
_D_________________
Write synonyms by unscrambling the letters to spell a word from the
box.
conducting
eccentric
fate
Roused
1. leading = ___________ (TCUDGICONN) 3. destiny = _________ (TAEF)
2. odd = ____________(CENTRECIC) 4. stirred = ___________ (SURDOE)
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Now complete each sentence with one of the unscrambled words.
Boldface cue words are synonyms of the correct words.
5. When Beethoven was (leading) ____________________ an orchestra, he
would wave his arms wildly.
6. In a cruel twist of (destiny) ____________________, the great Beethoven
became deaf.
7. Beethoven’s habits of dress were very (odd) ____________________.
8. Beethoven’s music (stirred) ____________________ great excitement
and emotion in audiences.
Some words have entirely different meanings when they’re used in
different contexts. Find a word in the text that matches each pair of
definitions below. Write the words on the lines. Then circle the letter of the
definition used in the reading.
1. ____________________
a) a fit of anger (noun);
b) to blow or puff air (verb).
2. ____________________
a) to form by combining (verb);
b) to create or to write (verb).
3. ____________________
a) hits or strikes (verb);
b) units of rhythm in music (noun).
4. ____________________
a) metal devices used to open locks (noun);
b) flat slats that are pressed down to play certain instruments (noun).
5. ____________________
a) musical tones (noun);
b) written reminders (noun).
6. ____________________
a) a story retold through the years (noun);
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b) a description of the details on a map (noun).
ANALOGIES
Analogies are statements of relationship. To come up with the missing word,
you must figure out the relationship between the first two words. Complete the
analogies below with words from the reading. The first one has been done for you.
1. Artist is to painting as _________________________ is to symphony.
2. Live is to die as laugh is to _________________________.
3. Strings are to violin as keys are to _________________________.
4. Blindness is to sight as _________________________ is to hearing.
5. Coaching is to team as _________________________ is to orchestra.
Task 14. You are going to read the text entitled The virtual Chopin, one
of the greatest composers of the 19th century, Fryderyk Chopin, had an
irrepressible creative imagination, and his music experienced continual
evolution as a result. Now, a new online resource is bringing the many
versions of his compositions together in one place, opening up new possibilities
for performers, listeners and researchers alike.
Listen to text:
http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/features/the-virtual-chopin
Picture 23
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The virtual Chopin
For Chopin there was no single,
definitive version:
he continually changed his mind
John Rink
Picture 24
March 1, 2013 is the 203rd anniversary of the birth of Fryderyk Chopin. Not
only is Chopin still a household name: he is probably the most enduring composer
of his age.
For some, this comes down to the ineffable beauty, subtlety and technical
refinement of his work. Others point to the fact that unlike many Romantic
composers, Chopin rarely tried to convey a specific message or story through his
music. Publishing under neutral titles which gave little away, he preferred to leave
interpretation to the listener. The result is that even today, audiences tend to find
something uniquely personal in each and every piece.
Yet while listeners can simply sit back and enjoy the music, the obscurity of
Chopin’s intentions makes understanding his work a challenge for anyone seeking
to get closer to the composer himself. Chopin is both fascinating and frustrating in
this respect, because he rarely left behind just one version of his compositions.
More often, there are three, four, five or more - any number of which might be an
“authoritative” representation of how he wanted the piece to sound. Listeners,
performers and researchers alike may find this liberating, but also bewildering
because there are so many options from which to choose.
John Rink, Professor of Musical Performance Studies at Cambridge, is
director of a project which is transforming the way in which we understand
Chopin’s work by bringing this compositional cornucopia together in one place.
Launched in 2005 with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the
“Online Chopin Variorum Edition” (http://www.ocve.org.uk) is still under
development, but eventually it will provide digital images of all the available
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primary sources of Chopin’s music - whether sketches, complete manuscripts (both
Chopin’s and those of copyists), first editions, or later impressions. Thousands of
pages from these documents are already available, and the entire site is free of
charge. Users anywhere in the world can explore, compare and combine elements
from the great composer’s music, comment on it as they go, and ultimately
construct their own version of the Chopin work to an extent that has never before
been possible.
Purists might call that sacrilege, but Rink believes that it is very much in the
spirit of what Chopin wanted. In fact, he describes as “indefensible” the notion that
a given version of Chopin was necessarily what the composer would have intended
for all time.
“For Chopin there was no single, definitive version: he continually changed
his mind,” Rink says. “We might identify a particular source as representing his
conception of the music at a given moment, but the next day he might well have
heard, played or notated it differently. We therefore need to understand his music
as existing in a state of flux, a process involving not only the composer but all
those who later come into contact with it – including performers, listeners, editors,
critics and so on.”
Contemporary evidence confirms that Chopin’s genius was restless and
boundless, in that he continually modified his work on paper while correcting
errors, refining the notation, or indulging in other creative possibilities. To
minimise the risk of piracy, he also published separate editions in France, England
and the German states, usually leading to the release of three distinct versions of
his music which might be altered yet again - either by Chopin or his publishers when a given print run sold out and a new impression was required. Even his rare,
sensational public performances were a creative act: according to one of his piano
tuners, Chopin never played his own music the same way twice, instead varying
his approach to suit the occasion. The numerous variants that he pencilled into the
scores of his students hint at the improvisatory character of his playing.
Rink can point to numerous examples already available through the
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Variorum that prove just how flexible the Chopin work is. The C minor Prelude
Op. 28 No. 20, for example, is a notoriously controversial piece precisely because
nobody is sure what Chopin really wanted. Remarkably, the debate hinges on the
ending of a single bar. Trivial though that may seem, the music sounds completely
different depending on which version is played – one is brighter, the other sombre,
introverted. Either could be correct, but then again both versions might simply
represent what Chopin wanted at different times. Even more striking, perhaps, is
the fact that the piece exists in two original versions: one nine bars long, the other
thirteen. Only the latter is performed nowadays, but the former – which was not
meant for publication – may reflect Chopin’s earliest conception.
In some cases users can see several layers of corrections on the page itself.
The Second Ballade Op. 38 is a case in point. Here, Chopin wrote two different
endings and then vacillated between them; his manuscript shows the original
ending scribbled out and replaced with a second version, which made its way into
one of the first editions whereas another conforms to the original. Again, the effect
is quite different depending on which ending the pianist chooses to play, as the
second version is more imposing than its understated counterpart.
Rink believes that despite this seemingly limitless variety, Chopin’s music
should not be altered capriciously. “To make a musically sensible decision about
what you put forward as a performer, you need to have sound criteria along with
the knowledge and judgement that can accrue only over time,” he says. This last
point is critical: “merely having access to the original sources does not in itself
allow one to make informed, convincing decisions about how this music ‘should’
be played and understood.”
For this reason, the Variorum provides more than just an archive of digitised
manuscripts and printed editions culled from dozens of international libraries and
private collectors. Visitors to the OCVE site can browse a full index of the
materials that have been uploaded, select a work, then view the different versions
on offer. But the main feature of the Variorum is the ability to select and compare
particular bars or passages across all the different sources for a given piece,
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thereby revealing the music’s creative history. Background information is provided
at an overview level and on an in-depth, bar-by-bar basis. The site also works as a
“virtual notepad”, enabling users to jot down ideas about the music as they work
their way through it. They can keep these annotations to themselves, or share them
with others.
Despite the growing significance of digital media in the arts and humanities
as a whole, no musical resource quite like this has ever before been attempted: the
Variorum offers unprecedented opportunities to compare and reconstruct Chopin’s
creative process in a way that would not be possible on the printed page - where
even the comparison of a few bars in different sources requires a large desk as well
as juggling skills. In time, Rink hopes that the Chopin Variorum might serve as a
model for “dynamic editions” of other composers’ works.
For now, it means that rather than having Chopin’s musical legacy mediated
for us, we can, if we wish, make up our own minds about how to hear or perform
his works. Ironically, this seems to have been Chopin’s very intention. “Music does
not exist in a single, correct version,” Rink notes. “It constantly changes over time.
Chopin reminds us of that because he himself kept changing his music. Whenever
we perform or listen to it, our experience is different from the last. By putting his
compositions into a digital space, we can model and capture that evolutionary
process. In doing so, we breathe new life into Chopin’s music and witness for
ourselves his compositional genius at work.”
Make a report using the information from the text.
Task 15. Choose the most appropriate words from the box. Other
collocations are in bold type.
note
words
tune
Voice
choir
albums
career
1. He started singing in the church ______________ when he was eight and he
had a beautiful _______________.
2. What's that _________________ you're whistling? It sounds vaguely
familiar.
3. I've got a piano but I can't play a _____________________.
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4. Sing alone if you know the _______________________________.
5. She recorded three best-selling _____________________ and her singing
_____________ is going from strength to strength.
Task 16. Which is the most natural-sounding answer?
1. Sing is you must, but please try not to sing out of tune / off the tune.
2. When I was eleven I learnt the violin but I didn't train / practice very often.
3. Just hum the tune if you don't know the words / lyrics.
4. I'm a terrible / horrible dancer because I've got no sense of beat / rhythm.
5. Dan was tapping his feet to the beat / tempo of the music.
6. The violinist gave / made a very moving performance.
7. The band are planning to go on / take a tour in the spring.
8. Joanna has a good ear / sense for music and she can pick out a tune /
harmony on the piano after hearing it only once.
9. I'm learning to dance the tango / tango, but I can't find a dance companion /
partner.
10.I don't like musicals because every five minutes someone explodes / burstd
into song.
11.My son's taken / started up the saxophone, but he's not very talented / good
at it yet.
Task 17. Match the two parts of the sentences.
1) He's a gifted musician with perfect ...
a) roll
2) I've always been interested in rhythm and ...
b) beat
3) The song has a simple ...
c) blues
4) It's a track with a very strong ...
d) pitch
5) The 1950s saw the emergence of rock and ...
e) melody
Task 18. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the words / phrases
listed below. Then, explain the idioms.
jump on
play second
bring
walk
wait it
face
strike
read
follow
put you in
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1. It's much better to admit that you made a mistake and
__________________ the music.
2. It's like _____________________ a tightrope at the moment; one mistake
and the festival could be cancelled.
3. Our town was the first to build a multi-cultural centre, but now other
towns are ________________ the bandwagon.
4. Her loud orange dress and angry expression
_________________________ the wrong note at the gallery opening.
5. The actress is trying to appeare calm, but __________________________
between the lines, I'd say she's quite worried.
6. The theatre manager cannot afford to look weak right now; he knows
there are other people ________________________ the wings to take his place.
7. Brian wanted the leading role, he's not interested in
___________________ fiddle to anyone.
8. After being published every week for the last century, the owners are
finally ___________________ the curtain down on the local arts magazine.
9. Before the rehearsal starts, let me _____________________ the picture
about what has been done up to now.
10. Mattew was a very good director, his successor will find him a hard act
___________.
Task 19. Which of the following albums are example of:
1 Reggae __________d________
5 Pop ____________________
2 Jazz ______________________
6 Dance __________________
3 Heavy metal _______________
7 Easy listening ____________
4 Opera ____________________
8 Classical music ___________
a) The Berlin Semphony Orchestra: Longmanius' Violin Concerto No 1
Helmut Von Karavan was over eighty when he conducted this definitive
recording by the contemporary Swedish composer. Violin soloist Frederick
Klose leads the string section with both passion and pathos, and there is excellent
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back-up from the wind and percussion section.
b) Verona Philharmonic and the Bologna Choral: Mozart's The
Marriage of Figaro
Luciano di Parma is one of the world's finest singers, and his rich barritone
voice is heard to best effect on this live album. The orchestra, too, are in good
form, and help to bring this Mozart classic to life. For those of you who want to
sing along, the words (together with an English translation) are included inside the
album cover.
c) Deathjaw — Scream Dream.
This album is not for faint-hearted. Ozzie Gutt's screaming vocals and
Richie Moreton's deafening electric guitar are enough to blow your amplifier. And
if they don't do it, Bev Powell's thumping drums certainly will! For heaven's sake,
don't play this when your grandmpther's around!
d) Ricky Rankin' Mann — Caribbean Heat
If you can't get to Jamaica, then this album is the next best thing. There is an
exhilarating beat that simply makes you want to find a tropical beach and dance
the night away. If you liked Bob Marley, you'll love this.
e) Dizzy Waters — Hot Nights, Cool Sounds
Nobody can play the saxophone like Dizzy Waters, and you only have to
listen to this album once to be transported to the steamy, smoke-filled basement
clubs of New Orleans. It's smooth and mellow. Ideal midnight music for night
owls.
f) Various — Can Rave, Will Rave
This is a compilation of the best techno, rave, hip-hop and house music
from the last decade. It includes top mixes from the Ibiza scene, and is guaranteed
to get everybody on the floor if your party needs livening up.
g) Andy Cheeseman — Champagne and Roses: the best of Andy
Cheeseman
The singer-songwriter croons his way through some of his classic love
songs. Sentimental lyrics and memorable tunes will help the evenings pass more
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quickly. It is the ideal album for incurable romantics everywhere.
h) The Spicy Grills — We Can't Sing
Profound lyrics and lively music from one of today's newest groups. This
album has already produced three top ten hits and looks set to win a number of
awards, including best-selling album of the year, best newcomer and most original
artist. This is essential listening for teenagers everywhere.
Task 20. Read and translate the text, be ready to answer the question:
what is the main idea of the text?
Music – or language in action?
Music is more than just sound. Sharing many features with language,
it has all the hallmarks of a communicative system,
as Cambridge researchers are showing.
Music and speech are best conceived
of as having co-evolved as components
of a generalised human communicative toolkit.
Professor Ian Cross
In present-day Western cultures, we tend to underestimate the remarkable
overlap between music and language in the functions they fulfil as communicative
media. At first glance, music seems to us quite different from language; after all,
we clearly cannot exchange information through music as we do through language.
But if we shift our cultural perspective, we find that in many traditional
societies music is not just presentational but also participatory. People engage with
each other in musical performance, making music together – what has been called
‘musicking’.
Among the research priorities of the University of Cambridge’s Centre for
Music and Science (CMS), established in 2003 in the Faculty of Music and staffed
by Professor Ian Cross and Professor Sarah Hawkins (respectively, specialists in
music and speech), is the relationship between music and language as closely
interconnected systems of communication. Ongoing research, such as that of
graduate student Sarah Knight, is demonstrating how participatory music shares
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many functional attributes with aspects of speech – language in action.
All in the timing
“Conversation is not just about information exchange, it’s about continually
establishing and reaffirming the mutual recognition of each other as social beings,”
explained Professor Cross. “This relational dimension in speech involves tone of
voice or prosody – not dissimilar from melody in music – as well as timing.”
Timing in conversational interactions is extremely important to enable us to
produce signals (gestures, interjections) at appropriate points and to take turns to
speak. Timing in speech makes it clear that we understand the information that we
are receiving, creates and sustains a sense of rapport with other speakers, and
directs another’s attention to what is being said.
There’s now a substantial amount of evidence from research at CMS and
across the field of psychology that regularity or periodicity of timing – a regular
beat – also has these last two functions. If people move together to a beat, then
they are more likely to experience each other as sympathetic; if we hear a beat,
even subconsciously, it will capture our attention.
Sarah Knight has applied these ideas to understanding aspects of timing in
language. Although speech lacks the overt rhythm of music, speakers might
modulate how they deliver speech to capture listeners’ attention. To understand
how rhythmicity is used in speech, Sarah analysed examples of everyday
conversation, university lectures, political speeches and highly rhythmic poetry,
measuring how listeners rated the rhythmicity of each.
Everyday conversation, she finds, has no regular pulse; to a lesser extent,
didactic lectures also lack rhythm, probably as a result of being constrained by the
forms of the specific information that we wish to impart.
In party political oratory, however, she finds the very opposite is likely to
hold. Rhythm is used deliberately and consistently, even to the extent that the
actual information is often the least significant component of the talk. The
implication is that rhythmicity is used in an attempt to manipulate the attentiveness
of listeners, and also signals how much speakers ‘want to be liked’. Examples of
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persuasive oratory used by the researchers can be found here:
Drumbeats corresponding to a listener's tapping in an experiment by Sarah
Knight and Ian Cross have been superimposed to highlight sections of particularly
overt rhythmicity. The low-pitched drum is used for slower sections, and the highpitched drum for quicker sections. (Credit for original audio: Labour Party
YouTube channel).
Part of the human toolkit
Other research at CMS is also reinforcing the idea that speech and music are
closely connected, and may have common evolutionary origins.
The early appearance of music in our archaeological record lends weight to
the idea that the capacity for music is an adaptive characteristic of the human
species. Music might have played a role in enabling our ancestors to get on with
each other – to form, maintain and re-form stable yet flexible groups or cultures –
in effect, an evolutionary scenario that would have been important for survival.
“In fact, music and speech are best conceived of as having co-evolved as
components of a generalised human communicative toolkit,” said Professor Cross.
“Music provides a relational medium similar to the relational dimension of speech,
but different enough to be an important component of the human repertoire of
communicative interactions in its own right, and far better suited than speech for
the management of situations of social uncertainty.”
If this is the case, then music may be – and may have been – as important as
language in enabling humans to achieve the unique flexibility in social interaction
that characterises the human species.
Task 21. Look at these music reviews and note the collocations in bold.
Bloom Music from the Centre of the Earth
New arrivals on the rock music scene, Bloom are already making a big
impact. If you're looking for background music, then this is not for you, but if you
want music to blast out from1) your hi-fi and annoy the neighbours, then Bloom's
1)
Sound extremely loud.
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debut1) album, with tracks from their live performance at the Delaya Stadium,
may be just what you want.
Johnny MacRoy Songs we loved
For fans of easy listening2) and catchy3) tunes, this is all you need. In fact
it's so relaxing you might just fall asleep. MacRoy gives a sentimental
performance of these old love songs. At 47, he's not exactly a pop idol but his
adoring fans will love it.
The Divide Amphibian
This is a rock symphony, an extraordinary piece of music. After their
massive hit in 2004 with Megalith, their record company has released this CD
hoping for another big hit. The band themselves wrote the music. They have a
huge following and are due to go on tour later this year.
The Oxbridge Symphonia British classics old and new
Haunting melodies and the occasional virtuoso4) performance from its two
soloists mark this collection of popular British classical music, which aims to
capture a wider audience for the classics and to promote Britain's musical
herritage. Roger Crow conducts the orchestra. Crow himself composed two of
the pieces, hence the CD title. Good birthday present for your uncle and aunt. But
if you're a real classical music lover, save your money.
Bust-out with Jola V Blaze Mama
Bust-out's new double CD features 5 ) Jola V, a young rap artist from
Miami. Jola used to be with Chicago hip-hop band Frenzy, but went solo in 2004.
The band have remixed four tracks from earlier albums and Jola's uptempo 6)
numbers just add to the excitement.
Task 22. Change the underlined words using collocations from task 21
so that each sentence has the opposite meaning.
1)
Presented to the public for the first time.
Music that is not serious or difficult.
3)
Plesant and easy to remember.
4)
Extremely skillful.
5)
Includes as an important part.
6)
Played at a fast beat.
2)
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1. The band's last CD was a minor hit (give two answers).
2. There are some great slow numbers on this new CD.
3. The band has a small following of dedicated fans.
4. Music was playing quietly on a CD player when I entered the house.
5. Maria Plurosa gave a poor performance of Heder's violin concerto last
night.
Task 23. Correct the eight collocation errors in this paragraph. The first
is done for you.
For all folk music likers, Johnny Coppin's new CD, The Long Harvest, 1 lovers
published last week, will be a great addition to their collection. Bob
2
recently got solo after five years with the folk band Blue Mountain. He
3
is proud of the musical inheritance of his native Kentucky. Tracks 3 and 4
7 comprise his old friend Wiz Carter on guitar. With this CD Coppin
5
says he hopes to control a wider audience for folk music. His excellent
6
living performance at the recent Lockwood Folk Festival suggests he
7
has a good chance of succeeding. He makes a tour next month. Don't
8
miss him.
Musical instruments
Task 24. Look at the drawings (Pictures 25-26) of the musical
instruments below and then write the numbers 1-25 next to the following
words.
accordion
cymbal
kettledrum
triangle
bagpipes
double bass
oboe
trombone
banjo
flute
organ
trumpet
bassoon
French horn
piano
tuba
bongoes
harmonica
saxophone
viola
cello
harp
tambourine
violin
clarinet
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Picture 25
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Picture 26
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Task 25. Read the following text and study picture 27 on the next page.
When you have finished, write the words printed in bold type in the text next
to the correct numbers 1-16.
A pop group can have many forms, but a traditional one has a single lead
singer, and sometimes a backing group. There is nearly always a drummer
sitting behind his or her drum kit and two or three guitarists playing electric
guitars. The person playing lead guitar is usually a very good guitarist and has all
the solos. The person playing bass guitar, which is the biggest of the electric
guitars, provides a strong, often pounding bass rhythm. Sometimes, especially for a
slower, quieter ballad, one of them might play an acoustic guitar. The difference
is that electric guitars always have to be plugged into an amplifier. The singer
sings into a microphone and behind him or her are usually several enormous
loudspeakers. Nowadays there is nearly always a keyboard player. He or she
always a range of synthesizers and possibly an electric piano. Finally, some
groups have a saxophone player and might even have one or two dancers.
Write the words here.
1) ______________________________
9)______________________________
2)______________________________
10)_____________________________
3)______________________________
11)_____________________________
4)______________________________
12)_____________________________
5)______________________________
13)_____________________________
6)______________________________
14)_____________________________
7)______________________________
15)_____________________________
8)______________________________
16)_____________________________
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Picture 27
Task 26. What word(s) mean ...?
1. ... music that is playing while you are doing something else and not really
listening to it?
2. ... music that is not complicated or difficult to listen to?
3. ... a pop musician who is a very big star with many fans?
4. ... a type of performer who speaks rhymed lyrucs over rhythm tracks?
5. ... to tighten or loosen the strings of an instrument till they make the
correct note?
6. ... a way of playing a guitar by moving fingers across the strings?
Task 27. Complete these sentences with suitable collocations.
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1. Hundreds of ...................... fans were waiting for Shamira to come out of
the concert hall.
2. The orchestra gave a wonderful ......................... of some popular classics.
3. It was a very ....................... tune; you only had to hear it once and you
were singing it.
4. I'd love to ......................... ....................... a musical instrument but I don't
have time.
5. It is one of those .......................... melodies which you never forget, so
beautiful, yet so sad.
6. There's a lot of musical ............................. in the family; all children play
an instrument.
Task 28. Give the summary of the text in English.
Мир музыки
Вейник А.Е.
Рукопись, 20.11.2011 г.
Интересно то, что музыку наш мозг воспринимает одновременно
обеими полушариями: левое полушарие ощущает ритм, а правое – тембр и
мелодию. Самое сильное воздействие на организм человека оказывает ритм.
Ритмы музыкальных произведений лежат в диапазоне от 2,2 до 4 колебаний в
секунду, что очень близко к частоте дыхания и сердцебиения.
Организм человека, слушающего музыку, как бы подстраивается под
неё. В результате поднимается настроение, работоспособность, снижается
болевая чувствительность, нормализуется сон, восстанавливается стабильная
частота сердцебиения и дыхания.
Многим из нас музыка помогает справиться с депрессией, грустью,
плохим настроением. Правда вкусы и предпочтения у всех разные – это
может быть и классика и тяжелый рок. И все это можно объяснить по
научному, а не как мы часто говорим: нравится или не нравиться.
А вот физика позволяет нам взглянуть на этот вопрос совсем с другой
стороны. Человеческий мозг не очень любит высокочастотные звуки. Этим
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можно объяснить такую популярность попсы. Звуки её низкочастотны –
порядка 40-66 герц. Вот отсюда и пристрастия людей к "клубной" музыке.
Низкие частоты, которые используются в этой музыке, не напрягают, а просто
зомбируют людей. Конечно, кто-то может сказать, что клубная музыка их
отягощает и угнетает. Это уже предпочтения одного человека, а не массы в
целом.
Высокочастотные звуки, используемые в музыке стиля барокко,
обладают большей длиной волны, чем наш мозг способен улавливать. Вот
почему
некоторые
люди
испытывают
дискомфорт
при
длительном
прослушивании классической музыки.
Положительное влияние музыки на человека.
Мой знаменитый прадед в 1973 году написал в своей запрещенной
книге: "Например, в Китае давно было замечено, что цветы "любят" музыку –
быстрее и лучше растут, цветут и т.д., причем они "предпочитают" не
какофонию, а симфонические (мелодичные) произведения. В этом нет
никакой мистики. Звуковые вибрации определенной частоты (оптимальная
частота зависит от диаметра и длины капилляров, свойств стенок и т.д.)
ускоряют фильтрацию, жидкостный и газовый обмен. Какофонический
концерт содержит недостаточно звуков нужной частоты, мелодичный же
обеспечивает большую длительность воздействия вибраций на обмен.
Ещё лучше поступил один американский фермер, поместив на краю
своего поля динамики, звучащие от зуммера определенной частоты. Первые
же опыты дали увеличение урожая злаковых на несколько десятков
процентов. Виброфильтрация очень сильно влияет на животный организм. В
определенном диапазоне частот и при небольшой интенсивности вибрации
могут доставлять удовольствие (музыка). При большой интенсивности
вибрации действуют на организм губительно. Их используют, например, для
уничтожения
микробов.
Вибрации
сравнительно
низкой
частоты
и
небольшой продолжительности могут оказывать весьма благотворное
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влияние на процессы обмена. Соответствующие приемы воздействия широко
практикуются йогами.
В самое последнее время с помощью ультразвука удалось значительно
ускорить
процесс
заживления
ран.
Рана
подвергается
слабому
ультразвуковому облучению в течение 15 минут три раза в неделю.
Соответствующий опыт провели британские медики, биологи и физики.
Исключительный интерес представляют эксперименты французского
профессора
Гавро
с
инфразвуком
[Владимир
Гавро
(Гавронский),
французский физик, занимавшийся в 1950-1960-х годах экспериментами с
инфразвуком. - ВАЕ]. Звук низкой частоты вызывает у человека состояние
усталости, депрессии и может привести даже к смерти. Например, инфразвук
с частотой 7 герц смертелен для человека, так как вызывает остановку
сердца. По предположению Гавро, это объясняется совпадением частоты
инфразвука с альфа-ритмом головного мозга".
"Звуки и ритмы рок-музыки, кроме того, вызывают, подобно
алкоголизму и наркотизации, необратимые нарушения работы мозга".
"В частности, благодаря связям между зрительным и слуховым
ощущениями на музыкальных концертах свет не гасят полностью: световые
ощущения помогают звуковым восприятиям. Соответствующие связи
используются также при создании цветомузыки – определенные звучания
оркестра сопровождаются соответствующими цветовыми сигналами на
экране и т.д."
В 1998 году (ПВБ) он записал: "По приглашению известного органиста
Олега Янченко мне посчастливилось дважды прослушать органную мессу
Иоганна Себастьяна Баха, который умел напрямую разговаривать с Богом на
своем зашифрованном в музыке языке. Концерты были обставлены постаринному, с канделябрами, свечами и т.п.
Впечатление было потрясающим: на первом концерте душа сама нашла
путь к Богу, второй мистически и пророчески высветил всю мою судьбу с ее
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прошлым, настоящим и будущим, взлетами и падениями и благодарностью в
конце".
В США во время уроков языка для переселенцев проигрывали музыку
Моцарта, Баха, Вивальди. Усвоение языка заметно ускорилось. В Японии в
одной из пекарен хлеб выпекают под звуки Шестой симфонии Бетховена.
Музыка звучит непрерывно, хлеб обладает исключительным вкусом. В
Японии кто-то догадался производить саке под музыку Моцарта. Качество
саке заметно выросло. Музыка приводит к улучшению памяти, повышению
концентрации, внимание гораздо дольше удерживается на предмете изучения.
Влияние музыки на организм человека.
Музыкальные звуки воздействуют на организм через 3 механизма акустический,
вибротактильный
распространяющиеся
в
среде
и
биорезонансный.
упругие
волны
с
Звук
–
частотами
это
от 16 и
до 20000 Герц, воздействующие на слуховой аппарат человека, на органы,
клетки и ДНК.
В основе акустического механизма воздействия музыки лежит её
способность влиять на психоэмоциональное состояние человека.
Склонность людей к таким болезням, как гипертония, стенокардия, язва
желудка и др., часто объясняется не физической немощью и не
наследственной
человека,
его
предрасположенностью,
мировоззрением
и
а
особенностями
отношением
к
характера
окружающей
действительности.
Оказывается, язвой желудка и двенадцатиперстной кишки, гипертонией
чаще болеют люди, нетерпимые к ошибкам и "неправильному" поведению
других людей, жестко придерживающиеся своих принципов и взглядов,
настроенные враждебно и противопоставляющие себя окружающим.
Если же человек постоянно зациклен на собственных недостатках,
неуверен в себе - это прямой путь к мигреням, аритмии сердца, бронхиальной
астме. Чтобы избежать или вылечить психосоматическое заболевание
(именно так называется эта группа болезней), нужно изменить если не
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характер человека, то хотя бы его отношение к своим проблемам и к жизни
вообще.
Исследованиями установлено, что музыка влияет даже на глухих
людей. Происходит это потому, что музыка способна проникать в организм не
только
через
органы
слуха,
но
и
через
кожу.
При
воздействии
на виброрецепторы звуковыми волнами определенной частоты запускается
противоболевая система.
В России впервые в мире учёные доказали воздействие музыки на
клеточном уровне, а также на уровне ДНК - сложной структуры, которая
взаимодействует с электромагнитными и акустическими волнами, а также
сама их излучает. По данным исследователей, реагируют на музыку раковые
клетки, причем от одной музыки они начинают активно расти и
размножаться, а от другой, наоборот, их рост замедляется. Учёные
экспериментировали со стафилококками, с кишечными палочками и
подобрали такую музыку, от которой эти микробы погибают.
Также целебным фактором в музыке является ритм. Ритм считается
сердцем музыки, и, по мнению ряда специалистов по музыкотерапии, именно
он лежит в основе её лечебных свойств. В природе всё подчинено
определенным ритмам, и человеческий организм не исключение. Каждый
орган в системе "человек" вибрирует по-своему, и его вибрации совпадают с
ритмом энергией вполне определенных звуков и инструментов.
Резонансные частоты внутренних органов человека:

20-30 Гц (резонанс головы);

19 Гц и 40-100 Гц (резонанс глаз);

0,5-13 Гц (резонанс вестибулярного аппарата);

6-8 Гц (резонанс почек);

4-6 Гц (резонанс сердца);

2-5 Гц (резонанс рук);

2-4 Гц (резонанс кишечника);

2-3 Гц (резонанс желудка).
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Типы ритмов мозга человека:
1) дельта-ритм (от 0,5 до 4 колебаний в секунду, амплитуда - 50-500
мкВ);
2) тэта-ритм (от 5 до 7 колебаний в секунду, амплитуда – 10-30 мкВ);
3) альфа-ритм (от 8 до 13 колебаний в секунду, амплитуда – до 100
мкВ);
4) сигма-ритм (от 13 до 14 колебаний в секунду, амплитуда у взрослых
в основном не меньше 50 мкВ);
5) бета-ритм (от 15 до 35 колебаний в секунду, амплитуда – 5-30 мкВ);
6) гамма-ритм (от 35 до 100 колебаний в секунду, амплитуда – до 15
мкВ).
Резонанс колебательных систем - хорошо исследованное и понятое в
физике явление. Если возбудить камертон на частоте, скажем, 440 герц и
поднести его к другому, невозбужденному, камертону с собственной частотой
тоже 440 герц, то последний тоже начнет звучать. В этом случае говорят, что
второй камертон заставил первый резонировать. Физика резонансного
взаимодействия с таким же успехом применима и к биологическим системам.
В нашем случае интерес представляют электромагнитные волны в
мозге. Электрохимическая активность мозга приводит к появлению в нем
электромагнитных
волн,
которые могут
быть
изучены
с
помощью
специального оборудования. Частота этих волн зависит от активности
нейронов
в
мозге.
Поскольку
нейронная
активность
носит
электрохимический характер, функционирование мозга может быть изменено
путем резонансного взаимодействия с внешними системами.
Таковыми системами могут являться и ритмические структуры,
используемые в музыке. Вибрации музыкальных звуков активизируют
вегетативные механизмы высшей нервной деятельности, вызывают особые
вибрационные ответы в подсознании человека. Происходят реакции, которые
способствует более быстрому выздоровлению пациентов.
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Мало кому известен анекдотичный случай, произошедший в США во
время сверхсекретных испытаний самолетов-невидимок ("Стэлс"). Когда
домохозяйки небольшого городка, расположенного недалеко от секретной
авиабазы, стирали в эмалированных тазиках белье (которые, между прочим,
по форме и по некоторым качествам походили на параболическую антенну),
то начинали слышать у себя в голове переговоры летчиков с авиабазой. Все
дело в том, что несущая частота радиостанций, из соображений секретности,
была выбрана нестандартной и оказалась равной одной из резонансных
частот организма.
Целительная сила музыки.
Вот рекомендации по использованию музыки для лечения некоторых
заболеваний:
- Для стабилизации и активизации деятельности мозга подходят
произведения Моцарта. Это могут быть первые и третьи части из
фортепьянных сонат и концертов, "Рондо" из "Маленькой ночной серенады".

От головной боли спасет полонез Огинского, "Венгерская рапсодия"
Листа, "Фиделио" Бетховена.

Бессонницу можно вылечить сюитой "Пер Гюнт" Грига, "Грустный вальс"
Сибелиуса, пьесами Чайковского.

Гипертоникам полезно слушать "Ноктюрн ре-минор" Шопена, "Свадебный
марш" Мендельсона и "Концерт ре-минор" для скрипки Баха.

Приятная музыка благотворно действует и на кровь. Любимая мелодия
вызывает увеличение в крови лимфоцитов, организму становится легче
бороться с болезнями.

Прослушивание классики помогает легкому запоминанию информации.
Бородин, Шопен, Бетховен: помогает лучше познать себя и разобраться в
собственных чувствах. Чайковский симфонии: освобождают душу от
неприятных воспоминаний и страданий. Брамс, медленные произведения
Баха, прелюдии Листа: помогает преодолеть застенчивость и излишнюю
стыдливость. Шостакович: помогает контролировать отрицательные
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эмоции (злобу, раздражительность). Бизе, Кальмана, Моцарт, Легара,
танцевальные
произведения
Штрауса:
при
прослушивании
этих
композиторов мироощущение у человека формируется оптимистическое.
Шопен концерты для фортепиано с оркестром: делает отношение к
окружающему миру более позитивным и радостным. Музыка Генделя,
Корелли, Вивальди, Баха: составляет шестьдесят четвертей ноты в минуту
(68-72 удара в минуту это сердечный ритм обычного, здорового человека).
Слушая такую музыку, наше сердце настраивается на ритм исцеляющей
силы музыки, и мы поневоле расслабляемся.
Бетховен "Лунная соната": прогоняет подальше невроз и депрессию.
Пьесы Чайковского: помогают людям страдающим бессонницей.
Полонез Огинский: помогает, когда начинает болеть голова.
После обобщения работ как отечественных, так и зарубежных учённых
было установлено, что целительная сила музыки после прослушивания
спокойной классической музыки проявляет себя в выработке гормонов
удовольствия. Эта музыка также влияет на амплитуду электромагнитных волн
головного мозга, действуя успокаивающе. Параллельно с этим происходит
синхронизация обоих полушарий головного мозга (левого и правого), это
ведёт к повышению интеллектуальной деятельности. Также прослушивание
классической музыки укрепляет иммунную систему и не даёт вирусам
"проникнуть" в организм человека. Это связано с изменением в составе крови
и повышению концентрации элементов иммунной защиты от вирусов. Так,
что можно смело сказать, что в нашей домашней аптеке обязательно должны
быть произведения Моцарта, Шопена и Баха.
Бах,
"Токката
и
фуга
ре-минор",
"Органная
месса",
другие
произведения для органа: восстанавливают вибрации внутренних органов,
которые нарушены и гармонизируют психоэмоциональную сферу.
Вивальди, сюита "Времена года": наполняет уверенностью и избавляет
от чувства страха.
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Духовная
музыка
литургии
Рахманинова,
Архангельского,
Бортнянского: наполняет энергией, силой любви и восстанавливают
внутреннее равновесие.
Вагнер,
из
оперы
"Тангейзер"
"Хор
пилигримов":
снимает
раздражительность, агрессию.
Бетховен, "Лунная соната", соната "Аппассионата", ода "К радости" из
симфонии № 9: Восстанавливает душевное равновесие, растворяет печаль,
уныние, угнетённость.
Григ, из сюиты "Пер Гюнт" - "Утро": исцеляет от синдрома
хронической усталости.
Дебюсси, "Лунный свет", Шуман, симфония № 4, "Грёзы": улучшает
настроение, способствует концентрации внимания.
Вальсы Шопена и Штрауса: выравнивают сердечный ритм, дарят
творческое озарение, вдохновение, наполняют счастьем.
Современные
аудиозаписи
"Молебное
пение
Божией
матери",
"Колокольные звоны": Аура очищается, защищает от негатива, нормализуют
вибрацию органов человека, снимают стресс, укрепляют иммунитет.
Звуки природы: "Дождь, гроза", "Море", "Мечтания", "Дыхание весны":
Снимают стресс, повышают жизненный тонус и иммунитет, наполняют
оптимизмом.
Композиции
Клаудермана,
Китаро:
в
медитациях,
помогают
восстановить энергетическое и психологическое равновесие.
Разрушительная сила музыки.
Обычно мало кто отдаёт себе отчёт в том, что музыка предназначена не
только для развлечения. Она также обладает способностью оказывать
заметное воздействие на психическое, эмоциональное и физическое
состояние человека. На степень развития человека влияют различные
звуковые частоты, воздействующие как негативно, так и положительно.
Лучше всего воспринимаемая человеком музыка определяет степень его
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развития. Чтобы узнать о человеке больше, его спрашивают: "Какую музыку
вы любите?"
Различная современная музыка: рэп, техно, электронная и т.д.,
воздействует на энергетическую систему человека негативно и способствует
его деградации. Особенно опасны низкочастотные ритмические колебания.
Деградация личности базируется, в первую очередь, на разрушении волевого
и чувственного начал с утратой как способности тонко чувствовать, так и
этически дифференцировать собственные внутренние мотивы поступков.
Изменения интеллекта при этом могут не наблюдаться.
Ритмические колебания проявляются в ритме (или темпе) музыки, то
есть в количестве ударов (тактов) в минуту. Так, ритм вальса составляет
около 50-80 ударов в минуту, иными словами около 1 Гц. Музыка,
предназначенная для релаксации и медитации, имеет гораздо более
медленный ритм. Рок-н-ролл и родственные ему музыкальные формы имеют
около 120 ударов в минуту, то есть около 2 Гц. Впрочем, в последнее время
всё большее распространение получают музыкальные направления, где
частота ударов в минуту достигает 240, то есть приближается к 4 Гц. Образно
говоря, она – прямой удар непосредственно по мозгу (недаром такую музыку
слушают именно с целью "сноса крыши") и по желудочно-кишечному тракту.
Профессиональным заболеванием немалого процента среди эстрадных
музыкантов является язва желудка, возможно, связанная обсуждаемыми
параметрами музыки. Также эта частота затрагивает сердечнососудистую,
иммунную и нервную системы.
К слову сказать, ощущения, возникающие при прослушивании такой
музыки, аналогичны тем, которые вызываеталкогольное и наркотическое
опьянение. Западные медики уже ввели в свой лексикон новый диагноз "музыкальный наркоман".
Впрочем, в древности также была широко распространена практика
"ритуального опьянения", и это лишний раз напоминает нам о гипотезе:
музыка имеет ритуальное происхождение. Архаические ритмы постепенно
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как бы "возрождаются" в современных музыкальных жанрах и направлениях,
но утрачивают при этом своё первоначальное содержание. В итоге
получается так, что человек входит в транс, но за этим не следует собственно
того, ради чегонекогда это делалось.
Например, для того чтобы шаману легче было ввести человека в транс,
использовался табак. Одурманенный табаком человек под ритмичное
постукивание шамана впадал в транс гораздо быстрее.
В наше время для того чтобы эффективнее вводить толпы молодежи в
транс используют табак, пиво, водку, а так же современную технику. Клубы,
где любит "тусить" молодежь, оснащена и современной светотехникой, все
моргает и крутится, всюду из колонок доносится громкое "бацканье",
внимание молодых людей и так рассеяно, а тут ещё и одурманивающие
напитки, а иногда это и синтетические наркотики.
Совершенно ясно, что от такого влияния музыки ни чего хорошего
ждать
не
стоит.
Тут
присутствуют
все
элементы,
используемые
при зомбировании.
Количество поклонников опасной для здоровья и психики музыки
гораздо выше в современных городах. С одной стороны, именно в городах
выше плотность населения и более развита информационная система. Но с
другой стороны, не исключено, что причина кроется в самом ритме городской
жизни,
протекающей
среди
постоянного
стресса,
в
облаках
исследование
наиболее
электромагнитного смога, агрессивном шумовом загрязнении.
На
кафедре
акустики
МГУ
провели
агрессивных образцов рок- и поп-музыки. Вот его результаты. Частота
основного ритма композиции "Дип Пепл" "Smoke on the water" от двух до
четырех герц. Такие скачки, да еще и при громкости в 40-50 децибел,
вызывают сильное возбуждение, вплоть до временной потери контроля над
собой, агрессивность к окружающим или, наоборот, негативные эмоции к
себе. Тот, кто предрасположен к нервным расстройствам, к психическим
заболеваниям и депрессии, после двух-, трехразового прослушивания
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подобной композиции может ожидать обострения или нервного срыва.
Шумовые призвуки или негармонические обертоны вредят нервной системе:
у человека дрожат руки, теряется острота зрения и слуха и одновременно в
крови повышается содержание адреналина и других гормонов.
Швейцарские ученые доказали, что после рок-концерта побывавшие на
нём слушатели реагируют на раздражители в 3-5 раз хуже, чем обычно.
Семиклассники после 10-минутного прослушивания рок-композиций
временно забывали таблицу умножения. Находящиеся в концертных залах
слушатели не смогли ответить на вопросы: "Как вас зовут?", "Где вы
находитесь?", "Какой теперь год?" Кроме того 10-минутное "наслаждение"
рок-музыкой на громкости в 100 Дб снижает чувствительность уха настолько,
что наступает частичная потеря слуха.
Ученые вычислили, что без ущерба для слуха (и, соответственно, для
здоровья) люди могут находиться на дискотеке не более 5 минут, а слушать
громкую (свыше 85 дБ) музыку в наушниках – не более 30 секунд.
Экспериментально доказано, что бой барабанов, превышающий по
громкости 100 Дб, способен привести слушателей к полуобморочному
состоянию. А на рок-концертах нередко интенсивность звука достигает 120
децибел, что не далеко и до болевого порога (130 Дб. При уровнях звука
свыше 160 Дб - возможен разрыв барабанных перепонок и лёгких, больше
200 - смерть). http://www.kakras.ru/doc/shum-decibel.html
Психологами совместно с неврологами выполнялся следующий
эксперимент. Отбирали кандидатов и регистрировали деятельность мозга до
и после прослушивания современной популярной музыки. Кроме того
использовались тесты на запоминание, просили запомнить 20 слов. Во время
прослушивания сборников популярных песен оказалось весьма заметным
резкое снижение числа активных точек в правом полушарии и небольшое
уменьшение активных точек в левом. Тест с запоминанием после
прослушивания музыки,
давался
значительно
прослушивания.
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Испытуемые только через час вернулись к нормальному состоянию. Вывод:
негативный результат влияния популярной музыки очевиден.
В Японии провели такой эксперимент. 120 кормящих матерей
разделили
на
2
группы
и
на
протяжении
2
недель
подвергали
систематическим сеансам музыкотерапии: 1-я группа слушала классическую
музыку, а 2-я – поп-музыку. В результате к моменту завершения эксперимента
у женщин из 1-ой группы выработка материнского молока увеличилась на
20%, у женщин из 2-ой группы – снизилась на 50%.
Доказано, что люди, отдающие предпочтение рок-музыке (особенно –
самым экстремальным её видам), чаще совершают насилия, самоубийства,
склонны к наркомании. Кстати, в музыке этого рода присутствуют такие
звуковые
частоты,
которые
могут
стимулировать
рост
отдельных
патологических клеток (включая раковые). Данный вывод подтвержден в
лабораторных условиях.
Профессор Б. Раух (США) утверждает, что прослушивание рок-музыки
вызывает выделение в организме человека т.н. "стресс-гормонов", которые
стирают значительную часть хранящейся в головном мозге информации.
Голландские ученые по результатам своих научных исследований в
области влияния рок-музыки на растения сделали недвусмысленный вывод о
том, что эта музыка убивает живые клетки (кстати, мало кто из известных
рок-музыкантов дожил до 50 лет).
Американские врачи во главе с ученым Р. Ларсеном утверждают:
повторяющийся ритм и низкочастотные колебания бас-гитары сильно влияют
на
состояние
спинно-мозговой
жидкости,
и
как
следствие,
на
функционирование желез, регулирующих секреты гормонов; существенно
изменяется уровень инсулина в крови; основные показатели контроля
нравственного торможения опускаются ниже порога терпимости или целиком
нейтрализуются. Едва ли не "общим местом" в исследованиях такого рода
считается
разрушительное
воздействие
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сверхгромких звуков - подобную музыку специалисты называют "музыкойубийцей", "звуковым ядом".
Русский психолог Дмитрий Азаров однажды признался: "Мне удалось
выделить сочетание нот, сходное для всех случаев самоубийства (рокмузыкантов). Когда я несколько раз прослушал эту музыкальную фразу, то
ощутил такой прилив мрачного настроения, что сам был готов полезть в
петлю. Множество музыкальных произведений современности созданы из
"звуков-убийц".
Что
касается
засилья
зарубежной
эстрады,
повсеместно
культивируемой в нашей стране, то российский академик Фатей Яковлевич
Шипунов (1933-1994) по этому поводу высказал следующее справедливое
предостережение: "Заимствования чужих музыкальных ритмов отнюдь не
безобидны. Сформированные веками национальные мелодии, скорее всего,
отвечают оригинальным биопульсациям каждого этноса. Агрессия чужого
ритма может разрушить стереотип поведения человека, лишить его
самоидентификации, гармонии с окружающей средой".
Влияние силы звука и ритмов на организм.
Вниманию читателя предлагается два параграфа из статьи моего
дедушки, которая называется "Преступление против России - пиплизация
русского народа!" (22.01.2009): "В своё время американский ученый-медик
Дэвид Элкин (David Elkin) доказал, что пронзительный звук большой
громкости способствует сворачиванию белка (сырое яйцо, положенное перед
громкоговорителем на одном из концертов, оказалось через три часа
"сваренным" всмятку). "Тяжелый металл" приостанавливает рост растений, а
в ряде случаев способствует их гибели. Рыба, подвергнутая рок-обработке с
одновременным миганием света, сдохла и всплыла на поверхность водоема.
Не являются исключением и люди. Исследования показали, что
подростки, после получасового пребывания на дискотеке, полностью теряют
над собой контроль и впадают в состояние, близкое к гипнабельному. А
американский певец Джимми Хендрикс (1942-1970) когда-то сказал: "С
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помощью музыки мы гипнотизируем людей, низводя их до примитивного
уровня, и там, находя их самое слабое место, ты можешь им вбить в голову
все, что угодно" (из интервью журналу "Лайф"). Это одна сторона музыки.
Музыковед VI века М.S. Bоthius писал: "Музыка - это часть нашего
естества. Она способна или облагораживать, или действовать разлагающе на
наше поведение" (Dе Institutiоnе Мusicа). А.W. Тоzеr заметил: "Если ты
любишь и слушаешь неправильную музыку, твоя внутренняя жизнь зачахнет
и умрет".
Dr. Hоwаrd Hаnsеn, бывший директор Истмонской музыкальной школы,
комментировал в Американском журнале психиатрии (том 99, стр. 317):
"Музыка
-
это
особенно
трудноуловимое
искусство,
обладающее
неисчислимыми эмоциональными коннотациями. Она состоит из многих
элементов, и, в соответствии с их пропорцией, она может успокаивать или
ободрять, облагораживать или вульгаризировать, располагать к медитации
или буйству. Она - мощная сила как для добра, так и для зла" (USА Тоdаy, 11
октября 1985).
Секты,
бизнес-клубы
и
прочие
заведения
"по
интересам",
использующие в своих "тренингах" музыку с "начинкой", плодятся быстрее
кроликов. Между прочим, в Америке в настоящее время действует около 1800
(!) законодательных актов, контролирующих применение психотехнологий.
Американцы боятся несанкционированного воздействия на психику больше,
чем Усамы бен Ладена (Osama bin Laden). И их вполне можно понять. Кому
хочется быть зомби? Хотя "обработанных" уже давно сверх всякой меры и
отторжение вызывает не сам процесс оболванивания (он привычен), а его
письменное узаконение. Быть зомби и знать, что ты зомби, - это две большие
разницы!
Бинауральные ритмы.
Научному миру давно известен так называемый бинауральный эффект
(от лат. bini – два + auris – ухо) – способность человека определять
направление на источник звука.
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Возможно, указанный звуковой эффект так и остался бы в сфере
интересов только музыкантов, если бы не американский исследователь
Роберт Монро, в начале 50-х годов ХХ в. первым в мире всерьез взялся за
научное изучение механизма воздействия бинауральных ритмов на человека
(впервые существование бинауральных ритмов открыл немецкий ученый Г.В.
Дав в 1939 г.), никто не исследовал их целенаправленное воздействие на
состояние человека при прослушивании через стереонаушники.
В 40-е гг. ХХ в. эффект, схожий с эффектом бинауральных ритмов, был
выявлен
при
восприятии
людьми
вспышек
света,
повторяемых
с
определенной частотой (данный эффект, в отличие от бинаурального,
воспринимается не подсознательно, а именно самим сознанием).
Во многих странах мира уже давно имеется в продаже широкий
ассортимент устройств, специально предназначенных для целенаправленного
(для изменения состояния сознания) воздействия на головной мозг
пользователя, – "mind-machines". Устройства mind-machines реализуются в
виде компьютерных приставок (впервые в мире такая "машина" была
продемонстрирована в 2004 г. на знаменитой выставке "Comdex"), в
комплекте с которыми идут стереонаушники и специальные очки. При
запуске устройства в стереонаушники подаются звуковые тона определенной
частоты, а в очки – световые вспышки, пульсирующие также с заданной
частотой и интенсивностью. Из этой же серии – популярное устройство под
названием "Фабрика грез" (производитель – японская фирма "Takara") ,
предназначенная для вызова сновидений определенной тематики.
В 2005 г. предприимчивые ученые-коммерсанты и просто "народные
умельцы" разных стран поняли, что заменить все эти дорогостоящие, но
пользующиеся
огромным
спросом
устройства
может
универсальная
компьютерная программа, генерирующая нужные бинауральные ритмы в
стереонаушниках и визуальные спецэффекты на экране монитора. И эти
программы стали "плодиться" с невероятной скоростью (Интернет ими
буквально завален).
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То, что свет и цвет способны оказывать непосредственное воздействие
на человека, известно давно. Зеленый цвет успокаивает центральную
нервную систему, голубой - вызывает ощущение прохлады, красный оказывает сильное тонизирующее действие: под действием его, например,
быстрее заживают раны. Умелое использование цветного освещения - так,
чтобы оно соответствовало эмоциональному тону, - вещь очень действенная.
Сильному
психологическому
эффекту
во
многом
помогает
закон
сенсибилизации, который гласит, что чувствительность одного анализатора
(органа чувства) повышается при одновременном воздействии на другой
анализатор. Например, чувствительность вкусовых клеток языка повышается,
когда пища освещается более ярко. Другой пример - балетная музыка нам
нравится меньше, если мы ее только слушаем по радио, но не видим танца.
Наверное, теперь становится понятным, почему такое сильное возбуждающее
действие оказывают на слушателей движения рук певца, заставляющего зал
дружно скандировать в такт песне. Это, в общем, распространенный прием,
которым пользуются почти все эстрадные певцы. Но на многих концертах
битмузыки этот прием усиливается еще с помощью ритмического мигания
света в такт музыке. Таким образом, сам по себе ритм, невероятная сила звука
и, наконец, ритмическое мигание света - все это образует гигантский
генератор ритмических импульсов, которые, воздействуя одновременно на
все органы чувств человека, способны довести его - и в некоторых случаях
доводят - до припадка... Между прочим, в Древнем Риме при покупке рабов
будущий хозяин проверял, нет ли у раба "падучей" (так называли в те
времена эпилепсию), следующим образом: раба заставляли смотреть на
солнце через вращающееся колесо. Мелькание света и тени неминуемо
приводило, если человек был склонен к этой болезни, к припадку.
Подростки, входящие в мир, не могут обойтись без идеалов, без
образцов для подражания. Но их все менее устраивают те "ценности", что
навязывают им школа и общество. Однако, отправляясь в поиск за
истинными ценностями, молодой человек зачастую не вооружен ни опытом;
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ни хорошо развитым вкусом. В этих условиях он легко оказывается в плену
так называемого "молодежного стандарта", стремится "быть как все". А "все"
- это ровесники.
В последние два десятилетия музыка заняла совершенно особое место
как в культуре вообще, так и в мировосприятии молодежи в особенности.
Миллионы транзисторов и телевизоров целыми днями (в некоторых странах
круглосуточно) передают, извергают, мурлыкают музыкальные фразы. Звуки
их стали настолько привычными, что музыку, по сути, можно не замечать,
она становится частью атмосферы, того климата, в котором живут и
работают. Называют её по-разному – "рок", "бит", наконец, просто "поп", но
распознается она с первых же тактов, с первых всплесков электрогитар.
Почему же эта музыка получила признание у молодых? Тому несколько
причин, в основе которых лежит всё более углубляющийся разрыв между
поколениями в условиях современного общества. "Та или иная вещь, чтобы
её приняли подростки, непременно должна наводить ужас на взрослых. Рокн-ролл отвечал этим требованиям в совершенстве", - писал английский
критик Джордж Мелли (1926-2007), сам бывший джазовый певец.
Влияние музыки на животных и растения.
Музыка благотворно действует не только на человека, но и на
животных и даже на растения. Животные и растения прекрасно "слышат"
музыку, активно реагируя на нее, однако предпочитают гармоничную музыку.
Например, дельфины с удовольствием слушают классическую музыку,
особенно Баха; услышав классические произведения, акулы собираются со
всего океанского побережья (что случилось в ходе эксперимента); растения и
цветы под классическую музыку быстрее расправляют свои листья и
лепестки. Под звуки современной музыки коровы ложатся и отказываются
есть, растения быстрее вянут.
Немецкий ученый И. Лютц в 1798 году доказывал, что у кроликов,
кошек и собак под действием музыки изменяется кровяное давление,
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увеличивается частота сердечных сокращений, уменьшаются ритм и глубина
дыхательных движений.
Ещё в ХIХ веке в английском монастыре Британии монахини
специально исполняли музыкальные произведения для домашних животных.
При этом они заметили, что после "прослушивания" именно серенады
Моцарта коровы давали молока в 2 раза больше. Когда к такому же открытию
в ХХ веке пришли в Германии, то немецкие фермеры, будучи людьми
практичными, стали целенаправленно использовать музыку Моцарта на
своих фермах для повышения удоев молока.
Вокальными способностями славятся и обезьяны (в частности,
орангутанги). Есть и любители хорового пения. Во Франкфуртском зоопарке,
например, две пары сиамангов (человекообразных обезьян из семейства
гиббонов) очень любят петь квартетом. Начинают обычно две самочки, потом
к запевалам непременно присоединяются два самца. Поскольку обезьяны общественные животные, развитие у них навыков хорового пения вполне
объяснимо. Замечено такое явление в природных условиях среди некоторых
видов обезьян, а также и у гиен, волков, шакалов и других животных,
образующих стаи.
Интересные опыты с крысами провели исследователи из Техасского
университета (США). Новорожденным крысятам в течение 2-х месяцев
ежедневно предлагали слушать разные категории звуков. Одна группа крысят
слушала только музыку Моцарта, другая - лишь современную музыку, третья
группа ежедневно внимала шуму вентилятора. После такого 2-месячного
музыкального "воспитания" крысят поместили в специальную клетку с
клавишами на полу. Становясь на разные клавиши, крысята могли
"заказывать" любую музыку или шум. Оказалось, большинство предпочли
Моцарта, немногие - современную музыку, но никто не пожелал слушать
вентилятор.
Несколько лет назад в телепередаче "Утро" (российское TV) один
психотерапевт рассказал об эксперименте на одной из западноевропейских
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птицефабрик. Рядом с курицей установили динамик и включили тяжелый
рок. Курица сначала забеспокоилась, затрясла гребешком, потом закружилась
на месте, будто в танце, стала совершать бессмысленные беспорядочные
движения, прятать голову, а затем и вовсе повалилась на бок, и её лапки
начали судорожно скрючиваться.
Главный научный сотрудник Института психологии РАН Владимир
Петрович Морозов рассказал (06.06.2005): "Потрясающе интересные опыты
были проведены на животных. В частности, в финском городе Котка вдруг
обнаружили очень низкое качество мяса. И оказалось, что рядом с бойней
поселилась рок-группа. Она, репетируя, включала динамики на полную
мощность, отчего буренки были в шоке. В страхе таком, что давали, вопервых, прогорклое молоко и, во-вторых, мясо у них наполнялось
биохимическими соединениями, которые выделяются при стрессе, и качество
его было крайне низким. Но этого мало. Даже такие толстокожие гиганты как
слоны, оказывается, тоже подвержены пагубному влиянию музыки. В Африке
эти животные любят полакомиться плодами деревьев, которые содержат
алкоголь. Когда они наедаются, то превращаются в очень буйных и нападают
на селения туземцев. Эти многотонные чудовища разбивают хижины и ищут
настойки алкогольных плодов. И, что бы вы думали, каким способом их
удалось оттуда выпроводить? Не стрельбой, не ракетами, а… рок-концертом с
огромными децибелами". http://www.hifinews.ru/article/details/1487.htm
Учеными выяснено, что "озвученные" растения содержат во много раз
больше витаминов и питательных веществ. Под электронным микроскопом
отчетливо видно, что протоплазма растительных клеток под воздействием
музыки заметно ускоряет свое движение. Первыми в мире открытие того
факта, что под воздействием музыки протоплазма клеток растений ускоряет
свое движение, сделали еще в начале 70-х годов ХХ в. ученые из Шведского
музыкотерапевтического общества.
В 70-е гг. ХХ в. Дороти Ретеллек из Тэмпл-Буэл-колледжа (штат
Колорадо, США) провела эксперимент, результаты которого стали настоящей
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сенсацией. Она выращивала различные растения - тыкву, бархатцы и циннию
(оба из семейства астровых), кукурузу - то под классическую музыку, то под
хард-рок. Вот что она рассказала об опыте с тыквами: "На участке, где из
динамиков звучала классическая музыка, тыква быстро росла и вскоре начала
виться, а вот на участке, где звучала рок-музыка, результаты были
обратными". Бархатцы, выращенные под грохот рок-музыки, требовали
больше воды, а через шестнадцать дней они вовсе погибли.
В интернете есть очень интересная запись передачи канала Discovery
под названием "Talking to plants" ("Разговаривая с растениями") на
английском языке. В ней проведен эксперимент для определения влияния
доброжелательной и негативной речи на рост растений. "Разрушители
легенд" закупили 60 растений гороха и разделили их на три парниковых
группы. Затем они записали две звуковые дорожки - одну из похвал, вторую
из жестоких обид - и играли их на повторение в двух отдельных теплицах.
Третий парник оставался в тишине, для экспериментального контроля.
Через два месяца выросшие плоды были собраны, помыты, взвешены.
В теплице "с руганью" всходы ждали дольше всего; результат в теплице, где
звучала доброжелательная беседа, был лучше, чем в тишине. Особенно
интересны были результаты, когда стали взвешивать и пробовать выросшие
стручки гороха. К удивлению экспериментаторов, тишина оказала наихудший
результат на урожайность биомассы, чем в двух других парниках (при прочих
равных условиях).
Интересный эксперимент провел Сад Уисли в графстве Суррей (южная
Англия), чтобы определить, какие и как голоса воздействуют на рост
растений. Сравнивались мужские и женские голоса, которые проигрывали
через наушники для 10 растений томатов в течение месяца. В результате был
сделан вывод, что растения лучше реагируют на женские голоса. Растения,
стимулируемые женскими голосами, выросли на дюйм выше, чем те, которые
облучались
мужскими
голосами.
В
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стимулируемые
мужскими
голосами,
выросли
даже
меньше,
чем
контрольные (пребывавшие в тишине).
Американский бизнесмен А. Карлсон создал фирму с названием
"Озвученный
цветок",
занимающуюся
разработкой,
производством
и
продажей тематических аудиозаписей музыки для целенаправленного
воздействия на растения. Продукция пользуется успехом во многих странах
мира. В Америке, Франции и в некоторых других странах продаются
специальные "суперурожайные" аудиокассеты и CD-диски под названием
"Рекордный урожай под музыку" с записями классической музыки.
Китайский биофизик Хоу Тяньчжэнь изобрел, как он сам его называет,
"звукочастотный генератор", который с учетом "вкуса" растений может
передавать разные звуковые волны, способные стимулировать их фотосинтез
и рост. Пользователю нужно лишь подобрать в соответствии с уровнем
температуры и влажности воздуха необходимый частотный диапазон,
который подойдет для тех или иных видов посевов.
Многократно проводились такие эксперименты: брались одинаковые
семена, сажались в одинаковые условия, словом было соблюдено все, что
могло отразиться на их росте. Первую группу семян помещали под 3-х
часовое воздействие тяжелого рока. Вторую группу семян под "попсовую"
музыку на тоже самое время. Третья группа семян под классику, музыка
Баха на 3 часа.
Спустя определенное время, когда семена взошли и подросли,
выяснилось, что самые маленькие растения это в первой группе, потом во
второй и самые высокие и здоровые в третье группе.
Подобные эксперименты проводились и на других растениях и
оценивали плоды растений. Везде было замечено негативное влияние
тяжелой и популярной музыки.
Заключение.
Когда одеваешь наушники, погружаешься в мир музыки. В том мире
царит спокойствие, понимание, любовь и гармония. Хотя бывает и такая
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музыка, где присутствуют боль, смерть, острота. Каждый выбирает свой мир
музыки. Мне кажется, что самое главное в этом мире то, что в нем ты
начинаешь задумываться, больше узнавать себя, осознавать всё, что
происходит вокруг.
Любите музыку, но не поддавайтесь "пиплизации", не "хавайте"
сегодняшний прожиточный культминимум, который изо дня в день всё
глубже погружает нас в "потребительскую корзину" животного состояния,
откуда его несколько веков вытягивало русское православие.
В данном случае использовано ныне модное выражение бывшего
эстрадного певца Богдана Титомира, популярного в начале 1990-х годов у
российских подростков благодаря дурацкой манере поведения на сцене. В
каком-то интервью для прессы на слова корреспондента, который сокрушался
по поводу невысокого уровня отечественной эстрады, он ответил на языке
своих почитателей: "А что? Пипл хавает..."
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3 School life
Picture 28
Task 1. Match the following school subjects with their definitions.
a. history
f. chemistry
b. music
g. biology
c. maths
h. IT (information technology)
d. economics
i. geography
e. physics
j. art
1. The study of plant, animal and human life.
2. The study of the world’s physical features, climate, populations, etc.
3. The study of the past.
4. The study of painting and drawing.
5. The study of heat, sound, electricity, etc.
6. How to use computers.
7. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, etc.
8. The study of elements and how they combine and react.
9. The study of financial systems.
10.Playing instruments and singing.
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Mark each subject S (science subjects) or A (art subjects). Choose the
ones you liked best and least, explain your choice.
Task 2. Look at the pictures (Picture 29) and discuss in pairs.
What kind of things might the people in each picture be learning? For what
purpose?
What difficulties might each of them face with their studies? What might be
things that give them enjoyment?
Look at the title of the unit. Do you think it is important for learning to
continue throughout life? Why / Why not? Tell your partner.
Picture 29
Task 3. Which of the following aims of education are most important?
Rank them in order of importance, then compare with your partner.
 to develop understanding of other people / cultures
 to learn social skills
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 to prepare for life in the workplace
 to become aware of how the past has affected the present
 to develop critical thinking
Which of the following school subjects / activities help with achieving the
above aims? Discuss in pairs.
Sociology, history, mathematics, geography, reading and writing, computer
studies, languages, music / art
Pattern – To me, sociology helps us understand other cultures. I agree, it
teaches us how human societies develop according to their environment and
history.
Task 4. Listen to three people talking about what they used to like and
dislike about school and put the correct letter in the spaces provided.
Picture 30
a too much homework
d games in class
b not enough sport
e dedicated teachers
c school underfunded
f drama classes
Fill in the form.
Liked
disliked
Bill Sanders
1
2
Sarah Ford
3
4
Claire Sharpe
5
6
Which of the following phrases did you hear in the recording?
a
What I hated most …
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b
What used to make me angry was …
c
The depressing thing about it was …
d
The worst thing about …
e
My favourite was …
f
I knew I was in for a treat when …
g
Sometimes I got really fed up with …
h
I was at my happiest when …
Discuss in pairs what you used to like and dislike about your early
schooling. Use the above mentioned phrases.
Task 5. Paraphrase the following quotations. Do you agree with them?
Why (not)? Discuss in pairs.
Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance. Will Durant (US
historian).
Education makes a people easy to lead, but difficult to drive; easy to govern
but impossible to enslave. Henry Peter (Scottish politician).
Task 6. Look at the titles of the two passages that follow. In which
passage are each of the terms below likely to occur? In what context?
The Normandy landing of 1944, complicated language, communicative
forms, ignorant, human history, landmark events, animal communication.
Read the passages and answer the questions (5-8). Were your predictions
correct?
Picture 31
Passage 1. The Evolution of Language
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All though human myth and history some authorities have confidently
maintained that every species of animal thinks and has its own complicated
language (perhaps tantalizingly unknowable for us), while others have as
confidently maintained that animals certainly do not have anything remotely like
human language. Only recently have researchers managed to get specific results,
along with some hotly contested speculations about how human language might
have evolved out of prior communicative forms. This new course focuses on
communication among animals – social insects, fish and amphibians, birds,
mammals and, in particular, primates. How and why has communication evolved?
Are “evolutionary explanations” worth much? (We will trace the recent fiery
debates between Stephen Gould, Daniel Dennett, and Jerry Fordor). Further, how
does (or doesn’t) human language differ from animal communication? We will
examine the theories and argument of linguists such as Noam Chomsky and Derek
Bickerton, philosophers Elliot Sober and Philip Kitcher, and the work of
primatologists such as Dorothy Cheney and Marc Hauser.
Multiple-choice test.
What does the course outline imply about communication?
A The evolution of language is only a theory.
B Different animals cannot talk to each other.
C Its origins are highly controversial.
D Our language has its origins in the animal kingdom.
This course will
A mostly focus on recent philosophical debates.
B draw on material from disciplines outside philosophy.
C examine the inadequacies of “evolutionary explanations”.
D involve extensive study of linguistics.
Passage 2. British Youth “Historical Philistines”
British youth was dismissed yesterday by Encyclopedia Britannica as “a
generation of historical philistines”, ignorant of some of the key events in their
nation’s history.
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Britannica said recent school leavers “miserably failed to recognize
landmark events in British history”, with most of them seeing no attraction
whatsoever in their past. In its indictment the encyclopedia added: “Hours spent in
the classroom are obviously wasted on
Britain’s youth.” But knowledge was also
sorely lacking among adults.
Britannica based its structures on
the telephone survey of 1 000 people in
October. Only a quarter of young people
(compared with 36% of adults) knew
Victoria reigned for 64 years. Only 26%
(36% of adults) recognized D-Day as the
date of the Normandy landing in 1944.
Christine Hodgson, a Britannica
marketing executive, said: “As a nation
whose history has shaped the face of the
Picture 32
world, it seems incredible that the younger
generation have decided to dismiss it. Britain in particular is envied for its rich
history – it’s a real shame that the young take so much for granted. I think it’s time
for all of us – not just young people – to hit the books again.”
Multiple-choice test.
Whish of the following is implied as a possible cause of the survey’s
findings?
A bad schooling
B Social problems
C lack of interest
D poor television programmes
Christine Hodgson seems to think that
A British history is more difficult than the history of other nations.
B British youths are deliberately ignoring their nation’s past.
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C Britain has strongly influenced the way the world is today.
D solving the problem will only be possible through educational reform.
Read the passages again and answer the questions.
1. What do the phrases “hotly contested speculations” and “fiery debates”
suggest about the evolution of language?
2. What is meant by “Hours spent in the classroom are obviously wasted on
Britain’s youth?
3. Explain in your own words the meaning of the phrase “hit the books
again”.
Task 7. You will read an article by a student who graduated from
university with a first-class degree. Before you read, discuss in pairs:
What part do the following play in motivating people to excel in education?
- desire for professional success;
- desire for personal achievement;
- pressure form family / friends / employers
With a partner, rank the following according to how necessary you think
they are in order to do well at university.
- discipline
- competitive spirit
- understanding what is expected of you
- organizational skills
- perseverance
- intelligence
- morale
Read the passage quickly. Which of the above does the writer mention?
What other things helped him to succeed? Check with your partner.
How I Got My First-Class Degree
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What does it take to graduate from university with a Fist? Mark
McArdle, first-class degree holder from the University of Lancaster, tells how
he did it.
“Don’t spend to much time at the
student lounge, do turn up for most
lectures and tutorials and do submit all
coursework – eventually.” That? I was
told by a PhD student during freshers’
week, was all I needed to do to get a 2:2.
For a 2:1, I’d require a better attendance
Picture 33
record and have to work
harder,
but at the expense of being cut off from civilization. And for a First I would have
to become some sort of social outeast, go to every lecture and tutorial (scribbling
notes madly), spend every waking moment immersed in academic books, and be
among the last to be thrown out the university library at 10pm closing tine.
Well. I did give up my life for study. I didn’t attend every lecture and
tutorial. I didn’t write down every word spoken in lectures. I didn’t get 80% or
more in every essay, project, test or exam. I was usually behind with my reading
and occasionally mystified by the syllabus. Sometimes I couldn’t be bothered to
go to university and stayed at home instead. But I always knew where I was, what I
had to do, and what not to bother with. And I always worked hard on the things
that counted: assignments and exams.
Getting a degree is about leaning, but it isn’t just about learning biology,
history, English or whatever. It’s about understanding what you need to succeed –
what, in fact, the university wants from you and what you will get in return. You
have to have a feel for the education market and really sell your inspirations. What
does the lecture want? What is the essay marker searching for? Some students try
to offer something not wanted. Others want to give very little – they steal the
thoughts of others and submit them as their own. But they all want to be rewarded.
Exchange, but don’t steal, and you’ll get a degree.
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I saw lecturers as customers who fell into two broad categories. There were
those for whom lecturing was an unwelcome interruption to their research work.
Picture 34
After all, we were students and what did we know? I would deliberately
pitch work my essay to this kind of academic so that my opinions appeared more
as evidence that I had read and understood the key contributions to the debate,
rather than as an attempt to pull down monuments. The other type of academic
were those who enjoyed teaching and discussing new ideas. They wanted more.
They wanted something different, inspirational, iconoclastic. I would present my
arguments to show that I had done my reading and understood the key concepts,
but I would also try to add something more to the issue rather than rake over
familiar ground. Essentially, it was a case of working out what was wanted and
then delivering it. I can’t state exactly how successful this tactic was, except to say
that I sold more essays I had returned as faulty.
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I could guarantee every book on my reading list was out on long loan from
the university library within five seconds of the list being issued.
This was
worrying at first, but I quickly learned that it was impossible to read all of the
books on an average reading list
anyway
I
sought
shortcuts.
Collections of selected readings or
journal articles were excellent sources
that often saved me the bother of
reading the original texts. References
in books dragged too far. I would
flick though the book, read the
introduction, note any summaries,
look at diagrams, skim the index, and
read any conclusions. I plucked out
what was needed and made my
escape.
I revised by discarding subject
Picture 35
areas I could not face revising; reading; compiling notes; and then condensing
them onto one or two sheets of A4 for subject are. Leading up to the exam, I would
concentrate on just the condensed notes and rely on my memory to drag out detail
behind them when the time came. I didn’t practice writing exam questions,
although it was recommended. I prefer to be spontaneous and open-minded. I don’t
want pre-formed conclusions filling my mind.
And nor should you; there is no secret to getting a First – this is just an
account of how I got my First. Be a happy student b striking the right balance
between working and enjoying yourself. Take what you do seriously and your best.
And, no matter what you do, don’t forget to appreciate every day of your
university studies: it is one of the greatest periods of your life.
Choose the best answer for questions 1-7.
1. The PhD student who spoke to the writer:
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a) a exaggerated the need to work hard;
b) thought the writer would get a First;
c) succeeded in scaring the writer;
d) was uncertain how to help the writer.
2. According to the writer, an important factor in success at university is:
a) the ability to understand the market;
b) acquaintance with lecturers and markets;
c) clever use of other people’s ideas;
d) an understanding of what was required.
3. In the third paragraph, the writer warns against:
a) trying to second-guess lectures;
b) expecting to be rewarded;
c) plagiarism in essay and exams;
d) offering money to academic staff.
4. In his relationship with his lectures, the writer tried to:
a) show them that he would make a good salesman;
b) do his work in a style which matched their expectations;
c) always have same new ideas to impress them with;
d) never upset them by submitting ground-breaking work.
5. How did the writer cope with long lists of required reading?
a) he ignored them;
b) he wrote his own;
c) he was selective;
d) he summarized them.
6. Why did the writer not practice writing exam question?
a) he was advised not to;
b) he thought the practice was rather boring;
c) he wanted to answer exam questions;
d) he thought it might prejudice staff against him.
7. The writer concludes by advising students to:
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a) follow his recipe for success;
b) make the most of being a student;
c) concentrate on passing exams;
d) aim for a First at all costs.
Match the highlighted words in the passage with their synonyms below.
Crucial,
search
quickly,
rejecting,
general,
bewildered,
absorbed,
understanding of, discussion.
Discussion
In pairs, discuss the following:
1. How similar / different is your method of study to that of the writer?
2. Are there things about the way you study which you would like to
change or improve? Think about: being organized, being more focused, managing
your time.
Task 9. Using a dictionary if necessary, underline the correct word in
the sentences. Use the remaining words in sentences of your own.
1. The school is thought highly innovative in that it implements a system of
continuous (tests, assessment, finals) to determine grades.
2. One could hear the sound of lively (debate, talk, argument) coming from
the room where the philosophy class was being held.
3. My brother, who wants to join the clergy, has just entered a (seminary,
university, college).
4. It was inevitable that the (seminar, lecture, tutorial) would be wellattended as it was being given by the renowned professor, Kurt Reinmann.
5. There’s no way I’ll be able to come. I’ve got to hand in a two thousand
word (assignment, project, essay) on the Russia-Japan War by Monday afternoon.
6. Stephen was caught (copying, plagiarizing, stealing) from his fellow
student’s test paper and was expelled.
7. For tomorrow, please read this short original (article, test, excerpt) from
Dickens’s Hard Times and be prepared to discuss it in class.
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8. If you’re really interested in applying, ask the University to send you a
(syllabus, prospectus, curriculum) for the upcoming year.
Below are the words that correspond to the word sets from the exercise
above. Tell your partner which word goes with which set and why.
Exams, class, vocational school,
talk, homework, cheating, summary,
course list.
Pattern – “Exams” corresponds
with number 1. The words are ways in
which educators can tell how well a
student is doing.
Task 10. Work in pairs. Find the
odd word in each group, then say why
Picture 36
it doesn’t belong in that group.
Use a dictionary if necessary.
1. Algebra – Geometry – History – Trigonometry
2. library – science lab – assignment – lecture – theatre
3. students’ lounge – short loan – check out – archive
4. tutorial – experiment – lecture – seminar
5. test – exam – assessment – application
6. cram – revise – attend – brush up
7. skim – scan – leaf through – catch up
8. plagiarise – quote – lift – copy
9. acknowledgements – introduction – bibliography – workshop
10.degree – diploma – distinction – certificate
Task 11. Underline the correct word.
1. Mathew is currently writing his dissertation / tract / critique / discourse
on education in ancient Greece for his university degree.
2. Katherine is studying for her first degree; she is a (an) apprentice /
undergraduate / postgraduate / scholar student.
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3. It’s cheaper to live in the university halls of dwelling / abode / residence /
habitation than to rent privately.
4. One of the lectures / trainers /
teachers / mentors at her university is a
well-known and a highly respected writer/.
5. The person who looks after the
building is our concierge / bookkeeper /
housekeeper / janitor Mr Coombs.
Picture 37
6. The parents – teachers alliance / association / society / company is
working hard to raise enough money to build a new science lab.
7. There was silence in the lecture foyer / stage / hallway / theatre when
Professor Blackwood announces her resignation.
8. I’m not sure which modules I’ll do. I’m going to make an appointment
with the academic adviser / specialist / consultant / authority.
Task 12. Match the two columns to make collocations, then use them to
complete the sentences that follow. Use two words in each gap, you might need
plurals.
bright / promising
principle
accelerated / remedial
Term
underlying / basic
Pupil
reference / exercise
Book
research / teaching
Class
academic / long
Method
1. She is a very …………………….. and we expect great things from her in
the future.
2. I will teach here for the next …………………. Then I’ll move on to a
new post.
3. The book describes the …………………….. of the country’s National
Health Service.
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4. To be sure of the facts
I’m going to look them up in
a ……………………..
5. His ………………….. are very controversial; in fact, some of the parents
have complained to the head teacher about them.
6. I had to learn Italian very quickly for my job so I took a
(an) ………………………
Use the remaining collocations in your own sentences.
Task 13. Fill the gaps with the most suitable word from the given sets.
1. He apologized to his publisher about not submitting the ………………
on time.
A ……………….. of the lecture is available at the departmental secretary’s
office.
The …………………. of a job advert can say much about the company and
the position on offer.
wording / manuscript / transcript
2. All the decorative arts courses are taught by the same ……………….
He will continue his role of football ………………… after receiving an
apology from the team manager.
Miss Sims will take up the post of ……………….. to a little girl on the Isle
of Skye.
tutor / trainer / governess
3. An unusual work by Handel has been discovered by a German
music …………………
Davis is an …………………….. carpenter.
After leaving university David will work as a ………………… reporter.
scholar / apprentice / trainee
4. The top ……………… for fiction in Britain is the Booker Prize.
The police are offering a ………………… of 1000 $ for information leading
to the recovery of the oil painting.
Imre Kertesz won the Nobel …………….. for literature in 2002.
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award / reward / prize
Task 10. In pairs, decide for which classes the items in the list would be
needed. Talk about what they would be used for, as in the example.
Compass, easel, abacus, theatrical prop, art supplies, globe, lab skeleton, test
tube, reference books, musical score, glass slide.
Pattern – I suppose students would use a glass slide in biology in biology
class for looking at things under the microscope. / That’s true. A glass slide could
be used for the same purpose in chemistry class, as well.
Follow
the
link,
do
the
test
on
“University
vocabulary”
-
http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/worldservice/quiznet/quizengine?ContentType=text/html;qu
iz=1621_university.
Picture 38
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Task 11. Look at the study methods in the list. For which of the tasks (110) is each method best suited?
Revising, cramming, highlighting,
editing, note-taking, summarizing, proofreading.
1. Preparing for an end-of-term
exam.
2. Isolating information from its
context.
3. Checking and improving on a
piece of work.
4. Condensing information for
Picture 39
quick of work.
5. Recording information during a class / lecture / seminar.
6. Keeping new knowledge fresh in your mind.
7. Re-organising an essay / composition.
8. Organising material into manageable units.
9. Ensuring a piece of written work meets all formal requirements (formal,
word-count, etc).
10.Making important information stand out.
In pairs, discuss the following.
1. Which of the stated study do you use?
2. What do you usually use them for?
3. What other methods do you use?
4. How much time do you spend studying?
5. Do you usually study alone or with a classmate?
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6. Are exams a fair means of assessment? If no, what would be a better way
to assess students?
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Task 12. The adjectives below have been grouped in order of increasing
intensity. Use them to complete the sets of sentences which follow. Use each
adjective only one.
Archaic,
extravagant,
dated,
modern,
advanced,
modest,
bigoted,
tolerant,
open-minded,
substantial,
boring,
pleasant,
immense,
moving,
inspirational.
1. I must say for a woman who is supposed to be so articulate, the Dean’s
welcoming speech was quite …………………….. .
The life of Anne Sulivan, Helen Keller’s teacher, serves as a
(an) ………………………. Message to all of those who work with the disabled.
The head girl’s words were very ……………………….. and several of her
fellow classmates were in tears before she had finished.
The kindergarten teacher had a ……………………. Singing voice, and as a
result her young students loved the time they spent learning new songs.
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2. Most schools in the country have opted to teach ………………. Greek
as opposed to ancient Greek.
The elderly professor was let go as he refused to change his ……………..
teaching practices.
I’m sorry, but as our institution seeks to maintain a traditional standard, your
ideas are just too ………………….. for us.
That reference book was published over 20 years ago so some of the
information it contains is probably rather …………………… .
3. My parents earned a (an) ……………………… income and were unable
to send me to public school.
Her ……………………… praise embarrassed the child so badly that he
refused to draw any more pictures in art class.
To the head master’s ………………………… delight each and every one of
his pupils was accepted into Oxford University.
Although he paid a (an) ……………………… amount of money for his
daughter’s education, she has never held down a steady job.
4. In the past, many history books were ………………….. towards those
countries that had lost wars.
You may have a PhD in philosophy, but to my mind you are
both …………………… and racist.
My grandfather is very opinionated about certain things, but at least he
is …………………………. of co-educational schooling.
His …………………….. attitude towards progressive education won him a
position at the prestigious college.
Task 13. Look at the outline of the British educational system and fill
the gaps with the words given.
Post-graduate course, dissertation, secondary school, “O” levels, primary
school, teaching college, retraining, foundation year, graduation.
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Now talk about the British educational system.
Now draw a similar outline of the educational system in your country and
tell the class about it.
Task 14.
Follow the link “10 Effective Ways
to teach writing”
http://www.bestcollegesonline.com/blog/2012/11/07/10-effective-high-techways-to-teach-writing/ and speak of the effective ways to improve writing
skills.
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Picture 43
Task 15. Study the table given below. Create a piece of writing on the
topic of the unit.
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Task 15. Create a piece of writing and following the link find out about
it - http://und.edu/academics/writing-center/ .
Picture 45
Task 16. According to a survey by the National Literacy Trust, which
one of these words was discovered to be the most common first word for a
baby to say - not including Mummy or Daddy?
a) dog
b) eat
c) bus
Listen to the programme to find out the answer.
What do babies learn before they are born? New tests have taken place to
understand how unborn babies - called foetuses - learn language. It has been
discovered that when babies are born they can already recognise familiar sounds
and language patterns.
Rob and Finn discuss this research in 6 Minute English. They also talk about
how babies develop an accent at a very young age.
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Follow
the
link.
Listen
and
do
the
task
given
-
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/general/sixminute/2013/06
/130606_6min_learning_in_the_womb.shtml.
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Task Follow the link indicated below and solve the puzzle; note down
your result.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/quizzes/crosswords/educ
ation.shtml
Picture 47
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Bibliography
1.
Gault, J. New Headway Talking Points/J. Gault. – Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2004. – 87 p. – ISBN 0 – 19 – 439002 – 0.
2.
Gough, C. English Vocabulary Organiser/C. Gough. – Boston: LTP,
2001. – 224 p. – ISBN 0 – 906717 – 62 – 0.
3.
Harmer, J. Just. Listening and Speaking. Upper Intermediate. /J.
Harmer, C. Lethaby. – London: Marshall Cavendish ELT, 2005. – 91 p. – ISBN 0462-00745-6.
4.
Hewitt, K. Understanding Britain Today/K. Hewitt. – Oxford:
Perspective Publications, Ltd., 2009. – 308 p. – ISBN 9780954660123.
5.
Soars, L. New Headway Intermediate, Student’s Book/L. Soars, J.
Soars. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. – 164 p. – ISBN 0 – 19 – 438750
– 7.
On-line resources
1.
Collecting Things. British Council Magazine Articles. – URL:
http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/magazine-articles/collecting-things.
2.
Davis, W. Leisure / W. Davis. – URL: http://neoenglishsystem.
blogspot.ru/2010/07/leisure-by-william-davies-reference-to.html.
3.
ESL Helpful Handouts. – URL: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpful
handouts.
4.
Flickr Photo Bank. – URL: http://www.flickr.com/.
5.
Goodreads. Quotations. – URL: http://www.goodreads.com/quotations.
6.
Henry, M. Leisure. Lessons Plans / M. Henry. – URL: http://www.
michellehenry.fr/loisirs.htm#interex.
7.
Leisure Activities. ESL Laboratory. – URL: http://www.esl-lab.com/
nightlife/nightliferd1.htm.
8.
Leisure. British Council Listen and Watch. – URL: http://learnenglish.
britishcouncil.org/en/uk-culture/leisure.
9.
Poemhunter. Leisure. – URL: http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/
leisure/.
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