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231.English Tenses and all that jazz. Part 1

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н.Войткова
СБОРНИК УПРАЖНЕНИЙ И ТЕСТОВ
ПО ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕМЕ:
“English Tenses & all that jazz”
Part 1
student ………………………………………………………….……
group …………………………………………………………………
Иркутск 2013
Complied by Voitkova A.N.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
В 65
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского
государственного лингвистического университета
Рецензенты:
совета
Иркутского
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей
с общественностью ИГЛУ
Ю.С. Заграйская;
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
для спец.целей ИГЛУ Н.В. Елашкина
Войткова, А.Н.
В65 English Tenses & all that jazz (Part 1: all Simple & Progressive Tenses) / авт.-сост.
А.Н. Войткова : учеб. пособие в 2-х частях / А.Н. Войткова. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ,
2013. – ч.1. 95c.
Учебное пособие по грамматике содержит обширный аутентичный практический текстовой
и аудиальный материал разной уровня сложности, упражнения преимущественно подобранны
для формирования у студентов коммуникативной.
Предназначено для студентов среднего (начального) уровня, обучающихся в вузах с
расширенной сеткой преподавания английского языка, т.е. для студентов 1-2 курса
лингвистического университета неязыковых направлений.
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© Войткова А.Н., 2013
© Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет, 2013
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CONTENTS
1. Verb ‘be’
2. Present Simple
3. Present Progressive
 Present Progressive for changes
 Present Progressive: future meaning
 Present Progressive: ‘be going’
 Present Progressive: describing emotions about
people’s character
 Present Simple & Present Progressive compared
Present Progressive: non-action verbs
4. Past simple
 Used to
5. Past Progressive
 Past Simple & Past Progressive: revision
6. Future Meaning
 Future Simple
 “be going to”, Present Progressive with future
meaning
 Present Simple & Future Simple compared
 Clauses with condition & time conjunctions
7. Future Progressive
SUPPLEMENT
1. The imperatives
 Let’s…
2. Asking questions
3. There is / are…
 It is..
4. Irregular verbs
5. Demonstrative pronouns
6. Nouns (plural & singular)
 The possessive’s, of-construction, Noun+Noun
7. The Articles (introductory information)
8. Numbers
9. Personal Pronouns
10.
Adjectives
11.
Adverbs
12.
Fun with future tenses
References
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Part 1 Глагол “be” [bi:]
Глагол be (быть) является самым употребительным глаголом в английском языке, располагает
самыми обширными полномочиями в английской грамматике и обладает самым большим
количеством форм. Трижды «самый». Переводиться он может по разному: имеется, находиться,
есть или может вообще не переводиться (в таких случаях его называют «глагол-связка»)
am [æm]
I am a student. (Я студент.)
is [iz]
Kate is a student (Катя студентка.)
are [a:]
John's sons are students.
(Сыновья Джона - студенты.)
Местоимения (The pronouns)
Всеобщая история сатириконцев повествует: «Ассирийские цари были очень воинственны и
жестоки. Врагов своих поражали более всего своими именами, из которых Ассур-Тиглаф-АбуХериб-Назир-Непал было самым коротеньким и простеньким».
Конечно, в наше время имена значительно короче. Тем не менее, не стоит «поражать»
собеседника частыми повторениями полных имен, будь то имена собственные или
нарицательные. Во избежание этого в языке выработан особый грамматический инструмент личное местоимение. Оно заменяет полное наименование объекта в тех случаях, когда
собеседнику из контекста речи или ситуации и так ясно, о каком объекте идет речь. В некоторой
степени личное местоимение - «дублер» имени существительного, его компактный «двойник».
Ниже представлена схема, описывающая значения английских личных местоимений в
согласовании с формами глагола be с личными местоимениями в качестве подлежащих.
Местоимения - подлежащие
Subject pronouns
I
[ai] (я)
I am a student (I'm ….)
You [ju:] (ты\вы) You are a student (You’re...)
He [hi:] (он)
He is a student (He’s…)
She [∫i:] (она)
She is a student (She's ….)
*It [it] (он\она\оно\это) It is a student (It’s…)
They [ðei] (они)
They are students (They’re..)
We [wi:] (мы)
We are students ( we’re…)
Притяжательные мест. (чей) + сущ
(Possessive pronouns)
my [mai] my book
your [jo:] your book
his [hiz] his book
her [hз:] her book
its [its]
their [ðe∂] their book
our [au∂] our book
свой \ своя \ свои…
Дословные переводы на русский язык английских предложений с глаголом be могут
звучать косноязычно: «Сын Джона есть студент» и «Я есть студент». Объясняется это тем, что в
русском языке глагол «есть» (форма настоящего времени глагола «быть») пропускается в
предложении: «Сын Джона — студент», «Я - студент». В английском же языке форма
настоящего времени глагола be обязательно упоминается в предложении.
Почему? Потому что в любом английском предложении должен быть глагол – ни чего не
поделаешь : такова структура предложения
Теперь самая важная часть английской грамматики:
Part 2 WORD ORDER – ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ
ВИДЫ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
Внимание !!! Порядок строго определен. На первом месте стоит всегда
подлежащее (оно может быть выражено существительным, местоимение или
собственным именем), а на втором сказуемое (глагол), далее все остальные члены
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предложения, например : по-русски мы можем сказать: Она студентка. Студентка она, а
по-английски будет только так She is a student. Поэтому запомните следующий порядок
слов в предложение ниже в таблице.
1 Подлежащее
Subject
Sentences with “be”
2 Сказуемое
3 … (все остальное)
Nouns (сущ)
Adjectives (прил)
Prepositions (предл)
Numbers (числ)
Verb Be (not)
…..
…..
( am /is / are /
was / were
will be )
# The book Is interesting
# I Am 21
# Those are my trousers
# I was at the party yesterday
Теперь о том, как строятся отрицательное и вопросительное предложения с
глаголом be. С отрицанием все просто - частица not ставится после глагола be.
# The book Is not interesting
# I Am not 21
# Those are not my trousers
# I was not at the party yesterday
Asking questions with “be” (Вопросы с глаголом ‘be’)
Сложнее с вопросом: здесь необходимо сделать перестановку - глагол
be поместить перед подлежащим. Положительное предложение: You are a
student. Вопрос: Are you a student? (Вы — студент?)
Зачем нужна перестановка глагола для образования вопроса, разве
недостаточно просто произнести предложение с вопросительной интонацией, как это делается
по-русски? В английском языке — недостаточно. Перестановка глагола — своего рода
«переключатель режимов работы» английского предложения; без этого «переключателя»
английским предложением невозможно управлять.
Овладев вопросительным предложением с глаголом be, вы можете без труда построить
вопросы со словами «что», «кто» и «чье»? Для этого поставьте в начало вопросительного
предложения соответствующее вопросительное слово. Только и всего.
Схема:
2
be
(is / am / are/
was / were)
Are
Is
Is
Were
Were
Was
Are
3
(4)
nouns (сущ)
subject
аdjectives (прил)
подлежащее
prepositions (предл)
numbers (числит)
General questions
you
39 ?
this
a table ?
this person
Steve ?
they
surprised by that?
you
at home yester day?
your wife
happy to go to the concert ?
you
satisfied with your job ?
(
5
)
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Is
your son
satisfied with your job
Представленные вопросы называются общими, потому что задают вопрос ко всему
предложению. Общие вопросы — это вопросы, требующие ответа «да» или «нет». В английском
языке они начинаются с глагола. Ответы на общие вопросы могут быть краткими и полными.
Вопросы бывают еще и специальными, т.е они запрашивают специальную
информацию при помощи специальных вопросительных слов - what что, какой, who кто,
whose чей, where где, why почему, when когда. НО логическая структура таких вопросов
такая же как и в общих. Рассмотрим схему:
(1)
2
3
(4)
nouns (сущ)
?
be
аdjectives
(прил)
(is / am / are/
prepositions (предл)
question word
subject
was / were)
numbers (числит)
подлежащее
or question phrase
Special questions
# How old
are
you
?
# What
is
this
?
# What
is
your name
?
# Where
are
you
from ?
# What color
is
this dress
?
# What nationality
are
you
?
# Where
were
you
yesterday?
# Who [hu]
are
you
?
# Whose [huz]
is
this car
?
# Whose car
is
this
?
# Whose trousers
are
these
?
# Which
is
your book
?
# How much money
is
here
?
# How many desks
are
in the class
?
# Why
are
you
here?
(
)
Общая схема вопросов с глаголом ‘BE’
(1)
2
3
be
(is / am / are/ was
/ were)
question word
or question phrase
subject
подлежащее
(
(4)
nouns (сущ)
аdjectives (прил)
prepositions (предл)
numbers (числит)
)
?
ИТОГО, ниже мы имеем полную таблицу форм и видов предложения глагола ‘BE’
am
is
are
Positive
I am on business
Negative
I am not on business
Questions
Am I on business?
We are on business
They are on business
You are on business
We are not on business
They are not on business
You are not on business
Are We on business?
Are They on business?
Are You on business?
Не is on business
She is on business
Не is not on business
She is not on business
Is he on business?
Is shе on business?
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Short answer
Yes, I am
Yes, We/ They/ You are.
No, I am not
No, We/ They/ You are
not.
Yes, she/he is
No, she/he is not.
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Part 3 Временные рамки форм глагола ‘be’
Любое действие выражается в языке глаголом. Со школьной скамьи мы знаем, что глагол имеет
формы будущего, настоящего и прошедшего времени. Освежим в памяти, что подразумевается
под этими терминами.
Настоящее, прошедшее, будущее - понятия, связанные со временем.
- будущее время (по-английски Future) - действие, которое произойдет в будущем: «я
сделаю или я буду делать»;
- настоящее время (Present) - действие происходит непосредственно в момент
речи ( сейчас) или происходит каждый день«я делаю».
- прошедшее время (Past) - действие произошло до момента речи: «я сделал».
Эти три варианта расположения действия во времени выражаются в языке с помощью
служебных элементов - суффиксов и вспомогательных глаголов. Назовем их условно показатели времени.
Выше были рассмотрены формы глагола 'be’ в настоящем времени, так называемом ‘Present
Simple Tense’ – где Present – настоящий, Simple – простой , Tense – время (в грамматическом
смысле)’
Present Simple with “be”
I
She
He
It
We
You
They
Positive
at home
am
is
are
Negative
I
at home
She
He
It
at home
We
You
They
am not
Question
I
(Where) am
at home
at home
isn’t
aren’t
(Where) is
at home
(Where)are
I
she
He
it
We
You
They
?
Short answer
Yes, I am
No, I am not
?
Yes, She is
No, She isn’t
?
A BIT OF PRACTICE
1. Put in ‘am / is / are’.
The weather …… very nice today.
I …… not tired.
This case …………. heavy.
The dog ……. asleep.
These cases ………… very heavy.
I …. hot. Can you open the window ,
please?
7. This castle …. one thousand years old.
8. My brother & I …. Good tennis players.
9. He ….. an architect. My sister …. a
doctor.
10. My shoes ……. not clean. They
…….dirty.
1. Ann …… at home but her children …… at
school.
2. It ……. not cold outside
3. They ……… not poor. They ……very rich.
4. Olya …… not a nurse. She ……a teacher.
5. It’s 10 o’clock. You ………… late again.
6. I…… very hungry at the moment
7. John ….. afraid of dogs.
8. My cousin …… policeman. He ….. very tall.
9. Tom ….. not interested in politics.
10. Those people …… English. They ……
Australian.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
2. Write full sentences.
1. be Ill
14. be upset (sad)
7
27. be kind / rude to
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. be sleepy
3. Be silly
4. Be quiet
5. Be asleep
6. Be awake
7. Be hungry
8. Be thirsty
9. Be mistaken
10. Be nervous
11. Be interested in
12. Be away from
13. be different from
15. be angry with
16. be pleased with
17. be busy with
18. be satisfied with
19. be ready for
20. be sorry for
21. be late for
22. be famous for
23. be at home
24. be home
25. be in / out
26. be married to
28. be good at
29. be present at
30. be absent from
31. be tired of
32. be fond of
33. be proud of
34. be jealous of
35. be short of
36. be afraid of
37. Be happy about
38. Be worried about
39. Be angry with
3. Write true or false sentences of your own about the fact in geography,
somebody’s biography & etc. & read them out to your fellow students
& make them agree or disagree with you.
For example: Paris is the capital of Spain. OR Diamonds are very cheap.
4. Translate the sentences
1. Мама дома?
2. Ты что болеешь?
3. Магазин открыт сегодня?
4. Его разве не интересует
искусство?
5. Какого цвета его машина?
6. Ты злишься на меня?
7. Чем знаменит Иркутск?
8. Ты спишь?
9. Почему у тебя ботинки
грязные?
10. Когда открыт магазин?
11. Сколько стоя эти
ботинки?
12. Почему ты всегда
опаздываешь?
13. Ты что ревнуешь?
14. Она сейчас занята?
15. На улице холодно?
16. Это гостиница
дорогая?
17. Почему ты
нервничаешь?
18. Кто твой любимый
актер?
19. Ты гордишься свои
сыном?
20. Ты что устал?
21. Он плохо ко мне
относится?
22. Что тебе интересно?
23. Ты замужем?
SELF-CHECK
5. Read the texts & ask the questions on them.
1. Steve Baxter is a journalist in London.
He's a *busy man. His work is very
interesting. Steve's wife, Jill, is a teacher at
a language school. She's a busy
woman. Her work is very interesting
too.
*busy [bizi] занятой
3. Dick Smith is a teacher. He is from
New York. He is tall and thin. Mary and
Bob Jones aren't teachers. They are from
Los Angelos. Mary is tall, but Bob is short.
2. I'm Stephen Slade. I'm English. I'm 24. I'm an architect.
I'm from London. My friends' names are Pat and Chris.
They are both engineers. Their office telephone number is
5952943. They're about 25 years old. They are very nice.
architect [a:kitekt]
4. George and Alice are students. George is from
Washington. Alice is from New York. They are in Boston.
They are students at Boston University, but they aren't in
the classroom now. George is in the gym. Alice is in the
library.
Oral test
6. You are a manger in a big company/ you want to hire a person for
some job. Make up an interview (age / marital status/ nationality /
where the person is from/ job/ family)
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БУДУЩЕЕ ВРЕМЯ ГЛАГОЛА be
Показатель будущего времени – вспомогательный глагол will
Для того, чтобы поместить действие, в будущее, следует поставить вспомогательный глагол will перед
смысловым глаголом: # I will be at work. tomorrow (Я буду на работе завтра.)
Существенное замечание. Глагол will во многих случаях сокращается до 'II. Например, I 'll
be at work.
Future Simple with “be”
Positive
I
We
You
be in
They will London.
He
She
it
Negative
I
We
You
be in
will
not
They
London.
(won’t)*
He
She
it
Question
(Where)will
I
We
You
be at
They
home?
He
She
it
Short answer
Yes, I will
No, I won’t
Yes, She will
No, She won’t
Отрицательная форма will not = часто произносится сокращенно
(won’t)* [wэont]
Ниже приведены слова - индикаторы, которые часто употребляются в этом времени или
подсказывают, что необходимо образовать именно будущую форму глагола be
next year
next week next Sunday tomorrow tomorrow morning soon the day after
tomorrow
in a year’s time in a day or two in 3 days
in a couple of days in an hour
in a few day’s time
ABIT OF PRACTICE
1. Look at the table & complete the text
cold
warm
hot
very cold
1. Tomorrow it……………… in Cairo
2. Tomorrow it…….. in Rio
3. Tomorrow it…….. in London
4. Tomorrow it…….. ……………..
5. Tomorrow it…….. ……………..
6. Tomorrow it…….. ……………..
Cairo
Rio
London
Moscow
Paris
35C
23C
13C
18C
3C
2. Change these sentences to
positive or negative
3. Complete the sentences about
your age
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1. (Your age) This year I’m …………. In
2015 I……………… Last year I
………… Next year I ………….. in 20…..
I …….
2. (a friend’s age) This year He / She
…………. In 2015 I……………… Last
The bus will not be full
She’ll be late
We won’t be at home
The shops will be closed
He’ll be in Scotland
Ann will be at school
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year I ………… Next year I ………….. in
20….. I …….
4. Make up questions with will….be?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
You/ at home / this evening?
When / lunch /ready?
When / your father / in England?
Ann / at party / with John?
Everybody / here at 8.00?
The train / late again?
When / Joe & Mary/ in the office?
The weather / good / tomorrow?
When / you / on Tuesday?
ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ВРЕМЯ ГЛАГОЛА ‘be’
Форма глагола ‘be’ прошедшего времени – особенные (здесь вас ожидает
неприятность – их надо запомнить) , WAS [woz] / WERE [wэ:]
Для того, чтобы поместить действие в прошлое, следует раскрыть глагол be в прошедшей
форме: # I was at work yesterday. (Я был на работе вчера)
Past Simple with “be”
Positive
I
She
was
He
[woz]
It
We
You
They
were
[wэ:]
at
home
at
home
Negative
I
she
was
He
it
We
You
They
were
Question
at home?
at home?
(Where) was
(Where)were
Short answer
I
she
He
it
We
You
They
at home?
Yes, I was
No, She wasn’t
at home?
yesterday, in 1927
the day before yesterday the other day
3 months ago
a long time ago a few years (days) ago last time last week
last month
last year
A BIT OF PRACTICE
1. a) Look at the pictures and answer the questions.
Answer the questions
about you.
1 Where were you yesterday?
2 Were you alone?
3 Where were your friends?
4 Were you happy?
5 Where are you today?
6 Are you alone?
7 Are you happy?
1.Where was Anne yesterday?
5.Where is Anne today?
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She…
2.Was she alone?
3.Where were her friends?
4. Was she happy?
6.Is she alone?
7. Where are her friends?
8 Is she happy?
2. Read the answers and complete the questions.
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
Who l) .......................Charlie Chaplin?
He was one of the funniest actors ever.
Where 2)............................?
He was born in East Street, Walworth, London.
When 3) ...............................?
On 16 April, 1889.
Who 4) ..........................parents?
He was the son of a music hall singer and his wife, Hannah.
3. Fill in the blanks in the dialogue. Use was, wasn’t, were or weren’t.
- What's this?
- It's a poster from one of Sting's concerts.
- When 1)...........the concert?
- Oh, 5 years ago.
- How old 2)...........you then?
- 13.
- 3).....................you on your own?
- No, I 4)..................... alone. My brother, Tom,
and some friends 5)...........there, too.
- What 6).....................it like?
- Amazing! Sting was fantastic and the
people 7).....................very
excited.
- 8).....................he a member
of Simply Red?
- No, he 9).................., silly.
He 10)............ in the famous
rock band The Police.
- Oh, yes. You're right.
4. Match the sentences in column A with the ones in column В to form
exchanges.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
I was in Paris last week.
He was a great actor.
They were so frightened.
When was Pat's party?
Were you with them?
What was the weather like?
A Yesterday.
В No, I wasn't. I was at work.
С Not bad, actually.
D Were you?
E What film was he in?
F Why?
When I was a small child
5 . Use your dictionary to read the first text & complete the other texts
(blanks can mean one or more words). Practise reading some of the
sentences.
1. A Zulu speaks:
'I was . A Maori speaks:
3. A Dakota Indian
born in a brick
speaks:
house 'I ............ born in a
in Soweto, near
wooden house in a
' ........... in a cloth tipi
Johannesburg in
South village near Rotorua in
near Sisseton, South
Africa. We were poor. My mother
New Zealand. We…… not poor,
Dakota….. United States
was a maid and my father was a
but we………..not rich. My
poor. ........... farmers ..............
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factory worker. He died when I
was six. I was always hungry, and
nearly always unhappy, when I was
a small child. Life was very hard.
White people were terrible to us.'
mother and father …… farmers.
I…….. never hungry when I….. a
small child; I…….quite happy,
really. Life………. not hard, but
white people…….not always
kind to me.'
sometimes hungry ....... a small
child, but ........... happy. My
mother ............... good cook, and
my father..…good teacher
……….. hard, and white people
….. not usually …… us
6. Read the grid below & then make up a story about memories of
your childhood. Mention your age / members of the family/ place of
birth / childhood memories. Use the phrases below.
varied and quite happy / very (un)happy / quite miserable / quite
interesting /quite mixed, really /
When you were a child
7. How many questions can you make?
You
your parents
Life
you and your family
your mother
your father
your school
other people
Was / were
happy
ever hungry
hard
poor
rich
at
home from 9 to
out a lot
good
kind to you
?
8. QUIZ. Fill in: ‘was or were’, then match the questions to the answers
1. What…… Coco Chanel's real first name?
2. Who… ....................Robin Hoods sweetheart?
3 Where…..the Beatles from?
4. What ....the Dodo?
5. Who …. the first man to travel to space?
6. When …. The beginning of world War II?
7. Where….the Vikings from?
8. Where….the pyramids built?
9. Who …….'the dynamic duo ?
10. When…… dinosaurs on our planet?
A Scandinavia
B 1939
С Liverpool, England
D Yuri Gagarin
E Egypt
F Around 70 million years ago
G A bird
H Batman and Robin
I Gabrielle Bonheur
J Maid Marian
9. Think of a famous person that is no longer alive. In teams, the class asks
you no more than ten questions in order to find the person.
Team A S1: Was he an actor? Leader: Yes, he was.
Подведем черту под сказанным:
Глагол - это «машина времени» языка. Пространство, в котором она перемещается, проекция времени в человеческом сознании. «Рычаги», которыми управляется эта «машина», показатели времени.
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WORD ORDER
Кто или
Что? (who
or what)
Что
делает?
Что?
Когда?
when
what
(
Subject
Где?
where
Verb
# He looks at this girl
)
attribute
Object
adverbial modifiers
of place
of time
# I love going out
The Present Simple tense
\-----------\ (s)
(full form of the verb (a verb from the dictionary))
Positive
Negative
I like competitions.
I don’t like competitions***
We like competitions. We don’t like competitions
They like competitions. They don’t like competitions
You like competitions. You don’t like competitions
What do I / We/ They/ You
like?
Does he like competitions?
Does she like competitions?
Не likes competitions. Не doesn’t like
She likes competitions. competitions.
She doesn’t like
competitions
*** do not [du not] = don't [doun’t]
Do
Do
Do
Do
Questions
I like competitions?
We like competitions?
They like competitions?
You like competitions?
What does she/he like?
/
Short answer
Yes, I / We/
They/ You
do.
No, I / We/
They/ You
do.
Yes, she/he
does.
No, she/he
doesn’t.
does not [d z not] = doesn't [d znt]
Use:
1. We use the Present Simple for facts, repeated actions and daily
routines.
# Carlos lives in Lisbon. (fact)
# He goes to work by bus. (repeated action)
# She gets up at six o'clock every morning. (daily routine)
# George goes to the office every day.
2. We use the Present Simple for likes and dislikes. # He likes horses.
3. We use the Present Simple for general truths or laws of nature.
# The sun rises in the east.
# Water freezes at 32° F.
# The Earth rotates round its axis.
# Vegetables grow well in this climate.
# Stress causes high blood pressure.
4. FUTURE MEANING: We use the Present Simple for scheduled actions, i.e.
timetables of trains, buses, etc. or programmes.
# The train to Istanbul leaves at 9.00 pm.
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wear - wears speak - speaks
live - lives
But NB!!!! “go” and “do” are
different. They add -es.
go  goes
do  does
[s] talk talks 1) после глухих
согл.звуков
get gets take takes
laugh  laughs
Исключения: say /sei/

Spelling rules for the Simple Present tense:
Third-Person Singular (he/she/it)
Spelling differences
-s, -sh, -ch,
– y  ies
-s
kiss - kisses
fly - flies study wash - washes
studies
-es
watch - watches
But NB!!!! play - plays
*** have has
-ies
Pronunciation Rules for the Simple Present tense:
Third-Person Singular (he/she/it)
Pronunciation differences
[z] love loves
[iz] dance dances
1) после звонких согл.звуков
1) после шипящих согл.звуков
spend  spends live lives sing  sings tell  tells
/s/, /z/, /∫/, /3/, /tj/, /d3/
2) после гл.звуков
freeze  freezes
agree  agrees try  tries stay stays know  knows
watch  watches
says /sez/
do /du/

does
/d z/
have /h v/
 has /h z/
A BIT OF PRACTICE
Elementary level
Ex.1. B) Answer the following questions according to the model.
Model: What does a driver do? - He drives.
What do drivers do? - They drive.
1. What does a singer do?
2. What does a runner do?
3. What do students do?
4. What does a dancer do?
5. What do cooks do?
6. What do dancers do?
7. What does a painter do?
8. What do teachers do?
9. What does a typist do?
10. What do painters do?
11. What do writers do?
C) ReWrite the following sentences in the 3rd person singular (в 3 лице  he/she).
1. I think I am ill.
6. Good animals always obey their masters.
2. They often visit their granny.
7. The boys box in the gymnasium on Fridays.
3. We live in Leeds.
8. His dogs always attack the neighbours.
4. You usually speak too quickly.
9. Heavy trucks make a lot of noise
5. Do you like boiled potatoes?
D) Write the following sentences a) in the negative, b) in the interrogative.
1. He knows the answer.
9. She leaves home at 10 o'clock every day.
2. He usually has breakfast at 8 o'clock.
10. She agrees with you.
3. The bell rings at 8.30.
11. They feel very cold.
4. The flowers look fresh.
12. Tom looks well.
5. He lives beside the sea. 6. She has a cold bath every day.
13. They pick the apples in October.
7. He remembers their address.
14. The last train leaves at midnight.
8. He plays chess very well.
15. That star moves round the Sun.
E) Fill in the gaps with a suitable verb in the third person singular.
wear
1.
2.
3.
4.
fly
kiss
play
have
watch go
wash
# She works in a hank.
He ______ a uniform.
She's a pilot. She ______ all over the world.
Peter ______ two children.
In winter Alice ______ skiing & in summer she ______ golf.
live wash
5. Bernadette ______ in a flat in Paris.
6. My son ______ television all day long!
7. My daughter ______ her hair every day.
Ex 2 Game Observation. This is Nicola. She is a student. This is her room.
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А)Look at the picture, you don’t know her, but you can say a lot about her just by looking at the
picture:
# She drives a car.
smoke
take
science
photos
wear
eat
watch
drink listen to coffee
music
bake
play
guitar
cakes
jeans
macaroni
study
TV
flour
B) USE THE WORDS IN THE
TABLE by making the
phrases first.
C) Make up your own
sentences.
D) Draw your own pictures
& make your fellow
students describe it making
conclusions about you
EX.3. Look at Tony's room. Then ask and answer questions about his habits and
hobbies, as in the example.
1 Does Tony play baseball? Yes, he does.
6 ..................watch TV in bed? ...
2 ..................he play rugby?.......................
7 ..................have a messy room?
3 ..................he like racing cars?...............
8 ..................he like fruit?............
4 ..................read comic books?................
9 ..................go to school? ...........
5 ..................play video games?.................
10 ..................play the piano?
Ex.4. A) Correct the sentences. The English is correct but the information is wrong.
Write two correct each time.
Example: The Earth goes round the Moon. The Earth doesn't go round the Moon. The Moon goes round the
Earth.
1. The sun sets in the East…………………………….……………
2. Hens eat foxes…………………
3. Blacksmiths make things from wood ……………………………..……
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4. The river Dvina flows into the Black Sea ………………………….……………
B) Make up your own incorrect sentences & make other students correct the
information in your sentence.
Self-check
Ex. 7. Make up questions to the text.
Every weekend is important in the Franklin family. During the week they don't have very much time
together, but they spend a lot of time together on the weekend. Mr. Franklin works at the shoe department during
the week, but he doesn't work there on the weekend. Mrs. Franklin works at the city hospital during the week, but
she doesn't work there on the weekend. Bobby and Sally Franklin go to school 5 days a week, but they don't go
here on the weekend And the Franklin dog Rover stays home alone during the week, but he doesn't stay at home
alone on the weekend.
On Saturday and on Sunday the Franklins spend all their time.
The use of adverbs of frequency* & Time phrases
* frequency – частота, частотность
With the simple present tense to express how often something happens (случается,
происходит) some adverbs of frequency are used:
seldom
rarely
always
frequently
often
never
usually
Be careful!
Adverbs of
frequency
usually come
before the main
verb, but they
go after the
verb “be” #
# They usually remain calm.
# They are usually calm. # He never relaxes.
# They always seem nervous.
# She usually takes life easier.
as a rule
from time to time
every day
every week
every month
every year etc.,
in the morning..
in the afternoon in
the evening
in the weekend,
occasionally
normally
on Mondays…
on Tuesdays etc.,
at night
Pre-intermediate level
Ex.1. Read OR listen to this excerpt from a popular psychology magazine.
Ask questions. What type of personality are you?
Psychologists describe two major personality types—Type A and Type B. People with Type A
personalities work very hard. They never relax. They usually rush through their daily activities.
They get angry easily and often have high blood pressure. In contrast, Type В personalities
usually take life easier. They remain calm even in stressful situations and rarely lose their tempers.
Ex. 2 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets
1. This man (know) from his experience what it (mean).
2. Nothing (happen) by accident.
3. As man (grow) older, he (tend) to be more sceptical.
4. My mother often (tell) me that you not (leave) your problems behind you when you (go) to another place. Pain and
heartache (travel) well. And indeed they (do).
5. Mrs. Osborne (own) this business, and she (run) it herself.
6. He (be) a complete mystery to me.
7. What he (do) for a living?
8. In Rome every building (tell) its own story.
9. When the weather (heat) up and you (need) to cool down, a lake, a river, a pool — is what your body and soul (need).
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10. My great-grandmother is very old, but she (hear, see and understand) everything quite well.
11. I (remember) that Margaret (own) a villa on the Adriatic.
12. "The Bible (say) that the heart of man is exceedingly wicked," the Pastor replied.
Ex. 3. How Often?
A) Arlene is a Type A personality (the passage from the introduction
part). Rewrite these sentences about her. Use the adverbs of
frequency in the box instead of the words in italics.
always
usually often
rarely never
1. Arlene rushes to work every morning.
2. She's in a hurry all of the time. ______
3. She doesn 't have time for breakfast.
4. She skips dinner several times a week._____
5. She goes on vacation once every three years..
6. She's nervous most of the time.___________
7. She doesn't relax._____________________
8. She sees her friends once or twice a year._
B) Two Types
Complete this chart. Arlene is a typical Type A personality. Barbara is a
typical Type В personality. They are completely different. Write about
Barbara.
Type A: Arlene
1. Arlene doesn't relax.
2. Arlene rushes through the day.
3. Arlene speaks very fast.
4. Arlene finishes other people's sentences for them.
5. Arlene doesn't take time to enjoy the moment.
6. Arlene worries a lot.
7. Arlene doesn't have enough time to finish things.
8. Arlene has high blood pressure due to stress.
9. Arlene gets angry easily.
10. Arlene doesn't go on vacation every year.
Type B: Barbara
1. Barbara relaxes.
2. Barbara doesn't rush through the day.
3.___________________________
4.___________________________
5.___________________________
6.___________________________
7.___________________________
8.___________________________
9.___________________________
C) George's Schedule
George is an accountant. Look at his schedule. Ask and answer questions
about his day on the next page.
6:00
6:30-7:00
7:00
8:00-9:00
9:00-12:00
12:00-12:30
12:30-5:00
5:30- 7:00
8:00-9:00
get up.
еxcеrсisе.
eat breakfast, read the newspaper.
work on report.
see clients
lunch
return phone calls.
attend night school
study
D) Schedule Swap.
Write your schedule for a typical day. (Use the schedule in exercise 5 as an
example.) Then exchange schedules with a classmate. Write about your
classmate's day.
Example:
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George gets up at 6:00. He exercises for a half-hour. At 7:00 he ...
E) Are You a Type A or Type В Personality?
Complete this chart for yourself and a partner. Check the correct column.
Do you
1. relax during the day?
2. do everything quickly?
3. worry a lot?
4. take vacations?
5. finish other people's sentences?
6. have high blood pressure?
7.
8.
9.
You
Always
Sometimes
Never
Your partner
Always Sometimes
Never
Decide on your personality types. Give reasons. Refer to exercise 4 on to
review Type A and В personality traits.
Example:
A: I think we both have Type В personalities.
B: I agree. We don't worry a lot, we do this slowly.
wake up without an alarm clock?
feel nervous when you meet new people ?
have lunch at home?
listen to the news before you go to work ?
borrow books from the library?
go shopping for food more than twice a week?
drink tea or coffee in the evening?
go to bed late?
remember people's telephone numbers?
go jogging?
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No, never
No, not very
often
No, hardly ever
No, not usually
Yes, often
Yes, usually
Yes, always
Do you:
Yes, sometimes
Ex. 4. HABITS QUESTIONNAIRE.
Student A
Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask each other questions and to write down your partner's
answers.
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sing in the bath or shower?
drive to work/school?
No, never
No, not very
often
No, hardly ever
No, not usually
Yes, often
Yes, usually
Yes, always
Do you:
Yes, sometimes
Student В
Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask each other questions and to write down your partner's answers.
get up before 7 o'clock?
go to bed early?
plan for the future?
feel nervous when you fly?
have a boiled egg for breakfast?
go skiing in the winter?
watch TV in the evening?
tidy up before visitors arrive?
go abroad for your holidays?
get bored when you are alone?
go out at weekends?
remember your dreams?
# When you have finished, write down six things about your partner, e.g.
(Maria) usually wakes up without an alarm clock. She never goes to bed late. etc.
Now find a new partner. Take it in turns to talk about the person you interviewed.
Final task:
Your Routine day. Describe your working day or a day off.
EX. 5. A) Here is part of a book review. Underline the simple present tense
verbs. Circle the adverbs of frequency.
In today's fast-paced world, we (never) escape stress. It always affects us psychologically, but
according to Dr. Roads, author of the new bestseller, “Calm! Down!” stress also affects us physically.
For example, stress causes high blood pressure. Most doctors agree with this view and often prescribe
medication. Medicine usually lowers a patient's blood pressure. But, Dr. Roads claims, "You don't need
pills. Relaxation exercises are always more effective and safer than pills. For example, breathing
exercises both relax you and lower your blood pressure. It only takes a few minutes, several times a
day." In “Calm Down!” Dr. Roads tells you how.
B) Relaxation Techniques
Work in groups. What do your classmates do when they want to relax? Use
the chart below. Add as many relaxation techniques as you can. How many
of your classmates use the same techniques?
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Example:
A: I lie down and listen to music.
B: I listen to music and dance.
C: I listen to music or read a book.
Things people do to relax How many?
lie down
……………………………………………….……………………………………………….
listen to music
……………………………………………….……………………………………………….
dance
……………………………………………….……………………………………………….
read a book
……………………………………………….……………………………………………….
Now share your findings with the rest of the class.
Example:
Three students listen to music, one student dances.
FUN WITH PRESENT SIMPLE
Ex.6. A) Read this information about Derek Different.
Derek Different gets up at five o'clock in the morning. He has a bath
then he has salad for breakfast. He goes to school by skateboard. He stays at
school for two
hours and then he goes home. He plays computer games all afternoon. For dinner he eats carrots and
cornflakes. He sleeps on the kitchen table.
Are you the same as Derek?
B) Write five Example: I don't get up at five o'clock; I get up at half past seven...
C) Can you guess this person's
job?
I get up very early. I have a big breakfast
& then I go out to milk the cows. After
that I feed the animals. Sometimes, I
drive the tractor in the fields. I watch
television in the evening & I go to bed
early.
D) Make up similar
descriptions of jobs for your
fellow students to guess.
Ex. 7. “It takes me ….. to do …..” / I take ….
Make up questions: # How much time does it take you to make bed? - It takes me 3 min.
# How much time do you take to make bed? - It takes me 3 min.
Ex.8. Trivia Quiz. Work in small groups. Can. you answer these questions?
1. How many times a day does the average human heart beat?
a. 10,000
b. 100.000
с 1,000,000
2. How long does it take the Concorde to fly from New York to Paris?
a. three hours b. four hours с five hours
3. How much caffeine does five ounces of decaffeinated coffee have?
a. none
b. 1 mg
с 3 mg
4. When does summer begin in the United States?
a. June I b. June 21
с July 4
5. Which animal doesn't eat meat?
a. elephant
b. dog
с. lion
Write three more trivia questions to ask your classmates. Can the rest of the
class answer your questions?
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Ex.9. Play a game Rules. Describe the daily routine of the person or thing.
The other students guess what or who is that
a bird a child
count Dracula
president
sun a pilot
a student
a postman a person with flu
a millionaire a cat
a teacher a cockroach
soldier ghost
Follow up
SELF-CHECK
A bit of rendering
EX. 11. Translate into English.
1. — У вас много друзей? — Не очень, а у вас
1. Твой друг — это человек, который знает о
много друзей?
тебе все и тем не менее любит тебя.
2. — Ты ведь обычно обедаешь дома, не так
2. После печали приходит радость.
ли? — Это так.
3. Он любит лежать на диване и смотреть
3. Мой сосед охотится на диких гусей и уток.
телевизор. Он лежебока (a couch potato).
4. Каждый день приносит нам массу новых
4. Все зависит от того, как он видит свое
сведений.
будущее.
5. Он всегда помогает людям советами и
5. — Ребенок хорошо спит по ночам, мамаша?
деньгами?
— Да, хорошо, он просыпается один или два
6. — В мае в Москве иногда идет снег. — Да,
раза.
погода преподносит нам сюрпризы.
6. Он игнорирует наши звонки, потому что не
7. Эти телевизионные новости дают точные и
хочет выполнять эту работу.
верные сведения.
7. Тот, кто говорит, что деньги не могут
10. Мне нравится, когда ты носишь эту
купить, счастья, просто не знает, где делать
розовую блузку.
покупки.
11. Все, что ты делаешь, зависит от тебя.
8. В Калифорнии никогда не идет снег, не так
12. Он очень мудр: все слышит, все видит, все
ли?
понимает, всегда дает хорошие советы.
9. Иногда в Москве зимой идет дождь.
13. Каждое лето Олег ездит в экспедицию и
10. Деньги не растут на деревьях. Их трудно
привозит много находок.
добывать.
14. Я забыла, где он живет.
11. Все уже знают эти новости.
15. Этот словарь предлагает точную и
12. Кто знает, какая сейчас погода в Лондоне?
подробную информацию об английском языке.
The Present Simple tense
Test (2)
Test A) Choose the best variant:
1. How much ... this emerald sweater cost? a) is b) does c) do d) am
2. How much ... this dark-blue sweater? a) is b) do c) are d) does
3. It ... rainy in summer. a) is not b) does not c) do not d) am not
4. It ... often rain in summer. a) do not b) is not c) are not d) does not
5. I ... stay at home on Sundays. a) is not b) am not c) does not d) do not
6. I ... at home on Sundays. a) are not b) does not c) do not d) am not
7. My friend Steve ... have much money. a) do not b) does not c) is not d) am not
8. This man ... very rich. a) is not b) do not c) am not d) does not
9. Mag and her sister ... live in Rome. a) are not b) do not c) does not d) is not
10. My friend Alex and my elder sister Joan ... in London.
a) does not b) is not c) are not d) do not
11. Pat's mother ... teach students at the University of Columbia.
a) does not b) is not c) do not d) am not
12. My friend William ... a taxi-driver. a) does not b) am not c) is not d) do not
13. It ... cost much to stay at the hotel in the suburbs of Chicago.
a) do not b) does not c) am not d) are not
14. The voyage by a ferry-boat across the Great Lakes ... expensive.
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a) is not b) are not c) do not d) does not
15. Where ... you from? a) am b) is c) are d) do
16. How old ... your elder brother? a) are b) is c) does d) do
17. We ... so glad to see you! So many years have passed since your last to our city!
a) do b) is c) are d) am
18. ... your father a carpenter? a) does b) do c) am d) is
19. Your money ... in my wallet, which is under your hand bad.
a) does b) do c) is d) are
20. There is a nice fast-food restaurant across the street. ... you hungry?
a) do b) is c) does d) are
21. My mother ... interested in soccer at all. a) am not b) do not c) is not d) does not
22. ... Tom and Bob good soccer players? a) is b) are c) do d) does
23. What ... your parent's address? a) do b) am c) are d) is
24. The radiator of your car ... boiling. Stop the car and open the hood to cool it.
a) does b) do c) is d) are
25. What ... your aunt's name? a) do b) is c) does d) are
Test B) Choose the best variant:
1. ... your Dad ... any brothers or sisters?
a) have, got b) does, have c) does, has d) has, got
2. ... your sister often ... to the theatre? a) does, go b) do, goes c) does, goes d) do, go
3. We ... have a car, but we are going to buy it.
a) do not have b) does not have c) are not have d) have not
4. ... Bob ... what I want? a) ..., knows b) knows, ... c) do, knows d) does, know
5. They cannot go out, because they ... rain-coats and umbrellas.
a) have got b) does not have c) have not d) do not have
6. Jack lives not far from us, but we ... him often.
a) are not see b) does not see c) not see d) do not see
7. Do not give him cigarettes. He ....
a) do not smoke b) does not smoke c) not smoke d) is not smoke
8. Can you help me? I ... know the way to the market.
a) do not know b) does not know c) am not know d) not know
9. ... Peter ... any beer in the fridge? a) do, has b) does, have c) is, has d) is, have
10. My daughter Mary ... like apples, but she likes oranges.
a) not b) is not c) does not d) do not
11. What is the matter? You ... very happy. a) look b) looks c) do look d) are look
12. ... your brother live in Moscow? - No, he .... He ... in Kiev.
a) do, does not, lives b) do, do not, live c) does, does not, lives d) is, is not, lives
13. There ... a policeman and two firemen at the door. a) are b) is c) stand d) stands
14. ... you like reading books? - Yes, I .... I ... to read very much.
a) do, do, like b) does, do, likes c) does, do, like d) do, does, like
15. She ... pretty and very friendly. She ... a lot of friends among her classmates.
a) am, has b) does, has c) is, has got d) is, have
16. There ... some mistakes in your dictation. a) is b) are c) placed d) do
17. Would you please tell me, where ... the nearest bus stop? a) does b) do c) is d) are
18. ... the shops open at 7 a.m.? - No, they ... closed.
a) does, do b) does, is c) do, are d) are, are
19. That ... interesting. I would like to ... your company.
a) sound, join b) sound, joins c) sounds, join d) sounds, joins
20. You ... a teacher, are not you? a) do b) is c) are not d) are
21. The Hays ... to be a really happy family? a) is b) are c) seem d) seems
22. When it ... cold, we ... warm clothes.
a) does, puts on b) is, put on c) are, put on d) do, puts on
23. ... that hotel expensive? a) are b) do c) does d) is
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24. He ... he ... right. a) think, is b) thinks, is c) think, does d) think, do
25. The sweater ... nice, the trousers ... nice, too.
a) are, is b) is, are c) are, are d) is, is
ORAL TEST 3
Questions to be answered about the Present Simple tense
Support the answer with the examples of your own?
1. When (in what situations) do you use this tense?
2. How do you form it? What Does 3d person singular imply (подразумевает)?
3. What are the spelling rules of the verbs in this tense?
4. What are the pronunciation rules of the ending –s in the verbs in this tense?
5. When is the ending –s not added?
6. How many kinds of sentences are there?
7. How do you form the negative form in the present simple?
8. How do you form the question in the present simple?
9. How many types of question can you name? What does the question to the subject imply?
10. What are the adverbs of frequency? What is their place in the sentence?
11. What other time expressions can you name?
12. What does The Present Simple with future meaning imply?
The Present Progressive (NOW or NEAR)
(Sometimes it is called Present Continuous)
Study this example situation:
Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work. She is driving to work. (This means: she is driving now, at
the time of speaking. This is the Present Progressive tense) Take a look at some other examples:
-
- What are they doing
now?
- They're lying in the sun
(they are sunbathing).
Is the sun shining?
Yes, it is.
- Are the people swimming?
- No, they aren't.
- What are they doing?
- They're walking along the beach.
Positive
Short answer
Negative
Questions
I am working
– Yes, I am. No, I’m not
I'm not working
Am I working?
He is working
– Yes, he is. No, he is not
He isn't working
Is he working?
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She is working
It is working
– Yes, she is. No, she is not
– Yes, it is. No, it is not
She isn't working
It isn't working
Is she working?
Is it working?
We are working
You are working
They are working
– Yes, We are. No, we are not
– Yes, You are. No, you are not
– Yes, They are. No, they are not
We aren't working
Are we working?
You aren't working Are you working?
They aren't working Are they working?
Form
We form the present progressive with the helping verb “be” and the main verb with the “ing” suffix.
Use
We use the present progressive for:
• (1) actions that are happening now, at the moment of speaking.
# The children are sleeping right now.
# I 'm standing outside Children's Hospital right now.
• (2) temporary actions, i.e. actions that are happening around now (the
time of speaking) (they are limited in time (for example: nowadays, this month,
these days, this year),
# The Greens are looking for a babysitter at the moment.
# He is renovating his house these days
Ex. 1. The following actions are not permanent, but limited in time. Write
sentences in the present progressive.
1. John / to live / in London –
6. Aaron / to go by bus / this week
2. Stacey / to help / in the pub this week –
7. Ben / to make / his own sandwiches this week
3. Joey / to take / a computer course this month 8. Kelly / not / to work / this week –
4. Tony / to stay / with a friend at the moment 9. I / to keep / to a strict diet this month
5. I / to work / this weekend
10. ? / to tour / Robbie Williams / Britain / this
summer
•(3) actions that we have already arranged (организовали) to do in the
nearest future, especially when the time and place have been decided.
# They're flying to Canada at seven o'clock this evening.
# “We are celebrating tonight.” # “She is starting a new job tomorrow.”

Ex. 2. On the right you see Kim's diary for the next week. Answer the questions.
Leave out the time expressions (see example).
1. What is Kim doing on Monday evening? (to meet
6. What is she doing on Thursday afternoon?
Tom)
(pick up Jen from the airport)
2. What is she doing on Tuesday afternoon? (look after 7. What is she doing on Friday evening? (go to a
Carol's kids
concert)
3. What is she doing on Tuesday evening? (play
8. What is she doing on Saturday morning? (go
badminton)
on a sight-seeing tour with Jen)
4. What is she doing on Wednesday morning? (see the
9. What is she doing on Saturday evening? (have
dentist)
a party)
5. What is she doing on Wednesday evening? (work late) 10. What is she doing on Sunday morning? (take
Jen to the airport)
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SOME USEFUL PHRASES in this tense
Ex. 3. Exercise on useful phrases. Put the verbs into the correct form (present
progressive).
1. I (to starve) .....................
6. You (not / to fool) .....................anyone.
2. I can tell when you (to lie ) .....................
7. What (to go on) .....................here?
3. I (to joke / only) .....................
8. I (look forward) .....................to seeing you
4. She (to go out) .....................with a real
again.
cutie.
9. What (you / to do) .....................?
5. (you / to try) .....................to pull my leg?
10. (I / to dream) .....................?
Spelling Rules for the Present Progressive
1. If a verb ends in a silent –e, drop the final –e and add –ing.
leave - leaving
take - taking
3. A) In a short word, double the last consonant before adding -ing.
sit - sitting
run - running
However, do not double the last consonant in words that end in w, x, or у
sew - sewing
fix - fixing
enjoy - enjoying
B) In long words that end in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, double the last consonant only
if the last syllable is stressed.
admit - admitting
(The last syllable is stressed)
whisper - whispering
(The last syllable is not stressed, so you don't double the -r.)
5. If a verb ends in –“ie”, change the “ie” to “у” before adding -ing.
die - dying
lie – lying
Time Expressions we use with the present continuous:
now, at the moment, these days, at present, nowadays, still, etc.
& other SIGNAL WORDS
4.
EX. 4. Answer the questions
1. Which of the words is a signal word for actions5. Which of the words can be a signal word for an
arrangement for the near future?
taking place at the moment of speaking?
A)
yesterday B) in the afternoon C) last week
A) now B) never C) sometimes
A) tomorrow B) every week C) usually
A) yesterday B) tomorrow C) at the moment
A) last Sunday B) every Sunday C) Next Sunday
A) Listen! B) last night C) next week
6.
A) right now B) just now C) every day
7. Which of the words cannot be a signal word for
2.
an arrangement for the near future?
3. Which of the words is not a signal word for
A)
next week B) last week C) Next Friday
actions taking place at the moment of
A)
never B) at noon C) in the morning
speaking?
A) Listen! B) usually C) Look!
Ex. 5. Choose the correct signal word.
1. What are you doing .......... ?
6. Gwen is going to the doctor. ................
2. I'm not doing anything ................
7. Josh is going to the cinema. ................
3. ................ The sun is rising.
8. Jane is looking after Tom's dog
4. We're having a party ................ .
9. Francis is cycling to work ................
5. I am talking on the phone ................
10. Alex is living in Australia ................
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1. Read this news item from и TV news broadcast.
Newscaster: And now some local news. Jane Hill is at Arkansas Children's Hospital with an
interesting story. Jane, what's happening?
Jane: Well, as you can see. I'm standing here outside Children's Hospital where quintuplets
were just born to Mary and John Quincy of North Little Rock. We don't know much about the proud
parents except that John is an engineer, and Mary is studying computer programming. The doctors are
getting ready for a press conference, but they tell us, the mother and all five babies are doing fine. I'll
give a complete report on the ten o'clock news tonight. Now, back to you in the studio.
2. Read the letter. Underline the present progressive verbs that describe
something happening at the moment. Circle the present progressive verbs
that describe things that are happening in the extended present.
Dear Andrea.
I`m sorry this letter is so late. I`m just so busy. I`m working very hard at the office these days, and
I`m still looking for a new apartment.
I have a new friend named Diana. Diana`s terrific. She`s really helping me a lot. She says Ican live
with her until I find my own place. We`re good roommates. Right now Diana is in her room, and she`s
studying for a test. I`m sitting in the kitchen and writing to you.
I really miss you. How are you doing? Are you still working at the same place? Are you going to
night school this year?
Please write soon.
Stephanie
3. Read this student's postcard to a friend. It has five present-progressive
mistakes. Find and correct them.
Dear Jerry.
Right now I sit in a park near my hotel The sun setting, and it qet a little cooler now. The view is beautiful. I'mglad
I have my camera with me. I taking lots of pictures to show you. How areyou? Do you still working hard? I`ll write again
soon. Wish you were here.
Your friend.
Elizabeth
4. Ice Cream or Exercise? Complete the conversation. Use the present
progressive. Use contractions.
Cynthia: Bye, Howard, (1. leave) I`m leaving now.
Howard: Where______you_(2. go )___________?
Cynthia: Running. It's the first day of our exercise program.
Nancy___(3. wait )___________downstairs.
Howard: Great! Why don't you take the clog out with you?
Cynthia: No, today's your day to walk him. Why don't you take the dog out?
Howard: I can't. I__(4. work )__________at home today.
Cynthia: But you__(5. not do )________________anything right now.
You______just__ (6. sit)___________there.
Howard: That's not true. I____ (7. sit) _________here, but I_____also_____ (8. think)
________about my work.. Can't the dog run with you?
Cynthia: Well, not exactly.
Howard: What does that mean?
Cynthia: Well, after we run, Nancy and I want to get some ice cream at the Sweet Shop.
And they don't allow dogs.
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5. Press Conference. The Quincy's and the doctors are holding a press
conference, Jane Hill, the reporter, is asking them questions. Read the
answers to the questions. Then write the questions. Use the words in
parentheses.
1. Jane: Hello. I'm sure you know everyone is waiting to hear about the quintuplets.
(How/everyone/ do?)
How is everyone doing?
Doctor: Everyone is doing very well. We are very pleased with the health of all five babies and with
Mary Quincy's recovery.
2. Jane: It's very quiet._________(babies/sleep?)_____________________________
Mary: Yes, the babies are all sleeping. And the nurses and 1 are resting, too.
3. Jane:________ (Ноw many/ nurses/help you with the babies?)
_______________________________________________________
John: Right now, two. And, believe me, we need all the help we can get!
4. Jane:_________ (How prepare for your return home?) ________________________________.
Mary: We're learning all we can from the nurses, and we're asking all our friends and
family to help.
5. Jane:_____________________ (plan/to move?) ––––––––––––––––––––––.
John: We aren't planning to move right away. We need more space, but it's too
expensive right now.
6. Jane __________(where/live/now?) _________________
Mary: We're living in a two-bedroom apartment. Uh-oh, two of the babies are crying, and the others
will probably start soon.
Jane: We should stop the interview, then. Thanks for your time.
6. Child Development. Look at the child-development chart. Write about
each baby. Describe what he or she is and isn't doing.
Three months old
Baby 1
(boy)
Baby 2
(boy)
Baby 3
(girl)
Baby 4
(girl)
Baby 5
(girl)
hold head up
roll over
reach for objects
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
1
2.
3.
4.
Baby 1 is holding his head up. He isn't rolling over, and he isn't reaching for objects.
Baby 2____________________________________________________
Baby 3______________________________________________________________
Babies 4 and 5________________________________________________________
7. Where Am I? Work in small groups. Think of a place you would like to be.
What is happening in that place? Describe the activities to your group. The
group will guess where you are.
Example:
A: There are many people here. Some people are swimming. Others are sitting in the sun. One little girl
is building a sand castle. Where am I?
B: You're at the beach.
B). Charades. Work in small groups. Take turns. Act out a situation infront of your group. The group
asks questions to guess what you are doing.
Example:
(Student A pretends to swim.)
B: Are you waving? A: No, I'm not.
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C: Are you calling for help? A: No.
D: Are you swimming? A: Yes, I am.
8. Role Play. Work in pairs. Pretend you are walking down the street. You
meet an old friend. Tell your partner what you are doing these days, this
year, and/or this month.
Example:
A: Hey, how are you doing? B: Great! I'm working hard, but life is good. And you? What are you
doing these days? A: Oh, the same old thing. I'm ...
16. Read the paragraph. Look at the verbs in italics. Circle the verbs that
describe what is happening now. Underline the verbs that describe what
generally happens.
It's 7:00 A.M. Terry Savoia (is getting) ready for work.. Normally, Terry prefers to drive to work. Today,
however, Terry doesn`t want to take her car. She's listening to the traffic report. Traffic is moving very
slowly. A commute that normally takes twenty minutes is taking thirty minutes. Terry has a headache
and feels nervous just thinking about the drive.
Present Progressive for changes
• (4) changes (changing situations)
# The climate is getting warmer. # The child is growing bigger & bigger every day
Ex. 1. Right now (March 2003), British papers are suffering from a changing
situation. They are losing readers to other media such as TV or internet. Put
the verbs into the correct form (present progressive). Use the long form as this
is more typical for formal articles.
1. Newspapers (to lose) .................. readers.
6. Sensing the trend, advertisers (to shift)
2. Even the Daily Mail (to lose) ..................readers
..................to other media to get their messages
now for the first time in ten years.
across.
3. Young people (just not / to buy)
7. Some businesses, such as fashion, (to advertise /
..................newspapers the way their parents
still) .................., but others are not.
did.
8. Now the Sun (to try) .................. to recapture
4. This generation (to grow up) ..................with no
younger readers.
particular brand loyalty to any newspaper.
9. The Mirror (to hunt / now) ..................readers in
5. Young Britons (to get) ..................their news
the overcrowded middle ground.
either online, or from television or radio.
10. Some papers (to think) ..................of launching
new titles to survive in this contracting market.
Say what is happening to some of the following
The world’s population you (age) your English prices
days (length)
pollution
roads
The political situation women men older people
people holidays & etc.
(5a) The present Progressive with future meaning
We use the present progressive tense for future actions, that we have
already arranged (уже организовали) to do in the nearest future, especially
when you know the time and place of the action.
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# They're flying to Canada at seven o'clock this evening.
Ex. 1. Read the dialogue & insert the right tense form
a)
- Mike ……….. (come) tonight?
- No, he……….. (work) hard at present.
- What he ……….. (do)?
- He ……….. (read up) for his examinations.
- But it……….. (be) Saturday. I ……….. (be) ours he ……….. (not/go) to take his examination on
Sunday.
- No. But he ……….. (say) he (meet) his girl-friend on Sunday, and the examination ……….. (be)
on Monday.
- So he ………..(have) only tonight for his studies.
b)
- Where……….. (be) Andrew?
- What ……….. (be) this - We ……….. (drive) to the
- He ……….. (smoke) on the
music?
Lake District.
terrace.
- It ……….. (be) Ann.
- You ……….. (take) the
- I ……….. (think) he ………..
She……….. (play) the
children along(брать с собой)?
(smoke) too much.
piano.
- No. We ……….. (leave) them
- Yes. He ……….. (be) a chainwith our parents.
smoker.
2. Terry's Schedule. Terry is a business executive. Look at her schedule.
Complete the sentences below. Use the simple present tense or the present
progressive.
8:30-9:00
9:00-12:00
12:00-1:00
1:00-4:00
open mail
meet with clients
[have lunch] attend time management seminar.
write reports
4:00-5:00
return phone calls
.
1. Terry usually ………………………… between 8:30 and 9:00.
2. It's 8:45. She ––––––––––––––––––––––––––.
3. She–––––––––––––––––––––– with clients for three hours every day.
4. It's 12:30. Normally,Terry, ____________between 12:00 and 1:00, but today she________ a seminar.
5. It's 2:00. At the moment,Terry––––––––––––––––––––.
6. She________________________ for three hours every day.
7. The line is busy. Terry________________phone calls.
8. She always__________between 4:00 and 5:00.
(5b) “be going to” (I am going to do)
1) a) We use “be going to (do)” when we say what we have already decided
to do, what we intend (намериваемся) to do in the future:
- A: There's a fi l m on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
B: No, I'm too tired I'm going to have an early night.
- A: I hear Ann has won a lot of money. What is she going to do with it?
B: I've heard she's going to travel round the world.
- A: Have you made the coffee yet?
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B: No, but I' m just going to make it (just - just at this moment).
= b) We prefer to use the present continuous (I am doing) when we say what
someone has arranged to do - for example, arranged to meet someone,
arranged to travel somewhere. “be going to is also possible:
- What time are you meeting Ann? (or 'are you going to meet')
- I'm travelling to Scotland on Monday. (or 'I'm going to travel')
c) We use “was/were going to” to say what someone intended to do in the
past (but didn't do):
- We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car.
- A: Did Tom do the examination?
B: No, he was going to do it but in the end he changed his mind.
- I was just going to cross the road when someone shouted 'Stop!'.
2) “be going to” also has another meaning
Study this example situation:
# The man can't see where he is going. There is a hole in front of him. He is going to fall
into the hole. (Here the speaker is saying what he thinks will happen. Of course he doesn't
mean that the man intends to fall into the hole.)
We use “be going to” in this way when we say what we think will happen .
Usually there is something in the present situation (the man walking
towards the hole) that makes
the speaker sure about what
will happen.
# Look at those black clouds! It's going
to rain, (the clouds are there now)
# Oh, I feel terrible I think I'm going to
be sick. (= I feel terrible now)
Ex.2. say what is going to
happen
EX.3. (Trapped) Work in pairs.
Helen and her boyfriend John were travelling round the world together.
Unfortunately, they could
not get out of a certain
country for six months. (Why
not?) During this time they
made some important
decisions. When they finally
got out they told their
friends about their plans for
the future.
Imagine that you are friends of Helen and John and make sentences about their intentions using going to
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or not going to. Use the ideas below to help you. Example: They're going to get married.
Ideas: have a big party, get married, buy a flat in town, leave/change jobs, have a holiday, travel abroad
again
B) Work in the same pairs. It is three months later. This time one of you is
Helen or John and the other one is a friend. The friend asks questions about
Helen and John's intentions using going to. Helen or John answers with
information about the couple's firm plans using the present progressive, like
this:
FRIEND
HELEN/JOHN
Are you going to get married?
Yes, we're getting married on 15 July in London.
Ex.4. (A Fortune teller) Work in pairs. One of you is a fortune teller first, then
the other one has a turn. The fortune teller looks at his or her partner's hand
and makes predictions about the future. Use will/won't or going to/not going
to. Invent your partner's future but say only nice things! Say things about
your partner's future career, love-life, luck and money situation and at least
one surprise.
Examples: You will marry an Italian. You 're going to get a new car soon.
B) Work as a class. Tell the class some of your predictions and write down a
few of the nicest predictions that other people made.
Ex.5. (Improving your classroom) A) Work as a class. Half the class is Team
A and the other half of the class is Team B. Team A and Team В have five
minutes to think of possible improvements to the classroom. You can talk to
anybody in your own team and write down ideas.
Examples: Paint the walk blue. Have armchairs in here.
B) Someone from Team A says an intended improvement using going to.
Example: We're going to paint the walls blue.
Team A gets one point if the going to sentence is correct.
Someone from Team В makes an objection or points out a problem. Example: You can’t paint the walls
blue, there's no blue paint. Team В gets one point if the sentence is correct.
Someone from Team A must think of something spontaneously and say a correct sentence with will.
Example: OK, we'll paint the walls green then.
Team A gets one point if the will sentence is correct.
Then Team В has a turn to start by saying one of their intended improvements.
Ex.6. Analyse the sentences with future meaning, explain the use
а)
действие точно запланировано и, следовательно, произойдет обязательно;
b) события в будущем зафиксированы жестким графиком, расписанием, календарем;
c) предпосылки для будущего действия, или события имеются уже- сейчас или решение о будущем
действии дивно принято и обдумано;
d) мнение или решение о будущем возникает спонтанно, сейчас.
1. I'm going to visit my friends at the weekend,
2. No, I invited you first. I’ll give a party and you'll come to my place.
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3. The morning is so warm. It's going to be a really hot & sunny day.
4. The concert is next Sunday. It is a lunch-time concert, so it begins at 1 pm
5. I'm going to visit my dentist in an hour, so I'm a little nervous.
6. I'm not busy in the evening so I'm going for a walk,
7. He turns (ему будет - о возрасте) 1 8 next year, so he is receiving a driving licence & his parents are going
to give him their car,
8. When we finish our English course, we are going to practise the language everywhere - at home & abroad'.
9. You liked the novel, so you are going to enjoy the film too.
10. We have some time before we leave. I'll go & have a drink,
Self-check
Ex.7. (She's leaving home) There is a song by The Beatles called She's
Leaving Home. It is about a daughter who leaves her family home for the
first time to go and live somewhere else. This activity is about the same
situation.
Work in pairs, A and B.
Person A:
Person B:
You are a parent. Your son or daughter (B) is
You are a young person leaving home for the
leaving home for the first time. B is , of course,
first time. You parent (A) is worried about
much too young for smth like this. You are , of
you, you have plans & ideas. Tell A about
course, worried. Ask, B questions about his or
your plans & ideas using the present
her future life using the present progressive for
progressive for future time , will & going to.
future time , will & going to.
# I’m going to a job interview next week
# I’m moving in with a friend
# Are you going to look for a flat?
# Will stay near here?
When you & A are ready, start asking your
When you & B are ready, start asking your question question & have a conversation about B’s life.
& have a conversation about B’s life.
(6) The present Progressive to describe emotions about people’s character
Usually we use the present progressive in this meaning with the adverbs “
always / constantly”
# He is always grumbling at me.
# I’m always losing my keys.
# He's always borrowing money.
# She is constantly laughing.
# Granny's always giving us little presents.
Compare:
When Alice comes, I always meet her at the
I'm always meeting Alan Forbes in the
station (planned meetings).
supermarket (unplanned).
Ex. 1. Here are some sentences taken from real conversations. Can you put
the beginnings and ends together?
BEGINNINGS
ENDS
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Dad is always teasing me
He's always arguing
He's always giving people
Her best friend is always dropping in
I hate those cartoons
Jamie is always having colds
My wife's always buying
She's always criticising
She's always saying
Someone is always giving
That old lady is always
a party in one of the houses.
about my clothes.
and chest problems.
her family.
making up stories about people.
new products.
or fighting.
she wishes she was prettier.
small presents.
I criticise the way she lives her life.
where Tom is always chasing Jerry.
This structure usually expresses an emotion. Which emotion is most
common in the examples in the previous exercise - interest, criticism, surprise or
admiration?
B) Write sentences describing people you know who often do some of the
following things (or others):
worry about nothing
lose their temper
lose things
talk nonsense
quarrel
complain about their health
cry
forget things
fall in love
change their job
buy new clothes
Pr Simple & Pr Progressive Compared
Communication Practice
15. Read and listen to this radio announcement about
road conditions.
And now for the WXYZ traffic report. Right now the situation is bad on all major highways. Traffic is
moving slowly because of the holiday weekend. A commute that usually takes twenty minutes is taking
about thirty minutes. Many people who normally use public transportation are driving instead. This is
adding to the traffic congestion. If you don't need to take your car, the police recommend public
transportation. For more traffic updates, please stay tuned.
(7) Non-action Verbs
(= Non-continuous verbs)
*** Progressive (Continuous) Tenses means actions. Non-action verbs (also called stative verbs)
usually describe states (состояния) or situations but not actions. They are verbs of emotions, senses,
mental activities & etc. for example
Be careful! Here is a list of verbs normally used in the simple form:
believe,
belong,
forget,
hear,
know,
need,
see,
think,
want
understand
remember
can’t stand
like,
love,
hate
prefer
smell
realise
taste
recognise sound
# I need a pencil. (NOT: I'm needing a pencil.)
# I want to leave now. (NOT I'm wanting to leave now.)
# I can hear children's voices coming from the playground.
# I don't understand why this traffic is so bad.
# I have a headache. Do you have any aspirin?
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# The cake tastes delicious
# She can't stand cats.
# He loves playing basketball.
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Ex.1. Choose state verbs from the list to complete the sentences. Use each
verb once.
smell, hate, know, like, remember
1 She always _____ my birthday.
2 Those flowers _____ nice. What are they?
3 Jane is repairing the car. She _____ how to do it.
4 I _____ (not) him, I just _____ (not) him very much at the moment.
5 _____ you _____ how to say this in French?
2.Strange Sounds. Complete this conversation between Terry and David.
Use the simple present or present progressive form of the verbs in
parentheses.
Terry: Listen!___ ____you___ (1.hear) _______something?
David: No. I______ (2. listen)________, but I______ (3. not hear) anything. Wait a minute! It______
(4. sound) like somebody____ (5. cry) _____. Where____ (6.come)___the noise_______from?
Terry: I_____(7. think)_____it______(8.come) from the apartment upstairs, but that's impossible. The
Ortegas___(9.visit) some relatives. They always_____ (10. go)_________away in December.
David:_______ (11.have) you their phone number? Should we call them and tell them what ______ (12.
happen)?
Terry: You know, it's strange. Every time they______ (13.take) a vacation, they_____ (14.leave) me a
number, but not this time.
David:_______ (15.think) you somebody broke into their apartment?
Terry: I doubt it. A robber wouldn't be crying. I_____ (16.think) we should go upstairs and check..
NB!!!
Be careful!
Some non-action verbs can have both a non-action and an action meaning & but
there is a difference in meaning.
*** However, we can use “have” in progressive tenses with the following expressions: have
breakfast/ lunch/dinner (=eat breakfast/lunch/dinner), have a bath/shower (=be in the
bath/shower), have a party (=give a party), have fun (=enjoy oneself), have a good I nice I bad time
(=enjoy or not enjoy oneself), etc.
# He has lunch at two o'clock every day. (pr. simple)
# He's having lunch now. (present progr.)
a non-action meaning
I think she needs help. (= I have an opinion ...)
I can see a light in the distance. (= I can actually
see ...)
This pasta tastes delicious! (= This pasta has a
delicious flavour.)
The kitchen always smells of freshly baked bread.
(= The kitchen always has the smell of...)
George looks very tired. (= George appears to be
...)
This material feels soft. (= This material has a
soft texture ...)
# She has a bath every morning, (pr. simple)
# She's having a bath at the moment, (pr. progr.)
think
see
taste
smell
look
feel
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an action meaning
I'm thinking about buying a new car. (= I'm
considering)
I'm seeing Tom this evening. (= I'm meeting
...)
He's tasting the pasta. (=He's testing the
flavour of...)
Why is the lady smelling the perfume? (= Why
is the lady sniffing ...)
John is looking at an old map. (=John is
studying ...)
A: Why are you feeling Sam's forehead? (=
Why are you touching ...)
B: Because I think he's got a temperature.
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7) She has a beautiful old house. (= She
owns/possesses ...)
He's a very foolish person. (description of
something about his character)
have
We are having dinner. (= We are eating ...)
be
He's being very foolish. (description of how
he's acting/behaving at the moment
Ex.3. A) Read and translate the following sentences. Explain the use of the
Present Progressive (one of the 7 aspects of the use of this tense).
1. Family life is changing rapidly.
2. These days many people are complaining that
life is too tough.
3. I can't understand what he is talking about.
4. He is always coming up with new ideas.
5. Look here, Michael, I'm not being critical of
you.
6. Isn't he being just a little bit unfair?
7. Forgive me! I am being thoughtless. How is
your son?
8. She is feeling dead guilty. Forgive her.
9. I’m having an exam tomorrow
B) Use the right form of the verb in brackets
1. Oh, darling, pay no attention to Mr. Wonka! He 10. — Why you (cry), Nicky? — Can't you see I
(lie) to you.
(cut) onions?
2. "I (starve), and my feet (kill) me. I (want) to
11. Listen, you and Eric (come) for Sunday's
have a rest," complained Grandma. 3. "Watch the
barbecue?
road!" cried the policeman. "Something (happen)
12. — You (feel) better, darling? — Yes, I (do)
there."
fine, thank you.
4. — You (kid)? — No, I not (joke), sir. I'm dead
13. — Have you put the kettle on to boil? — It
serious.
(whistle) already.
5. Now, children, we (go) to the most wonderful
14. All the talk tonight is about the house which he
place in the world.
(renovate).
6. You (think) of selling this house? I not (think)
15. We not (get) younger.
it's the right time to do it.
16. Make the tea, Jess, the kettle (screech) its head
7. We still can't understand what he (talk) about.
off.
8. She (show) the latest collection of new designs
17. Now clear off, I (read).
tonight.
18. Hello, is that me you (look for)?
9. Today in this country we (face) a lot of
problems.
Ex. 4. Translate into English.
1. Когда я вдали от дома, то я с нетерпением жду (to long for) того дня, когда вернусь обратно.
2. «Мы обсуждаем тебя или меня?» — спросил он с улыбкой.
3. — И что же ты делаешь в Женеве? — Пишу пьесу.
4. Гораздо больше денег в том, что делаешь ты, чем в том, чем занимаюсь я.
5. Он постоянно говорит мне о своих чувствах!
6. Успокойся! Ты же всех раздражаешь!
7. Он подумывает о том, чтобы эмигрировать.
8. Я знаю, что ты чувствуешь сейчас, мы все чувствуем то же самое.
9. — Они встречаются (to see) сегодня вечером. — Понимаю.
10. Посмотри, девушка на экране рекламирует новый шампунь.
11. — Все зависит от того, как он видит свое будущее. — Да, но он ничего не планирует.
12. — Взгляни, наш сосед опять бегает по утрам (jog). — По-моему, он устанавливает новый
рекорд (make a record). Он выглядит измученным.
13. Какие это у тебя духи (to wear perfume)? Они удивительные.
14. Он прекрасный человек. Но сегодня он просто невыносим (unbearable).
15. — Твой английский становится все лучше и лучше. — Да, я занимаюсь с утра до ночи.
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Ex. 5. Use the right form of the verb in brackets.
1. My aunt often (talk) to herself. Look, Grandpa (talk) to himself.
2. I never (drink) anything with my meals. What you (drink)? — Tonic water.
3. The days (get) longer from January to June. The days (get) longer now.
4. We (go) out a lot in the summer. We (go) out on Saturday.
5. — What's that terrible noise? — My neighbour (drill) the wall. He (do) it every weekend.
6.1 wonder if Kate is on a diet. She (get) thinner and thinner.
7. My house plants (grow) very slowly.
8. She can't come to the phone right now. She (wash) her hair. She (wash) it twice a week.
9. Many people (go) to church on Sundays. Hey, people! Where you (go)? 10. Unemployment (rise) at
an alarming rate. Prices (rise) after economic crises.
11. Don't disturb him, he (work). 12. Your husband ever (work) at the weekends?
13. Come in, I not (sleep).
14. He always (come) at the wrong moments.
15. She constantly (talk)!
16. Why you always (chew) something?
Ex. 6. Translate into English
1. Они сейчас обедают. У них есть проблема. Они обсуждают ее сейчас.
2. — На Джулии сегодня новая шляпка (wear). Она здорово выглядит. — Да, шляпка меняет
женщину.
3. Клара пробует мороженое. Мороженое восхитительно на вкус.
4. Она щупает бархат. Он такой мягкий. Она чувствует себя счастливой.
5. Я думаю о тебе. Я считаю, что ты чудо, девушка моей мечты.
6. Я правильно вас понимаю, что я прошел собеседование?
7. — Как ты себя чувствуешь сейчас? — Не могу пожаловаться. Если жалуешься, то никто не
слушает тебя.
8. Моя бабушка постоянно делает мне подарки.
9. Он работает как раб. Экзамены приближаются.
10. Брюс насторожился. Голос, который он слышал, взывал о помощи.
11. Посмотри на эту фотографию. Это моя семья. Мы отдыхаем на море. Девочка, которая
держит собаку, моя дочь, Евгения. Моя жена, Луиза, сидит справа. Слева стоит мой сын, Денис.
Мальчик, который стоит в центре, мой племянник. Вдалеке видна яхта, которая плывет по морю.
Здесь здорово!
7. Self-Portrait. Draw a picture of yourself. Your teacher will collect all the
pictures, mix them up, and. redistribute them. Work in small groups. Guess
who drew each picture. Then give each picture to its correct owner.
# A: This looks like Pedro. B: I don`t think so. Pedro has short hair, and he's wearing glasses today.
TEST 1
Task 1 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present
simple or present continuous.
Variant 1
Variant 2
1
1
A: What 1) ....................
A: What 1) .................(you/do) tonight?
B: Nothing special. Why?
(you/cook)?
B: I 2).....................(make)
A: Would you like to go to the cinema?
vegetarian lasagne.
B: That 2) ..........................(sound) like a good idea. What 3)
A: 3) ...........................(you/eat)
.................................(you/want) to see?
vegetables every day?
A: I'd really like to see Titanic.
B: No, I usually 4)
B: I 4) ...............................(hate) watching sad films.
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..................(have) meat at the
A: How about a comedy then? B: OK.
weekend.
2
2
A: 1).................(you/spend) the summer in Sicily? A: 1) .....................................(the baby/sleep)?
B: No, this year we 2) .................................(go) to
B: No, she 2) ..................................(not/be).
the north of Scotland. A friend of ours 3)
She3).....................(play).
.....................(have) a cottage near Inverness.
3
A: Oh, how wonderful! 4) ...................................
A: Where 1) .........................................(you/go)
.........(you/take) the children with you?
on holiday this year?
B: No, they 5)...........................................(stay)
B: I 2) ...................(want) to go to Spain but my
with m y mother because they 6) ...................
wife 3) ..............(prefer) Turkey.
.................(not/like) being away from their friends.
3
4
A: Hi, Mum. We
A: What 1) ..................(you/usually/have) for breakfast?
1)...............................(have) a
B: I usually 2)............(have) tea and toast but sometimes I 3)
great time here in Venice.
............(eat) cereal for a change.
B: Oh, lovely. When
5 A: What 1) .....................(you/think) of my new dress?
2)................(you/come) home?
2).....................(you/like) it?
On Friday?
B: Yes, I 3) ....................................(do) .
A: No, we3) .................(not/be).
4).......................(you/wear) it tonight?
We 4)......................(come) back
A: No, I 5) ..........................................(not/be). I 6) ................(save)
on Saturday.
it for John's party.
Bridget 1) ............................ (go) to school every morning at 8 o'clock. Right now, she
2)...........................(sit) next to her friend, Sue. Their teacher 3)....................................(talk) to them
about Argentina and they 4)..........................(try) to find it on the globe. Bridget
5)...........................(love) Geography but she 6) ...........................(hate) Maths. Every month, the
teacher 7)....................................... (show) the class a film about another country. Bridget really
8)............................(enjoy) these films. In fact, she 9)......................... (want) to be a Geography teacher
one day.
TEST 2
1. Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets in the present
progressive or present simple.
1 Please be quiet. I ______ (try) to read the paper.
2 This is a very quiet town. Where _____ (people/go) in the evenings?
3 I _____ (work) in a factory until I can find a better job.
4 What _____ (you/do) with all that paper and glue?
5 I _____ (not/use) the computer at the moment so you can use it.
6 _____ (Karen and John/ever/write) to you?
2. a) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present simple or
present continuous, as in the example.
1 I ...... (fly) to Moscow tomorrow.
2 The McCarthys............................(live) in Perth.
3 John ........................................................(paint) the garage at the
moment.
4 The earth ................................................(move) around the sun.
5 Anna ...............................(like) her new school.
6 The flight to New York............................(leave) at 7:00 am.
7 We ............................................................(look) for new furniture for the living room at present.
8 ...............................................................(you/go) to Spain this summer?
9 Rachel .....................................................(work) as a waitress at Sunrise Diner.
10 The train from Brussels....................................... (arrive) at 5:10 pm.
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11
12
13
14
15
b)
A
В
С
D
We.............................................................(stay) at a beautiful hotel by the sea.
Ellen ...............................................(hate) dogs.
She ...:.............................(exercise) three times a week.
I ...............................................(write) a letter to Michael right now.
Water ........................................(freeze) at 0°С
Which sentences describe:
a permanent state
= ......
a temporary action
= ..........
a scheduled action
- ..........
an action arranged for the near future = .
E
F
G
H
a general truth
= ..........
an action happening now
= ..........
likes/dislikes
= ..........
a routine
- ..........
PAST SIMPLE
Getting started
1 In the texts below two children, a five-year-old
boy and a ten-year-old girl, talk about how they
spent their money one day. Read the texts and
answer the questions.
 Who is speaking in each text, do you think? .................................................
 Who do you think spent more money? ……………………………………………………..
TEXT 1
First of all I went to a fashion shop and bought a necklace with a heart. That cost me £1.50. Then
I went to the Body Shop ('a shop selling beauty products) and bought shower gel and bubble bath. Then I
went to the book shop and bought a Babysitters book (a series of books for children) , which cost me
£2.99. Then I went to the music shop and bought a CD holder which included five photos of East 17 (a
former British pop group). After the music shop, I went to the sweet shop and bought some sweets
TEXT 2
I spent my money on a toy car set. It cost me £6.49. It's got street lights and roads and you put it
together and play with your cars on it. I didn't want to buy any sweets. Then I went to the cinema with
my dad to watch my favourite film, James and the Giant Peach. I ate some popcorn. I wish my Mum
would give me popcorn every week
B) Underline the verb forms. In what way are they different?
c) Below is the information how to form& use the past simple tense.
The FORM of the past simple tense
1. /-----/ ed
***We form the positive of most regular verbs
by adding -ed to the base of verb.
# I return -I returned
1
2
**
Positive
I walked
He went home
He was famous
They were happy
2. (did  2clmn of irr v)
***Some verbs have irregular affirmative forms.
# I go -I went
Negative
I didn’t walk
He didn’t go home
*** Was \ were
He wasn’t famous
They weren’t happy
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Questions
Did you walk to work
Did he go home?
Was he famous?
Were they happy?
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I was born here
I wasn’t born here
When were you born?
The USE of the past simple tense
WE USE THIS TENSE:
1. for short actions which
happened immediately one
after another (sequence of
tenses) in the past.
2. for facts
(actions, thoughts
& events) in the
past
3. for past habits
or states which
are now finished.
In such cases we
can also use the
expression ‘used’
to.
The time is stated,
# He got out of bed, went to the
already known or implied.
kitchen and turned on the coffee
machine.
# Sheila arrived in Tokyo last week.
# First, he opened the window.
# We left the house at 7.30 pm.
# I lived /used to live in
Then, he looked down the street and # Princess Diana died in 1997.
France five years ago.
saw a strange black car
NB!!! *reporting what s.o said ( after verbs like said, told, asked)
# They told me I needed to wear glasses
Time expressions that refer to the past
yesterday
then / in 1997
when I came in ….
last night
last week
last month
last year
last Tuesday
last time
three days ago
two minutes
ago & etc.
Long time ago
Long ago
How long ago ...?
SPELLING. Study these examples & form the rule yourself:
I drop -I dropped
I try - I tried I cancel -I cancelled
I play -I played
I dance -I danced
Pronunciation Rules for the Past Present tense
(Third-Person Singular (he/she/it)):
Pronunciation differences
[t] race  raced
[d] live lived
[id] attend attended
1) after the voiceless
1) after the voiced (звонк. согл. звуки) 1) after /t/ and /d/. /id/
(глух. согл. звуки)
sounds & vowels (гласн.)
adds a syllable to the
sounds hop hopped
agree  agrees
try  tried
start  started
work worked
stay stayed
hug  hugged decide  decided
laugh  laughed
EX. 1. A) Look at the picture.
What did Robert do last
night? & Say what you did
last night.
B)
Work in pairs. Tell your
partner what you did
yesterday.
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COMMUNICATION / Biographies
Ex. 2. Read and listen to this excerpt from a biography of Emily Dickinson.
Emily Dickinson was a famous American poet. Dickinson lived from 1830 to 1886. She wrote
about love, nature, and time. These were her favorite themes.
Emily Dickinson led an unusual life. She was a recluse—she almost never left her house in
Amherst, Massachusetts. When she was at home, she did not see visitors, and she only wore white.
In addition to her poetry, Dickinson wrote many letters, but other people always addressed the
envelopes for her. During her life only four of her poems appeared in print—and this was without her
knowledge or permission.
Variant: to practise forming negative & positive sentences in Past
Simple rewrite the text making the sentences negative & questions.
B) Read part of a poem called "A bird came down the walk" by Emily
Dickinson. Underline all the verbs in the simple past tense.
A bird came down the walk:
He did not know I saw;
He bit an angle-worm in halves
And ate the fellow, raw.
And then he drank a dew
From a convenient grass,
And then hopped sidewise to the
wall
To let a beetle pass.
Ex.3. Another poet. Complete this biography of another American poet,
Robert Frost. Use the simple past tense form of the verbs in the boxes.
appear
be
have
live
move
spend
be
publish
read
return
say
win
Robert Frost, one of the most popular American poets, 1. ________ from 1874 to 1963. He 2.
__________ originally from California, but he 3. ____________ most of his life in New England. At
first, Frost 4.(not)____________much success with his poetry. In 1912 he and his family 5.
____________ to England for a few years. Soon, several of his poems 6._____________ in print. In
1915, he 7.______________ to the United States. There he 8._____________ hundreds of poems and
later 9._____________ four Pulitzer Prizes for poetry. Frost often 10.____________his poems in public.
He 11.____________a wonderful speaker and helped create a general interest in poetry. He once
12.____________that poetry "makes you remember what you didn't know you knew."
b) An interview. Complete these questions about Robert Frost. Then answer
them. Use the information in the exercise above.
1. When/born? When was he born? – He was born in 1674.
2. originally from the United States? ………………………………………………………
3. What/write? …………………………………………………………..
4. successful right away? …………………………………………………………..
5. Where/first become famous? …………………………………………………………..
6. How many Pulitzer Prizes/win? …………………………………………………………..
7. like to speak in public? …………………………………………………………..
8. When/die…………………………………………………………..
Ex. 4. Life Choices. This is part of a student's journal. There are seven verb
mistakes. Find and correct them.
Today in class we read a poem by Robert Frost. I really (enjoy) enjoyed it. It was about a person
who choosed between two roads in a forest. Many people thought the person were Frost. In the end,
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he didn't took the more common road. He took the one less traveled on. That decision change his life a
lot.
Sometimes I feel a little like Frost. Two years ago I decide to come to this country. Did I made the
right decision?
Ex. 5. What About You? Write a short autobiography. Do not put your name
on it. Your teacher will collect all the papers, mix them up, and redistribute
them to the class. Read the autobiography your teacher gives you. Then ask
your classmates questions to try to find its writer.
Examples: Did you come here in 1990? Or When did you come here?
Ex. 6. Two Poets. Work in pairs. Reread the information about Emily
Dickinson and Robert Frost. In what ways were the two poets similar? How
were they different? With your partner write as many ideas as you can.
Compare your ideas with your classmates.
Examples:
Both Dickinson and Frost were American poets.
Dickinson died in the nineteenth century. Frost died in the twentieth century.
Ex.7. Two Poets (Rhyming Pairs). In poetry the last word of a line
sometimes rhymes with the last word of another line. For example, look at
these first two lines of a famous poem by Joyce Kilmer:
I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree.
(See rhymes with tree.)
Work with a partner. Write down as many past-tense verbs as you can that
rhyme with the verbs in the box.
sent
bought
drew
kept
# Sent rhymes with bent, lent, meant, spent, and went.
spoke
Compare your lists with those of another pair of students. Who has the most rhyming pairs?
Now try to write two lines that rhyme. Use one of the rhyming pairs from the lists you made with your
partner.
Share your rhymes with your class.
Ex.8. Ask each other questions to find out the information lost in your text.
Biography 1
Maria Sanchez was born on May 6, 1970 in Mexico City. Her mother was a _______________, and
her father made shoes. At home they spoke _____________. In 1988 Maria and her family moved to
_________________. At first Maria felt_________________. Then she got a part-time job as
a_________________. She worked in a Mexican restaurant. She met _________________at work,
and they got married in 1990. They had a baby in 1992. _________________ago Maria enrolled at
the Community College. Her goal is to own her own restaurant someday.
Biography 2
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Maria Sanchez was born on May 6,1970 in Mexico City. Her mother was a dressmaker, and
her father made___________________. At home they spoke Spanish. In___________________Maria
and her family moved to California. At first Maria felt lonely. Then she got a part-time job as a cook.
She worked in a___________________. She met Ricardo at work, and they got married in
___________________. They had a baby in___________________. A month ago Maria enrolled at the
___________________. Her goal is to own her own restaurant someday.
Ex. 9. Describe yourself after work hours. Use the words and phrases in bold
type from the above text.
PAST SIMPLE interview four classmates. Begin like this:
Excuse me, I'm doing some research.
 Could you answer some questions, please? Yes. of course.
 OK. well, did you wake up before 7 o'clock
 Ehm, let's see ... No, I didn't.
 OK, and did you drink tea yesterday?
 Yes, I did. I drank two cups of tea in the morning.
 OK, next question...
1 wake up: before 7; after 9; with the alarm clock 11 ring: a friend; a relative; anybody ...
...
12 lie: on the sofa; on the floor; on the carpet...
2 drink: tea; coffee; cola; milk; beer..'
13 go: swimming; running; climbing;
3 ride: a bicycle; a motorbike; a horse; a camel
14 catch: a bus; a train; a plane; a ferry ...
4 come to school: on foot; by car; by bus;
15 break: anything; the law; a rule ...
5 get up: before your sister; before 8; before it was 16 get: anything from the shops; by train ...
light; early ...
new trainers; a haircut
6 go to: the cinema; the shopping centre; school;
17 eat: a big breakfast; between meals; a big
the disco ...
lunch ...
7 eat: spaghetti; toast; chocolate; a hamburger...
18 swim: in the sea; in the river ; in a hotel
8. watch the news: a football : a video
pool
9 read: a newspaper; a book; more than 5 pages; a 19go: to the seaside; to the country ; to the
magazine ...
mountains
10 have: a shower; a bath; a walk; a party ...
20 speak: English….
LISTENING
Ex.10. Listen to the text about TV first & write down the all the verbs & then
retell it.
SELF-CHECK
Ex.11. Read the joke and retell it.
An absent-minded professor moved to a new house further along the same street. His wife knew
that he was prone to forgetting things and so she wrote down the new address on a piece of paper before
he went off to college. She handed him the paper and the key to the new house and reminded him not
to go back to the old address.
That morning, one of his students asked him a complex question and the professor wrote the
answer down on the back of the slip of paper. The student asked whether he could keep the paper.
Forgetting what was on the other side, the professor said, "Certainly." In the evening, he returned out of
habit to the old house, tried the key and couldn't get in. Realizing his
mistake he searched in his pockets for the slip of paper with the new
address, but of course there was no sign of it so he wandered along the
street and stopped the first reasonable-looking lad he saw.
"Excuse me, I'm Professor Galbraith. You wouldn't happen to
know where I live, would you?" "Sure, Dad." said the boy.
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B) Ask questions to the text
Ex.12. A) Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.
1. We went for a stroll down the Alphabet Ginger
Street.
2. In the 1950s, television cut deeply into the moviegoing audience.
3. He did a tremendous amount of work.
4. They carried out a huge survey.
5. There were a lot of disasters in the in the 20th century.
6. The actress gave a Bravura perform in the Aldwych
in London.
7. He failed to appear before the magistrate.
8. Hobbs was a founding partner in the Atlantic
Financial Markets.
9. They couldn't get out of the place.
10. We had absolutely nothing to do last weekend.
11. When they saw me, they shut up.
12. She began the examination on time.
13. She had a problem on her mind.
14. My friend taught English for twenty five years.
15. The old man used to take a long walk every
morning.
B) Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple. Comment on the use of the
Past Simple.
1. I ……………...(be) the captain of the girl's tennis team last year.
2. He (shut) the window,……………..…(draw) the curtains over it, ………………(switch) off the light,
and …………………(go) upstairs.
3. He ……………….(come) to see me the day before yesterday.
4. Three days later I ……….……….(leave) Moscow.
5. We ……………..….(not see) him again that night.
6. He ……………….. (turn) around when I ………………..(come).
7. "Where you ………...……….(see) him?" "At the concert."
8. "How long you ……………….(work) there?" "About three years," she …………….(say).
9. "You ………..……….(go) to see her yesterday yourself?" "Yes, I ..."
10. Eliza you ………….……..(not scream) a while ago, maybe a minute ago?
11. He…………………(sit) down at his desk and………………...(stare) out of the window. After a few
moments he ……………….…(get) up and……………….… (go) to the library.
Ex.13. A) Change the sentences into the Past Indefinite Tense, using the
given suggestions.
Model: Jim usually goes to bed at 11. And yesterday? (12) Yesterday he went to bed at 12.
1. I often feel tired in the evening. And last night? (fine)
2. I usually read the paper in the morning. And yesterday? (in the afternoon)
3. He usually takes four aspirins. And yesterday? (five)
4. We usually speak English in our classes. And in the last class? (Russian)
5. They usually write one dictation a week. And last week? (two)
6. Jim usually comes home at 6. And yesterday? (at 7)
7. She usually gives the children coffee in the morning. And yesterday morning? (milk)
8. Father usually gives me enough money. And last month? (very little money)
9. Anna usually knows the new words well. And yesterday? (badly)
10. This year he knows English well. And last year? (not so well)
11. Tom usually makes few mistakes. And yesterday? (many mistakes)
12. Usually she makes dinner in the afternoon. And yesterday? (in the morning)
13. They usually have meat for dinner. And yesterday? (fish for dinner)
14. Jim usually says “Good morning” when he meets her. And yesterday? (Hello)
15. I often get up at 7. And yesterday? (at 8)
16. She usually gets 3 letters a week. And last week? (1 letter)
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17. He always puts his books on the desk. And last night? (on the shelf)
18. I often see Jim at the institute. And last week? (at the library)
19. She usually puts her money in the desk. And last week? (in her bag)
20. Tom usually thinks about the future. And last night? (about the past)
B) Answer the questions according to the pattern, using the words
suggested.
Model: Did you take my pencil? (No/your pen) — No, I didn't. I took your pen.
1. Did you have coffee for breakfast? (No/tea)
8. Did he leave his bicycle in the yard? (No/in the
2. Did he fly to England last year? (No/to Spain)
garden)
3. Did they eat meat at dinner? (No/fish)
9. Did you meet her on Monday? (No/on Friday)
4. Did she go to Kiev by car? (No/by train)
10. Did the hat cost ten roubles? (No/five)
5. Did you send Kate to Aunt Polly? (No/to Uncle 11. Did they find her at home? (No/in the library)
Jack)
12. Did Father get any letters in the morning?
6. Did the Browns visit them last Monday?
(No/a telegram)
(No/last Wednesday)
13. Did you swim in the river? (No/in the lake)
7. Did they read Byron in class? (No/Shelley)
14. Did Mother buy any apples? (No/oranges)
C) Each sentence is the answer to a question. Make the question with the
interrogative word suggested.
Model: He learned English at school. (Where...?) Where did he learn English?
1. It rained heavily during the night. (When ………………………………………………...?)
2. Ann spent her winter vacation in Kiev. (Where ……………………………………….....?)
3. We had supper at 8 o'clock. (What time ...………………………………………………..?)
4. I drank two cups of coffee. (How much ........…………………………………………….?)
5. He wrote three letters last night. (How many ………………………………………….....?)
6. My sister read an interesting book yesterday. (What …………………………………….?)
7. They took a plane because it was faster than a train. (Why …………………..…..……...?)
8. I used Kate's book. (Whose ……..………………………………………………………..?)
9. They stayed in Moscow only for two days. (How long …………………………………..?)
10. They traveled by sea. (How ……………………………………………………………..?)
d) Answer the questions. Note that both verbs in each sentence express
momentary and not continuous action in the past.
Ex.14. Translate into English.
1. Это случилось много веков назад.
2. — Где и когда вы впервые
встретились? — Это было в прошлом
году у одного из друзей Дениса.
3. Я звонил ей на днях, и все было
хорошо.
4. Ломоносов основал Московский
университет в 1725 году.
5. Мы посадили эти яблони в нашем
саду несколько лет назад.
6. Михаил вылетел в Нидерланды две
недели назад.
7. Мой брат родился в 1995 году.
8. Когда был запущен первый спутник
Земли?
9. Они видели свою родину последний раз девять лет
назад.
10. — Ты был вчера в университете? — Я не был там с
тех пор, как сдал последний экзамен.
11. — Прошлым летом часто шел дождь, не правда ли?
— Да, но, как правило, летом здесь редко идет дождь.
12. На прошлой неделе шел сильный снег, и мы не могли
сразу открыть дверь гаража.
13. — Кто ходил вчера за покупками? — Мама сделала
это.
14. — Кто рассказал тебе эти новости? — Никто. Все
уже их знали.
15. —Я вижу, что ты переставила мебель, и твоя
квартира совершенно преобразилась. Когда ты это
сделала? Кто-нибудь тебе помогал? — Мои сыновья все
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сделали сами.
Used to
Ex.1. Read (or listen to) this magazine article.
Fashion. Then and Now.
Isn't it interesting how fashions change? In many ways fashion used to
be much simpler. Women didn't use to wear pants, and men's clothes
never used to have such bright colors. People used to dress in special ways for different situations.
Today you can go to the opera and find some women in evening gowns while others are in blue jeans.
Even buying blue jeans used to be easier. When my friends and I used to buy new jeans, they were
always bright blue and very crisp. Today teenagers don't like new jeans—they like their jeans "worn and
torn". You can get jeans pre-washed patched-up, and even with big holes in them. Teenagers today buy
new jeans in the same condition as the ones we used to throw away.
Grammar Notes “Used to” /’jus’tu/
Use used to + the base form of the verb to
1. We use it to contrast things that happened regularly in the past with
things that are happening now. “Used to” refers to repeated actions,
states, or habits in the past that usually don't happen anymore.
# Teenagers used to buy bright blue jeans. Today they buy worn-and-torn jeans.
2. Be careful! Form the question for all persons with did + use to (NOT did you
used to). Form the negative with didn't + use to (NOT didn`t used to).
Positive
used to stay
I used to stay up late when
Negative
didn't + use to
My father didn’t use to have
a car 10 years ago
Question
Did you use to….
Did you use to….
** ‘Used to’ and ‘use to’ are pronounced the same: /’jus’tu/
Ex.2. Read this article about the differences between married and single
life. Underline used to + the base form of the verb only when it refers to a
habit in the past.



Are you single?
Are most of your friends married?
Do your married friends seem old to you?
I used to think my married friends were old until I got married. Now I can't believe the way I
used to live. When I was single, I used to go out every night. Now I prefer to stay home. I used my time
very differently. I used to stay up late and get up early. I used to get very little sleep. I also used to love
last-minute plans, and I never used to mind having lots of people at my house. Things are really different
now. I just can't get used to those old ways again.
Ex.3. Look at these pictures from an old magazine. Use the verbs in the box
with used to. Write one sentence about each picture.
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1. Women's skirts used to be long and formal.
wear
2. All men__________ long hair.
3. Children __________ like adults.
4. Men and women __________ at formal balls.
5. Women __________ many petticoats under their skirts.
dance
dress
be
have
Ex.4. Complete the dialogue.
Two women are talking about the strange things they used to do when they
were teenagers. Complete the conversation. Use used to and the verbs in
parentheses.
Leslie: Isn't it hard to believe some of the crazy things we 1 (do) used to do?
Hillary: It sure is. Just think about jeans. Remember how tight we 2 (wear)_________them?
Leslie: I sure do. ______you 3 (sit)___________with your new jeans on in hot bath water to make them
shrink?
Hillary: No, but I 4 (buy) ____________jeans that had patches all over them. And that's not all.
______you 5 (iron)____________your hair to make it straight?
Leslie: No, I didn't. But______ you 6 (take) _____________your brand-new sneakers and purposely get
them dirty?
Hillary: I sure did. Everyone 7 (do) ____________that.
Leslie: We really 8 (have) _____________fun, didn't we?
Hillary: We sure did.
Ex.5. Look at the chart. Write five sentences describing how life used to be
different. Use didn't use to and the words in parentheses. (раньше не …)
1846
1909
1913
1916
1920
1926
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Chewing gum invented in the United States.
First permanent hair waves given in London.
Crossword puzzles appeared in an American newspaper for the first time.
Daylight-saving time introduced in America.
Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution allowed women to vote.
First movie with sound produced.
(People/chew gum) – Before 1646 people didn't use to chew gum.
(Women/have permanent hair waves) _________________________________________
(Crossword puzzles/appear in the newspaper)___________________________________
(People/change the time) ___________________________________________________
(Women in the United States/vote) ___________________________________________
(Movies/have sound) ______________________________________________________
Ex.6. A) Work in small groups. Think about how things used to be ten,
fifteen, and twenty years ago. Think about the changes in science,
business, and your daily life. Share your ideas with each other.
Example: A local phone call used to cost ten cents everywhere. Now it costs twenty-five cents in most
places.
B) The Way I Used to Be.
Work in small groups. Bring in a picture of yourself when you were much
younger. Talk about the differences in how you used to be and how you are
now. What did you use to do? How did you use to dress?
Example: I used to wear long skirts. Now I wear short skirts.
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Test on “used to”
Translate into English using used to +Infinitive.
1. Теперь она избегает ходить туда так же часто, как раньше.
2. Он, бывало, появлялся в доме своей матери неожиданно и также неожиданно исчезал.
3. Она, бывало, часами сидела у открытого окна, глядя на лес за холмом.
4. Иногда она жаловалась на свою трудную жизнь, и ей становилось легче.
5. Я лично думаю, что теперь вы говорите по-английски лучше, чем раньше.
6. Теперь он совсем не курит, так как у него плохое здоровье, а ведь раньше он курил сигарету за
сигаретой.
7. Он начал изучать французский, а в детстве он занимался английским с частным
преподавателем.
8. Когда-то он был весьма состоятельным человеком.
Test on the Past Simple
Variant I
Task 1. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets.
1. As Emma walked, she (do) a little window shopping. From time to time she (stop) and (look) at the
beautiful clothes in the chic boutiques. Milan (be) the fashion centre of the world and she (decide) to do
some shopping later if she (have) time.
2. At nine Jack (stop) working, (shut) off the lights, (leave) the barn, and (go) back to the house. He
(find) a cold beer in the refrigerator, (make) himself a cheese-and-tomato sandwich, and (take) his
evening snack into the living-room. After turning on the television, he (sit) down in the chair, (eat) his
sandwich, (drink) his beer, and channel (surf) absent-mindedly.
3. The days passed quietly, uneventfully. I (do) very little. I (read) occasionally, (watch) television,
sometimes I (listen) to music, but for the most part I (sit) in the front of the fires lost in my own world. I
(have) no one and nothing I (can) live for. I simply (exist).
Task 2. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Они купили новый дом в прошлом году.
2. Когда вы видели его в последний раз?
3. Когда он сказал вам об этом?
4. На прошлой неделе мы никуда не
выходили из дома по вечерам.
5. Это случилось неделю назад.
6. Они поженились, когда Джону было 24
года, а Лизе - 18.
7. Его родители умерли, когда он был еще
совсем ребенок.
8. Кто встречал вас на вокзале?
9. Когда они уехали из России?
10. Я нашла это в шкафу.
11. Он начал писать стихи, когда ему было 14
лет.
12. Прошлая зима была теплой.
13. Где вы познакомились с этой девушкой?
14. Почему вы не пришли к нам в воскресенье?
15. Мы решили послать эту телеграмму вчера
Test on the Past Simple
Variant II
Task 1. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets.
1. "Listen, you two, before we have supper I want to show you my finds." "Finds? What you (mean)?"
Andrew asked, smiling at me fondly. "I (poke) around in the library this afternoon, and I (find) a diary
by one of your ancestors, Lettice Keswick, which she (write) in the seventeenth century." "Good Lord!
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So that's what you (do) all afternoon, digging amongst those old books," Diana (cut) in, "but you (say)
finds, Mai, in the plural. What else you (discover)?" "Let me (go) and (get) them. Once you (see) the
books, you (understand) what I (talk) about."
2. After dinner Molly (busy) herself at the sink. She (pull) apart several heads of lettuce, and (wash) the
leaves scrupulously. Her thoughts (be) on her mother, but then they (take) an unexpected turn, and
(zero) in on her father.
Task 2. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Она посмотрела на доску и списала новые слова.
2. С кем вы обсуждали этот вопрос
раньше?
3. Сколько раз в неделю вы бывали в
институте в прошлом году?
4. Мы начали этот опыт на прошлой
неделе.
5. Они вернулись домой в 7 часов вечера.
6. Мы решили послать это письмо вчера.
7. Кому вы отдали эти журналы?
8. Когда вы его видели в последний раз? — В
прошлый вторник.
9. В прошлом году мы не изучали французский.
Мы изучали английский.
10. В котором часу вы начали работать вчера?
— После обеда. У нас было мало работы.
11.Погода была хорошая, и мы с друзьями
пошли в парк.
12. Где вы были час тому назад?
13. Я встретил ее позавчера, и она рассказала
мне об этом.
14. Вчера я встретил Стива в библиотеке.
THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
Getting started
Ex.1. a) In the extract below from a radio chat show, Barbara Noakes
describes how she changed from being a secretary to making
advertisements. Barbara is famous for her Levi's '501' jeans advertisement.
Read the extract and answer the question. Why did she write an
advertisement ('ad') when she was still a secretary?
WELL, I was reading a book and a very worried-looking man rushed in and said, 'Where's
everybody? What's happening?' And I explained that everyone was away sick with flu, which is
why I was reading the book. I had nothing to do. And he explained that there was this terrible
problem. They needed an ad urgently, and I said, 'Oh, if you want an ad, I'll try and do one.' So I
wrote an ad and I went downstairs and found an art director, and that was my first
advertisement!
b) Underline examples of the past progressive (was / were + -ing) in the
extract.
c) Find examples of the past simple (e.g. regular: liked; irregular: met) in the
extract, and circle them.
d) Fill in the gaps with past simple or past continuous.
 The ....................... ………is used to give an idea of the background situation (what was happening
at the time).

The ………………… is used to describe the events of the story.
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The Form
Positive
I was walking
You were walking
We were walking
They were walking
Negative
I wasn't walking
You weren't walking
We weren't walking
They weren't walking
Questions
Was I walking?
Were you walking?
Were we walking?
Were they walking?
He was walking
She was walking
It was walking
He wasn't walking
She wasn't walking
It wasn't walking
Was he walking?
Was she walking?
Was she walking?
Short answers
Yes, we/you/they were
No, we/you/they weren't.
Yes, I/he/she/it was.
No, I/he/she/it wasn't.
We use this tense:
• (1) for a temporary action which was in progress around a particular time
in the past. We do not mention when the action started or finished.
# I was watching the football game on TV at 8 o'clock last night.
Time expressions we use with the past progressive:
all day long, all day, all night, all morning, still, at that moment
COMPARE:
The Past Progressive Tense
The Past Simple Tense
This time last year I was working for two
different companies, I was studying for a
diploma & I was trying to buy a house. It was a
pretty busy time!
I worked for three months, I did a diploma & I
bought a house (the past simple here suggest a
sequence (one thing after another) & completion
(each event was finished)
• (2) for an action which was in progress when something else happened
(longer action)
Note:
when / while/ as + past progressive (longer action)
when + past simple (shorter action)
# We were playing Scrabble when the lights went out.
• (3) for two or more parallel actions which were in progress at the same
time. # Natalie was flying her kite while her sister was riding her bicycle.
*** The Past Simple Tense for story telling &
the Past Progressive Tense compared
• (4) We often use the Past Simple Tense for story telling (events) & the
Past Progressive Tense to set the scene, describe the atmosphere etc.( as /
when / while), and give background information to a story.
# I was reading a book (a background situation) & a man rushed in (event)
# The sun was shining and the birds were singing that summer morning in Nashville.
# Emily was getting ready for work and Joe was making pancakes for the children.
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# The snow was falling heavily as Mary was walking in the park.
Additional meanings
• (5) for repeated actions with ‘always’ # I worked here I was always making a mistake
• (6) polite enquiries: # I
was wondering if you could give me
a lift
Ex 2. The fire alarm went
off at the Royal Hotel last
night. Look at the picture
and put the verbs in the list
into the required tense to
describe what each person was doing. (pay, read, carry, talk & etc.)
When the fire alarm went off at the Royal Hotel last night ………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Ex.3. Look at the list of the things Nick did yesterday.
8.00-8.30
had breakfast
13. 30-14. 00
8.30-9.30
watched TV
15.00-15.15
9.30—10.00
cleaned his flat
15.15-16.40,
12.30-13.00
had lunch
16.40—18.00
13.00-13.20
talked on the phone
18.00—19.30
13.20—13.30
finished his lunch
19.30-20.30
did exercises
took a shower
slept
read books
watched video
walked his dog
A) What was Nick doing at these times?
Pattern: - He was having breakfast at a quarter past eight.
B) What was Nick doing when these things happened?
Pattern: - Yesterday Nick was watching TV when his friends called him up.
At 9.00 his friends called him up.
At 15.10 someone phoned him.
At 9.45 his favourite TV programme began;
At 16.30 his mother came home from work.
At 12.35 the postman came.
At 17.00 their neighbor brought Nick an
At 13.00 his mother phoned him.
interesting magazine.
At 13.25 his sister came home.
At 19.25 the lights went out
At 13.45 his sister went to see her friends,
At 20.00 he met his former classmate.
Ex.4. Answer the questions, using when and the verb of the subordinate
clause in the Past Progressive Tense.
A)
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Model: When did she meet Helen? (walk along the street) – She met Helen when she was walking along
the street.
1. When did you catch that cold? (skate on a frosty day) ……………………………………..
2. When did he write those nice poems? (have a holiday) …………………………………....
3. When did she learn the language? (live in England) ……………………………………….
4. When did she hear that song? (listen to the concert on the radio) ………………………….
5. When did you buy that book? (read up for my exams) …………………………………….
6. When did the boy hurt himself? (ride the bicycle) …………………………………………
7. When did Philip lose his camera? (walk about the city) …………………………………...
8. When did he ring you up? (have supper) …………………………………………………..
B) Answer the questions, using because and the verb in brackets in the Past
Progressive Tense.
Model: Why didn't you go out last night? (rain) — Because it was raining.
1. Why didn't you come to the party? (feel bad)
2. Why did James want the pen? (write a composition)
3. Why did they tell him to be quiet? (watch TV)
4. Why did Olga stay at home? (do the flat)
5. Why didn't he stop to talk to you? (hurry to the lecture)
6. Why didn't you come up to them? (speak to the Dean)
7. Why did you switch off the wireless? (work)
8. Why didn't you go to the skating-rink last week? (thaw)
C) Answer the questions, using the verb of the principal clause in the Past
Progressive Tense. Do this exercise twice; first give short and then full
answers. Follow the given pattern.
Model: What were you doing while your mother was cooking dinner? (do the room)
a) — I was doing the room.
b) — While Mother was cooking dinner I was doing the room.
1. What was James doing while Maggie was washing up? (repair the radio)
2. What was Jane doing while John was repairing the bicycle? (make sandwiches)
3. What were you doing while your sister was watching TV? (sleep)
4. What were they doing while their children were playing in the garden? (have a rest)
5. What was Thomas doing while his wife was playing the piano? (read a newspaper)
6. What were your brothers doing while you were making tea? (play chess)
7. What were you doing while she was cooking breakfast? (lay the table)
8. What were they doing while you were decorating the fir-tree? (do the cooking)
5. A) Read the police statement from a cyclist who was in an accident.
Complete it with verbs from the box in either the past simple or the past
continuous tense.
call
cycle
fall
go
happen
have
hit
hurt lie say stop take turn
The accident happened... at 5.55 p.m. on 15 August. I 1 ............... home from work along Manning
Road. Suddenly a car 2…………………….. past me and 3 .......... left. I 4 not…………….. time to stop,
and 15…………………….the side of the car. 16 .......................... off my bicycle, and
17……………………. on the ground when the car 8 .................. and the driver got out. He asked if I
was OK. 19……………………. 'No', because my left leg 10…………………….
a lot. He 11
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......................................................................................................... an ambulance and it
12…………………….me to hospital.
B) Look at this picture of the accident. What is wrong?
6. Story writing. Below are the beginnings of three short stories. In each story, choose
your own verb in the past continuous to set the scene in the first gap, and then
continue by describing the first two or three events. Use the verbs in the boxes if you
want to. We have started the first story for you.
Story 1
arrive get on leave pull out see shout
..was.standing.... on the station platform. . Then the. train arrived,,
and. the man .quickly.got.on,. He left.a small, bag. on the. platform,, and.the train.
It was a cold, dark morning, and a tall man in a grey coat
Fun with the past progressive
7. Game “Come as you are”. Ron and Joanne decided to give a Come As You Are раrtу. This
is a party to which the guests must come dressed as they were when they received the invitation. Ron
phoned the fourteen guests at different time of the day and evening and they all agreed to come to the
party.
What were they doing when they got the invitation to the party?
a)BARBARA ARRIVED IN A VERY OLD PAIR OF JEANS AND A T-SHIRT, CARRYING A
SPADE.
b) JOHN ARRIVED IN A TOWEL.
c) SARRAH ARRIVED IN A SWIM SUIT.
d) ROBERT ARRIVED IN AN APRON.
e) EDWARD BROUGHT A LARGE GRAMMAR BOOK.
f) ANN CAME IN PYJAMAS.
g) BERNARD ARRIVED IN SHORTS WITHOUT A SHIRT.
h) SALLY WAS IN OVERALLS AND WAS CARRYING A PAINT BRUSH.
i) PHILLIP BROUGHT HIS DOG.
j) ALLAN BROUGHT HIS WALKMAN.
k) MARGARET HAD A BOTTLE OF NAIL VARNISH.
l) SYLVIA BROUGHT A KETTLE & AND A TEA BAG.
m) MARY BROUGHT THE TELEPHONE.
n) PETER ARRIVED IN A SUIT BUT WITHOUT ANY SHOES.
8. Recreate the events of a well-known story, commenting them on , explaining
them in detail. Each of you plays the role of one of the people involved
1. Winney-the-Pooh
2. Three musketeers
3. Pinocchio
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5. Othello
6. Romeo & Juliette
Variant: one of the students leaves the classroom. The other students think of a well-known story, assign
different roles to each other, and introduce additional roles if the main ones are not sufficient for all the students.
When the student returns to the classroom, the others begin to describe the event to him in the first person (that is,
the way the actual characters may have described it). The student tries to guess what event is being discussed.
Example: about the story of Little Red Riding Hood.
First student: My mother caught a cold. So, I sent my daughter to her.
Second student: At that moment I was walking in the forest. I was terribly hungry.
Third student: I was sitting in my garden. As soon as the girl left I saw a hunter who was walking towards the
house. He came in and spent about 3 hours there. Etc.
9. "Black box". The situation: "The father of a large family brought home a small box and put it on the
table. He then left the room for a while, and, upon returning, discovered that his children had already opened the
box and are suffering the consequences of that careless step." You know what was in the box (it must be
something unusual). One of the students, who has been picked for the role, does not know what the object in the
box is. The other students' task is to describe the scene the father confronts when he comes back into the room in
such a way so as the student is able to guess what was in the box.
Example: There was a mouse in the box.
First student: When the man came back his wife was standing on the table and shouting.
Second student: His son was running around the room with a shoe in his hand.
Third student: The cat was watching something under the table.
Selected student: There was a mouse in the box.
1. 10 kgchocolate
2. Tickets for a package tour to Paris for all the family
3. a little snake
4. $ 10000000
5. Nothing
Self-check
EX.10. Translate
1. Вчера в девять часов вечера я смотрел телевизор.
2. Когда мы вышли на улицу, шел снег.
3. Когда я впервые встретил мою невесту, она работала в школе.
4. Она накрывала на стол, когда мы пришли.
5. С кем Вы разговаривали, когда я позвонил Вам?
6. Я часто ходил в эту библиотеку, когда работал в этом районе.
7. Мы встретились с ним в то время, когда я стояла на автобусной остановке.
8. Вчера мы весь день гуляли в парке.
9. Что Вы делали вчера весь вечер?
10. Почему Вы разговаривали с ним так долго? Мы Вас ждали.
11. Где Вы останавливались, когда жили в Лондоне?
12. Я вовсе не пытался обвинять (accuse smb of) Вас в чём-либо. Я лишь обрисовал ситуацию, в
которой мы находимся.
13 . — Что Вы делали 25-го вечером? Я смотрел какой-то фильм...— Что именно Вы смотрели?
— Я не помню. — А во сколько начался фильм? — В 22.20, a потом я заснул перед
телевизором.
14. Он нашёл этот снимок, когда искал какую-то старую книгу.
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Revision exercises on the use of the Past Simple
& Past Progressive tenses
Ex.11. Use the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous instead of the
infinitives in brackets.
1. She …………………. (go) to the back door, and as she…………………. (raise) her hand to knock,
the young man …………………. (open) the door suddenly.
2. While the eggs …………………. (boil) I …………………. (go out) into the hall and
…………………. (phone) Jo.
3. He …………………. (begin) to walk fast down the hedge; he couldn’t see where he
…………………. (go).
4. She …………………. (invite) him to the party she (give) on Saturday.
5. He ……(pause). They all …………………. (look) at him now, interested.
6. She …………………. (have) the satisfaction of seeing that Betty …………………. (get) more ill at
ease.
7. I…………………. (wash), …………………. (brush) my hair and we …………………. (start).
8. It…………………. (rain) hard, and she …………………. (run) for a taxi.
9. Near her a small boy (to play) silently.
10. She…………………. (look up) to see if we …………………. (listen).
11. Next day when the car …………………. (come) we (to vanish) into the bush.
12. And all the while she (to think) how to get the money from Christie.
13. For the first time he …………………. (notice) Heidi…………………. (wear) a new dress: a simple
affair of deep blue.
14. Liz …………………. (eat) busily and …………………. (not raise) her head.
15. It so…………………. (happen) that she (to dine) that very evening at Timothy’s.
16. Mrs. Pimley …………………. (come) into the drawing room where we all …………………. (to sit)
reading the papers after breakfast.
Ex.12. Translate the sentences using the Past Simple or the Past
Progressive.
1. Ты не можешь припомнить, что ты делал в то время?
2. Я разделась и пошла на кухню, где она жарила рыбу.
3. Я всегда раньше принимала эти таблетки от головной боли.
4. Когда мы вышли из кино, все еще шел сильный снег.
5. Он сказал что-то, потом замолчал, затем снова заговорил.
6. Уже смеркалось. Мы боялись, что они вообще не приедут.
7. Голоса их были слышны, но нельзя было разобрать, о чем они говорят.
8. В половине седьмого аэропорт все еще был открыт, но все его службы работали с огромным
напряжением.
9. Я прожил в Палермо всего два месяца, а потом переехал сюда.
10. У нее было такое ощущение, что надвигается какая-то беда.
11. Она что-то прилежно писала и даже не подняла головы, когда я вошел.
12. Старушка постоянно говорила о своих болезнях, и пассажиры старались не вступать с ней в
разговор.
13. Он работал с утра до ночи, так ему хотелось поскорее накопить нужную сумму и уехать
отсюда навсегда.
14. Все время, пока Джон рассказывал свою историю, она пристально смотрела на него. Она
пыталась понять, что он за человек.
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TEST ON THE PAST SIMPLE
AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSES
Variant 1
Task 1. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple and the Past
Progressive.
1. "What you both (do) at 7 o'clock yesterday?" – "I (play) chess with my brother and Eliza (listen) to
the radio."
2. He (be) the captain of a ship which (sail) that night for St-Petersburg.
3. When the doctor (leave) the hospital, he (catch) a glimpse of himself in the glass front door.
4. When her father (come) in she (sit) before a red tea-table, finishing a very good tea.
5. Next day, while he (shave) he (cut) himself slightly.
6. The door of his room (be) open; his mother still (stand) at the window.
7. I (slip) away while the others (have) coffee.
8. At nine o'clock the train (crawl) into the station. In a flash he (be) on the platform and (move) up
Railway Road.
9. And, smiling to himself, he (begin) to make plans, fantastic plans for the future. He still (smile) when
he (walk) up the rock-cut steps.
10. When we (talk) I (notice) that he (roll) a little ball of plasticine between his fingers.
11. While the water (heat), Mr Parker (begin) sweeping the floor.
12. He (gather) up this evidence in a newspaper and (carry) it back into the sitting-room where Jennie
(sew).
13. He (dose) off while he (watch) the new show.
14. Mark (see) the picture of Nelly in the morning paper while he (have) coffee.
15. One morning Mrs Strickland (send) me round a note to say that she (give) a dinner-party that
evening, and one of her guests (fail) her.
16. It (drizzle) when they (come) out of the house.
17. Maggie just (pass) the shop and (head) for the door when she (come) face to face with the tall
bronzed man who (enter).
18. It (be) a pity I (have) to be out last night.
19. Just as they (walk) down the path to the front gate Anne (run) out of the house and (overtake) them.
20. He often (visit) us when he (live) in Moscow.
21. It (get) dark and I (suggest) that we should go down.
22. John (come) in, (look) at the fire, (stand) a moment, (turn) and (go) away.
23. She (take) me to her mother's, where they (expect) me to lunch.
24. Listen, this girl (arrive) here two months ago.
Task 2. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Он вдруг понял, что едет не в ту сторону.
2. Вы были очень заняты, когда я видел вас два дня тому назад. Что вы делали?
3. "Где моя шляпа? Где я ее оставил?" — "Почему вы ее ищете внизу?" — "Очевидно, я оставил
ее здесь, когда я ее снял".
4. Когда я вошел, они сидели в гостиной. Старший брат решал кроссворд, мама вязала, другие
читали.
5. Когда он проснулся, жена сидела у окна и что-то читала.
6. С кем вы разговаривали, когда я вошла?
7. К ним подошел какой-то мужчина, когда они переходили дорогу, и спросил как пройти к
красной площади.
8. Пока носильщик и шофер укладывали его вещи в машину, Джек закурил сигарету.
9. В этот момент он увидел своего брата. Он стоял по другую сторону стеклянных дверей.
10. Женщина что-то сказала мальчику, который шел рядом с ней.
11. Когда мальчик заснул, он все еще держал новую игрушку.
12. Я взглянула на Дженни, которая все еще дрожала от холода.
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13. Мы как раз говорили о нем, когда он вдруг вошел.
14. Они пришли в то время, когда я работала в саду.
15. Вчера в 6 часов вечера я ждала Тома на вокзале. Поезд отходил в 6.15. Что вы делали в это
время?
16. Какую песню вы пели, когда мы пришли?
17. Костер ярко горел, когда подошли мои товарищи.
18. Когда я приехал, Елена, к сожалению, как раз уходила.
TEST ON THE PAST INDEFINITE
AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSES
Variant 2
Task 1. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple and the Past
Progressive.
1. We (come) into the dining-room while our parents (eat) supper.
2. I (smile) and (walk) over Peter. He (talk) to the director and they both (turn) as I (come) up.
3. She (run) down the stairs and (go) to the library, where her husband (stand) with his mother.
4. Mike (lift) his eyes from the book and (look) out of the window. It still (snow).
5. One December afternoon when Andrew (return) home, he (meet) a friend of his.
6. When he (deliver) his famous series of lectures on the Tudors and the Stuarts, Dr Kent would
constantly put on and take his glasses.
7. You (have) a good time at those parties?
8. A fortnight later he (walk) down Chapel Street when he almost (bump) into Mrs Bramwell at the
corner of Station Road.
9. He (go) into the kitchen and (get) himself a cup of coffee.
10. "It's hot tonight," she (say), and (open) the French window. The moon just (rise) low and far behind
the river bushes.
11. He (take) a cushion, (put) it behind and (lean) back.
12. His sister (say) nothing, just (stare) at his back, then (get) up and (go) to the oven, where a fish pie
(bake).
13. At half past four I (put) on the lights.
14. When I (be) a boy, I (want) to be an actor.
15. While he (wait) to cross Fifth Avenue, a man standing beside him (cough) painfully.
16. She (draw) aside the curtains and (look) out into the Square. Two cats (stand) in the light of a
lamp—narrow, marvellously graceful.
17. I (try) to remember what I (do) during that time.
18. Soames (go) out. He (mount), slow and icy, to his picture-gallery, and (pace) among his treasures.
19. She (come) to see us the other day and she (give) us her address and (ask) us to come and see her.
20. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognize) him at first because I
(not wear) my glasses.
21. When they (walk) up the street together they (begin) to talk shop.
22. Just as we (finish) dinner Dr Smith (come) in.
23. You (not see) me while you (count) the windows in Country Hall.
24. "Where you (come) across her? You (go) and (see) her?" – "No, I (run) across her in Harley Street."
Task 2. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Отец ушел в отставку (retire), когда мне было шестнадцать лет, и мы уехали жить в маленький
город.
2. Я окончила школу медсестер, когда мне было двадцать лет.
3. "Когда вы были здесь последний раз?" — "Года полтора тому назад".
4. Доктор кивнул головой и пошел наверх.
5. Я встретила Лену около трех лет тому назад благодаря своим родителям.
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6. Она провела здесь около двух часов вчера вечером.
7. Он встал и включил радио.
8. Я навещала их год тому назад.
9. Мы видели их в Малом театре в воскресенье.
10. Я не видел ее, когда была в Москве.
11. Что с вами случилось вчера?
12. Они вернулись в 6 часов.
13. Она подошла к окну и посмотрела на улицу. Все еще шел сильный дождь.
14. Он посмотрел на дом с того места, где стоял.
15. Он побежал к воротам, где стояла Анна.
16. Он проснулся. Возле его кровати звонил телефон.
17. Джо был доволен, что его брат теперь вел машину медленнее.
18. Она сидела в глубине комнаты, лицом к двери. На ней было то же самое платье, и она смело
смотрела на трех мужчин, которые стояли в другой стороне
комнаты. Когда Джек подошел к ней, она улыбнулась ему. Он ясно
чувствовал, что трое мужчин наблюдают за ним.
FUTURE PLANS & INTENTIONS
Let’ get started
1. There are many different future forms in English. Look at the following
phrases / sentences taken the quiz & underline the verb form used.
a)… it’ll take at least few hours to do it properly
b)…. You get out your diary to see what you are doing next week
c) .. you are going to start phoning travel agents next week
Sometimes other words & phrases are used to express plans & intentions
You are planning to do it tonight
You are about to do it tonight
Find more phrase like this in the quiz
FUTURE meaning:
(1) Future Simple (will); (2) Present Progressive; (3) Present Simple;
(4) “be going to” (5) Clauses of condition
1.
THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
Positive
Negative (will not =won’t) Questions
Short answer
I will work
I won’t work
Will I work?
Yes, I will
She will work
She won’t work
Will she work?
No, I will not
He will work
He won’t work
Will he work?
It will work
It won’t work
Will it work?
We will work
We won’t work
Will we work?
They will work
They won’t work
Will they work?
You will work
You won’t work
Will you work?
*** Be careful! ‘want’ [wont] –won’t (will not) [wount]
We use the Future Simple Tense
 to give or ask information about the future
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 to predict the future. (so you think, guess, calculate what will happen)
# I think it will rain today
 on-the-spot decisions (when you make a decision about something at the moment of
speaking. It is not a plan of any sort, it is an idea you have just thought of. The contracted form
'll is usually used.)
# OK, if we can't have a picnic, we 'II stay in and watch a video.
# I'll do the washing up, if you like.
# I’m thirsty. I’ll have a glass of water
# I am tired. I will go and have a nap before dinner.
 promises, threat, warnings, requests & hopes
# I hope the temperature will drop soon # If you don’t study well I will call your parents
# I will wash up, I promise
# You will hear of me
Also we use it when you have no present evidence.
# In a hundred years' time we will all travel everywhere by helicopter.
# The train service won't be any better than it is now.
You can often use either ‘will’ or ‘be going’ to for predictions with very little difference
in meaning.
Fortune teller: (I can see in your hand that) You are going to get married next year.
Fortune teller: (I know because I can see the future that) You will get married next year.
Use will when something in the future is inevitable, in other words it is
outside anybody's control. # Next year I will be twenty-eight. It will be spring soon.
*** Use shall/shan 't and not will/won't for suggestions or to ask for advice. Shall is usually
used with I or we, not with you, he, she or it.
# Shall we go out this evening?
Time expressions
tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, soon, tonight, Next week, Next month
…. in a week in a year
in an hour
in half an hour
in 2 days
Ex.1. Put the verb in brackets into the Future Simple, Comment on the
use of the Future Simple.
1. I (be) in Leningrad tomorrow morning.
6. He (remember) this day all his life.
2. Mother (be) away very soon.
7. I am sure that I (recognize) him.
3. He (be) home by nine o'clock.
8. Tomorrow I (apologize) to him.
4. I (know) the result in a day.
9. I (not see) him again for a long time.
5. I (be) twenty years old next year.
B) Pronunciation. (CE interp.50)
Ex. 2
Complete the sentences. Use will, won't, or shall
1 What____we do this evening?
2 I don't know what he____do. He won't tell me anything.
3 I'm tired. I think I____go to bed.
4 She____get there in time. She set off too late.
5 It's a formal party, so what____we wear?
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Ex.3. Write what you will (or might) be doing at some of these times:
in two hours' time
in six months
eight hours from now
this time next year
this time tomorrow
two years from now this time next Tuesday
five years from now
Ex. 4. Imagine that you are doing some of these things tomorrow. Say how
long they will take you. Example:
# It will take me half an hour to wash my hair = it’ll take 40 minutes to pack my suitcase
# Washing my hair will take half an hour
wash your hair
clean the kitchen
make a cake do your ironing
wash your car
pack your
suitcase
go to the station run 1,500 metres
drive twenty km
play three sets of tennis learn
twenty irregular verbs
Ex.5. A) Everyday life in future
You are to fantasize about what certain aspects of daily life will be like,
say, at the end of the 21st century. For example: Talk about the "kitchen" of the future.
.
Student A: The stove will take meat from the fridge itself.
Student B: Kitchen robots will go shopping without people and they will buy food with their
owners credit cards.
There will be …..
IDEAS: kitchen
holidays & etc.
other housework
mass media computer
communication
weekends &
B) Look at the expressions in the box (top right).Then say how you think
life will have changed by the year 7050.You can add your own ideas.
# I think that in the year 2050 we will be living longer lives…..
health (e.g. longer lives) food (e.g. meal pills) housing (e.g. underground) relationships (e.g.
fewer friends) education (e.g. robot teacher)
jobs (e.g. better paid)
transport (e.g. flying cars)
holidays (e.g. to Mars)
the environment e.g. fewer wild animals others ……………………..
Ex.6. Your school magazine has asked its reader to submit articles entitled
"What kind of life can a child born in the year 2O50 expect?" Write your
article using ideas from and the plan below. Do not forget to use
appropriate language to express your opinions (I think, I believe, In my opinion. In my
view, it seems to that, furthermore, moreover, etc.) The beginning and ending have been
written for you. The ideas above may help you.
Ex.7. (Our town) A) Work in pairs or groups. Quickly draw the main streets in
the centre of the town where you are having this lesson. Draw in any
important places you can think of, like the Town Hall or a park. Then draw it
all again as you think it will be in a hundred years' time. Discuss what the
town will look like in a hundred years' time and what changes there will be,
using the will future only.
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Examples: The Town Hall will be a computer centre. There will be a helicopter landing pad in the park.
B) Work in pairs or groups. Using the drawing of the town in one hundred
years' time, take it in turns to be a tour guide. Imagine that you are taking
your partner or the rest of your group round your town in a hundred years'
time. Tell them about everything they can see. Use some present simple
sentences for future time where you can, like this:
This is the helicopter landing pad. The next helicopter leaves from here in five minutes.
Ex.8. Translate into English
1. В следующем году мне будет 20 лет.
2. Возможно, он придет сегодня.
3. Когда вы начнете изучать иностранный
язык?
4. Он думает, вам не понравится новый балет.
5. Она будет дома в 6 часов? - Нет.
6. Я надеюсь, вы хорошо напишете контрольную
работу.
7. У вас завтра будет много работы? - Да.
8. Экзамены начнутся 1 июня.
9. Фильм будет очень интересным.
10. Мы увидимся с ним на следующей неделе.
Ex. 9 *** Modal verbs in the future
We never use ‘can’ & ‘must’ in the future
CAN  will be able to do
MUST  will have to
I won’t be able to call you in the morning, I’ll be Tomorrow you will have to buy tickets
busy
Translate
1. Завтра я не смогу прийти.
2. Мне нужно будет ему сказать об этом
3. Он и через год не сможет сдать экзамен
4. Ему не надо ничего делать
5. Завтра нам надо идти на семинар?
6. Кому надо получить паспорт?
7. Кто сможет придумать нам стихи?
8.
(2) The present Progressive with future
meaning
We use it for a fixed arrangements, firm plans in the near future
# I’m seeing my doctor next week (you’ve made an arrangement to see a doctor)
# The President is visiting London next week. (This is arranged)
# I'm seeing the doctor next week. (I have an appointment)
# We're moving to a flat in London. (We have made all the arrangements)
EX.10. (She’s seeing her doctor next week.) A) Work in pairs. Think of three
well-known people or three people in the room. Use present progressive
sentences to tell your partner about their appointments for these times: this
evening, tomorrow morning, next week, next month. Use the verbs and the
ideas for appointments below to help you.
Example: Maria is seeing her doctor next week.
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Verbs: go, meet, see, have a talk/meeting with
Ideas for appointments: doctor, dentist, optician, bank manager, dress designer, tax adviser,
accountant, architect, business manager, boss, the President, President of the fan club
B) Work as a class. Listen to other people's suggestions for appointments.
Are there any that you think are wrong?
Example: No, Maria isn't seeing her doctor next week. She’s having her hair done.
c) Listening “Pres Cont Future” (CE inter p49). Listening & write answers to
the instructions. Write notes not full sentences.
# Friday night – meet friends
Look at your notes right complete sentences using an appropriate future
form. Then tell your partner about what you’ve written.
(3) The present simple & future
simple compared
We use it when you see something as a fact. In
future time, 'facts' are usually regular events,
timetables and the times that buildings open and close.
# The train leaves at ten о 'clock.
EX.11. In this exercise you have to put the verb into the correct form using
‘will’ or ‘be going to’.
1. A I've got a terrible headache. B: Have you? Wait there and I...............(get) an aspirin for you.
2. A: Why are you filling that bucket with water? B: I....................(wash) the car.
3. A: I've decided to re-paint this room. B: Oh, have you? What color.......................(you/paint) it?
4. A: Look! There's smoke coming out of that house. It's on fire!
B: Good, heavens! I........................(call) the fire-brigade immediately.
5. A: The ceiling in this room doesn't I look very safe, does it? B: No, it looks as if
it..............................(fall) down.
6. A: Where, are you going? Are you going shopping? B: Yes, I ..................(buy) something for dinner.
7. A: I can't work out how to use this camera. B: It's quite easy. I ..............................(show) you.
8. A: What would you like to drink — tea or coffee? B: I ..........................(have) tea, please.
9. A: Has George decided on what to do when he leaves school? B: Oh yes. Everything is planned. He
..................... (have) a holiday for a few weeks and then he .................... (start) a computer programming
course.
10. A: Did you post that letter for me? B: Oh, I'm sorry. I completely forgot. I ...................................
(do) it now.
11. A: What shall we have for dinner? B: I don't know. I can't make up my mind. A: Come on, hurry
up! Make a decision! B: Okay then. We ...........................(have) chicken.
12. Jack: We need some bread for lunch. Ben: Oh, do we? I.......................................... (go) to the shop
and get some. I feel like a walk. Before he goes out, Ben talks to Jane: Ben: I.........................(get) some
bread. Do you want anything from the shop? Jane: Yes, I need some envelopes. Ben: Okay,
I............................(get) you some.
13. John has to go to the airport to catch a plane. He hasn't got a car: John: Alan, can you take me to
the airport this evening? Alan: Of course I ........................... (take) you. I'd be delighted.
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Later that day Eric offers to take John to the airport. Eric: John, do you want me to take you to the
airport? John: No thanks, Eric. Alan........................... (take) me.
14. A: Why are you turning on the television? B: I …. (watch) the news.
15. A: Oh, I've just realised - I haven't got any money. B: Don't worry - that's no problem. I ....
(lend) you some. Those clouds are very black, aren't they? I think it……….. ....(rain).
Test
Task 1 Write complete sentences. Use the present progressive or going
to. Use both where both are possible.
1
2
3
4
/you/work/at home next week?………………………………………………
Can you meet Richard at the station, please? He/arrive/at nine o'clock on the train from Oxford.
Her boyfriend/not/come/until next week.
You/definitely/pass/the exam.
Task 3 Write complete sentences. Use ‘will’, ‘won't’ or ‘be going to’.
1
2
3
4
5
That parcel looks heavy. I…………../take/it to the Post Office for you.
I know what! I………../not/take/the car at all. I/walk/.
It's Jane's birthday in August. She…………/be/sixteen.
He…………/meet/Mary at the station. He told her yesterday that he would.
Look at those clouds. It…………/rain/.
Task 4 Complete the sentences. Use will, going to, the present progressive
or the present simple. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer.
1. We've agreed that Jim…………... (buy) the food for the party, and I …………….(cook) it.
2. Quick! The museum ……………….. (close) at half-past five. It says so in the guidebook.
3. I know! I…………………………………(drive) Tina to the station now.
4. We …………….(not/know) the answer to that until next week.
5. I've made an appointment at the dentist's. I …………(see) her on Tuesday.
6. This train …………….(stop) at every station between here and London.
7. Louise can't come with us. She. ………... (take) the car to the garage at four o'clock.
Task 5 Two teenagers, Angela and Darren, were going out together. But
then Angela found another boyfriend, Richard. Complete Darren's letter to
Angela. Use will, going to or the present progressive. Sometimes more than
one answer is possible.
I(1)…………………..(not/phone) you any more, because you asked me not to, but I am writing
you a quick note as I've got nothing else to do at the moment. 1(2) …………………(you/go) to the school
dance with Richard? I (3) …………………(not/go). Or at least maybe I (4) …………………(go) but I
probably I(5) …………………(not/dance) with anybody. I've decided that I (6) ………………… (not/play)
any more Deep Pit records because I think of you every time I hear one. I (7) ………………… (stop)
now. The lesson I(8) …………………(start) soon. I am sure that you and Richard I (9) …………………
(be) really happy together. I (10) …………………(phone) you next week, if that's OK.
(5) Сложноподчиненное предложение: Придаточные времени и условия
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Condition & time
conjunctions. Clauses of
condition
1. Clause of condition expresses a real or very probable situation in the
present or future # If we leave early , we’ll catch the 5 o’clock train
Condition & Time Conjunctions
NOTE: The Future Simple Tense is not used after the conjunctions (союз)
of time & condition:
# As soon as we finish dinner, I’ll serve some ice-cream (not : as soon as we will finish …)
Subordinate clauses of time & condition
Придаточное времени и условие
If
In case
Provided
Main (главное) clause
the result (consequence)
Will
If
+ (/------/) go(es)
is/are
Present Simple ONLY
When
Till
Until
Unless
Before
After
As soon as
# If I go to work I will do it in time
# If you get there first, Keep a seat for me
# We won’t play if it rains
Will + do
NB!!!
Imperative sentences
# If I don’t go there I won’t do it time
# When the weather is good, I’ll go out
Be careful not to confuse 'when’ & ‘if’
Use when for thing which you are
sure to happen
# I’ going shopping this afternoon. When I go
shopping I’ll buy some food
Use if for thing which you will
possibly to happen
# I might go shopping this afternoon. If I go
shopping I’ll buy some food
*** You can also use the present perfect after time conjunctions to show
that the first action will be finished before the second one :
# When I’ve read this book you can take it
# Don’t say anything while Tom is here. Wait here until he has gone
It’s often possible to use present simple & present perfect at the same
time
#I’ll come as soon as I finish - I’ll come as soon as I’ve finished
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# You’ll feel better after you have something to eat - You’ll feel better after you have had something
to eat
EX.1 Jane Smith is a flight attendant. Here is her schedule for the flight to
New-York. Tell a story about her job
Model: 9:35 board plane.
Before she boards the plane, she'll collect the boarding passes.
After she boards the plane, she'll welcome the passengers.
DELTA AIR LINES
Instructions for cabin staff
Flight 031
Moscow - New York
8:20
9:35
collect boarding passes
board plane
10:00 welcome the
passengers
10:30 check seat belts
11:00 takeoff
11:20 demonstrate life jacket
12:00 serve drinks
13:00 serve lunch
13:40 collect lunch trays
14:00 sell duty-free goods
14:30 start film
17:00 land
17:30 say "goodbye" to the
passengers
2. Look at the pictures. How could you warn the people?
Examples:
Look out! If you open the door, you'll get wet.'
FAMOUS SIGHTS QUIZ
Ex.3. Work with a partner. Take turns to give information. Match the place
of interest & a picture & then make a little dialogue
A) Match the
1. The Brandenburg Gate t 2. St. Sophia 3. The Statue of Liberty 4. the Coliseum 5. The tower Bridge
6. The Golden Gale Bridge 7. the Golden Temple 8. The Arc de Triomphe
London Kyoto Berlin
Paris
New York
Rome
San Francisco Istanbul
Example:
A. - I want to go and see the Brandenburg Gate.
B. - If you go to Berlin, you'll see the Brandenburg Gate
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EX.4. (A poem kit) Work in pairs or groups. Write four sentences that start
with When I'm old I'll. . . Cut or tear the paper so that there is only one
sentence on each piece of paper. Pass the pieces of paper around until each
pair or group has four sentences that they did not write. Rewrite the
sentences as a four-sentence poem. Only the first line has When I'm old. . .
The other three lines start with /'//. The poem does not have to rhyme but
read the lines aloud for a good rhythm. Here is an example:
When I'm old I'll have cornflakes for tea (no teeth you know). I'll walk carefully,
I'll be happy, you 'II see. I'll play music for you and me.
Ex.5. Put in the correct verb forms
1. We..................anything until we hear from
you. (not do)
2. I'll tell you when 1................... (know)
3. If I ...............George, I'll tell him to come
and talk to you. (see)
4. I ............ happy when this job is finished,
(be)
5. What..................if the police find out?
(happen)
6. It'll be nice when we..................back home again
(get)
7. I..................your luggage until you come back. (look
after)
8. When you decide to leave, phone us and we
...............a flight for you. (reserve)
9. I'm going to take a short holiday when I
……………this job. (finish)
10. Don't forget to put the lights out when you
..................to bed. (go)
Ex.6. Look at the pictures and say
what will happen. Begin 'When . .
.'
Example:
"When she opens the door, the light will go
on.'
Ex. 7. Use clauses of time or
condition instead of underlined
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parts of the following sentences. Make some changes if necessary. Pay
attention to the use of tenses.
1. I shall have time next week and I shall fix the car.
2. All will go well and I shall graduate in June.
3. He will finish this job and we will give him
another.
4. The traffic conditions will get much worse and the
city will have to build elevated roads. .
5. The light will turn red and all the cars will stop.
6. The weather will clear and we will finish our
games.
7. I will be paid tomorrow and I will buy this dress.
8. We will get there before you and we will wait for
you.
9. He will come home and his father will give him a
good talking to.
10. He will take this medicine and will be all right.
B) Make one sentence from two
sentences.
Example: They are off soon. You must visit them
before that.
You must visit them before they are off.
1. I'm going finish my work. Then I'll go to the
cinema. When………
2. He'll spend a week in Brussels. Then he'll go to
England. Before………
3. He'll come to London in April. He can stay with
us. When………
4. It's going to be dark soon. Let's leave before that.
When ………
Ex.8. Put in when or if. Example: it rains in the morning, we won't go swimming.
1. I'm going to England next week…… I'm there, I hope to visit a few museums,
2. Frank might return this evening. …………. he does, can you cook him some meal?
3. I think he'll pass his exam. I'll be very surprised ……….. he doesn't pass it.
4. I hope to be on time. But ………… don't make it, go without me.
5. I'm going shopping. ….. you want anything, I can get it for you.
6. I don't feel well tonight. I think I'll go straight to bed ……………. I get home.
7. I'm leaving for Canada tomorrow. I'll write to you …………. I get there
8. I want you to come to the party but ………. you don't want to come, you needn't.
Ex.9. Complete the sentences using the required tenses.
1. We will go home after ... .
2. You must repeat it until ... .
3. When the water is really hot ... .
4. They will keep quiet while ... .
5. I shall inform them about it as soon as ....
6. Close the door gently when ... .
7. I shall be ready by the time you ... .
8. Don't lock the door in case ... .
9. Nobody knows when ... .
10. It is difficult to guess when ... .
11. You'll catch a cold if ... .
12. You shan't catch the train unless ... .
13. Nobody will mind if ... .
14. Ask him when ... .
15. Ask your teacher if ... .
16. Do they know when ... ?
17. When we are ready . . . .
18. Kiss your father before ... .
19. I can't do anything unless ....
(5) Clauses of addition. Придаточные дополнения
Main clause (Главное)
(Что
???)
…….
clauses of addition (Придаточное
дополнения)
I wonder… / I don’t know….
when he’ll come
I’m interested ….
if (частичка «ли» ) he will come (придет ли
I doubt …. / Ask her ….
он)
Can you tell me….
# I don’t know if I’ll be there # They haven’t said when it’ll be ready
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# When will I see you again?
# Can you tell me When he will be here next
* Note: 1. When ( = At what time) used as a question word can be followed by the future tense
# When will they be back ? ( when = question word) but: # Susan will call us when she arrives
2. When in object clauses the future tense is used # I don’t know when he will come
One more example compare:
I don't know when they will arrive.
But: when they arrive, I'll inform you.
Ex.1. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Simple or Future Simple.
A)
1. If he (come) I (give) him this message.
2. I (be) at home if you (need) anything.
3. She (be) still here tomorrow if you (decide)
to ring her up.
4. If they (want) your advice, they (get) in
touch with you.
5. If you (have) anything to report, put it in
writing and send it to me.
6. I (tell) you about it when I (have) time.
7. He (wait) until they (send) for him.
8. They (be) better after this (be) over.
9. She (help) you with your homework as
soon as she (do) her own.
10. I'd like to ask you a few more questions
before you (go).
B)
1. They (not know) when she (come) back.
2. When I (want) your address, I (ask) for it.
3. I (wonder) if we ever (see) each other again.
4. I (be) not sure if they (be) in time.
5. I can't tell you when they (start).
6. "Come in," she said. "I (see) if he (be) at home".
7. "Life is a difficult business," said Father. "You
(know) that when you (come) to my age."
8. Come and see me when you (come)
9. Ask him if he (be) here for the next five minutes.
10. I (wonder) when I (be) able to get there.
11. Ask them when they (move) to a new flat.
12. "Can we get to the top of the tower?" "Yes, but
be careful when you (go) up' because the step's (be)
very uneven".
Ex.2. Put the verb in brackets with Present Simple and the Future Simple
I. When the weather …………. (get) warmer, I …………. (start) practicing again.
2. "Come in," she said. - "I ……………… (see) if he ………….. (be) at home."
3. Come and see me when you ………… (come) up to town and we'……(talk) everything over.
4. If my friends ……………. (come) in, please ask them to wait in the picture gallery.
5. He ………….. (want) to know if you ………….. (be) free tomorrow morning at 10.00.
6. I………….. (wonder) when they…………. (write) to us.
7. I ……………. (be)'down at your office at 12 tomorrow.
8. When things …………. (get) a little more settled, we …………… (come) to see you.
9. They can't tell me when they …………… (be) free.
10. Go straight on till you ……….. (come) to a fountain at the corner of the street; then turn left and you
………. (find) this shop on your right.
11. When you …………. (come) to the main road remember to stop and look both ways before you
…………. (cross).
13. "I want to get to the bottom of the valley," - "You must be careful when you ………….. (go) down
because the slope of the hill ………….. (be) very slippery."
14. "I ……………… (be) glad when it …………….. ( get) to the top!"
15. He doesn't say when he …………… (come) back.
16. "Give this message to your teachers as soon as you …………. (come) to school," said his mother. "All right," said the boy running out. "I …………. (tie) sure it ……….. (be) still in his pocket when he
………….. (get) home tonight," said his father.
17. If the patient ………….. (continue) to improve we …………….. (transfer} him to another ward.
18. "I ………….. (buy) some pot plants." - "When you ………….. (buy) them?" - "The florist
…………… (bring) them. Perhaps he …………. (bring) them in the afternoon."
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19. If you ……………. (look) at them, don't smile.
20. Before we ……………. (talk) about it, I'd like to show you something.
Ex. 3. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Они не начнут совещание, пока не
придет главный инженер.
2. Если вы встретите их, попросите их
позвонить нам.
3. Вы сразу узнаете Джемму, как только
увидите ее.
4. Интересно, когда они вернутся.
5. Не переходите улицу, пока не
зажжется зеленый свет.
6. Как только он приедет, он позвонит
вам.
7. Он будет очень счастлив, когда ты приедешь в
Нью-Йорк.
8. Если вы будете пить эту воду, вы заболеете. 9. Я не
помню, когда они возвращаются.
10. Если вы сейчас не возьмете такси, вы опоздаете на
самолет.
11. Когда вы захотите увидеть меня, позвоните.
12. Вы не будете знать английский язык, пока не
начнете упорно заниматься.
13. Я загляну к вам перед отъездом.
14. Когда наступит зима, я уеду в Индию.
15. Я не знаю, когда я его снова увижу.
Revision
Ex.4. Match the following sentence parts.
a. mother knows it.
b. the police come.
c. you apologize.
d. you go to bed early.
e. you switch on the computer.
f. you tell me the truth.
g. he gets into trouble,
h. you break my heart,
i. I lose you.
j. you forget about it.
k. she is sixteen.
1. you don't mind your diet.
m. you give him a fish,
n. you teach him to fish.
1. Advise him to stop before
2. You'd better stop before
3. I wonder if
4. My heart will be broken if
5. Don't touch anything before
6. You'll lose your looks if
7. You'll feed a man for a day if
8. You'll get rid of him at weekend if
9. I won't have anything to do with you unless
10. You'll have a beauty sleep if
11. You'll find the fill as soon as
12. I will believe you after you
13. The secretary will remind in case
14. Ann's mother doesn't allow her to wear makeup till
Self-check
Ex.5. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Интересно, когда они вернутся.
2. Вы сразу узнаете Тома, как только увидите
его.
3. Если вы встретите Лену и Колю,
попросите их поторопиться.
4. Она будет в восторге, когда встретит вас
там.
5. Если вы будете читать при плохом
освещении, вы испортите глаза.
6. Я сообщу ему эту новость, как только он
придет сюда.
7. Стойте здесь, пока свет не станет зеленым.
8. Я не помню, когда они возвращаются.
9. Если он опоздает, мы уйдем без него.
10. Лифт не будет подниматься, пока вы не
нажмете кнопку.
11. Если вы сразу же не уйдете, вы опоздаете
на поезд.
12. Я дам вам эту книгу, когда вы захотите.
13. Вы не будете знать английского языка,
пока не начнете усиленно работать.
14. Я не знаю, когда мы опять встретимся.
15. Я зайду к вам перед отъездом.
16. Как только я приеду домой, я напишу
вам обязательно.
17. Самолет не взлетит (take off), пока не
рассеется туман.
18. Когда станет темно, мы зажжем свет
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Ex. 6. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets.
1. If the car ………….. (be) out of order again, you ………….. (have to) call the service station, but I
doubt if they …………. (be able to) serve it very quickly.
2. Nobody …………… (know) what ………….. (happen) in ten or twenty years if life …………. (get)
tougher and tougher.
3. I wonder if they ………. (turn) to us if any need ……….. (arise).
4. My little son …………. (want) to know if there …………. (be) some cartoons on TV on Saturday. If
there …………… (be) some, he certainly ……………. (watch) them.
5. Everybody ……………. (be interested) if the weather ……………. (change) for the better next week.
6. I ………….. (leave) a message at the office in case the customer …………. (phone). But it's difficult
to say if he ……….. (do) it today.
7. He …………. (wonder) if Caroline ………… (change) her mind about going to tine party. If that
……………. (happen), he'll be really glad.
8. Nobody can definitely tell us when he …………. (come) back from London. But as soon as he
…………. (return), we ………… (get in touch) with him.
9. —If Linda …………… (want) to learn Italian, she ……………. (have to) attend a special course. — I
wonder if it ……….. (cost) her a lot.
10. We ……….. (have) the meeting this week, provided no one ……… (object).
11. I ……….. (be) always by your side as long as you …………… (promise) to listen to me.
12. Not …………….. (speak) to her unless she …………. (speak) to you first.
Ex.7. Translate into English.
1. Мы поверим тебе, дорогой, только после того, как ты расскажешь правду.
2. Они свяжутся с нами после того, как получат последние данные.
3. Я расскажу тебе все, пока кто-то другой не сделал этого.
4. Вы можете сесть за стол, дети, только после того, как вымоете руки. И вы сможете
погулять только после того, как съедите кашу.
5. Мы встречаемся в шесть часов у фонтана, на тот случай, если ты забыла.
6. Сообщи . нам, как только узнаешь результаты экзаменов.
7. Мама все поймет по твоему лицу, прежде чем ты откроешь рот.
8. Они закончат ремонт, прежде чем наступит зима.
9. Мы должны накрыть на стол, прежде чем придут гости.
Test on the subordinate clauses of time, Condition & addition
Task 1 Translate into English.
1. Ей интересно, будут ли эти цветы хорошо
расти, если она посадит их в тенистом месте.
2. Никто не может сказать мне точно, будет ли
врач работать сегодня. Если будет, то мне
придемся пойти на прием.
3. — Если Борис бросит курить и пить, то это
пойдет ему на пользу. — Интересно, сможет ли
он это сделать.
4. — Он не получит эту работу, если не
представит рекомендации. — Хотелось бы знать,
сможет ли он представить их вовремя.
5. Eсли я сделаю неверный шаг, мне придется
отвечать за это.
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6. — Она будет в ярости, если узнает правду. Я сомневаюсь, узнает ли она ее.
7. Если я буду в Нью-Йорке в мае, то мы
обязательно встретимся. Но я не знаю, получу
ли я визу вовремя.
8. Все еще неясно, согласится ли Миша на эту
работу. Если только не найдет что-то лучше.
9. Если какой-нибудь новый вирус попадет в
наши компьютеры, то он заблокирует всю
информацию.
10. Без твоей улыбки солнышко не будет
сиять, и если солнце не будет сиять, птицы не
будут петь. А если птицы не будут петь, люди
не будут счастливы. А если человек не будет
счастлив, мир будет скучным и безжизненным!
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Task 2
1. "I (be) glad when I (get) to the top!" "When you (see) the view you (be) glad you made the effort."
2. I wonder when they (come) back,
3. "Give this message to your teacher as soon as you (come) to school," said his mother. "All right,"
said the boy running, but. "I (be), sure it (be) still in his pocket when he (get) home tonight," said his
father.
4. If you (go) to you aunt's on Sunday I (hope) you (have) a good time there.
5. "I can't make out this letter." "I (tell) my son. He (read) it for you."
6. If you (look) at them, don't smile.
7. Before we (talk) about it, may I offer congratulations on your birthday?
Supplement 1
The imperative (Повелительное наклонение)
( /-----/ # do it!)
We use imperatives to tell people what to do, advise them, encourage them, offer
smth etc.
Positive
Negative
Imperatives look the same as infinitives
without ‘to’ (=the base of the verb).
/-----/……….
# Open the door, please!
Открой дверь! (ед.ч) Откройте дверь! (мн.ч \
вежлив.форма обращенияна «вы»)
Negative imperatives begin with “do
not’/don’t”.
Don’t (do not)/-----/……
Don’t open the windows!
Don't listen to her
Не открывай окна!
Не открывайте окна!
# Look in the mirror before you drive off.
# Try again. # Cheer up. # Have some more tea.
# Please do not lean out of the window.
Have a nice a holiday!
# Don’t worry.
See you
Thank you
In imperatives, ‘do’ and ‘don’t’ can be used before ‘be’.
Be quiet!
Be careful!
Don’t be silly.
Don’t be late
***Do be quiet!
1. A) Make sentences beginning “do be or don’t be” for the following situations.
Use the words and expressions in the box.
angry back by midnight careful frightened greedy jealous on time
1. You are a parent; your child is eating too much.
2. Your child is going to cycle to school through heavy traffic.
3. You are just going to tell somebody that you have damaged their car.
4. Your fourteen-year-old child is going out to a party.
5. You are going into a room where a nervous old lady is alone in the dark.
6. Your ten-year-old child has just told you she going to leave home.
7. You are arranging to meet somebody who is usually late.
8. You child has just told you to shut up.
9. Your boyfriend/girlfriend is upset because you went out with somebody else.
rude
stupid
B) Write some advice for people visiting your country. Do this together with other
students if possible.
C) Write humorous advice story “how to nag your mum about the pocket-money”,
how to use a spoon” & etc
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Let’s
We can use “let’s” (or let us – very formal) + infinitive without to “to” make
suggestions or give orders to a group that includes the speaker.
Let’s have a drink.
Let’s stay in this evening.
The normal negative is Let’s not …; Don’t let’s…is informal; Let us not is very
formal. # Let’s not tell Granny what happened.
Ex.1. Write the suggestions, using Let’s. Examples:
1 Let’s go swimming.
2 Let’s not go swimming.
Note also the common expressions “let me see and let me think”
# So what time will I get there? Let me see – suppose I start at half past six…
# What am I going to wear? Let me think – it’s too cold for the black dress…
3) # Let him (her) go there. (Пусть он (она) …..)
# Let them do it by themselves (Пусть они……
# let it be
Ex. 2. Translate
1. Давай поиграем в карты………………………………………………….
2. Пошли в кино………………………………………………………………..
3. Давай поедим………………………………………………………………..
4. Давай не будем делать домашнюю работу……………………………
5. Дай знать об этом …………………………………………………………………….
6. Давай не будем мыть посуду сейчас…………………………………….
7. Пусть она это сделает……………………………………………………
8. Пусть он войдет…………………………………………………………….
9. Пусть она готовит на всех………………………………………………..
10. Пусть они купят это сами…………………………………………………..
11. Пусть они не разговаривают об этом…………………………………….
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Supplement 2
Asking questions with “be”
1
2
3
(4)
be
( )
(is / am / are/
was / were)
question word
or question phrase
# ----# ----# ----# ----# ----# ----# ----# -----
Are
Is
Is
Were
Were
Was
Are
Is
# How old
# What
# What
# Where
# What color
# Where
# Who [hu]
# Whose [huz]
# Whose car
# Whose trousers
# Why
are
is
is
are
is
were
are
is
is
are
are
subject
подлежащее
General questions
you
this
this person
they
you
your wife
you
your son
Special questions
you
this
your name
you
this dress
you
you
this car
this
these
you
(
)?
nouns (сущ)
аdjectives (прил)
prepositions (предл)
numbers (числит)
39 ?
a table ?
Steve ?
surprised by that?
at home yester day?
happy to go to the concert ?
satisfied with your job ?
satisfied with your job ?
?
?
?
from ?
?
yesterday?
?
?
?
?
here?
The structure of a question with a verb
1
( )
question word
or question phrase
#
#
-----
# What
# How many children
2
3
4
(5)
Helping verb
do / does /
did / can /
will
Subject
подлежащее
General questions
Do
Can
Does
Special questions
do
does
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... ?
Verb
Сказуемое \ глаг
you
he
your wife
like our president
swim
cook breakfast
?
?
for you?
you
she
do
have
?
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#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
How much money
What juice
Where
What
Why
Who
With whom [hum]
What
do
does
do
did
did
do
do
can
you
he
they
you
Olya
you
you
you
earn
drink in the morning
live
cook yesterday
go to London
work for
live?
do ?
Question words & phrases:
1. WHAT что # What is this? # What do you think of this?
WHAT + сущ (nou) (НЕ РАЗРЫВАЕТСЯ)
WHICH + noun (какой / который и т.д.)
(какая/какой/какие/какое и т.д.)
we ask “what” when there is a wide choice
we ask “which” when there is a limited choice
# What book are you reading?
# Which size do you want - small, medium or
# What juice does he drink in the morning&
large?
# What is your shoe size?
Sometimes both variants are possible
# Which day next week can you come & see us?
# What day next week can you come & see us?
Before “of” & “one” we can use “which” but not “what”
# Which of the nationalities in Europe have you visited ? ( NOT What of…)
# Look at those stars, Which one is the nearest? ( NOT What one …?)
When there is no noun, we use “who” for people, not “which” Compare :
Which boxer won? Who won? (NOT Which one?)
What time .... (во сколько) = when
2. How - как # How are you?
How + adjective (прилагательное)
# How old are you? (сколько …..)
# How far is you home? ( как далеко…)
# How long is the distance?
# How long ago did you go there?
# How interesting is the book? (насколько интересна ….)
How often
# How often do you go to the cinema?
How much does it cost? = how much is it?
How many / much + noun
# How many students are there in your group?
# How much money do you earn?
How many times…. (сколько раз)
How much time…….
3. Where где # Where do you live?
куда where ….. to
откуда where …… from
# Where do you go to?
# Where did you come from?
4. Who кто # Who did you talk with? # Who are you? Who did you take with?
Whom (кем \ ком..) с предлогами # With Whom did you talk?
5. Whose чей # Whose camera did you take with you? # Whose are these trousers?
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?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
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6. when
QUESTIONS WORDS & PREPOSITIONS
# Where are you going to ? (куда..)
# Where do you come from? (откуда..)
# What are you thinking about? ( о чем ….)
# What are you looking at? (куда…… на что )
# What are you listening to?
NB! Prepositions usually comes in the end
# Who was the telephone invented by? (кем ..)
# Who are you talking to? (с кем ..)
# Who do you work for?
“# What are you writing with?
NOTES:
****
MIND THE DIFFERENCES :
Who is he? – you want to know the person’s name
What is he? – about the person’s job
A bit of theory
1. GENERAL QUESTION (YES / NO QUESTIONS)
These are the questions that you answer “yes/no”
# Do you like chicken? – Yes, I do/No I don’t.
# Does Martin live here? – Yes, he does/ No? He doesn’t
# Did the train leave on time? – Yes, it does/ No, it doesn’t.
2. A) SPECIAL QUESTIONS (WH- QUESTIONS)
These are the questions that begin with a question word or phrase.
# Where’s Kerry?# Whose bag is this? # How far is it to the station from here?
# What did Sheela put on my desk?
B) QUESTIONS to the subject in the sentence (who \ what (which / whose))
(there is a direct word order in such questions)
( I have breakfast at 7) Who has breakfast at 7?
(We are playing the guitar now) Who is playing the guitar?
(I went to London)  Who went to London?
( My talk with her makes me happy)  What makes you happy?
# Who put that on my desk?
# What worries you?
NEGATIVE QUESTIONS
We use negative questions when we want to make suggestions or when you expect the listener to agree with you
(say “yes”)
****РАЗВЕ … не…
# Aren't you a student?
# Don’t you smoke?
# Doesn’t she work in a bank?
# Aren’t you Jim’s brother?
# Why don't we go to the park? (suggestions)
Supplement 3
There is
There + be
Is \ are
There
was\
were
will be
+ …….
+ место
# There is a flower in the vase
# There are a lot of flowers in the vase
# There were a lot of wars through history
# tomorrow there will be a lot of snow
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Positive sentences
There is a
[ ð e∂riz ∂. ]
!
# There is a problem
There are
!!
[ ðe∂ra: …]
# There are 4 rooms in the flat. (
Negative sentences
questions
There is no problem
There is no cheese in the
fridge
Is there any salt in the soup?
What is there on the shelf? There are some
books
There are no children in the
room
#There are no clothes in the
wardrobe
Are there any children in the room?
Are There any interesting programmes on
TV?
How many chairs are there in the class?
How much cheese is there in the fridge?
THE OTHER STRUCTURES WITH INTRODUCTORY 'THERE'
there is/are going to be
there has/have been
there had been there’s likely to be…..
Contraction: there’s
We use there is to say that something exists (or doesn’t exist) somewhere.
‘It is’ is not used in this way.
There’s a hole in my sock. (NOT: a hole in my sock)
There are two men at the door.
There will be rain tonight.
Ex. 71.
A) Put in the correct form of there is
(n’t)
1 ___no water on the moon.
2 ___no railways in the 18th century.
3 Once upon a time ___a beautiful princess.
4 Tomorrow ___snow.
5 __some soup, if you’re hungry.
6 ___any potatoes?
7 ___wars all through history.
8 ___many tigers left in the wild.
9 ___an accident – can I phone?
10 I’m afraid ___ time to see Granny.
There’s snow on the mountains.
Once upon a time there were three little pigs.
There has never been anybody like you.
B) Put in there’s or it’s
1 ___ a cat in your bedroom.
2 ___ hard to understand him.
3 ___ cold tonight.
4 ___ ice on the roads.
5 ___ nice to see you.
6 ___ somebody on the phone for you.
7 ___ a problem with the TV.
8 ___ too late to go out.
9 ___ a funny smell in the kitchen.
10 ‘What’s that noise?’ ‘___ the wind.’
‘There is’ introduces indefinite subjects. Compare:
There’s a window open.
The window’s open. (NOT There’s the window open.)
D) Translate into English.
1. В этой книге очень интересные рассказы.
2. Есть радиоприемник в вашей комнате?
- Нет, но в комнате моего брата есть очень
хороший радиоприемник.
3. На этой улице нет книжного магазина.
4. Сколько окон в вашей комнате? -Три.
5. Вчера в парке было много детей, так как
погода была хорошая.
6. На улице было мало народа, так как
время было позднее.
7. В нашем клубе вчера было собрание.
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8. Есть сегодня теплоход на Батуми?
- Нет. Вчера был теплоход на Батуми и
завтра будет два.
9. Вчера в читальном зале было очень
много студентов.
10. В этой комнате через несколько дней
будет телефон.
11. Завтра не будет собрания в нашем
клубе.
12. Будет лекция завтра вечером? - Да,
будет.
13. Никого не было дома, когда мы
пришли.
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14. Завтра утром никого не будет дома.
Test
EX .1. Insert ‘it is’ or ‘there is/are’.
1. ... a gas-stove in the kitchen.
2; ... a gas-stove.
3. ... fine today.
4. ... an underground station near my house .
5. ... a light in the window. Somebody must
be at home.
6. ... no place like home.
7. ... time to go to bed.
8. ……much furniture in your flat.
9 . ... no central healing(центральное
отопление) in my house.
10 ... only one cigarette in t h e box.
11 ... fifteen students in our group.
12. ... any news in the letter?
13 …. .much milk in the bottle.
14. …an interesting articles in the newspaper.
15. ... not very cold
Task 2. Translate
1. В нашей квартире есть телефон. У нас
также радиоприемник и телевизор.
2. Наш дом находится на улице Свободы.
Около дома есть школа и поликлиника.
3. В библиотеке нашей школы много
английских книг
4. На улице много снега. Снег лежит на
земле, на крыше, на деревьях.
6. Что лежит на вашем письменном столе? У
меня там чашка с кофе.
7. У моей сестры много работы одежды.
8. В Москве много красивых зданий и
памятников.
9. Масло не в холодильнике, оно на столе. Там
также есть белый хлеб и сыр
‘It’ as a subject
When the subject of a sentence is an infinitive or a clause, we generally
use it as a preparatory subject, and put the infinitive or clause later.
It’s nice to talk to you. (More natural than To talk to you is nice.)
It was surprising that she didn’t come back.
EX.1. Rewrite these sentences with ‘It’… to make them more natural.
1. To book early is important. It is important to book early.
2. To hear her talk like that annoys me.
3. To get from here to York takes four hours.
4. To get upset about small things is silly.
5. To get up in the morning is nice, but to stay in bed is nicer.
6. To watch him makes me tired.
7. To hear her complaining upsets me.
8. To say no to people is hard.
B) Put the sentences together using It …
1. He wasn’t there. This surprised me. It surprised me that he wasn’t there.
2. She’s got some money saved. This is a good thing……………………………………….
3. He’s got long hair. This doesn’t bother me………………………………………………..
4. John never talked to her. This worried her. ………………………………………………..
5. She should be told immediately. This is essential. …………………………………………
6. He didn’t remember my name. This was strange. ……………………………………………
7. He can’t come. This is a pity. ………………………………………………..
8. The children should get to bed early. This is important. …………………………………
9. Wolves attack people. This is not true. ………………………………………………..
10. She stole money. This shocked me. ………………………………………………..
C) Put the beginnings and ends together.
BEGINNINGS
It doesn’t interest me
ENDS
as if we’re going to have trouble with Ann again.
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It looks
It seems
It will be a pity
It’s exciting
It’s important
It’s probable
It’s surprising
how many unhappy marriages there are.
if we have to ask her to leave.
that everybody should have a chance to speak.
that he forgot to buy the tickets.
that we’ll be a little late.
what you think.
when a baby starts talking.
Ex. 2. Translate into English.
1. Зима. Холодно. Идет снег.
2. Дождь идет? - Нет, но на небе много
облаков.
3. В Крыму летом жарко.
4. Осенью часто идет дождь.
5. Три часа. Пойдем послушаем музыку.
6. Весна. В парках много цветов.
7. Который час?
- Без четверти шесть. Поторопись.
8. На улице было холодно и много снега.
9. Темно. На улицах мало людей.
10. Два часа. Есть время искупаться.
11. Пора уходить. В зале почти никого не
осталось.
12. Дождь не прекращается два дня.
13. Я не люблю, когда идет снег.
14. Отсюда до музея 20 минут ходьбы.
B) Translate into English. Point out the sentences in which “it” is a pronoun, not a
formal word.
1. Сегодня жарко.
2. До Москвы 20 километров.
3. Летом легко вставать рано.
4. Дай мне, пожалуйста, словарь. - Он на полке.
5. Возможно, завтра пойдет снег.
6. Сегодня довольно тепло. Почему закрыто окно? Открой его.
7. Это предложение слишком трудное. Я не могу его понять.
8. Странно, что ты не хочешь пойти на лекцию. Она будет очень интересной.
9. Вчера шел снег?
10. От дома до реки два километра.
11. Дождь кончился минуту назад.
12. Нелегко понять, что он имеет в виду.
13. Это совсем новое здание. В прошлом году его здесь не было.
Supplement 4
Infinitive Present Simple
1. arise
2. be
3. beat
4. bear [eэ]
5. become
6. begin
7. bend (knee/neck)
8. bet (an ice-cream)
9. bite
10. blow
11. break [ei]
12. bring
13. broadcast
14. build
Past Simple
arose
was, were
beat
bore
became
began
bent
bet
bit
blew
broke [ou]
brought
broadcast
built
Participle II
arisen
been
beaten/beat
borne/born
become
begun
bent
bet*
bitten
blown
broken
brought
broadcast
built
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Translate
возникать
быть
бить, победить
носить, терпеть
становиться
начинать
сгибать
держать пари
кусать
дуть
ломать
приносить
передавать по радио
строить
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15. burn
16. burst
17. buy
18. cast (a stone / look)
19. catch
20. choose
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chose
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chosen
гореть
лопаться
покупать
бросать
ловить
выбирать
21. come
22. cost
23. creep
24. cut
25. deal with
26. dig deep / a hole
27. do
28. draw in pencil
came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
29. dream (about /of)
30. drink
31. drive
32. eat
33. fall (down / in love)
34. feed
35. feel
36. fight (bravely) (in the war)
37. find [ai]
38. fit
39. flee (away)
40. fly
dreamt/dreamed
drank
drove
ate [æ]
fell
fed
felt
fought
found [faund]
fit
fled
flew
dreamt/dreamed
drunk
driven [i]
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fit*
fled
flown
приходить
стоить
ползать
резать,стричь
иметь дело
рыть, копать
делать
тянуть, чертить,
рисовать
Сниться, мечтать
пить
водить машину
есть
падать
кормить
чувствовать
бороться
находить
быть в пору
бежать
летать
41. forbid
42. forecast
43. forget
44. forgive
45. freeze
46. get
47. give
48. go
49. grind
50. grow
51. hang
52. have
53. hear
54. hide
55. hit
56. hold (a spoon..)
57. hurt
58. keep
59. know
60. lay (the table)
forbade
forecast
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
ground [au]
grew
hung
had
heard [ ]
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew [ju]
laid
forbidden
forecast
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
gotten*, got
given
gone
ground
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
laid
запрещать
предвидеть
забывать
прощать
замерзать
получать, добираться
давать
идти
молоть
расти
висеть
иметь
слышать
прятать
попадать
держать
причинять боль
хранить
знать
класть
61. lead
62. lean
63. leave
64. learn (to do)
65. lend
66. let smb do smth
led
leant [e]
left
learnt
lent
let
led
leant
left
learnt
lent
let
вести
прислоняться
покидать
Учить , научиться
давать взаймы
позволять
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67. lie [ai] (lying)
НО: lie to smb (reg v.)
68. light (a cigarette)
69. lose [u:] (the game)
70. make a mistake
71. mean (2)
72. meet
73. mislay
74. pay
75. put [put]
76. quit [kwit] a job
77. read
78. ride (horse / bicycle)
79. ring (smb up)
80. rise (about the sun)
lay
lied [laid]
lit
lost
made
meant
met
mislaid
paid
put
quit
read [red]
rode
rang
rose
lain
lied
lit
lost
made
meant
met
mislaid
paid
put
quit
read [red]
ridden
rung
risen
лежать
лгать
освещать
терять, проигрывать
делать, создать
иметь в виду, значить
встречать(ся)
положить не на место
платить
класть,ставить
оставлять
читать
ехать верхом
звонить
вставать
81. run (after a dog)
82.
say (*says [sez])
83.
see
84.
seek
85.
sell
86.
send (a postcard)
87.
set (# up)
88.
sew [ou]
89.
shake (hands)
90.
sink
91.
shine (with excitement)
92. shoot at smth/smb
93. show
94. shrink
ran away
said [sed]
saw [o]
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed [ou]
shook
sank
shone
shot
showed
shrank
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn [ou]
shaken
sunk
shone
shot
shown
shrunk
95. shut smth
96. sing
97. sit
98. sleep
99. smell (of)
shut
sang
sat
slept
smelt
shut
sung
sat
slept
smelt
бегать
говорить
видеть
искать
продавать (ся)
посылать
ставить, устанавливать
шить
трясти
тонуть (корабль)
сиять, блестеть
стрелять
показывать
Сесть (об одежде)
(уменьшаться)
закрывать (ся)
петь
сидеть
спать
пахнуть
100. speak
101. speed (off/ up)
102. slide (down the hill \ the
banisters)
103. spend
spoke
sped
slid
spoken
sped
slid
говорить
Спешить\ ускорить
скользить
spent
spent
104. spit (out a stone \ in the face)
Spat
Spit (AM)
split
spread [e]
Spat
Spit (AM)
split
spread
sprang
sprung (Am)
stood
stole
stuck
Stank
Sprung
sprung (Am)
stood
stolen
stuck
stunk
раскалывать
Распространять,
расстилать
1)Прыгать (2)снабжать
пружиной) 3) струиться
стоять
красть
втыкать приклеить
вонять
strove
striven
Стараться стремиться
105. split (up)
106. spread (out a map\ a cloth on
the table)
107. spring (2)a trap) 3) from
108. stand
109. steal smth(from smb)
110. stick smth to smwh
111. stink (it stinks in here / you
stink of beer)
112. strive (for victory)
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)
плевать (ся)
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113. strike smb
struck
114. swear (at smb)
115. sweep
116. swim
117. take
118. teach
119. tear (smth out of ) [eэ]
120. tell smb
121. think
122. throw smth (at smb)
123. understand
124. upset smb
125. wake smb up
126. wear smth
127.
weep (over smb/ out eyes)
128.
win
129.
wind [ai]
130.
write
131.
132.
133.
must
can
may
struck/
*(be) stricken (with)
swore
sworn
swept
swept
swam
swum
took
taken
taught
taught
tore
torn
told
told
thought
thought
threw
thrown
understood
understood
upset
upset
woke/waked
woken/waked
wore
worn
wept
wept
won
won
wound [au]
wound
wrote
written
Modal verbs
had to
could
might
ударять
клясться, ругаться
нестись, сметать
плавать
брать, взять
учить
рвать
рассказывать
думать
бросать
понимать
огорчать
пробуждать(ся)
носить
плакать
выигрывать
наматывать
Писать
должен, надо было
мог, умел
возможно
Supplement 5
Demonstrative pronouns (Указательные местоимения)
This / that - these / those («То» и «это»)
Чтобы указать на объект, в русском языке используются указательные слова «это, этот, эти». В
английском языке в такой роли выступают следующие слова: this / that - these / those
Обратите внимание, что эти слова могут присоединяться к существительному (первые
примеры в каждой паре), а могут выступать и самостоятельно (вторые примеры).
Слова this/these обладают важным свойством — они обычно указывают на объекты,
которые находятся в непосредственной близости в пространстве, во времени или в контексте.
Если с таким словом упоминается предмет или человек, то, как правило, он находится прямо
перед глазами или о нем только что говорилось; если день — то сегодняшний; если месяц — то
текущий и т. п.
Указательные слова this/these (этот, эти, это) имеют противоположных по смыслу двойников that
/ those. Слова that/those обычно указывают на объекты более удаленные в пространстве, во
времени или в контексте, чем те, на которые указывают слова this/these.
We use “this / these” to point to people, animals
or things near us
рядом
This [ðis] is a…= It is a
These [ðiz]are …..
This is an apple
These are apples
This is my friend
These are trousers
We use “that / those” to point to people, animals
or things far away from us
далеко
That [ðæt] is a ….
Those [ðouz]are ….
That is an apple
Those are apples
That is my friend
Those are trousers
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
- What is this?
= What is it?
We answer these questions with “they” / “it”
- What are these?
- What are those?
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- What is that? - - It’s a book (NOT:
this is a book / that is a book)
- They are books (NOT: these are books / those
are book
Нередко в сочетании друг с другом слова this/these и that/those позволяют отличить в речи
объекты с одинаковыми названиями. Скажем, перед вами две книги. В отношении одной вы
используете слово this, в отношении другой - слово that:
# This book is a text-book. (Эта книга — учебник.) That book is a dictionary. (Та книга —
словарь.)
Однако не всегда правильно брать за ориентир в применении английских указательных
слов употребление соответствующих русских указательных слов: «этот, эти, это» и «тот, те, то».
Употребление последних трех в русском языке стеснено множеством стилистических
ограничений. Например, вы вряд ли скажете «То — учебник». В английском же языке
употребление that/those более свободно. Фраза: That is a text-book звучит столь же естественно,
как и фраза: This is a text-book.
Кратко, без дополнительных пояснений, указать в речи на конкретный объект — это
задача так или иначе реализуется в каждом языке. И в каждом языке она представляет собой
особенно деликатный раздел грамматики. Указательные слова this/these и that/those –лишь
вступление к подобному разделу английской грамматики.
Чтобы упомянуть объект в контексте речи, вам понадобится еще одно слово — it. Оно выступает
только самостоятельно.
it [it] - это /ед. ч./
- What is it? (Что это?) –
- It is an English text-book. (Это учебник по английскому.)
Если слова this/these и that/those представляют собой подобие указательного жеста в речи,
слово it нейтрально — оно не указывает на объект, а только лишь упоминает его. Впрочем, это
лишь одно из применений слова it. Скоро вы узнаете о других его грамматических «амплуа».
Supplement 5b Существительные (Nouns)
1. Множественное число существительных
В русском языке существительное имеет множество форм. Отсюда многочисленные
окончания, которые являются важнейшим связующим звеном между словами. С их помощью
слова «сцепляются» друг с другом, подобно шестеренкам в часовом механизме.
Английское существительное имеет несоизмеримо меньше форм. По сравнению с русским
существительным, пластичным как глина, английское существительное жестко, почти
неизменно. Отсюда минимальное количество окончаний; их недостаток компенсируют предлоги
- своего рода «суставы», скрепляющие слова друг с другом.
Для того, чтобы выразить объект, в английском языке используются всего лишь две
формы существительного. Вот они.
Если подразумевается один объект (единственное число), употребляется существительное в
исходной форме, то есть в том виде, в котором оно дается в словаре. В качестве примера
используем слово «книга» - book. Это и есть объект «книга» в единственном числе. Если
имеется в виду не один, а несколько объектов (множественное число), к существительному
присоединяется окончание -S. Присоединим -s к существительному book (сдваивание
графического обозначения на схеме указывает на множественное число) - books:
НО, Эта закономерность имеет исключения.
Во-первых, некоторые английские существительные образуют особые формы
множественного числа. Таких существительных немного, но все они - в высшей степени
употребительные слова: woman - women (женщина - женщины), man - men (мужчина - мужчины) и foot – feet (нога – ноги), tooth – teeth (зуб – зубы), child [ai]- children [i], mouse - mice и т.
п.
Во-вторых, некоторые существительные вовсе не образуют форму множественного или
единственного числа. Например, у существительного trousers (брюки) отсутствует форма
единственного числа: если сказать trouser, получится что-то вроде «один брюк». У сущест81
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вительного furniture (мебель), наоборот, нет формы множественного числа: furnitures прозвучит
по-английски столь же дико, как по-русски «мебели» или, того хуже, «мебеля»! К таким
существительным, которые всегда употребляются в единственном числе, относятся такие слова как
money, advice, knowledge, information & etc. К существительным, которые всегда
употребляются во множестенном числе, относятся такие слова как trousers, glasses, = spectacles,
scissors, jeans, tights, shorts, police, & etc.
Spelling differences
ch, -sh, -x & etc -es
-y  -eis
-fe  -ves
-o  -oes
box boxes
city  cities
baby babies
toy  toys
day  days
knife  knives
wife  wives
***roof - roofs (крыши)
proof proofs (док-за)
belief -beliefs (веры)
potato  potatoes
**radios
pianos
photos
Pronunciation differences
[iz]
[z]
[s]
box boxes
Baby babies tape  tapes
toy  toys
book  books
knife  knives
Supplement 5c Притяжательный падеж (Possessive case)
Очевидно, что не всегда достаточно только назвать объект. Подчас необходимо
сопроводить упоминание объекта дополнительной информацией, скажем, о том, кому он
принадлежит, что обусловило его существование, каков он из себя и тому подобное. Такого рода
дополнительная информация выражается в языке с помощью специальных грамматических
форм.
Существуют
две наиболее употребимые грамматические формы, выражающие
дополнительную информацию об объекте, - о притяжательной форме существительного и
предлоге of.
Начнем с притяжательной формы. Ее назначение -пояснить, кому принадлежит объект, кто
его владелец.
Графически притяжательная форма обозначается так:
(The possessive case)
\-----------\ s’
\-----------\
the girls’
book
(книга девушек)
\-----------\’s
\-----------\
the girl’s
book
(девушкина книга \ книга девушки)
\-----------\’s
\-----------\s
the girl’s
books
(девушкины книги \ книги девушки)
\-----------\s’
\-----------\s
the girls’
books
( книги девушек)
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My nephew’s friend, the colleagues’ pens, Vasya’s table, Oleg and Katy’s room, my father & mother’s
car
Машина (car) Кати
Сын моего друга
Друг(friend) Оли
Сын моих друзей…
Комната (room) Олега …
Сыновья моего друга…
Имя моей мамы ………………………………
Сыновья моих друзей
Юлин подарок …………………….……………..
Окружность, в которой угадывается подобие улыбающейся физиономии, обозначает
владельца, которому принадлежит описываемый объект. Дуга, отдаленно напоминающая жест
«это - мое!», символизирует идею собственности.
Разумеется, владельцем может быть только тот, кто осознает свое право собственности.
Таковыми являются отдельные личности, группы людей, в том числе организации, и даже
животные. Следовательно, именно эти категории объектов могут выражаться притяжательной
формой.
Вот как строится притяжательная форма. К существительному в исходной форме
присоединяются апостроф и буква s. Последовательность этих двух элементов имеет
принципиальное значение. Если речь идет об одном' владельце, апостроф предшествует букве
S если подразумевается несколько владельцев, апостроф следует после буквы S.
Присоединим к объекту «книга» притяжательную форму the girl's book (девушкина
книга)
Из этой фразы следует, что книга принадлежит некой девушке (girl). Положение апострофа перед
буквой s показывает, что имеется в виду одна девушка. (Обратите внимание, графические
обозначения, использованные в книге, отражают не только смысл грамматических форм, но еще
указывают и на последовательность составляющих в английской фразе. Это дает вам возможность
буквально «списать» с этих графических обозначений английскую фразу, не опираясь на
грамматические модели родного языка.) А сейчас поставим апостроф после буквы ~s в этом же
словосочетании. Смысл фразы изменился, теперь книга принадлежит нескольким девушкам.
Отсутствие или неправильное положение апострофа способно до неузнаваемости исказить
смысл фразы. Сравните два словосочетания, приведенные ниже, и вы убедитесь в этом сами:
the king's country
the kings' country
(king - король, country - страна)
В первом словосочетании апостроф расположен перед буквой s. Значит, страна принадлежит
одному королю. Принцип единовластия соблюден вполне. Во втором словосочетании
апостроф ошибочно поставлен после буквы s. Выходит, страна принадлежит сразу нескольким
королям.
Как видите, достаточно неправильно расположить апостроф - и вот в государстве воцаряется
многовластие и междоусобица.
Другой пример: (mother - мама, baby - ребенок)
the mother's baby
the mothers' baby
В первом словосочетании апостроф стоит перед буквой s. Следовательно, у ребенка одна мать.
Ничего удивительного в этом нет. Во втором словосочетании намеренно допущена ошибка:
апостроф находится после буквы s. Значит, здесь речь идет о том, что у ребенка не одна, а
несколько матерей, минимум две.
И еще одна важная особенность притяжательной формы: в тех случаях, когда объект, о
котором идет речь, очевиден из контекста, вы можете вовсе не упоминать этот объект
после притяжательной формы.
Предположим, вас спрашивают: Whose book is this? (Чья это книга?). Можно, конечно,
ответить так: It is the girl's book. (Это - девушкина книга.) Ответ верен, но избыточен. Из вопроса
очевидно, что речь идет о книге. Следовательно, упоминать ее повторно в ответе не стоит
(пунктирные очертания на схеме ниже указывают, что объект не упоминается, а подразумевается) : It is the girl's
(book - подразумевается) (Это - девушкина.) По смыслу эта фраза
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равнозначна предыдущей, но короче на одно слово - book. Казалось бы, незначительная
экономия. Однако даже малая экономия, заложенная в широко употребимой грамматической
форме, дает большую экономию в языке.
Вторая грамматическая форма, выражающая дополнительную информацию об
объекте, - предлог of.(В русском языке эту форму можно сравнить с родительным падежом
– кого?, чего?)
Назначение предлога of - указать некую личность, предмет или обстоятельство, которые
обусловили, то есть сделали возможным, существование описываемого объекта
Предлог “of” (кого?, чего?) (=родит.падеж)
of
of the table
(ножка стола)
the leg
У предлога of есть еще одно значение - «часть целого, один (несколько) из группы
аналогичных объектов». Например:
a piece [pi:s] of cheese (кусок сыра)
a part of the book (часть книги)
one [w n] of these girls (одна из этих девушек)
a member of the family (член семьи)
a kind [ai] of sport (вид спорта)
a type of a computer
a group [grup] of people
a sort of fruit
Надо сказать, немногие слова могут сравниться с предлогом of по употребительности в
английской речи. Без него образовалась бы смысловая брешь едва ли не в каждой третьей фразе столь важен этот грамматический «сустав» в структуре английского предложения.
Translate the following using one of the two constructions
название банка,
……………………………………
вид города (town)
…………………………………
компания Олега, …………………………………
часть разговора ………………………………
Катин подарок …………………………………
мамин вопрос
………………………………………
билет брата, ………………………………………
любимое кафе моего (my) отца
………………………
3. “Noun (сущ) + Noun(сущ)” construction
+
noun
noun
Adj (какая)
(прил)
noun
horse лошадь
race соревнования
horse race
race horse
***handbag, homework notebook
singular
lemon juice
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kitchen table
telephone number
cassette recorder
address book
Translate
обувной магаазин
яблочный сок
Translate using noun+noun construction, the possessive ’s or “of” phrase
карман сумки
увлечения женщины
столица Япония
школьный компьтор
яблоко Кати
национальность этих
людей
дни недели
урок английского
цвет стены
мужское имя
буква алфавита
адрес вашего друга
женский портрет
портрет женщины
возраст студентов
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………….
Supplement 5d
Articles (Артикли)
indefinite (неопределенный)
a [ǝ]
(an[ǝn]) если слово
нач. с гл.
a dog
an apple
 one
 ед.ч.
 какой-то




I’m a student.
That is a highlighter.
Zero (нулевой)
(no article)
definite(определенный)
the [ði / ðǝ]
the dog the apple
this
(конкр.предмет, о
которых знает ваш
собеседник)
тот самый
место (on the table
in the bag)
dogs Olya

The lamp is on the desk.
That’s an
apple. Take it. Where is the pen?
Look at the wonderful view of
the city
I’m Nastya. I’m from
Irkutsk
Supplement 5d
Numbers
The cardinal (количественные) numbers.
*0 nought [not] (in mathematical calculations) / ( “oh”- in telephone numbers) / “zero”
/------/teen (12-19)
/-------/ ty [ti]
1 one
11 eleven
20 twenty
twenty-one
2
two
12 twelve
30 thirty
3
three
13 thirteen
40 forty
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4
four
5
five
6
six
7
seven
8
eight
9
nine
10 ten
14
15
16
17
18
19
fourteen
fifth teen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 a hundred / 1000 a thousand / 1000 000 a million
The ordinal (порядковые) numbers
1st the first car
11th the eleventh
nd
2 the second book
12th the twelfth
3d the third
13th the thirteenth
th
4 the fourth
14th the fourteenth
th
5 the fifth
15th the fifth teenth
th
6 the sixth
16th the sixteenth
th
7 the seventh
17th the seventeenth
th
8 the eighth
18th the eighteenth
th
9 the ninth
19th the nineteenth
th
10 the tenth
Dates
In 1900 (nineteen hundred)
In 1901 (nineteen (“oh”) one)
/------/th
20th the twentieth
The twenty –first
The twenty-second
30th the thirtieth
40th the fortieth / 50th The fiftieth
60th the sixtieth / 70th the seventieth
80th the eightieth / 90th the ninetieth
100th the hundredth
101th the hundred & the first (200th two hundredth)
1000th the thousandth (1000000th the millionth)
2000 (two thousand)
1917 (nineteen seventeen)
In 1978 (nineteen seventy eight)
Supplement 5d
Personal Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun (instead
(вместо) of a noun) so as not to (чтобы не) repeat a lot of nouns.. Pronouns are words like: he, you, her,
my & etc. Compare:
# Do you like the President? I don't like the President. The President is too pompous.
# Do you like the President? I don't like him. He is too pompous.
This is the summary of personal pronouns
Meaning
Subject
Functions( место в предложении)
Reflective
Possessive (= Adjective )
Object
(подлж.)
(доп.)
(что кто)
Все
падежи
!
(возвратные)
-ся \ себя \ собой
сам
!
(После
глагола,
предлога)
I
me
мест+сущ
my
mine
(I know Tom)
(Tom knows me)
(it’s my car)
(this car is mine)
(I’m looking at myself)
О себе и комлибо
We
us
our
ours
ourselves
(We know Tom)
(Tom knows us)
(this car is ours)
(We are looking at ourselves)
К собеседнику
You
you
yours
yourself/yourselves
(You know Tom)
(Tom knows you)
О себе
О ком-либо в
ед.ч.(жен)
О ком-либо в
ед.ч муж)
О ком (чем)либо в ед.ч
She
(She knows Tom)
He
(it’s our car)
your
[jo:]
(it’s your car)
[jo:z]
myself
(this car is yours)
(You’re looking at yourself /
yourselves)
her
hers
herself
(Tom knows her)
(it’s her car)
(this car is hers)
(She’s looking at herself )
her
him
his
his
himself
(He knows Tom)
(Tom knows him)
(it’s his car)
(this car is his)
(He’s looking at himself )
It
it
its
Its
-
(It is Tom)
(Tom knows it)
(---------)
(---------)
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О ком (чем)либо в мн.ч .
They
Comments:
***I like him. She likes me.
(They know Tom)
them
their
(Tom knows them)
(it’s their car)
theirs
(this car is theirs)
свой\я\и
themselves
(They’re looking at
themselves )
oneself
Examples:
P
R
O
N
O
U
N
S
subject
She likes homework. I’m 20. He likes it
object
This is a picture of me and my dog, Rex. I love him very much. I look after
him. I think he loves me too.
The teacher gave me some homework. This present is for her.
The shoes are nice. I like them
Diana never drinks milk. She doesn’t like it.
adjective
This is your homework. My husband works as a bus driver.
The teacher corrected our homework.
This homework is yours.
reflexive
John did the homework himself. She can’t look after herself.
They do it themselves.
Exercises
Subject & object pronouns
6. They want to see her but.....................doesn't
1.1. Finish the sentences with him/her
want to see .............
/them
7. I want to see them but......................don't want
1 I don't know those girls. Do you know............?
to see.....................
2 I don't know that man. Do you
8. He wants to see us but...................don't want to
know..............................?
see .... ............
3 I don't know those people. Do you
9. You want to see her but.........................doesn't
know..................................?
want to see ..... :...............
4 I don't know Fred's wife. Do you
know.....................................?
5 I don't know his friends. Do you
know..............................?
6 I don't know the woman in the black coat. Do you
know.......................?
7 I don't know Mr Stevens. Do you
know..................:....................?
8 I don't know those students. Do you
know...............................?
1.3. Finish the sentences. Use
me/him/her/….
1. Who is that woman? Why are you looking at
.........
2. 'Do you know that man?' 'Yes, I work
with.................
3. I'm talking to you. Please listen to ..................
4. These photos are nice. Do you want to look at ...
5. I like that camera. I'm going to buy......................
6. Where are the tickets? I can't find..................
7. We're going out. You can come with .........
.............
8. I don't like dogs. I'm afraid of ...........
9. Where is she? I want to talk to .......................
10. Those apples are bad. Don't eat ............... ......
1.2. Finish the sentences. Use
I/me/we/us/you/he/him/the/her/they/them.
1. I want to see her but............doesn't want to
see...............
2. I want to see him but .....................doesn't want
to see ...............
3. They want to see me but........................don't
want to see........................
4. We want to see them but ...............don't want to
see........................
5. She wants to see him but.............doesn't want to
see...........
1.4. Put in ‘It/them + me/it/him/her/them’.
1. I want those books. Please give ......... to..............
2. He wants the key. Please give ……….... to ............
3. She wants the keys. Please give...............to..........
4. I want the letter. Please give........... to .................
5. They want the money. Please give........to ...........
6. We want the photos. Please give ….... to …………
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Adjective pronouns
***on one’s own = alone
# I went on holiday on my own. (= I went on holiday alone.)
# She wasn't with her friends. She was on her own.
2.1 Finish these sentences.
1 He lives with …………... parents.
2 They live with ......................parents.
3 We ....................... parents.
4 Ann lives.......................parents
5 I ..............................parents.
6 John ...........................................
7 Do you live ............................?
8 Most children .................................
2.3 Look at the family tree and finish the sentences.
I saw Liz with ...her... husband, Philip.
I saw Ann with........brother, Bill.
I saw Ann and Ted with........children.
I saw Liz and Philip with........son, Bill.
I saw Ted with........wife, Ann.
I saw Ann with........parents.
I saw George with........brother, Bill.
I saw Diana and Robert with........parents.
2.4 Put in my/our/your/his/her/their/its.
1. I like............Job. & Do you like..................job?
9. We're staying at a very nice
Does your father like ............ job?
hotel.........................room is very comfortable.
2. They've got two children but I don't
10. Mr and Mrs Baker live in London but
remember.......................names.
..................son lives in Australia.
3. The company has offices in many places
11. Thank you for...................letter. It was good to
but....................head office is in New York.
hear from you again.
4. Sally is married. .......... husband works in a bank.
12. We are going to invite all.......................friends
5. I know Mr Watson but I don't know.............wife.
to the party.
6. Put on..............coat when you go out. It's very
13. John is a teacher but.................sister is a nurse.
cold.
14. Do you think that most people are happy
7. ......... favourite sport is tennis. I play a lot in
in..............jobs?
summer.
15. I gave the money to my mother and she put it
8. My sister plays tennis too but............ favourite
in ...............bag.
sport is athletics.
16. I often see that man but I don't know....................name.
Adjective pronouns (2)
3.1 Finish the sentences with
1 It's your money. It's .....................
2 It's my bag. It's..............................
3 It's our car. It's................................
4 They're her shoes. They're..............
mine/yours etc.
5. It's their house …………………..
6. They're your books ………………
7. They're my glasses ………………
8. It's his coat ……………… ……..
3.2 Choose the right word.
1. Is this your/yours book?
2. It's their/theirs problem, not your/yours.
3. Are these your/yours shoes?
4. Is this camera your /yours?
5. That's not my/mine umbrella. My/Mine is yellow.
6. They know our/ours address but we don't know
their/theirs.
7. They've got two children but I don't know their/theirs
names.
8. My/Mine room is bigger than her/hers, but her/hers is
nicer.
3.3 Finish these sentences with ... a friend of
mine etc.
1. I went to the cinema with ……….…………………...
2. They’ll go on holiday with some …………………….
3. She's going out with a friend...............................................
4. We had dinner with some............
5. I played tennis with a...............................
6. He's going to meet a ...................................
7. Do you know that man? Is he a ............................ ?
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***a friend of mine
3.4 Look at the pictures. Write questions with Whose ...?
1. whose book is this?....................?
7. .................................................... ?
2. whose………………………….?
8. .................................................... ?
3. ...................................................?
9. .................................................... ?
4. .................................................. ?
10.................................................... ?
5.....................................................?
12.................................................... ?
Test
Task 1 Finish these sentences in the same way.
1. We invited her to stay with us at our house
2 He invited us to stay with ....................................................................................
3 They invited me to stay with …………………………………………………….
4 I invited her to stay ................................................................................................
5 We invited them to.................................................................................................
6 You invited him ………………………………………………………………….
7 She invited me...................... house.
Task 2 Finish the sentences.
1 It's hers. Give ....................................
5 It's ours. Give ...
2 They're mine. Give ………. me...............
6 It's theirs. Give .
3 It's his. Give it................................................. 7 They're his. Give
4 They're hers. Give them ................................ 8 It's mine. Give ..
Task 3 Finish the sentences in the same way, “I gave him”
2 I gave her ...........address and she gave me…………………………………..
3 He gave me............ address and I gave…………………………………..
4 We gave her.......... address and she gave…………………………………..
5 I gave them............address and they............. …………………………………..
6 She gave us.......... address and ................. …………………………………..
7 You gave him.................address and........ …………………………………..
8 We gave them...............address and ... …………………………………..
9 They gave you.................address and…………………………………..
10 She gave him.................address and …………………………………..
herself/ himself….
-
I cut myself with a knife, (not 'I cut me')
She fell off her bicycle but she didn't hurt herself.
Do you sometimes talk to yourself when you are alone?
If you want some more food, help yourselves.
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- Did they pay for themselves or did you pay for them?
- Did you all have a nice time?1 'Yes, we enjoyed ourselves.
by myself/by yourself etc. = alone (=on one’s own)
- I went on holiday by myself. (= I went on holiday alone.)
- She wasn't with her friends. She was by herself.
-selves and each other
- I looked at myself and Tom looked at himself. = We looked at ourselves (In the mirror).
but I looked at Tom and he looked at me. = We looked at each other.
We looked at ourselves
- Jill and Ann are good friends. They know each other very well. (= Jill knows Ann and Ann knows Jill.)
- Paul and I live near each other.
(= Paul lives near me and I live near him.)
57.1 Finish the sentences with myself/yourself etc.
1 He enjoyed ........................................ 5 Did you enjoy ...........? (one person)
2 I enjoyed ........................................... 6 Bill and I enjoyed ..............................
3 She enjoyed .................................... 7 The children enjoyed............................
4 We enjoyed .............................................. 8 Jack didn’t enjoy ......:..................
57.2 Finish the sentences with myself/yourself etc.
1 I cut ....myself..... with a knife.
2 Be careful! That plate is very hot. Don't burn ......,:....................
3 I’т not angry with you. I'm angry with................................
4 They never think about other people. They only think about.................................
5 I got out of the bath and dried....................................with a towel.
6 When people are alone, they often talk to...................................
7 The police say that the woman shot.................................with a gun.
8 Don't pay for me. I want to pay for......................................
9 He fell off the ladder but he didn't hurt.....................................
10 I'd like to know more about you. Tell me about...................... (one person)
11 Goodbye! Have a good holiday and look after.................... (two people)
57.3 Make sentences with “by myself/by yourself” etc.
1 I went on holiday alone.
2 John lives alone.
3 Do you live alone?
4 She went to the cinema alone. 5 When I saw him, he was alone. 6 Don't go out alone.
7 I had dinner alone.
8. John lives ..........
9. Do you ........
10. She ....:...................
11. When I saw him. Don't
...
57.4 Finish the sentences. Use “each other”.
1 I looked at Bill and Bill looked at me. Bill and 1
2 1 know him and he knows me. We............................................
3 She likes him and he likes her. They..............................................
4 You can help me and I can help you. We can................ .
5 He understands her and she understands him. They ......................................
6 He gives her presents and she gives him presents.
They....................................................
7. Tom didn't see Jill and Jill didn't see Tom. Tom and Jill …………….
8 I didn't speak to her and she didn't speak to me. We................
9 She often writes letters to him and he often writes letters to
Supplement 6 Adjectives
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An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun. (# a big dog # I like Chinese food)
We can often use two or more adjectives together (# a beautiful young French lady).
Also we can use adjectives after certain verbs (# It is hard).
Comparative degree
Superlative degree
 Short adjectives
 Short adjectives
/------/ er
the /------/ est
high  higher
young  younger
high  the highest
young  the youngest
thin  thinner
big  bigger
thin  the thinnest
big  the biggest
low  lower *old  older / elder
low  the lowest
*old  the oldest
than
of / in
# This girl is prettier than that one
# This guy is the fastest of us
# This book is nicer than logarithm tables
# This writer is the greatest one in the world
# He is the dullest person I’ve ever seen
irregular adjectives
good
 better
good  the best
bad
 worse
bad  the worst
*far
 farther (дальнейший (о расстоян.))
far
 the farthest
further [з:] (education)
the furthest
old
 older / elder
old
 the oldest / the eldest
many  more
many  (the) most (of all) (больше всего)
*little  less (менее, меньше )
*little  the least (наименее, самый не..)
smaller (меньше только о предметах)
the smallest (самый маленький)
# The soup with vegetables is worse than the soup with # My wife is the best at cooking
meat
# My eldest daughter goes to school
# This person is better than my neighbour
# I like this painting most of all
# I live much farther than you
# This book is the least interesting of all grammar books.
# He earns less than you
# your flat is smaller than mine
# This book is less interesting than that one
 Long adjectives
 Long adjectives
more /------/
the most /------/
beautiful  more beautiful
beautiful  the most beautiful
stupid  more stupid
stupid  the most stupid
# This girl is more beautiful than that one
# This book is the most interesting of all grammar books.
# These girls are more talkative than those ones
as …………. as…………
not so … as……………
# My friend is as clever as his brother # The book is not so interesting as this one
# She is as pretty as her mother
# He is not so young as his wife
# The clouds are as white as snow
# Her sister is not so clever as his brother
Notes:
1. Spelling points: thin  thinner big  bigger ( the sound is short  the consonant is doubled)
2. Farther& Further refer to distance, Further can mean in addition
# London is five miles farther/further
# There is no further information
2. We use elder/eldest before a noun only with reference
to people in family, older/oldest for people & things
# My elder brother, the eldest child, he’s the eldest (but not “He is elder that me)
# He is older than I am. The book is older
3. Latest / Last
# I bought the latest ( i.e. most recent) edition of today’s paper
# I bought the last (i.e. final) edition of today’s paper
4. The comparative & superlative of “little” is smaller / (little  less (degree) / smaller (size))
Smallest:
# a small / little boy, a smaller / the smallest boy / smaller room (NOT: My room is less than your room)
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Adjectives & Adverbs
1) Adjectives & adverbs compared
Adjectives are words like easy ,
slow sorry , important
They usually tell you more about
people or things
They can go before nouns, or after be
seem\look + adjective
smell
# You seem worried
taste
# He feels bad
look
sound
# It’s is an easy language
# This music is slow
# His ideas are interesting
# Joe looked hungry
Adverbs are words like slowly, easily,
yesterday, there. & describe a verb. They show
“how, where, when or how often” someone
does something. Adverbs usually go after verbs.
ly
\--------\+
quick  quickly
complete  completely
real  really
happy  happily
possible - possibly easy  easily
# He walks slowly. (How does he walk? Slowly)
# He wakes up early. (When does he wake up? Early)
# You can learn this language easily
# The pianist is playing slowly
# She spoke interestingly about her ideas
# Joe ate hungrily
2) Irregular adverbs
adjectives
good # He is a good pianist
fast # He is a fast runner
early # She is an early bird
hard # it’s hard to catch the idea
late # it’s late
adverbs
well # He plays the piano well
fast
# He runs fast
early # He gets up early
*hard #He works hard hardly (вряд ли, едва ли)
*late #He comes home late lately (в последнее время)
3) Intensifiers
fairly - довольно, весьма /fair - порядочный, значительный/
absolutely— абсолютно /absolute - абсолютный/
really— действительно /real — реальный, действительный/
slightly – немного, слегка /slight - незначительный/
completely – полностью, совсем /complete - полный/
awfully - очень, ужасно /awful - ужасный/
terribly - очень, ужасно /terrible - ужасный/
# This soup is absolutely disgusting
# The book is terribly interesting
# She is a really beautiful girl
1. Write the adverbs
final sincere loud usual nice wonderful comfortable angry strong angry simple attentive
2. Make sentences with adverbs from the box
correctly slowly clearly perfectly completely
1. soup cook I
2. you the letter read
3. name your write
4. languages four speaks he
5. understand you she doesn’t
3. Choose an adjective or an adverb
1. Could I have a ……………. word with you? (quick /
quickly)
2. She walked away ………………(quick / quickly)
3. This is a ………………train. It stops everywhere. (slow /
slowly)
4. He talked very ………….. about his work. (interesting /
interestingly)
5. You’ve cooked the meat …………………… (beautifully)
6. I’ve got an ……………… job for you (easy / easily)
7. She writes in ……………………. English ( perfect /
perfectly)
8. I sing very …………… (bad / badly)
9. You seem very …………. (angry / angrily)
10. He feels very …………. (happy / happily)
11. Anne is a ………….. swimmer ( strong / strongly)
12. Could you talk more ………………, pleas? ( quiet /
quietly)
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Fun with future tenses
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References
1. Рунов, Д. Книга о грамматике английского языка. [Текст] / Д. Рунов, С-Пб. : Denis’ Shool
Production». – 1997. – 216с.
2. Дроздова Т.Ю., English Grammar: Reference & Practice [Текст] / В.Г Маилова,
С.С.Толстикова. – М. : Из-во «Химера». – 2000. – 644с.
3. Саакян А.С. Exercises in Modern English Grammar [Текст] / А.С. Саакян. – М.: Рольф, 2001.
– 448 с.
4. Христорождественская Л.П. Практический курс английского языка. Basic English in
Practice [Текст] / Л.П. Рождественская, Минск МП «Аурика», 1993 – 116с.
5. Berezina I.A. English for University students: Grammar Exercises [Текст] / О.А Березина,
Е.М.Шпилюк. – С-Пб. : Из-во «Союз». – 2002. – 248с.
6. Evans V., BlockBuster 3 [Text] / V. Evans, J. Dooley. Express Publishing. 2005. – 152 p.
7. Cunnigham S., New Cutting Edge. Pre-intermediate [Text] / S. Cunningham, P. Moor. –
Longman, 1999 - 175 p.
8. Evans V., Upstream. Pre-intermediate B1 [Text] / V. Evans, J. Dooley. Express Publishing.
2005. – 131 p.
9. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use (for intermediate students) [Text] / R.Murphy, Cambridge
University Press, 2002 - 327c .
10. Soars John and Liz. Headway Pre-Intermediate [Text] / J/ Soars, L. Soars, Offord University
Press – 168c .
11. Soars John and Liz. Headway Upper-Intermediate [Text] / J/ Soars, L. Soars, Offord University
Press – 168c .
12. Soars John and Liz. Headway Intermediate [Text] / J/ Soars, L. Soars, Offord University Press –
168c .
13. Swan M., How English Works [Text] / M. Swan. C.Walter . Oxford University Press, 1997. –
339c
14. Freebarn, I. Blueprint 2 [Text] / I.Freebarn, A.Abss, Longman. – 141c
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Учебное издание
Войткова Анастасия Николаевна
English Tenses & all that Jazz
(Part 1: all Simple & Progressive Tenses)
Учебное пособие
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