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235.There will always be nations. Part 1

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
There will always
be nations
(In The World of Linguo-Cultural
Studies & Cross-Cultural Communication)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
There will always
be nations
(In The World of Linguo-Cultural
Studies & Cross-Cultural Communication)
Второе издание переработанное и дополненное
Учебное пособие
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
В 65
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского
государственного лингвистического университета
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей
с общественностью ИГЛУ
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Войткова, А.Н.
В 65 There will always be nations ( in the world of linguo-cultural studies &
cross-cultural communication) : учеб. пособие в 3-х частях / А.Н. Войткова. –
Иркутск. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2013. – Ч.2. – 102c.
Учебное пособие содержит обширный аутентичный практический текстовой и аудиальный
материал по актуальным проблемам межкультурной коммуникации, практикуму по культуре
речевого общения и сравнительной лингвокультурологии и направлено на формирование
профессиональной дискурсивной иноязычной компетенции.
Предназначено для студентов среднего (среднепродвинутого) уровня, обучающихся в
вузах с расширенной сеткой преподавания английского языка, а также для студентов 2-4 курса
лингвистического университета неязыковой направления «Музеология и охрана объектов
культурного наследия».
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© Войткова А.Н., 2013
© Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет, 2013
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Book 1
Introduction to linguo-cultural studies
Module 1 Culture Issues
More alike than different
Cultural literacy. Tips for travelers
Greetings & saying goodbyes
Giving gifts
Ettiquette. Table manners
Living abroad. Emmigration problem
Culture shock 1. How to overcome 4 stages
Culture shock 2. Politeness issues
Module 2 There’ll always be nations
(1) Introduction to English National Character
Has Britain lost their identity?
Vocabulary. Countries
(2) National stereotypes: appearance & character
Russian national character
(3) National Heroes: Superheroes
Russia’s Symbols
Russia will get their own superhero
(4) It’s the Simpsons – the most powerful
American family!
(5) British school stereotypes
(6) The best night of their life. High School Prom
School-leaving parties in Russia
Module 3 National Holidays:
 (1) National Holidays in Great Britain
 (2) National Holidays in the USA
St Valentine’s day
 (3) National Holidays in Russia
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1. a) Introduction to
linguo-cultural studies
& cross-cultural
Module 1
"We didn't all come over on the same ship, but we're
all in the same boat."
- Bernard Baruch, American financier and statesman
b) Go to YouTube & watch the video called "Jay Walker on the
world's English mania" & discuss the ideas why people study
English in class
Jay Walker explains why two billion people around the world are trying to learn
English. He shares photos and spine-tingling audio of Chinese students rehearsing
English -- "the world's second language" -- by the thousands.
NOTE: *Jay Scott Walker is an American inventor, entrepreneur and chairman of Walker Digital, a
privately held research and development lab focused on using digital networks to create new business systems.
Walker is also curator of TEDMED since 2011
2. A) Warming-up. Discuss:
 Have you ever arrived in a country without any idea of how you should behave
there? How would you prepare before an important business trip to a country
you’ve never visited before?
 Are other cultures like yours? Why not? What makes us different?
 Can you predict what linguo-cultural studies is about? Presuppose what ideas &
issues are essential for the subject?
 Why is it called this way?
B) Below is the introductory text
to the subject you are going to
study. Get acquainted with it.
Read the text & find out the
answers to the questions above.
What are Cross-Cultural
Communication & linguocultural studies?
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At the beginning of the 21st century, cross-cultural communication is becoming
more and more important. However, the knowledge of the foreign language alone is not
enough to effectively communicate with representatives of other cultures. As we know,
one of the most significant functions of the language is the cumulative function, which
means that the language is a link connecting generations; it is the storage and a means
of transmitting the extra-linguistic collective experience, as the language not only
reflects the contemporary culture, but preserves all its previous stages.
Linguo-cultural studies, as follows from the name, is a subject that, on the one
hand, includes learning the language, and, on the other hand, gives certain knowledge
about the country of the studied language. The main objective of linguo-cultural
studies is to provide communicative competence for cross-cultural communication. The
main task of the subject is to study those units of the language and extra-linguistic
phenomena which most vividly reflect the national peculiarities of the foreign culture
through the studies of a country. That is, our main task is to obtain background
knowledge necessary for successful cross-cultural communication. Here belong:
 historical and cultural background, which includes not only knowledge of
history, but also knowledge of culture of the language community in the process
of its historical development;
 socio-cultural background – peculiarities of communication within the society,
social behaviour, social values, conversation formulae, non-verbal
 ethno-cultural background, which includes information about the way of life,
traditions, holidays, etc;
 semiotic background, which contains information on symbols, connotations,
realia and other language units
bearing specific national colouring.
The phrase cross-cultural
communication describes the ability to
successfully form, foster, and improve
relationships with members of a culture
different from one's own. It is based on
knowledge of many factors, such as the
other culture's values, perceptions, manners,
social structure, and decision-making
practices, and an understanding of how
members of the group communicate-verbally, non-verbally, in person, in writing,
and in various business
Like speaking a foreign language or
riding a bicycle, cross-cultural
communication involves a skill component that may best be learned and mastered
through instruction and practice: simply reading about it is not enough.
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C) Talking point. Know before you go!
 Is there any difference among Cross-Cultural Communication, Linguo-cultural
studies & Country-specific studies?
 Do you know much about the culture of your nation? What do you appreciate in
your own culture? Can you explain some peculiarities of your own country to
 What do people from all over the world think of your nation? What is the
 Have you ever felt confused by the behavior of someone from another culture?
 What are the topics to discuss associated with ‘culture’ & ways to understand it?
 If you could change one thing about your culture, what would it be?
D) Speculate on the following & then put your ideas in writing:
Why are cross-cultural issues essential nowadays? Why is it so
crucially important not only speak foreign languages but also to be
knowledgeable about cultural issues?
3. A) Discuss:
 What do you think are the basic terms of cross-cultural
communication or - studies & why? Try to give your
understanding of them?
B) Consult the monolingual dictionaries about the terms below.
Write out the definitions. Select the ones that seem best to you.
Explain your choice:
C) Read paragraphs 3-5 from Introductory Part
"Burning issues of Intercultural communication"
“Актуальные проблемы межкультурной
коммуникации’’ in the textbook by S. TerMinasova (p.18-36). Jot down the main issues &
deliver the ideas to the class.
Paragraph 3
 What example of culture conflicts were you amused by?
 How did the Romans & Russians call foreigners & why?
 What is the origin of the words: foreign & иностранный?
 Why couldn’t Italians make their adopted child go to bed & fall asleep?
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Why didn't the advisement ‘Malboro’ work in Latin America?
Why did students from Thailand stop attending the classes of a Russian teacher?
What incident occurred with Russian students in the USA? What was the culture conflict like?
What educational ideas doesn’t work in Russia?
 What did a German business lady say about doing business in Russia? (2 aphorisms)
Paragraph 4
 How have the motifs of studying a foreign language changed nowadays? & why?
 What are the components of the term “culture”?
 What is the ‘national world picture’?
 How do the subjects (Cross Cultural Communication \ Country studies\ Linguo-cultural
studies) correlate with one another?
Paragraph 5
What is the main role of comparing two cultures when studying a foreign language?
Module 1
Part 1
1. a) The text below is taken from the textbook edited in 1980. It
compares the relationships between the USA & the Soviet Union.
Read it without dictionary & do the vocabulary exercises below the
More Alike Than Different
Taken from “Even more true stories. An intermediate reader” by
Sandra Heyer.
b) Vocabulary.
1. Read the following sentences. Then complete the
statements. Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Everyone listened attentively as the woman spoke. a. carefully b. nervously.
2. "Don't make a circle with your thumb and first finger” the woman said. 'That's an
obscene gesture in the Soviet Union." The audience of 300 Americans chuckled.
 An obscene gesture is a) not polite b) polite
 An audience – a) listens or watches. b) sings, dances, or speaks
To chuckle is to a) sing loudly. B) laugh quietly.
3. "It's all right to admire something," the woman said, "but don't be too enthusiastic.
Don't say, 'I really like your tablecloth.' Your Soviet friend will offer you the
tablecloth and will be offended if you don't take it."
 If you admire something, you a) don't like it b) like it.
 If you are enthusiastic, you are a) interested and excited b) bored & tired.
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 People who are offended are a) a little angry because their feelings are hurt b) a
little nervous because they don’t know what to do.
4. The Soviets knew that Americans were fond оf pets. a) don't like pets. b) like pets.
5. A Soviet woman gasped when she saw an American pour rice directly from a box
into a pan of boiling water. "You didn't wash the rice?" she asked.
People gasp when they are a) tired b) surprised.
6. The Soviets knew that Americans liked to eat fast food in restaurants, but they
were disappointed to see that Americans ate fast meals at home, too. People who are
disappointed are a) not happy b) happy.
7. An 11-year-old girl wrote, "I learned to adapt to a new culture. And I learned that
people all over the world are more alike than they are different."
People who adapt a) don't change b) change.
"Alike" means a) the same
b) strange.
2. a) Read the sentences. Then write the correct word on the
1. Last year I went to a beach hotel for my vacation. I thought I would have a
wonderful time, but I had a terrible time. It rained every day, and the people at the
hotel weren't friendly. I was ………………….
2. My friend loves classical music. I had two tickets for a classical music concert, so
I asked her if she wanted to go with me. "Yes!" she answered. 'That concert will be
great!" She was………………. about the concert.
3. I have a sister who is one year older than I am. My sister is a good student, and I am,
too. My sister likes to sew, and I do, too. My sister has a cat, and I do, too. My friends
tell me, "You and your sister are so much ……………….."
b) Now make your own examples for the new words:
fond of
attentively chuckle obscene admire audience
First, form small groups. One student in each group is the "teacher." The
"teacher" will write each word on a separate small piece of paper, fold the papers,
and give one to each person in the group. The "teacher" will take a word, too. Hold
your paper so that no one can see your word. Make up a little story for your word
like the ones above. (Be careful not to say your word.) Your classmates will listen to
your story and try to guess which word you have. Then listen to your classmates'
stories and try to guess which words they have.
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C) Talking topic: Know before you go!
Discuss the ideas in the text.
1. Read the text again & discuss the ways that make us different
from each other.
 What facts were you surprised by?
2. Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. "More Alike Than Different" is about
a. the language, customs, and food in the Soviet Union.
b. U.S.-Soviet exchange of people that was organized by The Friendship Force.
c. communicating through sign language and dictionaries.
2. The Friendship Force is
a. an international organization that promotes world peace.
b. an organization that prepares Americans for visiting the Soviet Union.
c. an international organization of children who visit other countries.
The Friendship Force believes that
a. people who live in the Soviet Union do not have comfortable lives.
b. people who are friends will not
c. fight wars.
d. people who do not speak English will experience culture shock in the United
To help people become friends. The Friendship Force
a. sends language teachers all over the world.
b. mails letters all over the world.
c. organizes exchanges of people.
The Americans prepared for their visit by
a. experiencing culture shock.
b. writing essays.
c. learning about Soviet life.
The Soviets who visited the United States were shocked to see
a. Americans eating rice.
b. pets in people's homes.
c. fast-food restaurants.
Although their languages and cultures were different, the Soviets and the
a. ate the same food.
b. became friends.
c. had the same everyday lives.
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3. Find the best way to complete each sentence. Write the
letter of your answer on the line. 1.
1. "It's all right to admire something, but
don't be too enthusiastic. For example,
2. The Friendship Force organizes
exchanges of people. For example,
3. The Soviets were shocked to see
pets inside homes. For example,
4. The Soviets said that the Americans'
lives were much easier than theirs. For
5. In spite of their differences in
language and culture, the Soviets and
Americans became friends. For example.
a. they couldn't believe their eyes when
they saw dogs eating in the kitchen.
b. the two women in the picture became
friends, even though the Soviet woman
couldn't speak English and the American
woman couldn't speak Russian.
c. don't say, 'I really like your
d. Soviets have to wash their rice
carefully, but Americans don't.
e. in 1990 The Friendship Force sent
300 Americans to the Soviet Union and
300 Soviets to the United States.
4. Imagine that The Friendship Force is sending a group of
people to your native country. What might surprise the
visitors? Prepare the visitors so that they don't experience
culture shock. Here is what one student wrote.
Be careful when you shop in Syria. The prices you see in the store windows are sometimes not the
actual prices. For example you might see a pair of shoes in a store window. Next to the shoes is the
price. But when you go into the store, you find out that the real price of the shoes is more than the
price in the window. So Syrians don’t always believe the prices in the store windows. If people from
other countries believe those prices, they will have a bad surprise.
Now write about your native country. Prepare visitors so
that they don't experience culture shock.
Exercises taken from “Even more true stories. An
intermediate reader” by Sandra Heyer.
Module 1
Part 2
Tips for travelers
1. a) Look at the cartoon
aside & comment it on.
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 What is cultural literacy?
b) Read the text
Some tips for travelers
When in Rome …Traveling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We
live in a global village, but how well we know each other? Read the information how
not to behave badly abroad
Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o’clock. What time should you
expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they’re German they will be in
time. If they’re American, they will probably will be 15 minutes early. If they’re
British, they will be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for Italians.
When the European Community began to increase, several books appeared
giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought it was a joke, but
very soon they had to realize that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their
foreign business friends.
For example:
 The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with
a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is
time to relax and to know each other; besides, they rarely drink at lunch time.
 The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and
to eat afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss
 Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to
work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people don’t regard it easy.
 American executives sometimes signal the feelings of ease and importance of
their offices by putting the feet on the desk whilst on the phone. In Japan, people
will be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is
a social insult only if you blow your nose in public.
The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behavior.
Seniority is very important and a younger man should never be sent to complete a
business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a
rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting
because it is essential to establish everyone’s status and position.
When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and
received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it
in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should
not expect the Japanese shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first
bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter.
Module 1
Part 3
3. Greetings & Saying Goodbyes
Here are some tips for travelers:
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In France you shouldn’t sit down in a café until you’ve shaken hands with
everyone you know.
In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.
In the Middle East you must never use your left hand to greeting, eating, drinking
or smoking.
In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your
eyes when you great someone.
1. a) Discuss the questions with your partner:
 Do you know that people greet each other in a different way?
 Which method is closest to the way you greet people in Russia?
 How much difference is there between formal and informal greetings and
introductions in Russia?
 Is there much difference between the way people from different countries greet
each other?
 English uses you when addressing people both in formal and informal situations.
Do we do the same in Russian?
Listening 1
B) Discuss:
Do you know what the wai is? Sawatdee-Kaa? Listen to the
conversation at a business meeting & try to figure out what the
proper names in the box below are &the wai & Sawatdee-Kaa.
Teresa Segovia
Chile Santiago
learn the wai Sawatdee-Kaa
Thai Sawatdee-Khrab Terri
Surat Leekpai
c) Listen again & say the proverb they mention in the
conversation. Comment it on.
d) Listen again & write the dialogue down & than act it out in
Taken from Top Notch 3 by Joan Sasloy
2. “Greeting in the USA” Listening 2.
a) Listen to the text “Greeting in the USA” & retell it in class.
Taken from Top Notch 3 by Joan Sasloy
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b) Listen again & find the English equivalents in the text to the
following Russian phrases. Make up sentences with the
Это нормально…
Обращаться к кому-либо по имени
Когда сомневаетесь
Не делайте вывод, что……….
В целом, все американцы…
Знать друг друга хорошо ….
Личное пространство
Нарушать личное пространство
Final task
c) Talking point: Know before you go!
Discuss the questions below in pairs & make notes about what
visitors to your country should know
 How do you greet each other when they meet for the first time?
 Are greeting customs different for men & women?
 When & how do you address people formally?
3. a) Watch the video file "Gestures around the world" & tell the
difference how people сan take the same gestures all over the
b) Watch it again & find some English equivalents for the
Russian phrases
ты никчемный
по часовой
жест "рога"
хороший вариант
трясти (кивать (головой) воняет
4. Read paragraphs 2 from Part 1 Chapter 1 "Burning issues of
Intercultural communication" (“Актуальные проблемы
межкультурной коммуникации’’) in the textbook by S. TerMinasova (p.52-75). Jot down the main issues & deliver the
ideas to the class. Get ready to discuss these questions:
§2. Hidden difficulties of producing (=making up)
sentences when speaking a foreign language
1. What are the hidden difficulties of making up a collocation
(=phrase) in English while communicating?
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2. When do you realize it as a problem? What is the way out?
3. Illustrate the issue with analysis of your own examples. Comment on the literal
translation of the collocation 'international furniture'. Discuss another examples
that you may have (may already have had ) here
4. What is the conflict between the way what other cultures (=nations) think of the
reality around them? (#green eyes, black cat, happiness, etc) Demonstrate it with
the example of your own
5. Sum it up, is why language equivalency a myth?
Module 1
Part 4
4. Giving Gifts.
a) The choice of a gift can cause embarrassment or
trouble for the giver if the country's customs and traditions are
not understood. Read and discuss the case below.
*Encounter – (n) an unexpected or casual meeting with someone or something
(v) unexpectedly experience or be faced with (something difficult or hostile) # We have encountered one
small problem
Bouchaib Alsadoun, a Saudi businessman,
invited Johann W. a German businessman, to dinner
at his house. Johann entered the elegant house and
offered his gift of a bottle of Scotch whisky and a box
of butter cookies to his host. Bouchaib was
embarrassed by the gifts and quickly put them away.
Then they sat down in the living room area.
Bouchaib offered Johann a cup of coffee, which he
quickly accepted. Bouchaib thought his guest was a
bit rude. As they drank coffee Johann
complimented Bouchaib on an art book on the living room table. The Saudi
businessman responded by offering him the book. Johann, embarrassed, said, «No,
thank you! It is very kind of you, but I can't accept it!». Bouchaib was offended by
his guest's behaviour. Although Johann sensed this, he couldn't imagine how he had
offended Bouchaib.
Can you guess what really happened?
Answer the questions:
 What are three actions offended Bouchaib? Why?
 What can Johann do now that he has offended his host?
 Can a misunderstanding like this one really affect the
business relationship? If so, how?
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b) After you've discussed the case, read this explanation.
Three of Johann's actions offended Bouchaib. First of all, Johann brought a bottle of
Scotch and cookies.
According to Muslim religion, Bouchaib must not drink alcohol. Also, in Persian
Gulf states, bringing a gift of food and drink implies the host isn't generous enough to
offer his own food and drink.
Second, in Saudi Arabia it is customary to refuse an offer a few times before
accepting. Johann seemed greedy to accept the offer of coffee so quickly.
Finally, Johann refused Bouchaib's gift of the book.
In Bouchaib's eyes, by refusing his gift, Johann was refusing his offer of
Discuss gift giving in different cultures.
1. What conclusion can you make from the situation described in the above story?
2. What do you know about giving flowers as a gift in different countries?
3. Do you prefer to be given gifts or to give gifts yourself?
4. On what occasions do people in your country give gifts to business colleagues?
c) Vocabulary. Read the text again & Find the following English
equivalents. Make up sentences with them.
так мило с вашей стороны…
пригласить кого-то куда-то
он смутился
принял (предложение о кофе)
сделал комплимент
ответил на
7. обиделся
8. почувствовал что
9. подразумевает
12.отказаться от
2. Read Some Other Tips on How to Avoid Pitfalls in Gift-Giving
Abroad. Were you surprised by some tips?
 Don't rely on your own taste.
 Don't bring a gift to an Arab man's wife; in fact, don't ask about her at all.
Bringing gifts for the children is, however, acceptable.
 In Arab countries, don't admire an object openly. The owner may feel
obligated to give it to you.
 Do not bring drinks to an Arab home. For many Arabs, alcohol is forbidden by
religious law.
 Don't try to outgive the Japanese. It causes great embarrassment and obligates
them to reciprocate even if they cannot afford it.
 Do not insist that your Japanese counterpart open the gift in your presence.
This is not their custom and can easily cause embarrassment on the part of the
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As a courtesy, hold your gift with two hands when presenting it to a Japanese
business person, but do not make a big thing of the presentation.
Be careful when selecting colours or deciding on the number of items.
The colour purple is inappropriate in Latin America.
Avoid giving knives and handkerchiefs in Latin America. Knives suggest the
cutting off of the relationship, and handkerchiefs imply that you wish the
recipient hardship. To offset the bad luck, the recipient must offer you money.
In Germany, red roses imply that you are in love with the recipient. Moreover,
perfume is too personal a gift for business relationships.
In China, expensive presents are not acceptable and cause great
embarrassment. Give a collective gift from your company to theirs.
In China, a banquet is acceptable, but you will insult your hosts if you give a more
lavish banquet than the one given you.
A clock is a symbol of bad luck in China.
3. Talking topic: Know before you go!
 What is a customary gift if you are visiting someone’s home?
 Are there gift taboos (kinds of flowers, etc)?
 What kind of gifts might people expect from colleagues? (liquor, plants, pens,
compact disks, books, gift certificates or other? Would expensive gifts be
 How should a person respond when given a gift? Should the person open the gift
in front of the giver or wait to open the gift when alone?
4. Writing. Make up a memo: Gift-giving peculiarities in Russia
5. Read paragraphs 2-6 from Part 1 chapter 1 "Burning
issues of Intercultural communication" (“Актуальные
проблемы межкультурной коммуникации’’) in the
textbook by S. Ter-Minasova (p.52-75). Jot down the
main issues & deliver the ideas to the class. Get ready
to discuss these questions:
§3. A Foreign language is a culture crossing (p.55-60)
1. What did Elena Safonova say about her ideas that come to her mind when she
says the word 'table'? What linguistic phenomenon does this example illustrate?
(word --> object --> concept --> are the same in different cultures)
2. Comment on the social cultural difference of the words (1) 'house/ home' &
'дом'; 'day/ night vs morning/evening'; 'breakfast/lunch/ dinner/supper';
'бабушка' (+косынка) / 'grandmother' ; 'час' / 'hour'?
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§4. Culture conflicts when you fulfill an application form
3. Where is the culture conflict when you fill in an application form?
5. Etiquette & Table manners.
Module 1
Being culturally literate
Part 5 (1)
Listening 3
1. a) Manners & etiquette. Vocabulary. Listen to the words,
write them down try to explain their meanings in writing.
b) Make up sentences of your own with the words
c) What are some good ways to teach children etiquette? Give
specific example, using words from the vocabulary
Taken from Top Notch 3 by Joan Sasloy
2. a) Discuss the questionnaire about etiquette
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Before the discussion study the grammar focus on obligation &
prohibition. Get familiar with grammar patterns below:
Do we have to stay to the end?
I think we should take some flowers
You are (not) expected to make a speech
You are (not) supposed to look happy
You mustn't / shouldn't talk loudly in
About Clothing
1. Do men have to wear jackets & ties in restaurants?
2. Are men & women allowed to wear shorts to work in office in summer?
3. Are there any special rules about what you have to wear in holy places?
About money
4. Is it rude to ask people how much money they earn?
5. Is a woman expected to pay her share of the bill in a restaurant?
About hospitality
6. Should you take a present when you are invited to somebody's home?
7. Is it rude to smoke without asking in other people's home?
8. Is it impolite to smoke between courses?
About tipping
9. How much should you tip a taxi driver?
10.Is it the same in a restaurant & at the hairdresser's?
Listening 4
b) Listen to three calls from a radio show. Then look at the
chart & listen again to each call. Check the subject that were
What subject were
Arturo & Jettrin
Hiroko & Nadia
Javier & Sujeet
Table manners
Dress & clothes
Male & female
Offensive behavior
Taken from Top Notch 3 by Joan Sasloy
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c) In small groups, summarize the information from each of the
calls on the radio show. Listen again if necessary.
d) Talking topic: Know before you go!
 What are some taboo conversation topics in your country?
 What are the customs about punctuality?
Listening 5.
3. a) Listen to the file “Dress code”. Write down as much a s you
Taken from Top Notch 3 by Joan Sasloy
b) Talking topic: Know before you go!
 Are there some situations & places where you should dress
Module 1
Part 5 (2)
Table manners
4. Warm-up
a) Discuss how much you know about table manners?
Watch the video file made for American children to teach them
good table manners. fill in the summary of the file
The summary of the rues mentioned in the Crawford's corner
1. Wash your hand & sit down at a table
2. ............ up .......................
3. ............ your elbows ............ the table
4. Wait until everyone is .....................
5. .................. your napkin in your ................ to wipe your mouth
6. ...................... a sip of the soup (- notice how i didn't slurp! -Good for you)
7. Ask politely if you need / want something that is far from you (# Could you
please pass me the pretzels)
8. Don't ............across the table 'cause you might knock something over
9. You have to wait to say something You talk with my mouth................ & chew
with my mouth ..............
10.Try a ....................... of carrots & dip
11.When you are ............... eating you can be ........................
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b) Read about Table manners in BRITAIN
Although rules regarding table manners are
not very strict in Britain , it is considered rude
to eat & drink noisily.. at formal meals , the
cutlery is placed in the order in which it will
be used, starting from the outside & working
in. The dessert spoon & fork are usually laid
at the top of your place setting , not at the
After each course , the knife & fork should
are usually laid side by side in the middle of the plate. this shows that you have
finished & the plate can be removed. if you leave the knife & fork apart , it will
show that you haven't yet finished eating.
It is considered impolite to smoke between courses unless your hosts say
otherwise. It is polite to ask permission before you smoke in other people's home.
In Britain, is now forbidden in many public places, e.g. on the underground, on
stations, in shops, in theatres & in cinemas
c) Watch video file 'How to Have Top-Notch Table Manners' &
fill in the chart
The Rule
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 6
Step 7
d) Talking point. Discuss which of the following habits you
consider rude & why. Which of them, if any, do you consider
acceptable only at home & which do you consider completely
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helping yourself to food without asking - reaching across the table in front of
staring to eat before everyone is served
picking at food with your hands
- leaving the table before other people
reading at the meal table
have finished
testing your elbows on the table
- not thanking the cook
- wiping your plate clean with dread
Thinks about other habits that are not mentioned in the list
f) Discuss:
 What are some do’s & don’t for table manners in your
 Are certain foods & beverages taboo?
Listening 6.1
5. Listen to an American explaining American etiquette on
table manners & answer the following questions
What is a man supposed to do before sitting down at the dinner table ?
In which hand do Americans hold their fork?
When do they use their knife?
Where do they place the knife afterwards?
6. Listening 6.2
Table manners in the USA. Listen to the text & write down as
much as you can
7. Role - play. You are on a trip to Britain (the USA) / Russia) & you have been
invited to dinner to a British (American / Russian ) family. In pairs or groups, act out
the conversation when ask your friend what you are supposed to do. Ask about
clothes, forms of address, times to arrive & leave, gifts to take & how to thank your
8. Writing. Look at the example below, then write a few
paragraphs about etiquette for visitors to your country ( or
other country). Give helpful advice about things like table
manners, hospitality & tipping
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At mealtimes in SWEDEN we don't use side plates for bread. You are supposed to put
your bread on the table beside your plate. After meal you are expected to thank the
person who prepared it, even f it is your mother or father.
Text & Exercises Taken from Blueprint Intermediate by Brian Abss
9. Read paragraphs 6 from Part 1 Chapter 1 "Burning issues of
Intercultural communication" (“Актуальные проблемы
межкультурной коммуникации’’) in the textbook by S. Ter-Minasova
(p.69-75). Jot down the main issues & deliver the ideas to the class.
Get ready to discuss these questions:
§ 6. Lexical specification of concepts (p.69-75)
1. What is the way the English people comment on the food they eat?
2. What is the lexical specification of the concepts 'healthy /ill'; 'rich/poor'?
Module 1
Part 6
6. Living abroad. Emigration problem
 What do you think of when you hear
the word ‘immigrant’?
1. In this exercise you are going to hear a number of
people who have left their native countries to live abroad.
They are talking about their experiences.
A) In groups list the various reasons that people may have for
going to live in a different country. What problems are they
likely to come across?
B) Here are some questions that you could ask someone who
has left his or her country to live in a foreign country
Why did you live your country?
How long have you been living in your new home?
What is similar & what is different to your native home?
What do you like & dislike about your new home?
Can you think of two or three more questions? What sort of
answers would you expect? Write a few words in answer to
each question.
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C) Listen to two interviews with people who live away from
their native homes. Where do they come from & where do they
love now? Which question from the previous exercise do the
two people answer? For each
speaker, write down the number of
the questions in the order in which
they answer.
To be off the beaten track / trekking / blunt
Freelance / appalling / incentive / bureaucracy
/ air pollution / drole
D) Listen again & answer the
questions from the exercise under
Text & Exercises Taken from Blueprint Intermediate by Brian Abss
2. Imagine you are going to live in NY with your partner,
discuss what differences there are likely to be from life in
your country. What are advantages &
disadvantages are likely to be?
3. Talking point: Know before you go!
Discussing Emigration problem. Why do
people emigrate? Do people emigrate to
your country? What countries do people
usually emigrate?
a) Think of a foreign country you would like to emigrate (which
interests or appeals to you). Imagine you are going to live there.
Work in small groups & discuss the questions below.
What major differences in lifestyle you are likely to find?
What do you think you would find the most difficult to adapt to?
What do you think you would miss most about home?
What do you think you would most appreciate about your new home?
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- Is there another country where you would like to
- Do you think you will ever live abroad/
- What countries have a lifestyle you would find it
difficult to adapt to?
b) What impressions do you think visitors
have when they first come to your
country? Make a list. Are you proud of or
do you feel ashamed the general
impression that visitors might have?
5. Social ease.
Role play the situation
John, recently assigned to an American company in Indonesia, was pleased to
have been invited to a birthday party in honour of one of his Indonesian colleague’s
When he arrived at the party he found many new things to experience. The food
was different, the drinks tasted strange and even the birthday greeting was done in a
way he was not accustomed to. He was aware that he was the only one dressed in
typically Western clothes. He didn’t
seem to know how to act
appropriately. John began more and
more uneasy as the night progressed.
Deciding that perhaps some
food would help to relax him John
approached the food table and began
to help himself. Upon leaving the
table, he inadvertently tripped and
spilled his drink on the floor. One of
the women nearby began to clean up
the drink and everyone else in the
room began laughing. John, uncertain
of what to do next, quietly moved out of the way and kept to himself for the remainder
of the evening.
 What is a good explanation of the reaction to the spilled
Final talk over culture issue
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Listening 7
1. a) Can you think of an example of how etiquette & culture
change over time?
b) Listen to the file “Japanese workers get word from on high:
drop formality”
 Is Japanese culture more or less formal that it was in the
c) While listening answer the question:
 What are some recent changes in the social use of th3e
Japanese language?
 How has Japanese business culture changed?
d) what do you think could be
some positive & negative
results of the changes
described in the text above
taken from Top Notch 3 by Joan Sasloy
Module 1
Part 7
a) Warm-up. The text you are going to read is about surviving culture shock when
you are in a foreign country.
 Have you ever lived for a long time in foreign country?
 What did you find that was very
strange to you ?
 How did you survive in the
foreign culture? If you haven't,
what problems do you think you
might have?
b1) Read the text 'Culture
shock' fulfill the tasks
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'Culture shock'
My own experiment with culture shock came to an abortive end when I returned
prematurely and gravely homesick from a year’s study in Italy. I had never heard of
cultural shock. All I knew was that I was unhappy and wanted to go home.
That was twenty years ago, and since then culture shock has become a bona fide
[bounэ faidi] field of study. It is now understood that any normal person, finding him
or herself for an extended time in a new culture, is in for trouble.
After all, our ideas on how to behave were formed in our early years. Nobody
explained that we were learning standards applicable only in our own culture, that
across the border things were done differently. We were taught that we were learning
how to do thing right. Consequently, when we turn up in a foreign land, the ways of
others look simply wrong.
Left and right, people are behaving in ways you find unpredictable. Something
seems terribly wrong, but you don’t know what it is. Like me, you may just want to go
b2) The writer describes four stages of culture shock using
these headings:
All at sea
The honeymoon
In what order do you expect to find them in the passage? What do you expect the
writer to say about each stage?
b3) Read the passages and match the headings with the
The process of “culture shock” is now recognized as so predictable that its four
stages have been codified. The first is the honeymoon stage, familiar to those of us
who love to travel, but never stay in one place long enough to find out what follows.
In the honeymoon stage, the new country and its people seem delightful. Better than
home. Everything is so different and charming, the people so nice, the customs so
Then the bloom comes off the rose. Now the people start to look shallow, selfish,
stupid. The different ways of doing things don’t seem interesting any more – just
wearing. You start to feel tired all the time. Culture shock has set in. You feel the sea.
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This response, stage two, could not be more natural. You are surrounded by
people who grew up absorbing this culture, and you don’t know how to do simple
things. Even if you speak the language, you simply cannot understand the way people
behave. You have lost a part of your identity, that self who back at home was
confident and masterly.
The emotional response to culture shock can be extreme. Confusion, depression,
anxiety, and resentment can all enter to varying degrees. You may become physically
ill. Little things seem terribly annoying. A perceived insult reduces you to tears.
At this point, many foreigners are tempted to retreat to an enclave of foreigners.
They can be a great comfort, but also a danger.
If your fellow émigrés steadily reinforce your negative feelings about Americans,
you may move into a sub-community of foreigners, and Americans will remain everstrange to you. The shock may wear off, but you are still uncomfortable and
The happier resolution is to move on to stage three. The old hands among your
countrymen reassure you that they once felt as you do now. Rather than itemizing
what’s “wrong” with Americans, you remind yourself that “right” and “wrong” are
not meaningful terms in cultural matters.
Instead, you try to understand what motivates Americans, perhaps realizing that
many of the things you don’t like are related to the things you do like (such as weak
family ties and freedom; the fast pace and opportunity).
If you try to keep an open mind, take time to learn about America, and mix with
Americans, your prognosis good. It’s important at this stage not to stay at home and
mope but to get out and find things you like to do. And keep on studying the
When six months or a year of arrival – longer for some people – you should be
moving into stage four which is acceptance. As this point, you simply don’t think any
more about the peculiarities of Americans. You accept them as individuals.
You have started to feel at home; you know how to do things. You have not rejected
your old culture; but the American ways have settled upon you. You feel optimistic
about future here. You should. You have truly arrived.
Esther Wanning
c) Exercises to think about.
 Who do you think the passage was written for?
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foreigners coming to the USA for a short visit
foreigners coming to the USA for a long stay
Americans going abroad for a short visit
Americans going abroad for a long stay
What nationality is the writer?
 Look at these sentences which are taken from the
passage. Do they describe an effect of culture shock or
advice on how to avoid it?
‘Something seems terribly wrong, but you don’t know what it is’.
‘Everything is so different and charming, the people so nice, the customs so
‘Little things seem terribly annoying’.
‘…you remind yourself that “right” and “wrong” are not meaningful terms in
cultural matters’.
‘It’s important at this stage not to say at home and mope but to get out and find
things you like to do’.
 Answer the questions about these words or
1. «…culture shock has become a bona fide field of study» Does this mean it is
now an acceptable or unacceptable field of study?
2. «Then the bloom comes off the rose» Does this mean that the foreign country
appears as delightful as it did in the honeymoon stage or does it appear less
3. «You feel at sea» Is this likely to mean that you fell comfortable or confused?
4. «The old hands among your countrymen…» Are these people who,ve been in
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America a long time or who have only just arrived?
5. «It's important at this stage not to stay at home and mope…» Does mope mean
something like be depressed or be happy?
 Comment on the cartoon above.
Does it seem funny to you? Does it carry any message?
d) Writing. Find evidence for these statements in the
passage. Where there is no evidence, decide what the
passage really says.
1. Culture shock didn’t use to be identified as a problem.
2. There is a right and wrong way to do things.
3. At first a foreign country may appear better than your own.
4. After a while in a foreign culture you may lose confidence.
5. Weak family ties and fast pace may appear as positive aspects, and freedom
and opportunity may appear as negative aspects.
6. Learning English will help you get over culture shock.
7. The writer got over her culture shock very quickly.
e) Talking point. Know before you go!
 What do you or would you do to avoid culture shock
during a long stay in a foreign country?
 Which aspects of life in your country do you think might
seem strange or unusual to a first-time foreigner(
visitor)? In what way do foreigners experience culture
shock when arriving in your country?
 Which nationalities do you think would find your
country most difficult? Which would find it similar?
Daily routine
Attitude to work
Leisure activities
Natural features
Modes of transport
Daily routine
Text & exercises taken from CAE. Reading Skills by Diane Pye
Listening 2.2.1
2. a) Listen to Klaudio ( a German) talking
about the way he experienced culture
shock in Irkutsk.
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 Note down what he finds strange living here in Russia
b) Talking point.
 Do you find the things Klaudio paid attention to natural
for your country? Why are all those things invisible for
3. Culture shock (2) POLITENESS ISSUES
a) Look at the postcard. What does it say about the English?
b) Read Culture shock and tick (V) the sentence which says
what the article is about.
□The English have very good manners.
□The English and Russian idea of good manners is
□The English are polite but insincere.
□ The Russians are very rude and unfriendly.
Culture shock
Good manners are always good manners. That’s
what Miranda Ingram, who is English, thought, until
she married Alexander, who is Russian.
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"When I first met Alexander and he said to me, in Russian, 'Nalei mnye chai
- pour me some tea', I got angry and answered, 'Pour it yourself. Translated into
English, without a 'Could you...?' and a 'please', it sounded really rude to me. But
in Russian it was fine - you don't have to add any polite words.
However, when I took Alexander home to meet my parents in the UK, I had
to give him an intensive course in pleases and thank yous (which he thought were
completely unnecessary), and to teach him to say sorry even if someone else
stepped on his toe, and to smile, smile, smile.
Another thing that Alexander just couldn't understand was why people said
things like, ‘Would you mind passing me the salt, please? He said, 'If it is only the
salt, for goodness sake! What do you say in English if you want a real favour?'
He also watched in amazement when, at a dinner party in England, we
swallowed some really disgusting food and said, 'Mmm...delicious', in Russia,
people are much more direct. The first time Alexander's mother came to our house
for dinner in Moscow, she told me that my ---soup needed more flavouring.
Afterwards When we argued about it my husband said 'Do you prefer your dinner
guests to lie?'
Alexahder complained that in England he felt 'like the village idiot because
in Russia if you smile all the time people think that you are mad. In fact, that is
exactly what my husband's friends thought of me the first time I went to Russia
because I smiled at everyone, and translated every 'please' and*’thank you' from
English into Russian!
At home we now have an agreement If we're speaking Russian, he can say
“Pour me some tea”, and just make a noise like a grunt when I give it to him. But
when we're speaking English, he has to add a 'please and 'thank you' and a smile.
c) Read the article again and mark the sentences T (true ) or
F (false).
Correct the wrong sentences.
1. Miranda got angry because her husband asked her to make the tea.
2. Miranda had to teach him to say sorry when something wasn't his fault.
3. Her husband thinks English people are too polite.
4. Alexander wasn't surprised when people said they liked the food at the
dinner party.
5. The food was delicious.
6. Miranda didn't mind when her mother-in-law criticised her cooking.
7. Alexander thought his mother was right.
8. In Russia it isn't normal to smile all the time when you speak to someone.
9. His Russian friends thought Miranda was very friendly because she smiled a
Alexander never says thank you for his tea when he and Miranda are
speaking in Russian.
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d) Now cover the text. Can you complete the phrases with
the missing verb?
1 ________on someone's foot or(by accident)
2________some wine into a glass or tea into a cup
3________a noise, like a grunt
4________food (so that it got your mouth to your stomach)
e) Are people in your country more like Miranda or
4. Listening 2.2.2
a) Listen to four people who have lived in England answering
the question Are English people too polite?' Do they answer
yes or no? If yes, what do they think the English should do?
1 Laszlo, an English teacher from Hungary
2 Paula, a businesswoman from Argentina Yes/ No___________
3 Melik, an economist from Turkey
Yes / No___________
4 Renata, a student from Germany
b) Listen again and answer the questions
1. Why were Laszlo and his friends in London?
2. Did he and his friends think they were going to pass or fail? Why?
3. What happened in the end?
4. What do Latin people think when English people are polite?
5. How does Paula describe Latin people?
6. What does Melik think about the English people he has met in his job?
7. What kind of English people does he say aren't polite?
8. What happened to Renata when she was in London?,
9. What did she say to the last person? Why?
c) Talking point. Look at the five situations. In groups,
Do people do these things in your country?
Do you think it's good or bad manners to do these things, or doesn't it matter?
In my country, we don't kiss people when we meet them for the first time.
Good manners? Bad manners? Does it matter?
Greeting people
 kiss people on both cheeks when
you meet them for the first time
Visiting people
 take a present if you're invited to
dinner at someone's house
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 call older people by their first
 use more formal language when
speaking to an older person
In a restaurant
• let your children run around arid be
• be very affectionate to your partner
• talk on your mobile
 arrive more than 10 minutes late for a
lunch or dinner
 smoke in a house where the owners
don't smoke
Men and women - a man's role
 pay for a woman on the first date
 wait for a woman to go through the
door first
 make sure a woman gets home safely
at high
Driving a car
 always stop at a pedestrian crossing
 hoot at someone who's driving slowly
 drive with the window down and your music playing
Text & exercises taken from New English File. Intermidiate by Cline Oxeden
5. Listening 2.2.3 The friendliness on the London tube
Listen to the file & say why people don’t talk to each
other when they on the tube
The London Underground - also fondly known as 'the tube' - isn't really a place
where you meet new friends and interesting people. Of course, thousands of
interesting people travel on the tube every day, but as strangers don't speak to
each other on the tube, it's highly unlikely that we'll ever meet them. So why
aren't people friendly on the tube? We went out to a nearby tube station to get
some answers.
Before you listen to the programme, have a look at these
comprehension questions. You'll hear the answers during
the programme.
1: What do passengers often do to help pass their time on the tube?
2: Why is it difficult to hear and be heard on the tube?
3: What type of person is 'a weirdo'?
4: What did Steve offer the other passengers on his tube train?
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6. Listening 2.2.4 ‘The things I miss from home’. Listen to
the file & say what are things that make the person miss
from home.
b) Make a speech: When you are far away from home what
thing you are missing?
7. Below is the letter written by an American who lived in
Irkutsk for more than half a year & Express your attitude to
the things he is describing in his letter.
Text 1
a) Warm-up. John is going to write about his impressions of
living in Irkutsk region. He will write the following
categories below.
 Can you presuppose what he might think of these?
Cars Owning land
Russian Women
Turgovii Komplex Central Market
b) Read the text & answer the questions:
Irkutsk, Siberia, Russian Federation
6 September 2005
Part 1 Cars & land ownership
Vocabulary. Match the parts of the collocations & make
sentences of your own to practise using the speech
1. China
2. ownership of
weird to do .... 12.generate
disparity in income
the state / individuals
3. ridiculously
13.the property of
on $250
4. steering wheel
14.the profits of
5. be the most
15.profits went (go) to exploitation
6. it's pretty
the wealth
16.military industrial
7. the cars bespeak
left cars
17.people stumble
the Indians
8. the fall of
18. slaughter (v)
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9. average
Soviet Union
10.make smth (income) Silk route still in
the state
Irkutsk has changed remarkably in the ten’s years since I was here before,
of course. In 1995, there were few automobiles, no private ownership of land, a
few shops, hardly any advertising billboards or television and the Central Market
reminded one of a stop on the China silk route in the nineteenth century.
Cars are ridiculously expensive here. There are two kinds: steering wheel
on the left and steering wheel on the right. Steering-wheel left cars are the most
sought after. Why? I don't know. Those come from the West, and a Russian here
will pay at least $ 5000 for a Toyota that would cost less than half that much in
the States. Steering-wheel right cars are from the East, much more plentiful, and
less expensive, even if the same make as those from the West. It is pretty weird
to watch the cars whip by with drivers on the right or left. And there are a bunch
of them. The amazing thing is the amount of Mercedes 600s and other new,
quality cars like that on the streets. Ten years ago, there were few such. The cars
bespeak the concentration of wealth that has taken place since the fall of the
Soviet Union. Ten years ago, few in Irkutsk could afford a $60,000 automobile.
The average income in Irkutsk today is around $250 a month, I am told, and that
person can't even afford a Lada (the old Soviet standard and still produced), but
it is a market economy now. Market economies generate vast disparities in
income. Ten years ago, the average income was about $150 a month, but those at
the top made maybe $500. Today, there are some very rich people in Irkutsk.
Siberia is a vast region of coal, oil, gold, and other natural resources, almost
without equal in the world. Irkutsk is one of the major cities of eastern Siberia.
When the Soviet Union existed, those natural resources were the property of the
state and the profits of their exploitation went to the state, providing for the
military-industrial complex and the needs of the people. Today, those profits go
to individuals, and the people stumble along on $250 a month. Many executives
for the companies that control the vast wealth of Siberia reside here along with
the infinitely more numerous working folk, like Pam and I. Today, the Russians
do capitalism "as well" as the Americans.
So, now private individuals (??), organizations and corporations can own
land. Not long after The Fall, individuals and corporations could own property.
That is, they could own factories, homes, apartments, etc.; they could not own
land underneath. The government owned the land. Of course, Americans assume
that ownership of land means that the owner can do what he wants on the land.
This stems from our tradition of land ownership. As we stole the land from the
Indians by slaughtering them and pushing them west, the US government took
possession of the land and sold it to the citizens. This source of income was
primary to financing our government and eventually making it formidable in the
world. We bought the Louisiana territory from France and stole California,
Texas and the Southwest from Mexico through a very questionable war. A man
bought land, cleared it and planted it; it was his. Later on, as communities, towns
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and urban centers developed, governments were elected that had the power to
tell a man what he could do on his land-a practice always fraught, even today,
with conflict. After The Fall, the Russian government retained ownership of all
land so that it did not have to establish a system for control. Of course, what an
owner can or cannot do on the land in Russia is still in flux, but individual,
titular ownership has taken place. Hence, the real estate boom across Russia
since March of this year.
Discuss the questions:
 What kind of cars are there in Russia?
 What was the amazing thing for him?
 What astonishes him about the income Russians have?
 In his view what is Irkutsk like today? Where did the profits go then & now?
 What is the trick with the land in Russia?
 what tradition does stem from the land ownership?
Part 2 Advertising & Russian women
Vocabulary. Match the parts of the collocations & make
sentences of your own to practise using the speech
1. blossoming of
with the ads
the realities
2. building are defaced joints
3. the ad features
a nude woman 13.dress (v)
dress slacks
4. be blissfully
14.the style is directly casually
5. there is virtually can't escape
flower (v) here
6. pizza
16.the outfit is
the same as bra
7. scandalous food joints
attributable to
8. wear
9. six-inch, spiked
10.the surface is
A sad development in the last ten years is the blossoming of advertising.
The Irkutskians will not allow the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century buildings
in town to be defaced with adds, but the ugly face of billboards has arisen in the
suburbs and the main arteries of traffic. On television, there are as many
commercials as in the States, but they are different. For instance, there is an add
for Palmolive soap which features a nude woman in the shower. In the States the
fundamentalist watch groups would never allow that on television.
The Russians, however, are blissfully unaware of such "sins," and it shows
in the manner in which women dress. There is virtually no obesity in Russia37
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although with the flowering of pizza joints and McDonalds (there is no
McDonalds in Irkutsk, thank god, nor any American- style hamburger or fastfood joints, but many in Moscow and St. Petersburg) there will be obesity.
Anyway, Russian women are very beautiful and often dress in a manner that
would be scandalous in many places in the States. The other day, for instance,
Pam and I saw a woman walk down the street in a bra and panties. They weren't
really a bra and panties, but it was an outfit that was the same size as the bra and
panties. Of course, she also was wearing six-inch, spiked high heels. Nearly all
the women wear spiked heels with high ankle straps, and the surfaces upon
which they walk are treacherous at best: up and down the steps, on and off of
buses, along crumbling sidewalks, etc. In the winter, on ice and snow, they
wear... spiked-heeled boots! One change from ten years ago is a move toward
more casual wear. Ten years ago, all women wore suits, dress slacks, and skirts.
They would not be caught dead in jeans at school or work. They were very poor
then, so they had maybe two outfits and wore them all the time. Now, they have
a few more clothes, and they often dress casually, like Americans, something
directly attributable to American pop culture-rock-and-roll and Hollywood; you
can't escape these realities anywhere anymore. When I visited Mongolia ten
years ago, I checked into my flat and turned on the television and the radio to
see what they we like: on the tube was a Michael Jackson video; on the radio
was a Michael Jackson song.
Discuss the questions:
 What is the way did h call the people who live in Irkutsk?
 Where can you see the ugly faces of billboards?
 What was wrong with the Palmolive soap ad?
 What are Russians blissfully unaware of?
 What do lots of McDonald's joints lead to in his view?
 What is the manner Russian women dress ? What is wrong with the boots
they wear?
 Now What way are the clothes Russian wear directly attributable to?
Part 3 Torgovii Complex & Central Market
Vocabulary. Match the parts of the collocations & make
sentences of your own to practise using the speech
sides of beef & pork
1. sell everything from houseware to minks walled off
the pig
2. be filled with
13.butchers haul in
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be considerably
slick glass
experience (v)
8. in the old
9. the local distilled from
11. the cheese is
small stands
distillery is...
organic food
lake water
14. hack (v) up the meat
15.head & hoofs of hung up
17. behind
18.isolated (part) no longer
20.a crate is turned
21.brew (v)
22.pristine (adj)
23.Putin is a
the counter
on the hook
on display
lake water
beer brands
with hatchets
upside down
the shoppers
In the center of town is the Turgovia Komplex a large, square building
containing shops that sell everything from housewares to minks. Next door is
the Central Market, a huge building filled with small stands selling meat,
vegetables, nuts, fruits, and every other fresh food imaginable. You can find
packaged food, if you want it but it is relatively rare, and why do it when you
can eat organic food all the time? Two Americans whom I taught with here the
first time over were considerably overweight when they got here. Each lost
about thirty pounds before Christmas, simply from eating all organic foods - the
Russia Plan for Weight Loss. What a concept! Real food! Ten years ago, the
Turgovia Komplex was full of tables upon which were piled stacks of clothes,
housewares, etc. Now, the complex has slick, glass booths and glass shelves.
The Central Market has also experienced a remarkable transformation. In the old
days, in one corner of the market were the butchers. They would haul in sides of
beef and pork, lay them out on long, flat tables and hack up the red meat with
huge, heavy hatchets. Sometimes, chunks of bloody meat would fly through the
air, and shoppers were not immune to catching a chunk or two on their clothes
or their cheeks as they passed by. In the booths that sold the meat, the head and
hoofs of the pig or cow would be hung up on a hook behind the counter, so you
could see that you would be eating a healthy animal. Times have changed.
Nowadays, the butchers with their huge hatchets are still there, but they are
walled off from the shoppers in isolated room. However, the doors are open, so
you can watch the hacking process if you want. Unfortunately, the heads of the
beasts with their sad eyes are no longer on display.
The Central Market is fascinating. There are, literally, scores of vegetable
stands alone ranging from relatively expensive ones on the inside of the market,
featuring vegetables from large farms-former kolkholzi (collective farms) to the
small ones outside, often consisting of a crate turned upside down, featuring a
babushka selling a few potatoes and tomatoes that she grew at her dacha. We
buy from the babushkas; it's like having your own organic, home garden. Then
there is the fruit, much of it quite exotic, sold by the Georgians and
Azerbaijanis. I especially prefer the Azerbaijani purple grapes. You can get any
beer from Europe, and the Russians brew excellent brands themselves. The only
American beer that I have seen much of is Miller Genuine Draft. They do sell a
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Budweiser, but it is brewed in Saint Petersburg and is definitely European in
taste, not the American stuff. The variety of vodka is bewildering, of course.
The local distillery is Kedr, and the local favorite is Baik, distilled from the
pristine lake water of Baikal. Pam and I like it. There is also Putinka after
President Vladimir. Supposedly, Putin, like Bush, is a teetotaler, so the Russians
have great fun with that name brand. The cheese and the bread. Well, what can I
say except one could live on the cheese and bread alone. Russian cheese is white
ambrosia, and the bread is all organic, heavy grain, ranging from white to light
brown to black. Bread is fifty cents a loaf; beer is seventy-five cents a half liter;
cheese is about four bucks for a kilo (2.2 lbs.); vodka (the good stuff) is about
six bucks a liter; a kilo of grapes is two dollars, cigs are seventy-five cents a
pack for American brands, etc. Prices, of course, are relative. Russians don't
make much money, but to Americans the prices are ridiculously low.
Later, Gator...
Unknown source
Discuss the questions:
 Did you know that Torgovii complex was filled with tables?
 How did the butchers hack up the meat in old times & now?
 In what way was the central market place fascinating for the author?
 What is the local distillery?
 what did he say about the cheese & the bread?
c) Talking point. Know before you go!
 Were you surprised or shocked by his impressions of
Irkutsk & the way we live here?
Module 2
Part 1.
a) Warm-up. Match the nationalities & well-known traits of
their characters.
The Spaniards
amorous and light-minded
the French
efficient but rather dull
the Americans
noble and very proud
the German
boastful, energetic, technical-minded and easy-going
 What kind of people are the British?
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b) Read the text below & check the
exercises above.
Almost every nation has a reputation of
some kind. For example, it has been generally
recognized that the Russian people are generous,
open-hearted, kind; the Spaniards are said to be
noble and very proud; the French are supposed to
be amorous and light-minded. We say that the
Germans are very efficient but rather dull; the Americans — boastful, energetic,
technical-minded and easy-going.
Now, what about the English? What is a typical Englishman like?
Many people, especially those who never lived in England, picture the
Englishman so:
A tall, slim, fair-haired gentleman, with regular aristocratic features and
a look of superiority in his blue eyes; conscious of his historic mission “to rule
the world”; contemptuous of all other, non-English, nations; formal, cold,
haughty, very reserved even in his relations with his fellow Englishmen; living in
reasonable luxury in his suburban country house which is supposed to be his
“castle” and going on short round-the-world trips in a private yacht, now and then,
like Sir Francis Chichester*, just to prove that Britain still remains the country of
great sailors; very conservative in his political and social views; well-bred, polite,
quiet, reticent in speech; fond of sports and animals; and at last, possessing a
great sense of humour, a special “English type” of humour, often difficult to
understand for foreigners.
Many books and articles have been written on this subject by different
authors, both English, giving first-hand information, and foreign, who have lived in
Britain long enough to know.
Some of them are full of praise and admiration for this country and its
people, others are rather critical; some present a serious study of the subject, others
are just humorous; some are true to fact, others may be erroneous.
All of them help us to understand better and get to know these people.
Only you must not have the illusion that all the Englishmen are alike. They
are not. And yet. We have every right to speak of and describe the English national character for there are certain and very definite traits and features, typical
for and characteristic of the English people.
['chichəstər] Chi·ches·ter Sir Francis (Charles) (1901 - 72), English sailor. He was the first person to sail alone
around the world 1966 - 67 with only one stop
c) Vocabulary 1.
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Read the text again & write out some words & phrases (let’s
say 10 & explain their meaning & context making your group
mates guess the equivalents for your vocabulary.
 Make up sentences with the vocabulary
c) Vocabulary 2. Read the definitions of the words & phrases
& find the words in the text.
1. the opinion that people have about someone or something because of what
has happened in the past
2. is willing to give money, spend time etc, in order to help people or give
them pleasure
3. kind, sympathetic, and friendly:
4. morally good or generous in a way that is admired:
5. feeling pleased about something that you have done or something that you
own, or about someone or something you are involved with or related to
6. if someone or something is efficient, they work well without wasting time,
money, or energy
7. showing or concerning sexual love
8. not interesting or exciting:
9. talking too proudly about yourself
10. having or needing a lot of energy or determination:
11. not easily upset, annoyed, or worried:
12. (v) to imagine something by making an image in your mind:
13. is attractively thin
14. [only before noun] especially American English normal or usual:
15. the quality of being better, more skilful, more powerful etc than other people or things
16. [not before noun] noticing or realizing something
17. showing that you think someone or something deserves no respect:
18. behaving in a proud unfriendly way
19. unwilling to express your emotions or talk about your problems
20. [n] very great comfort and pleasure, such as you get from expensive food,
beautiful houses, cars etc
21. a very large strong building, built in the past as a safe place that could be
easily defended against attack:
22. a large boat with a sail, used for pleasure or sport, especially one that has a
place where you can sleep
23. not liking changes or new ideas:
24. [old-fashioned] is polite, and behaves as if they come from a family of high
social class:
25. unwilling to talk about what you feel or what you know
26. …… ideas or information are wrong and based on facts that are not correct:
. a) Country Vocabulary Revision. Fill in the table & Study it
Language (adj)
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New Zealand
Seoul /
Мехico City
The United Kingdom
Northern Ireland
Czech Republic
Israeli(s) Jew (s)
Dane(s) Danish
Swede(s) Swedish
Maltese / English
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Some other proper names. Consult the dictionary about the pronunciations of
these proper names
The Baltic Sea
The Barents sea
The sea of Azov
The Bering sea
The Mediterranean
The Caspian sea
Oceans :
The Arctic
The Pacific
The Indian
The Apennines
the Caucasus
The Balkans
the Crimea
The Carpathians
The Urals
The Haiti
the Hebrides
b) Make an association map of the countries
3. Read Часть 2 «Язык как орудие культуры
Главa 1 Роль языка в формировании
личности.Язык и национальный характер» in
the textbook by S. Ter-Minasova (p.134-136). Jot
down the main issues & deliver the ideas to the
Paragraph1 “Introduction to the point” («Постановка проблема»)
 Prove that a person & a language he speaks are inseparable?
 Are we born being English, Russian, German, etc?
 What is the way you understand the quote on p.134 “a human is a slave of his native
language”? on p. 135 “Personality is a product of his culture”?
Paragraph 2 The definition of a “national character” («Определение национального характера.
Источники информации о нем»)
Shall we talk about “national character”? What is it? & How is it formed?
What is the proverb to illustrate the point?
what is the contradictious point when talking about the term “national character”?
What is stereotype?
How do the jokes about elephants illustrate the debate about the term “national
What are the other jokes? Retell them and comment on their issue (Jokes about
refrigerator and Jesus Christ)
How did the Germans get the information about Russian national character?
What is the way to study national character?
Comment on national heroes in Russia & in the USA. Is Russian Ivanushka a superhero? What is he like?
How did Ivan Ilyin define what language is?
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Paragraph 3 The role of vocabulary& grammar when personality & national character are
What is language world picture formed of?
Britain & identity crisis
4. a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 Have you ever thought of who the Brits & the
Englishman are? Why are they called differently?
 Is it possible to talk about a national tarits of character
of a nation which have been formed out of other
cultures? (For example, the British character, European
character , etc.)
Module 2
Part 1.
b) Read the text & speak on the issue raised in it.
Has Britain got an identity crisis?
Now that the United Kingdom's latest population statistics are available, Terry
Bleater asks, ‘Do the British know who they are?’
A To the rest of the world, people from the UK are British. But it’s
surprising to learn that only 31 percent of people in the UK say they are just
British. In fact, nearly half the population say their nationality is something else –
English, Scottish, Welsh, Irish, Vietnamese, Indian or Somali. Some people, about
16 percent, even say that they have two nationalities: they are British, but also
Scottish or Chinese. There are hundreds of possibilities! Are we confused? Is it a
B No, it doesn’t seem to be. Britain is changing all the time and we are not
just tolerant of differences – we are proud of them. We enjoy the diversity that
multiculturalism gives us. The ethnic groups that exist in the UK bring with them
at least six major religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism,
Sikhism and Judaism. Each community contributes its own culture and language;
Britain still has two official languages: English and Welsh, but we speak many
more approximately 150 in fact – from Mandarin Chinese to Urdu. Many of us are
even bilingual.
C And then there’s the fun stuff that cultural diversity brings, in music, food
and the arts. The days of fish and chips are behind us, as a walk around the capital
shows. Almost every district has Lebanese, Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese
restaurants. Thousands of Londoners visit the Notting Hill Carnival every year to
dance to steel bands, reggae, soca, calypso and jazz. Our cinemas show films from
India and South America and thousands of people fill our pubs and clubs to listen
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to everything from Irish dance bands to African hip-hop. Welcome to New Britain:
a confident, tolerant country which is proud of its many cultures.
c) Write an essay: What is a national character identity? Can
the nations be united? What will the consequences be ?
Module 2
Part 2.1.
National stereotypes: appearance & character
1. Listening 2.3.1. Just a myth
a) Discuss which of the ideas below are true. Which are just
1. English businessmen always carry
7. Scottish men normally wear kilts
umbrellas & wear bowler hats
8. New York is a dangerous city
2. Italian families eat pasta everyday
9. People in Japan eat rice for
3. Japanese tourist take photos every
10.English people drink tea every
4. French women are very wellday at five o’clock
11.It never rains in Egypt
5. It’s often foggy in London
12.People in Australia have a lot of
6. People in Brazil love dancing
b) Listen to some people from these countries giving their
opinion. Do they agree or not.
Taken from New Cutting Edge. Pre-intermediate by Cunnigham S
c) What do people say about people from your country? Are
these things true or not?
2. Stereotype appearances.
Look at the pictures & describe their typical features in
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Module 2
Part 2.2.
National character
1. National peculiarities.
a) Warm-up. Nowadays there is a tendency, especially
evident in our country, that young people are seeking for a
partner abroad. Look through the following characteristics &
do the task below:
b) Think of words you can use to describe people from
your country. Do you think people from other countries
would use the same words to describe you?
sombre, excitable, arrogant, humorous, honest, sluggish, risky, serious, diplomatic,
weak-willed, faithful, slow, non-humorous, quit, sly, emotional, money-oriented,
reliable, collectivist , wise, shy, open-hearted, not responsible, likes to joke,
communicative, industrious, conservative, individualistic, extravert, punctual ,
flexible, polite, time-saving, , dull, well-brought up, skilful, reserved, absentminded, quick, old-fashioned, refined, strong-willed, noisy, not well-brought up,
understanding everything literally
c) Select carefully the characteristics & choose (underline
or write out) 10 of them you consider the most common for:
 American people
 Russian people (from point of Russian people & foreigners)
d) Talking point.
Compare your answers with the answers given by
Americans & answer the questions
- How can you explain any differences, if any?
- Are these differences important
- Can people from different communities reach mutual understanding?
e1) Write an a paragraph
answering the question
“Would you like to marry a foreigner?"
e2) Write an essay on the topic
"People from different
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communities will never understand each other"
2. Listening 2.3.2. The tale of two smiles
In the US, a positive outlook is promoted by parents, physicians, and politicians. Americans are
generally optimistic and perhaps this is a reason for their smiles. The text below compares two
smiles—Russian and American—and what produces them. But first…
Russian and American Differences?
a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 In what ways are Russians and Americans different? Think of clothes, behavior, attitude,
and physical appearance. In a group of three, make a list like the one below. A few
examples have been given to get you started. Be specific. You have 10 minutes to
generate a list.
Shine shoes
Women: more make-up
Men: carry handbag
Smile more. Phony/insincere?
Wear backpacks / rucksacks
 Compare and discuss their lists.
 Take any three of their observations
and posit why such a cultural
difference exists. Here are some
American women don’t wear as much make-up
because comfort is more important to them than
 Discuss these statements as a class.
Which statements meet with general agreement and which with
general discord?
b) Listen to the tales of two smiles. Do you agree or disagree with the
author? You may agree/disagree only with certain parts of his argument. The important thing
is to take a stance and to express and support your own opinions.
c) Letter Writing: “The Russian Soul”
Let’s say you have a pen pal from overseas (he or she can be from
whatever country you like). Your pen pal has read about something
called “the wide Russian soul.” He or she wants to know what it is, and if
it’s only Russians who have this certain kind of soul. Also, did Russians
always have this Russian soul, or if not, when did it start?
Write a letter to your friend that answers his questions to the best of
your abilities. There’s no harm in researching the subject if you want
Taken from American Potpourri. An American Studies ELT Series.
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3. Watch the video file “Russians are being asked to smile”
& do the tasks below
a) Get familiar with the vocabulary in the video.
stay aloof put on a poker face reluctance find it odd
brighten the faces of the commuters uncertainty
Match the words with their definitions
1. aloof
a) not friendly or forthcoming; cool and distant;
2. stay aloof
b) travel some distance between one's home and place of work
3. poker face
on a regular basis;
4. reluctance
c) an impassive expression that hides one's true feelings;
5. brighten
d) conspicuously uninvolved and uninterested, typically through
6. commute
to work
e) unwillingness or disinclination to do something;
f) make or become happier and more cheerful.
b) Answer the questions:
1) What were the people’s answers about why Russians don’t smile?
 …………………………………………..
 …………………………………………
 …………………………………………..
2) What was the way German Emmy Mood & her family experienced culture
3) How did the psychologist Igor Kuzachyov explain Russian reluctance to smile?
4) What do Russian advertising agency do to brighten the faces of the commuters?
4. Talking point.
a) Read the following just for fun and then retell it. If you
don’t understand the point consult the net & discuss the
jokes in class
A sure sign that a person is English is that he or she:
1. treats anybody foreign with
2. never leaves home without an
3. has little sense of rhythm.
4. understands the rules of cricket.
6. thinks the weather is a more exciting topic
of conversation than baseball.
7. doesn't expect any form of public transport
to run on time.
8. thinks sarcasm is the highest form of wit.
9. thinks France begins and ends at the Calais
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5. is still mentally at war with
Germany, France, Scotland, the
American colonies, the Danes, the
Celts, the Vikings, the Romans.
10. hasn't been to the Millennium Dome.
11. on holiday in Spain, searches for a bar that
serves fish and chips.
12. has a proverb to cover any eventuality.
Taken from “Exercises in modern English grammar” by Saakyan A.
b) Then make your own story of any nation you like & make
other students guess what nation you have just meant.
5. Read the internet article below & sum up the ideas in the
form as in the task 4. Start like this: “A sure sign that a
person is Russian is that he or she:..”
a) First read the article & make up the questions on the lines
Russian Character and Customs
Most Russians are not very different from most westerners in the way they
perceive things or in their desired lifestyle. However, there are certain peculiarities,
which may emerge when you get to know your Russian friends closer. Mainly they
emerge from the old times, as well as the communist upbringing. Below we tried to
list the most common traits of the Russian character. It doesn't mean that
everybody is like this, but you have quite a good chance of noticing at least one
thing in your average Russian's behaviour. If you are lucky enough to meet a
person whose character incorporates all of the items from the list below, we can
assure you that this person possesses the pure Russian character and should be
treated with high respect. If you decide to become a Russian, you can use the list
below as guidelines.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We are a free nation. Here we despise all the rules. It’s an honor for our drivers
to move on the red light or to bother other drivers and scorn pedestrians.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• It’s cool to do nothing and to just lie on the sofa thinking about how great you
are. Really, Russia is such an amazing country and we have given the world so
much, that we can rest a bit.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• If you're invited for a meal, expect that the hosts will feed you until you feel
completely full and not capable of moving. If you think that's dangerous for your
health, or you're on a diet, we advise you to emulate satiety, otherwise you will
end up badly.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We value generousity. We can give you the last piece of bread we have if we
believe you really need it. And we expect the same in return.
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Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Some of us are naturally indifferent; we don’t care too much about dirt on the
streets, saving money, the war in Tchechnya, breaking the rules, risking without
particular reason, drinking too much...
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• ... and most of us are very proud. Don't talk to us about our vices, we won't listen
anyway. And don't dare to critisize the way our country is -- Russia is the best
place and we will prove it to the whole world very soon.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Some of us are quite emotional, but somehow it’s all kept inside most of the time.
We may seem a bit cold and too much to ourselves at first, but when you get to
know us better, we're like a volcanoe.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We are not politically correct, we take pleasure in talking our opinions out loud
and we will not use fancy words to conceal our real feelings.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We don't feel easy about talking to strangers on the street, but if you start
conversation saying that you're from another country or ask for some help, there's a
good chance we will be very open, because we are naturally curious about
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Some of us think that foreigners are bloody rich; so if we spot a foreigner, we
try to make some money on him, because we still have this communist idea that
everybody should be equal.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Women and old women are very respected here. It’s considered polite if while
being in the metro and seeing a woman or an old woman coming in and there’re no
free seats, man offers her his seat.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Beware of the babushkas (old women). They are active, pushy and very proud of
themselves, so if you do something not the way they think you should’ve done,
better disappear.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• When you are invited to the party bring something with you - beer is usually
accepted with pleasure.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• If you invited a girl or a woman somewhere be prepared to pay for her
everywhere. If you invited a man, he’ll pay for himself, and there's a good chance
he'll pay for you as well without telling you about it.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Men should be strong and assertive and women should be smart and beautiful.
That's just one of our stereotypes.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• No, Russians are not racists. We were grown up in the world, where everybody is
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equal and where the friendship of nations is an important part of our agenda. If you
notice one of us staring occasionally at a black person, it's just because we are
curious -- there's not many black people in Russia... The only word of warning is
about older people, who are sometimes too much patriotic, so be careful: don't
offend their feelings.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Yes, we love vodka, but we're not alcoholics. Despite what some people think,
Russians are not drunkards, they just have a special resistance to alchohol, that's
why they can drink so much. And we actually get our strength from it and it warms
us during the cold winters. By the way, if you drink with us, you'll have to drink as
much as we do, or we will be offended.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Russians are weird. We think that a sudden change from communism to
capitalism has something to do with it, but this topic deserves a more thorough
exploration. The only smart explanation that can be proposed here is that some of
us jumped too deep into capitalist world, while some stayed too far behind.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Russians are hooligans. It's not because we're bad - we just like everything
extraordinary. But too often we don't express this feeling enough, so when it comes
out, it's like a volcanoe. That's why you hear our tourists singing folk songs at 3am
and that's why we make a revolution every 80 years.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We believe in magnetism. The thing is, that every so often the sun sends some
electro-magnetic signals and this affects the whole course of events on the earth,
including our mood and feelings. So, if you see two housewives discussing how
bad their day went because of the electro-magnetic storm that happened in the
afternoon - don't think they are adepts of some sort of new age philosophy, it's
completely normal here.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Yes, we are superstitious. And if you want to shake our hand, you can never
ever do it through the door: you have to come in, otherwise we will quarrel. If you
come back to your house just after you left - look at the mirror, it's for your own
good. If you're sitting at the corner of the table, you won't be married for 7 years. If
a fork falls, a woman is going to come, if a knife falls, a man will certainly appear.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Most of us know a few words in English, but we are too shy to speak - no
practice, you see... However, you will be surprised at how many things are written
in English on the streets: it is used to show a shop or a cafe, to advertise a new
product, and there's a lot of foreign goods. Also, almost more than a half of
Russian products have their ingredients listed in English. Russians learn English at
school, and many people can understand the basics, but are shy to speak to a
stranger. We estimate about every one out of five Moscovitans can speak English
well enough, and there's a higher chance among younger people.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
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• We like all things fancy. But our understanding of it is very original. You will
often see men in suits or tucked-in shirts and office trousers (even in clubs on
Friday night), while women prefer noticeable and sexy outfits. The colors for men
are usually dark or grey, while women like light and white colors. This is a
generalization and of course you'll see a lot of different people and outfits.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• A club is not a place to party - it's the place for the chosen ones.
If you want to visit clubs, they have this thing called "dress code" where you might
not be allowed because you wear Nike sneakers, old khakis or a fleece coat.
However, the rules are more lax for foreigners, so if unsure about your appearance
just speak English while you're passing the club's entrance, and you're guaranteed
to get in.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We express what we feel, but we're not extrovert. We shout in public and we kiss
in public. It's acceptable to show affection in public (look at how many kissing
couples there are on the long escalators in Moscow metro!) but extrovert behaviour
may be resisted. You won't see a lot of people sitting in public places with their
legs stretched or crossed (in an American way) and Russians do not gesticulate
much when they are talking.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Most Russians feel a bit strange about gays and lesbians, but prefer not to talk or
express their feelings about it. There is however, quite a large gay & lesbian
community in Moscow and St. Petersburg and specialized websites have thousands
and thousands of profiles featuring gorgeous queer men and women.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• Smoking is a national sport, but many people understand it's not good for health
and will always agree to turn off their cigarette if it bothers you.
Many people have a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle and have a daily
morning exercise routine or run in the park.
Q: ……………………………………………………………………….
• We believe that if you are a vegeterian, chances are you are one of those Hare
Krishna guys or you have problems with digestion. (However, we should say that
the creators of this site were vegetarian for two years... until we traveled to Siberia
and were presented with the choice of either making a good travel guide or not
eating the meat that was offered)
b) Discuss:
 What were the funniest things to read?
 Were there the things you are unhappy about or feel ashamed?
c) Vocabulary. Explain the meaning of the words & phrases
in bold. Use them in the context of your own.
5.2. Additional article. Gist-read another internet article &
discuss its issues.
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Something About Russian National Character
December 25, 2006
A lot has been said and written about the inscrutable ‘Russian soul’ – yet, it
still keeps its mystery. No wonder. Here are some of our thoughts about the
common traits of the people inhabiting this multiform and contradictive country.
Certainly, the picture is only approximate, as those traits vary greatly depending on
an age group, region, education, profession, belief, etc. Yet, we hope it will help
you understand the Russians better.
'Spacious soul' or 'big nature' - that will be the first thing to hear from a
Russian if asked about the Russian national character. The phrase has become a
commonplace, while its meaning is not so easy to define.
"Russian people are altogether spacious people, just like their land, and extremely
inclined to the fantastic and disorderly", - a Dostoyevsky's character says in "Crime
and Punishment".
Just picture the vast expanses of this country stretching over the continent
and uniting Europe and Asia, with a great variety of landscapes, nations and
cultures … and you will perceive its infinity reverberating in the unconscious
collective mind of its people. One life would not be enough to visit all the places of
this land; its spaces are hard to take control over and its riches seem impossible to
waste. Hence, the Russian generosity and spontaneity, our weakness for
extremes and longing for the unknown, as well as our unpredictability and lack
of order and certainty.
"Go there no one knows where and bring nobody knows what"- that is
the task given to the main hero in many Russian tales. The mission sounds absurd;
yet, the hero gets a magic object (a clew of threads or an apple) rolling before him
and showing the right path to follow. Similarly, a Russian person is guided
by intuition (one's inner voice or the Lord's will, whatever) rather than by mere
Not that logic is null and void here, far from it. Yet when planning
something in this country, keep free space left for alternative ways and be prepared
that with the Russians some plans might change and events take quite another turn
all of a sudden; do not get upset beforehand, anyway - it may happen that some
additional opportunities will come your way.
"All that is done is done for the better" - one of the favorite Russian
sayings goes. On the one hand, it implies optimistic and adventurous outlook, on
the other hand, sheer fatalism and passivity - the opposites coming together in
Russian people - drifting throughout life, we are apt to adapt to ever-changing
circumstances rather than to oppose them. That feature is quite understandable if
you take into account our history of upheavals and cataclysms, from the Tatar yoke
with numerous barbaric forays to the 20th century with world and civil wars,
revolutions, repressions, coup d'etats and shocking reforms.
Tomorrow is not secured - how can one 'build' one's life (what is quite
normal for a Westerner)?
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"Hope for the better and be ready for the worst" - the Russians say. And
our most common hope is that 'it will work out somehow by itself'. 'A peasant
needs thunder to cross oneself and wonder'. Perhaps it is for that notorious Russian
carelessness that we are easily beguiled and made use of by various leaders coming
in a long train.
Justice and law Unfortunately in Russia these two notions are far from
being synonyms. The Russian people and the authorities are concordant about one
thing, which is mutual mistrust. Subconsciously, the state is perceived as a
mechanism encroaching upon the rights and freedoms of its citizens instead of
protecting them. "The severity of law is compensated with its loose
observance", - they joke here. The laws can be manipulated in the interests of the
mighty of this world, we know from experience. No law can provide for every
eventuality of life, we believe. So, relations between individuals are regulated by
the idea of justice (as a moral feeling), which is prior to law in Russia. If you are
facing the notorious red tape or predicaments caused by certain public or legal
agents, do not hesitate to discuss it with your Russian friends. Your indignation
will be shared with great pleasure: we use every chance to criticize and jeer at the
officialdom, militia and government. Perhaps you will also get some expert advice
concerning ways out.
Revolutionists or conformists? Russian patience seems endless as a
Russian open country. This people have revealed its ability to endure any
privations and severities - an almost superhuman ingeniousness in surviving
inhuman living conditions. Moreover, one can suspect a sort of liking to bearing
this cross, a certain pride for it. The spiritual experience of the Russian people not
in the least proceeding from its sufferings, has given the world invaluable works of
art and literature.
The habit for hardships and peaceful nature make the Russians conformists:
we dislike open conflicts and prefer compromising. "A lean compromise is better
than a fat lawsuit", - that's quite true for us. We can long put up with pressure and
injustice (though at heart we might rebel) - but once we explode with all our long
suppressed offences - there is no stop to it, watch out!
Lazy or efficient? Russian laziness is almost as notorious as Russian
'spacious soul'. Every Russian soul harbours Yemelya, the great idler, a fairy-tale
hero, who does not have to get off his favourite place - a stove, as it can carry him
anywhere and all his wishes are fulfilled by magic.
Russian laziness is dreamy and meditative. In a philosophic sense, it is
opposed to the worldly haste and 'vanity of vanities'. At times we cannot but
submit to our 'Mummy-Laziness' and indulge in musing and wool-gathering - and
that in the very thick of work! Not that we welcome or severely criticize it - we
rather take it as an elemental force, which can as well endow one with insights and
original ideas. Yet, most of these great ideas are not realized for that very laziness.
We'll think ten times if something is worth our efforts, before we move a finger.
If you are working in Russia, keep in mind that a Russian person needs time
to 'pull oneself together', that is to focus all one's 'infinite soul' on a definite goal.
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But when ready and interested and emotionally involved, one can beat records in
We enjoy challenges and beating records and can work overtime for that isn't that a good compensation for our tendency to be late at work? Your venture
might be a great success if you resort to the famous Russian serendipity…if it
clicks incidentally.
Generous spendthrifts The vastness of this land implies our fullhandedness. Fond of making handsome gestures, we enjoy surprising our friends
and guests with generous gifts and regales. Even if the hosts are having hard times,
they will do their best to treat their guests well.
Naturally, the same generosity is expected from you - and it should be
sincere. Pettiness and greediness are considered real sins here. Counting expenses
on friendly meetings or checking the bill in a restaurant will seem petty. It is
natural that everyone contributes to the common good as much as one can. Not
long ago it was ok to lend money to a friend in need and forget about it. Nowadays,
the commercialization of this country makes the Russians more and more toughminded and shrewd. But that is not natural for us. It is in our blood to share what
we have and hope on somebody's help. Who knows better than the Russians that
material wealth is the most unreliable thing? 'God has given, and God will take it
back', a Russian saying goes, often used with regard to money and possessions.
'Give, spend and God will send' also suits here. Deep down, the privacy of material
possessions is doubted. Surely that has to do with the notorious
Russian collectivism, which is more than just an aftermath of the Soviet
times. It takes its roots in the communal living of the Old Rus and the Orthodox
moral values. Our inclination to work jointly for the common good, share what we
have and rely on somebody's help is based on the feeling of kindred with other
people. That is well reflected in the Russian language: a number of words denoting
blood relations, such as sonny, mummy, grandpa, grandma, daddy, daughter, sister,
etc. can be used when informally addressing somebody, even strangers. The most
intimate word expressing deep feelings between soulmates is rodnoy (akin and
that's why dear).
"Better have a hundred friends than a hundred roubles". In Russia it
works a hundred-per-cent. Personal relations play here a more important role than
one's social status or bank account. The dark side of it is that a person's success
often depends on profitable connections rather than on one's talents and
professionalism. However, this misuse of the unwritten law on mutual aid is
weakening nowadays, together with the feeling of fellowship. Yet, it is still
habitual among students and co-workers to help each other rather than compete,
which is more customary for the Westerners.
"What is good for a Russian, for a German is death "(or vice versa)another Russian saying goes. Nowadays Russia bent on the Western and European
standards is driving towards stability and living on credit, convenient but binding.
Yet, it will hardly ever become that stable. Extra stability verging on routine is
very suppressing for the Russians. Smooth and scheduled living and working void
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of variation and collision, that makes a European feel comfortable will depress a
Russian. Yet, there is no such a risk - we'll always find some entanglements to use
our century-old cultivated resourcefulness.
6.1. Listening 2.3.7. Listen to someone talking about how
her original ideas about Americans & the USA - in
particular NY - were altered by her visit
Taken from Blueprint Intermediate by Abbs. B.
a) Note: What she thought before her visit.
What she thinks now.
b) Talking point. Discuss briefly how the following have
influenced the world & say which you approve &
Walt Disney
Rock music
Ronald Reagan
TV crime stories
Marilyn Manroe
Space exploration
Martin Luther
Hollywood films
Blue jeans
Henry ford
Soap opera
6.2. Listening 2.3.8. Listen to the text " How to be an alien".
A Hungarian, George Mikes, / pronounced "mike "/ who came to live in Britain is
expressing his opinion about the country . "How to be an alien" - his book, was
published first in 1946 & has been reprinted over forty times. George Mikes said
his book was meant: 'chiefly for xenophobes (people who dislike foreigners) &
anglophobes (people who dislike England & the English). The extract you are
going to listen to includes some of the observations which have delighted
generations of readers.
a) While listening guess the meaning of the words
b) Answer the questions:
1. Where did George Mikes come from"
2. What does George Mikes say about the English
- language
- attitude to the weather
- habit of queuing
- attitude to pets
attitude to sex
way of serving tea
tea-drinking habits
Taken from Blueprint Intermediate by Abbs. B.
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"There’ll always be nations"
7. a) Warm-up. Speculate about:
 What ideas come to you under this heading?
b) Read the text "There’ll always be nations" carefully ,
discuss it with your teacher & do the tasks below
There’ll always be nations.
Katharine Whitehorn
I had a friend who never knew what to do with her hands at meals; brought
up half in England – «hands on your lap, dear»- and half in France – «les mains sur
la table» - she was thoroughly confused.
Another couple I know built a little house in Greece, and joyfully completed
it; the Greeks thought they were mad, because once the house is finished you have
to pay tax on it – which is why so many Greek houses have iron rods sticking out
of the top, to show there’s more concrete to come. And a man who went to live in
Turkey speaks feelingly of the unique piece of Turkish plumbing which combines
a lavatory with a bidet-douche: «If you don’t know what that little handle is for,
you rapidly learn how high you can jump from a sitting position.»
It is the small things, which make the interesting differences between
countries, and there are far more of them than ever appear at the level of
diplomatic and grand hotels. We think of ubiquitous pizzas and hamburgers, but
forget the food you buy in the street – the chestnuts you get in London, tapas in
Spain, lihapiirakka (meat patties) in Finland. Western medicine may be all of a
piece – but how much plaster you get depends on where you are; right up the arm
for a broken wrist in France, a whole-body plaster (or so I am told) for a little
finger in Italy – and you’d better tip the nurses, too.
Cookers may be made anywhere, but the Dutch scarcely use their ovens,
they prefer to wallow in margarine on top of the stove; the French don’t expect a
grill expect inside the oven, and rarely seem to sell non-stick spatulas to go with
their non-stick pans; the Spanish don’t go in for kettles. I thought the Americans
were just unbearably fussy, the way they obsessively rinse plates – until I realized
that American dishwashers actually don’t have filters. And there’s a school of
sociology, which says you, can determine a country’s level of civilization by the
efficiency of its bottle tops: the more gashes on your hand, the more primitive the
country you’re trying to drink in.
Computers, compact discs, cameras may be the same everywhere – but we
go to a chemist’s to buy film, because the British used to get their developing fluid
there; other nations don’t. A continental chemist may austerely sell nothing but
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drugs, few will sell hair-slides and tights and hot water bottles like ours; and none
of them sell two eggs over easy and a cup of cawfee, as in the States.
In some ways one wishes things were more standardized: if only all
telephones made the same noises to tell you they're engaged or ringing or on the
blink. Or if they put the lights and screen-wipers always on the same side of the
steering-wheel, we’d flash our wipers in anger so much less often. And even if
countries can’t agree on how much summer time to have, could they not at least
agree to change on the same day? As it is, airline schedules are total chaos for two
weeks every autumn.
But times and festivals are among the hardest things to shift. It’s no good
telling a Turk to celebrate his birthday and not his name day, or trying to make an
Italian child, all agog on Christmas eve, wait till Christmas day, like us – quite
apart from EC directive number 4783/AB 7, which decrees there shall always be a
bank holiday in any country where I happen to have run out of currency.
Or take Sundays. Our flat traditional Sunday of churchgoing and inertia has
just about had it; the only pity is that they didn’t legalize proper shopping before
car-boot sales turned half the nation into fences for stolen goods. But do you
remember when they spoke with horror of the wicked «continental Sunday»? It
conjured up visions of the bibulous French singing in the streets; plainly, no one
cared even to think about a German Sunday, when you not only can’t shop, you
can’t even wash your car lest the swooshing of your hose disturbs your neighbors.
It is the fear of losing these differences, I am sure, that makes people scared
of getting close to Europe; my guess is that they will stay unchanged, like mollusks
on the ocean floor beneath the tide of change. For it is a tide. Just as businesses go
with a rhythmic predictability from centralization to more on the spot autonomy
back to centralization again, so nations group together into larger units and then
split up again, with local habits going on very much as before.
The big groups seem immortal – while they last. We take it for granted the
USA is forever, but it’s been all in one piece for less than a century; Believer’s
vision of a united South America didn’t even last as long as his lifetime. No one
would have guessed that the monolith of the USSR would break up so suddenly;
yet when it did, there were Georgians who had gone right on speaking Georgian,
Ukrainians with their national identity intact, Muslims who’d stuck to their
customs throughout. What matters is not that the groupings and re-groupings
happen; they always will; but whether people carve each other up in the process.
The astonishing achievement of the EC is that they haven’t.
The remarkable resilience of
nationality. Of tribal instincts and
regional habits has always been the
despair of reformers and tyrants alike,
from Butcher Cumberland to Lenin to
Saddam Hussein; I now see it as a saving
grace. We British might or might not man
the barricades for our defense policy or
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working hours or ramshackle legal system, but try and tamper with the pallid
sanctity of our sausages and the spirit of Churchill and Drake awakes at once;
which is how it should be.
c) Exercises to think about.
 For questions 1-5, complete sentences about national
characteristics with one of the endings A-H in the box.
There are three extra sentence endings. Try to take no
more than five minutes to do this question.
A have a very efficient medical system
B do not celebrate birthdays
1. The Dutch
C like fried food
2. The French
D live in single-storey, concentrate houses
3. Turks
E are not very respectful of Sunday
4. The Greeks
F avoid paying property taxes
5. Germans
G grill everything they eat
H do very little on Sundays
 Read the article & decide which of the statements
below the writer would agree
Life would be easier & travelling more enjoyable if everything was
It is small differences between countries which are interesting
National identity & habits are extremely difficult to change
Local habits are unlikely to change very much with the creation of a unified
The USA will always be one united country
 In the sentences below the writer expresses her
personal opinion by her choice of words. Underline the
words which reveal her opinion.
Example: "I thought the Americans were just unbearably fussy, the way they
obsessively rinse plates"
These words tell us that she does not approve of this American trait
"..(The Dutch) prefer to wallow in margarine on top on the stove.."
"A Continental chemist may austerely sell nothing but drugs
"Our flat traditional Sunday of churchgoing & inertia has just about ad it.."
"… the only pity is that they didn't legalize proper shopping before car-boot
sales turned half the nation into fences for stolen goods."
5. "…a German Sunday, when you not only can't shop, you can't even wash your
car lest the swooshing of your hose disturbs your neiboughrs
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 The writer also expresses her opinion in a more direct
Example: "It is the small things which make the interesting differences between
countries, & there are far more of them than ever appear at the level of diplomatic
meeting & grand hotels". Find other examples of clearly stated opinions in the
Text & exercises taken from CAE. Reading Skills by Pye. D.
8. Listening 2.3.10. You will hear part of a radio programme
which suggest what tourist from all over the world think
about each other. For questions 1-10, complete the
sentences with an appropriate word or short phrase.
Autobahns / tourism forging / to achieve the reverse / to strake their claim /
perception / a standing joke / steep slopes / unfamiliar / grumble / amicable chat /
sameness / to clutch / vanish / reassurance
1. Some German tourist rise early to reserve a ____________________________
2. All nations have their ideas about ____________________________________
3. The Germans think that many Dutch Tourist ____________________________
4. The Spaniards think that The Dutch & Belgians are not very good at driving
5. French tourist in other countries never seem to enjoy______________________
6. In restaurants the British never ____________________________________
7. The Italian love to visit _________________________________________
8. The Americans make a big effort to be _______________________________
9. The Japanese are never seen without ________________________________
10.It seems as if whole world is lowly becoming_______________________
Taken from “Advanced listening & speaking” by Kathy Cude
b) Write an essay "In 30's years time national
characteristics will have vanished altogether"
9. Listening (or Video) 2.3.11
It's "Mad dogs and Englishmen", and it's the title of a famous
song by Noel Coward, satirising the unwillingness of English
people to adopt the custom of taking a siesta during the heat of
the day in tropical climates.
'Mad dogs & Englishmen' BY Noel Coward
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a) Look at the first verse before you listen. Try to fill the
gaps with best word from the column at the
side. Consider the rhyme & poetic flow of the
line to help you choose which is most
appropriate. Saying the lines aloud might help
you do this. Work in pairs
b) Now listen to the first verse & check your
words. Repeat the procedure for the following verses.
Solar topee - pith helmet, a type of sunhat worn in tropics, typical colonial times
Mangrove - tropical tree or shrub
Caribou - a large deer
Sahib /sa:b/ - (indian) form of address for a man
In tropical ---------there are certain times of day
When all the -------- retire
To takes there clothes off &--------Its one of those rules that the greatest fool ------Because the sun is far too ---------& one must avoid its ultry violet ray
The natives grieve when the whitemen leave their -------Because they are , obviously , definitely ----------Mad dogs & Englishmen' go out in the midday sun
The Japanese don't care to
The Chinese wouldn't dare too
screens / parasols
Hindus & Argentines sleep -------------- from twelve to
But Englishmen ------------ a siesta
In the Philippines they have lovely -----To protect you from ---------------In the Malay States there are ------------- like plates
Which the Britishers won't wear
At twelve noon the natives ------------& no work is done
But Mad dogs & Englishmen' go out in the midday sun
It's such a surprise for an Eastern eyes to see
That thought the English are ----------They are quite --------------- to heat
sultry / hot
citizen / people
houses / huts
follow / obey
perspire / sweat
climes / countries
detest / hate
shoes / hats
swoon / faint
firmly / soundly
glare / sun
close / impervious
happiness / glee
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When the whiteman rides every native hides in ----------Because the single creatures hope he
Will --------------- his solar topee on a tree
It seems such a ----------when the English claim the earth
They give rise to such ------------- & mirth
impale / stick
shame / pity
weak / effete
laughter / hilarity
world / earth
Mad dogs & Englishmen' go out in the midday sun
whisky / Scotch
The toughest Burmese -------------jungle / desert
Can never understand it
clothes / garb
In Rangoon the heat on noon is just what the native ---------crumpled / creased
They put their ---------------- or Rye down & lie down foam / salivate / avoid
In a jungle town where the sun ----------------- down
shines / beats
To the rage of men & beast
robber / bandit
The English ---------------- of the English sahib
Merely gets a bit more --------------In Bangkok at twelve o'clock
They ----------------at the mouth & run
But Mad dogs & Englishmen' go out in the midday sun
Mad dogs & Englishmen' go out in the midday sun
The smallest Malay -----------inhabitant / in mate
Deplores that foolish habit
bang / strike
In Hong-Kong they --------------- a gong
sleep / snooze
& fire off a noon day -------------------play / romps
To reprimand and each ------------------------ who's in late
gun /
In the mangrove ---------------------- where the python romps infrequently /
There is peace from twelve to two
chicken / rabbit
Even caribous lie around & -------------------------swamps / marshes
For there's nothing else to do
In Bengal to move at all is ---------- if ever done
But Mad dogs & Englishmen' go out in the midday sun
National Heroes: Superheroes
Module 2
Part 3
1. Superheroes.
a) Warm-up.Brainstorm yourselves :
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 How many national heroes in the USA, UK & in Russia
can you name?
b) Listening 2.4.1. Listen to the file about american super
heroes & and make up true or false sentenses about the
ideas in the text.
What are the heroes mentioned there?
Which one is your favorite? Why?
c) Listen (listening 2.4.2) & Read the text & discuss the
pros & cons of being a superhero. Get familiar with the
vocabulary from the text. Answer the questions below the
to hit adulthood exp to become an
to be based on phrvb to be about
mostly one thing
to get one's fair share exp to get the
amount one deserves
to pump [movies] full of exp to include
a lot of something
20-somethings n inform people in their
Sweet adj inform cool
Superficial adj fake
on a nearly daily basis exp almost
every day
to cater vb to supply what someone
ego n a person's self esteem
and then some exp even more
point-blank range n very very close
alter ego n a second self; another aspect
of one's self
roster n a list of people
stuck-up adj conceited, full of one's self
purist n a person who sticks (often too
much) to tradition
tight adj inform cool
lame adj inform just plain un-original,
x-ray vision n the ability to see through
to maintain vbt o keep up
a 9 to 5 exp a regular job, which tends
to start at 9a.m. and end at 5p.m.
cunning adj sly and sneaky, like a fox
resilient adj able to easily recover from
bad things
the man expinform an awesome guy
vast majority n most of
elitist prick n inform an annoying
person with a snobbish attitude
epitome n the very definition of
nerd n someone who studies too much
on the side in addition to one's regular,
or known work
stunning adj really beautiful
to kidnap vb to take (a person or
animal) by force
to lure vb to fool someone into doing
clutches n the arms of an evil person
freak [science] accident exp a complete
coincidence n things that happen at the
same time by accident, but seem to have
a connection
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stupid, like tattoos of barbed wire or
to be [completely] legit expinform to be
real to furnish vb to put furniture in
not to mention exp in addition to
quite a number exp a lot
cotton n a soft, lightweight cloth
synthetic adj produced by chemicals
fireproof adj something you can't burn
to carve into phr vb to cut lines into
our gig is up exp your time is over
to boycott vb to refuse to deal with
quintessential adj the most typical
impervious adj not affected by
kryptonite n the glowing green rock
that gives Superman trouble
asteroid n a big rock that travels
through out-erspace
unbeknownst to anyone exp without
anyone knowing
to attain vb to get
to grant vb to give someone something
infinite adjan endless number
stealthy adj sneaky
slick adj inform cool and original
to gross vb to earn
revival n bringing something back,
making it popular again
novelty n something different and
to pull a crowd exp to attract a lot of
staple n an important part of
legacy n something received from the
People in America are in love with cartoons. They watch them as kids
growing up, they read them in books and
in newspapers, and when they finally hit
adulthood, they go watch them in the
movies. A lot of the movies that are
made out of cartoons stay animated, but
what's become even more popular is to
turn people's favourite cartoons into live
action movies.
Movies of this kind that turn out to
be real blockbusters are usually made
from comic books and are based on
superheroes. Batman, Spiderman,
Superman, and the X-Men are the
bestselling of these comic series, though Blade, The Fantastic Four, The Hulk, and
the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles all get their fair share of airtime.
In order to appeal to an older audience, filmmakers and their producers try to
pump these movies full of things most middle-aged men and almost all teenagers
and 20-somethings want - that is, a hell of a lot of money, and a sweet car to pick
up girls in. On top of these more superficial perks, the heroes have perfect bodies,
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and the responsibility of saving the entire world on a nearly daily basis. The way
different superheroes have been presented by Hollywood caters to different sorts
of egos, and so who a person's favourite superhero is says a lot about what kind of
person they are.
Batman is the favourite of many Americans,
because he reflects the American dream and then
some. His parents were murdered in front of him at
point-blank range, leaving him an orphan. Despite
that, Bruce Wayne (Batman's alter ego) becomes a
millionaire. By day, he runs his corporation, but by
night he strikes fear in the heart of evil, known as the
Dark Knight, though officially in the superhero
roster as Batman. He works out of a cave with the
help of his stuck-up but nonetheless lovable butler
Alfred, and the tragic circus child, Robin. Many
purists, like myself, will argue that Batman is not a real superhero. He may have a
really tight lair to operate out of, and might pull some cool tricks with his cape
and his bat-belt, but he is ultimately just a really lame rich guy angry about his
parents' death. It's completely legit to be angry about your parents' death, but
normal people avenge that wrong by becoming a lawyer, or a police officer.
Batman just went ahead and built himself his own branch of the police. Not even
built- bought. He used all his money to furnish his Bat Cave, and to build all of
his Batmobiles, not to mention change his costume every couple of years. Maybe
it's the media doing that, but the big bat has gone through quite a number of suits
since his movie debut in1966. He used to save Gotham from evil in cotton. Now
he wears only synthetic, fireproof rubber. His suit has more muscles carved into
it than Mr. Universe. For Batman, I have only to say, your gig is up. You've been
found out. You have no superpowers, unless you count being rich as a power.
Boycott Batman!
Superman is the all time favourite, the quintessential
superhero. Arriving to earth from outer space, he is
impervious to nearly everything except kryptonite.
Superman has become so important in American society
that kryptonite has now entered pop vocabulary. Superman
flies, stops hurricanes, asteroids, bullets, has laser and x-ray
vision, and yet manages to maintain a 9 to 5 at the Daily
Planet, the local newspaper. Lux Luther, supreme
supervillian, though exceptionally cunning, has yet to
defeat Superman completely. Superman is in fact so
resilient, I would expect his theme song to be Chumbawumba's "Tubthumping" - 'I
get knocked down/But I get up again/And you're never gonna keep me down.'
Superman is pretty much the man.
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My personal favourite
superhero is Spiderman. I have
read the vast majority of the
comic books centered on him at
some point or another in my
life, and now I am an elitist prick about the story
and refuse to see any of the movies. Spiderman (or
Peter Parker) is the epitome of the nerd's hero.
Peter Parker is a student of biotechnology and a
photographer for the local newspaper on the side.
He has an awesome girlfriend, Mary Jane, who is a stunning redhead who gets
kidnapped by pretty much every force of evil from Earth and all corners of the
universe, in hopes of luring Spiderman into their clutches. Peter became
Spiderman through a freak science accident. But unlike other science-based
superheroes, Spiderman came about through complete coincidence and accident.
In an experiment trying to enhance the naturally amazing powers of the spider,
Peter was effected, unbeknownst to anyone. He discovered his powers quite accidentally, attaining the ability to climb walls with his bare hands, sense danger
from far away, and granted the strength often men. This is what makes Spiderman
amazing - although he is a superhero with incredible powers, they are not so great
as to be infinite. He is still mortal, and therefore to avoid being killed, he must
simply be a stealthy and slick bad-ass.
Movies based on these three superheroes have grossed the most of comic
based films, but there is still a second kind of slightly popular cartoon turned live
action movie. Revivals of children's cartoons and characters don't fare as well, but
because of the novelty of the idea get a good deal of attention from the media.
Garfield, Stuart Little, Inspector Gadget, The Cat in the Hat, and Scooby Doo serve
as excellent examples. These cartoons pull a crowd through their more vintage
nature. Garfield has been a staple of newspaper comics for decades, Stuart Little
started as a novel and took on a life of his own, Inspector Gadget amazed kids with
his incredible and multitalented suit. Although in many instances, the movies seem
to kill the great legacy of these types of films, many still have a great appreciation
for them, turning them into vintage and cult classics of the animated world. Go
Gadget, go.
d) Answer the questions:
1. What are blockbusters about superheroes made from & based on?
2. What stuff do they plump these movies full with? And Why?
3. What do superheroes cater to depending on the they have been presented? What
does it say about?
4. What is Batman’s story line? What message does he carry?
5. What is the author´s attitude to Batman? Why do you think so?
6. Why is Superman is quintessential superhero according to author’s opinion?
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7. What makes Spiderman the author's favorite one? How did he become a
8. What is the second kind of slightly popular cartoon? Why are they turning into
vintage & cult classics?
e) Discuss:
 Do you know the song "Tubthumping” by Chumbawumba? Read the lyrics
& listen to the song here? Say what you think of it?
Tubthumping (Album Lyrics)
We'll be singing
When we're
We'll be singing
He drinks a whisky drink
He drinks a vodka drink
He drinks a lager drink
He drinks a cider drink
He sings the songs that remind him
(I get knocked down Of the good times
But I get up again
He sings the songs that remind him
You're never going Of the better times
to keep me down)
"Oh Danny Boy
Danny Boy
Danny Boy"
Pissing the night
away x2
Pissing the night away x2
"Don't cry for me
Next door neighbour"
(We'll be singing
When we're winning
We'll be singing)
(Pissing the night away x2)
 Are there any heroes like that in Russia?
f) Vocabulary. Find the English equivalents for the following.
1. Спасать мир каждый день
2. Превратить мультик в фильм
3. Взять свое от эфирного времени
4. Поверхностный
5. Льгота привилегии , Доп заработки
6. удовлетворять (требования); угождать,
7. сирота
8. несмотря на
9. рыцарь
10. накидка, плащ с капюшоном
11. другая ипостась, скрытая сторона характера (о
12. высокомерный
13. дворецкий
14. отстойный
15. это совершенно нормально
16. мстить за что!то
17. дебют фильма
18. несгораемый
19. твое время ушло
20. объявить бойткот
21. хлопок
22. каучук
23. врезать или вырезать
исключительно хитрый
полностью победить кого то
жизнерадостный, неунывающий
прочитал много книг о нем
ботаник, ботан (человек с всепоглощающим
стремлением к учёбе, научной деятельности)
конспект; краткое изложение
рыжеволосый человек
сногсшибательный; великолепный
когти, лапы тиски, власть обстоятельств
приобрести способность
голыми руками
чувствовать опасность
невероятные силы
бесконечный, безграничный
незаметный, скрытый, тайный
гладкий скользкий ловкий; искусный,
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24. наиболее типичный
25. неотзывчивый; невосприимчивый, глухой (к
26. пуля
27. ренгеновское зрение
28. работать с 9 до 5
51. иметь общий доход;
52. привлекают внимание благодаря..
53. старинный; классический
54. главный продукт элемент
55. иметь успех, становиться популярным
56. наследие
57. пример
Make up sentences with the words & phrases from the text.
Explain the meaning of the words in bold.
2. Project work. Look through all the storyline of
superheroes again in the USA & sum up the psychological
portrait / character sketch of the nation.
Module 2
Part 3
Russia’s symbols & heroes
Cheburaska’s song
3. a) Watch & enjoy our Russian song popular among
children about Cheburashka. What
feelings does the song translated
evoke in you?
I used to be an odd a nameless little toy
Which no one came to look at in supermarket
And I’m Cheburashka & every each dvornyashka
Right offers to me on sight its little paw
I had no luck at start & even there were times
When no one would turn up at birthday party day
But now I’m with Gena he is awesome alligator
He’s really the best one in the entire world
I used to be an odd a nameless little toy
Which no one came to look at in supermarket store
And I’m Cheburashka & ever each dvornyashka
Right offers to me on sight its little paw
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b) Go to YouTube & watch video file “Adventure of
“Carslon returns!”
c) Talking point.
 Is there any difference when you take a poem / a story
from your native language & from English? Is something
lost while translation?
Consult the net & find some poems by A.Pushkin translated
into English & express your point & emotions
4. a) What about Superheroes in Russia. Gist-read the article
from Moscow times & speculae about the issue.
Forget Batman. Russians Get Own
Lena Smirnova - Moscow Times - - 7.31.12 JRL 2012-139
Russia is a long and often perilous (very
dangerous) way to go from the Western world, so
much so that even superheroes rarely make the
Spider-Man has no skyscrapers to climb on
his way through the Baltic coast, and the sturdy
(strong, well-made, and not easily broken)
Batmobile would likely perish (die) in the frozen
plains of Yakutia.
For now, Russians resort to watching
Western heroes perform miraculous feats abroad, but one local company has heard
their silent pleas and is lining up a team of Russian superheroes to triumph over the
evil that lurks in this nation's underworld.
News Media is preparing to launch four comics with Russian superheroes in
October under the Bubble brand. The project, the first to introduce local
superheroes in Russia, could shape up to be a heroic act in itself, given the
country's lack of a comics culture and its long record of failed comics projects.
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"We want to create characters that could compete in Russia with existing
Western superheroes," explained Ashot Gabrelyanov, acting director of News
Media, who grew up watching the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Spider-Man.
"It's a big problem that children now idolize Captain America. If this ever
happened in America, if someone like Captain Russia were a hero there, it would
be a national tragedy."
The new comics will reflect Russian reality, including its criminal world and
corruption problems, Gabrelyanov said. There are currently several commercial
and self-published comics in Russia, but none of them feature local superheroes.
"There are no Russian superheroes," said Natalya Nesterova, chief editor of
Panini Russia, which prints translated versions of nine Marvel comics in the
country. "There is a sentiment that superheroes are good for America and it's good
to watch superheroes in an American context, but that in Russia superheroes
would be absurd and funny."
The Lineup
News Media has a lineup of muscular characters to challenge such
reservations about Russian heroes.
The new superheroes include a young copywriter whose ancestry dates back
to soldiers from an ancient world, a Moscow investigator searching for a serial
rapist who kills lawbreaking Duma deputies, a team of crafty characters who are
looking for the Holy Grail, and a caped crusader who battles demons.
Each of the comics will have a circulation of 10,000 copies and will be
published monthly. Prices for individual booklets range from 30 to 35 rubles ($1).
The heroes in the News Media comics are not the first Russian superheroes
to exist, but they are the first that were created by Russian artists.
Marvel prints stories about Natalia Romanova, also known as Black Widow,
who appeared in the Ironman and Avengers series, as well as the Russian mutant
Piotr Rasputin, also known as Colossus, who consistently pops up among the XMen.
Nesterova said that nationality alone is not enough and that superheroes need
to be adapted to the Russian reality to be embraced by local audiences.
"They should not be like [the Western heroes] in their bright red briefs," she
said. "This is very bold and cool, of course, but a Russian superhero must be
Hobby comics artist Vladimir Strelnikov agreed that Russian comics should
be different from the Western publications and suggested bypassing not only the
elaborate costumes but also the superpowers. The stories should be more like
Soviet cartoons, he said.
"A superhero would be an ordinary guy or girl with high moral and ethical
principles," Strelnikov said. "Instead of superpowers, like in American comics,
they should have a big and good heart."
Battling for an Audience
Nikolai Gordeyev is interested in superheroes, but he rarely reads comics.
He is more interested in television series and movies based on these characters.
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"Here [the comics culture] is probably not as well-developed as it is in the
West," Gordeyev said. "There are people, of course, who are interested in comics
and there are quite a few of them, but it's not like in the West."
Alexander Borshevsky, a coordinator of the St. Petersburg comics society
SPBComics and one of the organizers of the international comics festival
Boomfest, which will take place in St. Petersburg this fall, said that the comics
culture has not yet taken hold in Russia.
"The comics culture is only forming in Russia now," he said. "There is still a
stereotype that comics are meant for children."
Gabrelyanov is not concerned that there is no comics culture in the country.
There was no culture for reading tabloids (newspaper that has small pages, a lot of
photographs, and stories mainly about sex, famous people etc rather than serious
news) either, he remarked, but these publications now have a stable audience.
"It's not bad to have just [Western superheroes]," said Eleonora
Belopukhova, the publishing house's marketing director. "In any case, like our
Russian fairy tales, their stories are about good triumphing over evil, just in a
different form. There are more bright colors, but the general idea is the same."
b) Discuss:
 What is your idea of the superhero’s storyline (plot or
context)? Who & what might it be? his nature & values
in life. etc?
 Do Russians need a superohero? if Yes, What kind of
heroes do we need? if no, Why? Explain your position.
 Can there be a nation without heroes?
1. Ay Carumba!
It’s the Simpsons – American
Module 2
Most Powerful Family!
Part 4
a1) Vocabulary.
 Work with a dictionary to find the
meaning of the following words:
dysfunctional, phenomenal, former, nauseating, apathy,
chores, to cram
a2) Warm-up. Discuss:
 What is a normal family?
 What is a dysfunctional family?
 What typical problems do all families face?
 How do relationships within families change over time?
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 Do you think families in the USA differ from families in your country?
b1) Comment on the title of the text you are going to read.
 in which ways are the Simpsons America's most powerful family?
b2) Gist-read for points to support the argument.
Note: an Emmy is an American award given to TV shows.
b3) Read the article again and answer the questions:
 What did ex-president George Bush Senior say about the Simpsons?
 What was special about Stephen Hawking's millennium party?
 Why are Bart Simpson T-shirt banned in some schools in the USA?
 Which Simpson’s catchphrase has spread across the globe & what does it
 What must Al Gore regret?
Ay Carumba! It’s the Simpsons
– American Most Powerful Family!
When a yellow cartoon family with funny voices appeared for thirty seconds
on the Tracey Ullman Show back in 1987, nobody realized how much our lives would
change. The show, now entering its 12th year in the US, goes to over 94 countries,
has won 15 Emmys and was even described as the greatest TV show of the 20th
century in Time magazine.
The thing that makes The Simpsons stand out is that we can all recognize some
of the characters from our own lives. Despite being cartoon characters, they are deeper
than most of the actors you see on a lot of US television shows. The Simpsons makes
you think about life, and features 'difficult' topics like bullying, violence on
television, families who don't exactly get on like a house on fire, dysfunctional
family members and the materialistic nature of today's
In theprogramme, the Simpsons are an average family without much power
- nobodies, in fact. However, the power and influence the programme itself has
had is phenomenal. Former President George Bush once hoped to gain popularity
by stating that American families needed to be more like The Waltons (a TV
family who all get on and are 'perfect', hard-working, and in the opinion of any
Simpsons fan -downright nauseating and unreal) and less like The Simpsons. His
wife Barbara also claimed that the programme was the 'dumbestboth lived to
regret it as their remarks proved they had no sense of humour and were trying to
be morally superior. All those people who ever doubted the show have had to eat
their words. Perhaps the best testimony to the programme being anything BUT
dumb is that Professor Stephen Hawking (often cited as one of the most
intelligent people on the planet) held a millennium party where everyone had to
dress up as a character from The Simpsons.
Just how influential can aprogramme be? Simpsons' merchandise has sold
like hot cakes. T-shirts with Bart's catchphrase 'Underachiever and proud of it'
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were banned from some schools in the USA in case they encouraged widespread
apathy across the nation. Another phrase that has spread like wild fire from the
programme isn't even a proper phrase, but more of a noise. Homer's exclamation
of 'D'oh!' when something goes wrong or makes a mistake is now uttered across
the globe.
Final proof of the power of The Simpsons comes from Mike Scully,
writer/producer of the programme: "Some time ago, we tried to get Al Gore on
the show and we were turned down." Several years later, when he was running
for president he rang the show. As far as Mike Scully was concerned, he'd had his
chance. Al Gore must be kicking himself.
Taken from Timesaver. Reading. Photocopiable lessons (Intermediate/ Advanced)
c) Talking point. Discuss the characters from the cartoon.
What are their positive and negative points? In which ways are they like you or
your friends and family?
d) Vocabulary.
 Find idioms in the text that mean the following:
1. to get on very well
2. to spread far and quickly
3. to take back something you said because it was completely wrong
4. to sell quickly through popularity
5. to be disappointed or frustrated with yourself
 Match the words or phrases taken from the text with
their opposites. some schools in the USA?
1. to stand out
a) a person of great importance and
2. materialistic
3. a nobody across the globe and
b) to accept
what does it mean?
c) caring little about money or
4. under-athiever
5. to turn (something) down
d) to be the same as others
e) someone who excels
2. Watch some video file how The Simpsons were made
(video taken from Summit 2)
Part 1
a1) Consult the dictionary about the vocabulary
notorious mockery fake irreverence precocious world-weary
b) Answer the questions :
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1. Why has The Simpsons been so popular so long? What is it notorious for?
2. In how many countries is The Simpsons seen?
3. What do critics follow in The Simpsons? Why is it so popular among
children & adults?
4. So how did the cartoon manage to stay on top…?
5. Do you agree “Time” says it is the best show in period of the twentieth
century …?
6. Who is a creator of The Simpsons? What is his idea about the popularity of
The Simpsons?
7. How did he create this stuff?
8. What way are The Simpsons similar to the creator?
9. What is the TV station that released The Simpsons? What year & in what
10.What is FOX aiming at when they released the series?
11.What are the characters?
Other characters
12.Who is Jim Brook?
13.What is tagline of The Simpsons?
c) Watch the video again & pay attention to the words used
there & guess the meaning of the phrases taken out of the
slapstick satire turbulent world
bumbling idiot pompous naughty on the
spot crude in a recent poll off the limits flesh-out characters
Part 2
a) Get familiar with the words
overbite - глубокий прикус
foil – контраст, фон
store - магазинчик, работающий допоздна
spoofing - имитация
make people flip
line up to poke fun at
b) Watch the file & Get the information dealing with
following names in the shooting of the cartoon
Walter Matteau
Dan Castelleneda
Hanka Zeria Nahasapeemapitilon
‘Laura & Hardy shorts’ Gorge Mayer
c) Answer the question:
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1. Who is Dan Castelleneda? What does he say about his character? What is
‘Doh’ & where does it come from?
2. Whose is Gorge Mayer ?
3. Is there a purpose to the Simpsons?
4. Despite Homer is dumb Why is he loved, so is the
Module 2
Part 5
British school stereotypes
1. a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 How was your school life? Did you enjoy it? Or did
you hate it?
b) Read the text & discuss the school stereotypes in the
UK & in Russia
Of course, your experience at school depended on many things, the school itself,
the teachers and the pupils. What are British school children like, you may
wonder. Well, most of time they're just like school children from all over the
world. They want things like extra playtime, no homework and permission to go
to the toilet when the class gets boring. However, in every British class there are
some distinct types of pupil. We've identified a few of these stereotypes and
we'd like to tell you all about them.
The Nerd
The Class Weirdo
The class weirdo is the quiet student
absolutely nothing about
who sits at the back of the class and
fashion, popular music or
never says a word. Class weirdoes spend
sport. They are generally
their time in class doodling and writing
excellent at Maths and
"I hate life" all over
Science and are usually
their books. Out of
highly intelligent. At
school, they enjoy
school they are often the victim of cruel smoking, shopliftjokes or comments because of their clothes ing and cruelty to
and hair. Nerds hate sport and they hate animals. They fregym class, especially on cold winter days quently skive off.
when they have to go out and play football. They hate their parThey stand on the pitch trying to keep warm ents and the only
and hoping no one will notice them. They time they talk to
spend the whole of the lesson trying to avoid them is to ask for
the ball. They are usually blamed for any money. Class weirdoes want to burn the
poor performance by their team. In class school down. According to statistics,
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they sit there day-dreaming and thinking
about nuclear physics and things like that. At
home they love reading, playing computer
games and surfing the net. Nerds want to be
Bill Gates when they are older.
about 10% of British children suffer
from mental disorders such as anxiety,
depression, obsessions, and paranoia.
This explains why there are so many
weirdoes in British schools.
The Bully
The know-it-all
Bullies spend their school lives
The know-it-all spends class time
thinking of cruel jokes to play on the thinking of questions to ask the
weaker students. Some of their
teacher. They are the ones who
favourites include:
always put their hands up first
Toilet Flushing: this consists of
when the teacher asks a question putting the victim's head down the
even if they don't know the
toilet and pulling the chain.
answer. "Me! Me!" they shout
The Strip: this involves stripping the until they get the teacher's
victim and inviting other pupils to come and laugh.
Wedgies: this consists of lifting the victim up,
They love it when they do well
putting the victim's pants over a coat-hook and
in exams and they'll let the rest
leaving them in a most embarrassing position.
of the class know all about it,
Book Stealing: this involves stealing books and
saying things like, "hey! Look
throwing them in a puddle, making them wet and
what I got in the history exam",
or "didn't you pass? I did".
Tax collection: this consists of inviting the victim to
Know-it-alls want to be prime
make a "voluntary" donation of one pound a day to
ministers when they're older.
the bully.
When they're older, bullies want to be soldiers,
police officers or school P.E. teachers.
The Class Joker
The Teacher's Pet
The class joker will do
The teacher's pet is
anything to get attention,
the one who
even at
loves to help the
the risk of looking silly or
teacher. They sit in
getting into trouble. They
the front of the class
love playing tricks on the
and are always
teacher. Some of their
asking if there's
favourites include leaving
anything they can
drawing pins on the teacher's seat and
do. They love to
throwing paper aeroplanes around the class hear the teacher say "good boy" or "good
when the teacher isn't looking. They are
girl". They will quite happily snitch on their
popular with their classmates, and even the classmates when someone has been naughty.
teacher finds them amusing at times,
Out of class they spend their time drawing
although they would never admit it. At
pictures and writing letters to the teacher.
home they are often bored because there is When they are older, teacher's pets want to be
no one to impress. They spend the evening teachers.
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sitting on the sofa eating chocolate or
preparing things to say the following day at
school. As adults they often become
The Swot
The swot always turns up at school neat,
tidy and perfectly organised. They have pencil
cases with everything they could possibly
need for class: rulers, coloured pens, pencils,
etc. In class, they pay careful attention to
everything the teacher says and take detailed
notes. They study hard for all their exams and
always do well. Their work is
always perfect and
beautifully presented.
they won't go out to play
everything. When they aren't
studying, they enjoy stamp
collecting, sticking pictures
in albums or playing with
educational games on the computer. They
have very supportive parents who often
actively help with homework or class
projects. Swots want to be university research
scientists when they are older.
The Trendies
The trendies are the group of kids who
think they are better than all the rest.
They experiment with drink and drugs
earlier than the other kids and they
think they're really cool. They often
listen to obscure music that no one else
has ever heard of or can even
understand. They have their own uniform
that makes them easily identifiable. They
often become civil servants or English
The Class Leader
class leader is the
Bank good-looking one with
trendy parents. They know
what clothes to wear, what
music to listen to and generally
how to be cool. In class they
often pass secret notes around to other
pupils. They like to control the class by
deciding who their best friend is. In the
playground, they form exclusive gangs or
cliques. They also organise games and make
cruel decisions about who can join in. At
home they spend their time reading
magazines or gossiping to their friends on
the phone. Class leaders often become
salespeople, clerks or estate agents.
c) Talking point.
 Make a review what kind of pupil you were at school.
Describe the personalities of school friends
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 Talk about group mates. What kind of students are you?
Which school stereotypes seems to be offensive & which
ones seems to be posiive ones? Why?
d) Vocabulary. Make up sentences with the words & pharses
a nerd n someone who doesn't know
a know-it-all n a person who thinks
how to make friends and wears bad
they know everything about
a pitch n the place where you play
a weirdo n a strange person
to doodle vb to randomly draw on
to blame vb to say that someone is books
responsible for something
to shoplift vb to steal from a shop
to day-dream vb to be thinking when to skive off phr vb inform not to go to
you should be concentrating on
something else
a teacher's pet n the student that
a bully n a person who attacks smaller, loves the teacher
weaker people
to snitch vb to inform someone about
to strip vb to take off clothes
something bad that other people have
pants n clothing that you wear under
your trousers
a drawing pin n a small, metal object
a coat-hook n an object for hanging used for sticking paper on the wall
your coat. They are usually on doors
a swot n a person who studies a lot
a puddle n a small area of water that
a pencil case n an object for keeping
occurs after it rains
pencils, pens, etc
a P.E. teacher abbr Physical
a ruler n an object for drawing straight
Education. A teacher who teaches
sport and physical education
trendy adj fashionable
estate agent n a person who helps
you to buy or sell a house
The Best Night of Their Lives
Module 2
Part 6
a) Warm-up. Discuss the title of the article.
 What do you think has been the best night of your life?
 What in the future do you expect to be an important night? If you were
planning your ideal night, who would be there girlfriend or boyfriend,
family or friends?
b1) Gist-read the text & answer the questions:
 What are the upsides and downsides of going to a prom?
 What do you have to plan?
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High School Prom
Having a big party (called a 'prom') in the junior and senior years of high school
is a great
tradition. It's a
special night
which people plan
very carefully, and
remember for the
rest of their lives.
The season.
The high school
prom season
usually starts in
April and
continues through
May. Planning
starts as early as February however, when the magazines and stores begin to show
prom fashions. There is a lot of organization to be done.
The location. Proms are held in many different places. Some schools still
hold their proms in school gymnasiums but this is considered a bit old-fashioned
now. Most high schools today have their Junior (first year of high school) and
Senior (last year of high school) proms at a hotel or country club.
Clothes.Girls spend a long time deciding what kind of dress to wear and
fashions change from year to year, and from school to school. Fashions range from
cocktail dresses to full ball gowns and can be extremely glamorous. Sometimes
girls have their dresses specially made by dressmakers. Each year there are
different styles, but as the proms are quite traditional occasions, classic clothes are
usually a good choice. Boys generally wear tuxedos.
The date.One of the most important aspects of the prom night is finding a
date. It doesn't have to be a regular boyfriend or girlfriend, but you do have to
know who your date will be some time in advance of the prom so that you can
р1ал it together. Sometimes the issue of having a prom date can put a lot of
pressure on the students. No one wants to go to the prom alone and people can
get really upset about it if they don't find a date.
Prom night. Boys are expected to buy a 'corsage' for their female dates.
This is a small flower arrangement which they wear on their left lapel or on their
wrist. Girls also wear a 'boutonniere' on their dresses, which is usually a carnation.
The presentation of the corsage to the girl happens before the prom usually at her
parents' house. Parents sometimes allow the kids to have a small party at their
home before they go to the prom where they eat something and take photos or
have photos taken by a professional photographer. Often students hire limousines
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to take them to the prom. Usually they share the cost of this with two or three
other couples. Sometimes at the prom the students elect a prom king and queen,
who are the most popular couple of the year. They are given crowns and lead the
dancing when the music starts again.
Taken from Timesaver. Reading. Photocopiable lessons (Intermediate/ Advanced) by
Grisewood. E.
b2) Re-read the text & put the verb in brackets into its
correct form
1. Students start ......................... their proms in February. (to plan)
2. Formal dress is usually ......................... at the prom. (to wear)
3. Not finding a date can be ........................for some students. (to upset)
4. A boy will e corsage to his date at her parents' house before the
prom. (to present)
5. ......................... limousines can be costly so the price is usually shared by several
students. (to hire)
6. Prom kings and queen are usually ......................... by the students. (to elect)
c1) Let’s roleplay.
Act out the situation you are given. Perform your roleplay in
front of the class.
Student A
Student B
You really want to go to the
You don't want to go to the prom. Try to
prom but your friend doesn't.
persuade Student A not to go either.
Try to persuade him / her to go Mention all the things that you dislike
about the proms.
c2) Divide into small groups & plan a party from your
graduation school. Think about the place, the music, the
clothes, food & drink, special shows & displays, awards, etc.
 How would your party be similar to a high school prom and how would it
be different?
Finally, Make a poster advertising their party and display
them on your classroom walls.
2. Talking point. Let’s compare the ways Russian school
leaving parties (and ‘last school bell’) & proms in the USA
are held.
a) Warm-up. Discuss:
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 What are the attributes of ‘last bell’ party I Russia in every May 25?
b) Read the article below taken from the blog of an
American teacher who worked in Russian school
TUESDAY, MAY 25, 2010
"Last Bell" 2010
Today is a very special day in Russia...
It's the "Last Bell," the "Последный Звонок."
Unlike in the USA, in Russia there are two parts
to Graduation. Today is the "Last Day of
Classes," and in one month, after all the seniors
will have taken their national exams, they'll
have their "Graduation."
I wrote about the day before here...
I'll keep today's entry brief, in part
because I'm so darn tired! But first of all, just
check out what Russians can do with balloons!
Such decorations are standard here... I've never
seen such chains and configurations in the
USA... The balloon below says, "Graduate."
Our school always sets out a "red carpet"
for the special day. Students in grades 5 through
10 line up, as do all family members, visiting
alumni, and teachers. We then have a ceremony when each senior is congratulated
and then walks to the school's gates.
We then take buses to a theater, where we have a VERY involved and neat
ceremony. Naturally, there were more balloon decorations...
The ceremony featured tributes by the second and seventh graders, high
schoolers, recent alumni, teachers and parents. The second graders were
ENCHANTING! They performed little poems about each graduate, while
classmates acted them out. They were SO clever and spot on! The seniors LOVED
it! The seventh graders were also super... How I love this year's seventh graders...
I've worked with them for the past two years, and I will each year I'm here, seeing
them through... When those kids graduate,
wherever I am, I will be SO proud...
The seniors this year bestowed
honorary degrees upon all the teachers,
highlighting their strengths... I was
honored for being "Patient." Even-headed,
calmly reacting to all situations, treating
kids fairly and respectfully. Wow. What an
honor... If only I truly always felt that
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way... I try so hard to treat my girls that way, and so often fall tremendously
After the ceremony, we all gathered at a popular monument in Moscow for a
huge group shot--and I realized that Natalia would be able to see us from our living
room window, albeit in the distance! She was so excited when I called home.. She
grabbed her binoculars ("Yay!" for the big sister with the Nancy Drew/spy
obsession!), and then saw me and a whole bunch of my colleagues waving to her!
On my way home, I passed these
seniors from another school—dressed in
the much more traditional "Last Bell"
attire. Most Russian eleventh graders wear
Soviet school uniforms (with the skirts
MUCH shorter than they ever would have
been prior to 1991) today... With the
requisite big white bows in their hair!
Most Russian girls wear SPIKED
high heels with their dresses and aprons,
creating an awfully bizarre image... We've
had an new American teacher this year, a
young man, and it was amusing to watch
his "Are you kidding me? Their parents
and their schools actually encouraged them
to dress that way??!" reaction today! It is
odd.... When the weather is sunny, Red Square is taken over completely by swarms
of students coming for pictures!
Russian traditions “Last school bell”
Ring, ring, ring, tolls the little school bell ... yes, it's the end of class ...
Young Russians celebrate their graduation from
high-school in quite a unique way, and mark the occasion
with an event called Последний звонок (The Last Bell).
If you were to travel to Russia around May 25, and
it was your first visit to this grand nation, you may be
inclined to think that Russian teenagers are quite
eccentric! You'll see young girls wearing short dark
dresses with white lacy aprons, together with fluffy white
bows in their hair, white knee-high socks and black
shoes, and teenage guys wearing business suits adorned
with a colourful, shoulder-to-hip diagonal sash,
somewhat reminiscent of a Miss Universe competition!
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But the outfits are all part of a long standing tradition, with black and white
uniforms representing the standard attire of school students supposedly in preSoviet times, in the period of the Tsars. It should be noted that Russian teenagers
are in fact very fashionable, but for this one special day they put away their
designer clothes and embrace tradition.
Apparently when the Soviets came to power the black-and-white uniforms
for females were prohibited as they represented the Tsarist regime, but in the 1930s
Stalin reversed this decision and the uniforms for girls were reinstated (however,
the white bows were only
ever worn in elementary
school). On the other
hand, male children were
dressed in Tsarist style
military uniforms, that
were later replaced in the
1950s by standard,
business-style suits.
Since the
dissolution of the Soviet
Union, school children
wear roughly whatever
they want, and high-school playgrounds can sometimes look like an outdoor
fashion parade, as Russian teens tend to dress up significantly more than their
Western counterparts. So the special outfits - the black and white pinafores and
business suits with a sash - are generally only worn for the Last Bell ceremony.
Module 3
There are fewer public holidays in Great Britain than in
other European countries. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing
Day, New Year’s Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, Spring Bank
Holiday and Summer Bank Holiday. Public holidays in Britain are called bank
holidays, because the banks as well as most of the
offices and shops are closed.
The most popular holiday is Christmas. Every year
the people of Norway give the city of London a
present. It’s a big Christmas tree and it stands in
Trafalgar Square. Central streets are beautifully
Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house
to house. They collect money for charity and sing
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carols, traditional Christmas songs. Many churches hold a carol service on the
Sunday before Christmas.
The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December. Traditionally this is the
day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at the end of their
beds, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night
and fill them with toys and sweets.
Christmas is a family holiday. Relatives usually meet for the big Christmas
dinner of turkey and Christmas pudding. And everyone gives and receives
presents. The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas
Day. This is the time to visit friends and relatives or perhaps sit at home and watch
New Year’s Day is less popular in Britain than Christmas. But in Scotland, the
New Year's Eve is called Hogmanay and it is a very special time for merrymaking
and exchange of presents. There and in the North of England people go firstfooting. To symbolise good luck the visitor carries a piece of coal and a glass of
Besides public holidays there are some special festivals in Great Britain. One of
them takes place on the 5th of November. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried
to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I. He didn’t succeed. The
King’s men found the bomb, took Guy Fawkes to the Tower and cut off his head.
Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They burn a dummy,
made of straw and old clothes, on a bonfire and let off fireworks. This dummy is
called a “guy” (like Guy Fawkes) and children can often be seen in the streets
before the 15th of November saying, “Penny for the guy”. If they collect enough
money they can buy some fireworks.
There are also smaller, local festivals in Britain.
Good Friday is the Friday before Easter when the church marks the death of
Christ. On this day people eat hotcross-buns — small sweet rolls marked on top
with a cross. On Easter people give each other chocolate Easter eggs. Easter
Monday is a traditional day for the start of the summer tourist season, as schools
close for two weeks.
May Day Bank Holiday is the first Monday after May 1 (May Day). May Day
which is not a bank holiday is a celebration of the coming of spring. Different
outdoor events are held, and May-queen, the most beautiful girl of the celebration,
is selected. In villages throughout Britain children dance and sing round the
maypole1 to celebrate the end of winter and welcome summer.
Spring Bank Holiday falls on the last Monday in May. Summer (August) Bank
Holiday is held on the last Monday in August, These two bank holidays are great
days for excursions. in Britain people generally make a beeline for the coast.
Throngs of cars take to the road to get the family to some seaside resort for a bathe
or a game on the beach. On these days the beaches are crowded with visitors from
inland. On the last weekend in August there is a big carnival at Notting Hill in
West London. People who take part in it dress up in fabulous costumes. Bands play
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African and Caribean dance music people dance and blow whistles. It is the
biggest carnival outside Brasil.
Module 3
1. a) Read the text
below & fill in the names of the
holidays underlining the key
New Year’s Day, January, 1st
Washington’s Birthday, February,22
Independence Day, July, 4
Halloween, October, 31
Veterans Day
Thanksgiving Day, the fourth
Thursday in November
Memorial Day, May, 30
Valentine’s Day, February, 14
Labor Day, the first Monday in
Christmas Day, December, 25
American holidays are strikingly different in origin and show surprising
similarities in the manner of their celebration. No matter what the holiday’s origin
is, they all seem to be the same thing. A holiday has simply become, for most
Americans, a day off from work, though some (for example, Thanksgiving and
Christmas) retain some individuality.
The major holidays in the USA are:
………………………………….: People stay awake until after midnight on
December 31st to «watch the Old Year out and the New Year in». Many parties are
given on this night. Theatres, night clubs, restaurants are crowded. When midnight
comes, they greet the New Year: people gather in the streets of big cities, they ring
bells, blow whistles and automobile horns, some shoot off guns and firecrackers.
…………………………………..: It is not a national holiday. Banks and
offices do not close, but it is a happy little festival in honour of St. Valentine,
patron of sweethearts and lovers. It is widely celebrated among people all ages by
the exchange of «valentines». A «valentine» may mean a special greeting card or a
little present. The greeting cards are often coloured red, have red trimmings and
pictures of hearts.
…………………………………….: In addition to commemorating the birth
of the United States, first President, it’s a great day for shoppers. The department
stores of Washington, D.C., stated a national tradition of sales marked by unusual
bargains. It is not a national holiday. Many schools, offices and banks close for
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this day, some stay open. The US Congress observes the birthday of George
Washington with speeches and readings from his works.
it is in memory of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. It falls on the first
Sunday after the first full moon between March, 22, and April, 25. The 40 days
before ……………… are called Lent. Just before ……………., schools and
colleges usually close. The students have a week or ten days of spring vacation.
It is a church holiday, and many churches have an outdoor sunrise service.
People give each other presents of coloured or even decorated eggs which are the
symbol of new life. There is a popular belief that wearing three new things on
…………… will bring good luck throughout the year.
It is a national holiday. Schools, banks and offices close for the day. On that
day, Americans honour the servicemen who gave their lives in past wars. Schools,
clubs and churches decorate the cemeteries. They put up the flags on the graves of
the army, navy and airmen. They hold memorial services in churches, halls, parks
and cemeteries. In addition to solemn services ………………………….. is often
marked by other, more joyful ceremonies: colourful parades, sports competitions.
…………………………………………: On this day, in1776, America
signed the Declaration of Independence. It is a national public holiday celebrated
with fireworks and speeches praising «Americanism, democracy, free enterprise».
……………………………………..: It is a holiday of recreation. It marks
the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. Vacation time is over. Resorts,
camp and beaches close… Parents go to summer camps and take their children
back home.
……………………………………….: it is the day or evening before All
Saints Day. The customs of this holiday date back to a time when people believed
in devils, witches and ghosts. They thought that these evil spirits could do all kinds
of damage to property. Some people tried to ward off witches by painting magic
signs on their barns. Others tried to scare them away by nailing a piece of iron,
such as a horseshoe, over the door.
Now most people do not believe in evil spirits. On this day they just have a
nice holiday. Children dress up as ghosts and witches and go out into the streets to
beg. They go from house to house and say: «Trick of treat!», meaning «Give me a
treat or I’ll play a trick on you». People give them candy, cookies and apples.
A favourite custom is to make a jack-o,-lantern. Children scrape out a
pumpkin and cut the outlines of eyes, nose and mouth in its side. They light a
candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends. This custom refers to a man
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named Jack who still wanders around the earth lighting his way with a pumpkin
……………………………..: The fighting in World War 1 ended on
November, 11, 1918. The German signed an armistice with the Allies. For many
years this holiday was called Armistice Day. Now it is called …………………..
On this day, the radio and television broadcast services held at the National
Cemetery in Arlington. High officials come from Washington to attend these
services. They place a wreath of flowers at the tomb of the Unknown Soldier. All
stand in silence for a few minutes at eleven o’clock to honour of the servicemen in
the two World Wars.
In the USA it is a national Holiday. It was first celebrated in 1621 by the
Pilgrim Fathers after their first good harvest. It is a family day, for it is customary
for all members of the family to gather at the home of their parents. The family
eats a large traditional dinner, usually with turkey, cranberry sauce and pumpkin
It is usually a one-day official holiday, but it is precede and followed by
festive parties, and marked by special church services, gift-giving and is
a family holiday. Schools and colleges close between it and New Year’s Day.
People stay at home and spend the time with their families. Everybody tries to
come home for it. People send cards or Christmas tree, which is beautifully
decorated/ Santa Claus comes from the North Pole in his sleigh, dressed in red cap
and jacket, entering the house from chimney. He is a merry and fat individual. He
has gifts of whatever kind you may wish for – nothing is too fabulous nor too
trivial for him to provide.
b) Read the text
Бродить по миру
Нанести вред
Отпугивать (ведьм)
Приносить удачу
again & find the English equivalents for the following:
Дуть в свисток
Пускать феерверк
короткое перемирие
Злые духи (нечесть)
друг, союзник,
В санях
собираться дома
c) Make a report of any of these holidays in detail. Show pictures how people
celebrate it, comment on the importance & significance (if any) of this
holiday in American culture & ideology.
2. Halloween
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a) How many Halloween words
(adjectives)do you know?
(make up sentences)
b) Read this article & the
legend of Jack O’lantern
The history of Halloween
The name Halloween comes from the
original ‘hallowed’ (or holy) ‘evening’.
Many of the customs dated back ancient
times when people believed in magic &
In ancient Ireland, people believed that on this night the dead could return to
earth as witches, ghosts, scarecrows, bats, black cats or in other strange forms.
These creatures would perform all sort of wicked mischief. They were creatures of
the night & any form of light was a protection against them. People made special
lanterns, which they placed by windows & doors to keep the evil spirits away. In
time, these lanterns came to be made out of hollowed-out pumpkins with a scary
face carved on one side & a candle placed in the center. These are known as ‘jack
Halloween superstitions were brought over America in the 19 century &
have now been transformed into a creative seasonal celebration. Children dress up
as ghosts, vampires, werewolves, witches , monsters & other imaginative things.
On the evening of October 31st, they run from house to house calling ‘trick or treat,
smell my feet, give me something good to eat’. In other words, either you give
them a treat or I play a trick on you. Neighbor give them candy (‘treats’) & if they
don’t, the children might play a ‘trick’ on them, like dusting flour over their
doorstep, or making a lot of noise outside their windows. Of course, this is just
tradition, & adults all hand out a treat to the children. In the old days ’trick or
treat’ had to perform songs & shifts for their neighbors. If neigbours liked the
performance the children received a ‘treat’ – fruit or candy. If not, the neighbors
played the a trick on the children – like throwing water on them . Adults also dress
up & go to costume parties where they might receive prizes for the best or scariest
costume. One of the favorite activities at these parties is ‘bobbing for apples’ or
‘ducking for apples’ – a game during which the participants try to fetch apples out
of the container of water using only their mouth or to stab them with a fork.
People decorate their houses with cut-outs ghosts, witches, skeletons &
spider’swebs, as well as beautifully carved pumpkins. Stores sell all sots of goods
in the typical Halloween colors of orange & black. You can also buy pumpkin pie,
pumpkin cookies & even pumpkin ice-cream.
Halloween is thought to have originated among the ancient Celtic Druids.
The Druids believed that on that evening, October 31 – the day preceding the
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Christian feat of All Saints Day, Saman, the lord of the dead, called forth evil
In modern times, Halloween has become a fun-filled secular holiday which
focuses on ghoulish things like skeletons, cemeteries, warlocks, goblins & more. It
is celebrated on October 31 in some English speaking countries including the USA
& Canada.
c) The Legend of Jackolantern
Once upon a time one ordinary irish man named jack o’lantern lived in a
small town. There was nothing out of common about him, except one sin. He was a
confirmed drunkard. It happened to him on one sad evening. Having tossed a pair
of glasses if irish beer, he returned home in elated spirits. He made himself
comfortable in his shabby arm chair & began to fall asleep, when suddenly he felt
the light draft in the room. He open one eye & saw a strange vision. The terrible
creature ( with two horns & pair of hooves) stood in the middle of the carpet &
stared at Jack. He blinked hoping that demon would vanish. When he opened his
eyes again, the creature sat near him. The irish man wasn’t afraid, he often got into
troubles, because of his love of alcoholic beverages.
I’ve come for you, dear Jack. I’m sorry but it’s high time for you to abandon
the earth’ – said the imp.
Go to hell , you monster, replied Jack .
- We’ll go together, laughed the devil in response
- O’K, thought Jack - I’ll cheat you.
Showing no resistance, he suggested nice idea to the devil:
- Let’s go to the pub & have a bottle of beer.
The devil agreed. When they came to the bar it turned out that the imp was as
poor as a church mouse.
- You can turn to the coin. You’ll buy a bottle of drink. Then turn to the devil
back. Thus, you kill two birds with one stone
After a minute , sixpence coin lay on the counter. Quickly Jack captured the coin,
put it into his purse & marked the cross on the purse. The devil shouted but ha
couldn’t get out. Then the imp begged
- Let me out of here, Jack, I promise to fulfill any of your request .
Jack asked to give him time for amendment. The devil kept his promise &
disappeared. One year almost passed, only one week left. But Jack reassured
himself that one week would be enough for great changes. Sure that he missed the
time. The same creature appeared in flesh again in his room.
- O’K ,Jack. Now you’ll come with me. You’ll never mislead me again.
- That’s right . you’ve won, murmured Jack in answer. But I have only one wish.
I want to eat an apple. Can you let me.
The devil was a perfect fool. It climbed the tree to treat Jack to apple. When it was
at the top, Jack put the cross on the roots of an apple tree. Thus , it couldn’t go
down. The imp exclaimed in rage.
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- I don’t want to see you again, Jack , you bastard , & it crumbled to dust. Many
years passed.
The health of Jack was absolutely ruined by alcohol. He could
breathe, but death wouldn’t come. He went to God, but
angels didn’t let him in the paradise. He asked the devil
for help, but it didn’t want to see him, but the imp took
on him & gave him pumpkin with a candle fixed inside &
- You’re damned. You’ll be roaming around the world
with this pumpkin & all people will be afraid of you.
You’ll never find a shelter for your soul!
1. Who the first celebrated what we’ve come to know as
a) the Druids b) the Romans c)the Christians
2. The tradition of dressing up started because:
a) We try to scare away the evil spirit b) it’s a way to honor the dead
c) When the evil spirits came, they wouldn’t recognize you
3. The celebration of Samhain is to honor:
a) the God of the dead
b) the end of the summer
c) the priest who held the first Halloween service
4. The Romans called Halloween Pomona Day, who or what was Pomona?
a) the town where the Romans first celebrated Pomona Day
b) the goddess of fruits & gardens
c) the place where evil spirits dwell
5. Halloween falls on the night before:
a) All Soul’s Day
b) All Saint’s Day
c) The first Harvest Moon
Is Halloween a harmless time for kids to have fun? Or is it
a modern type of devil worship? Or is it simply too
dangerous for children in today’s world?
Halloween should be banned
Satan worship & witchcraft are alive & well. To deny that is just ignorant, &
foolish. To make jokes doesn’t change the fact that this is a very real threat in
today’s world. To continue to celebrate a day which is the most important day
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of the year to most Satan worshipers is ridiculous& dangerous. Our children
learn from us & trust us. I think we should live up to that responsibility &
protect them. Let’s not encourage the dark-side… let’s fight it whenever we can
Mick , 30
Halloween is a lie!
Yes, Halloween has come to be an innocent fun day for kids. But you must be
aware of the evil that’s definitely out there. Believe it or not, I have known too
many people who either are or have been Satan worshippers, & Halloween is
there night. (I won’t even call it a ‘holiday’ because that means ‘holy-day’). If
you don’t believe in the devil, how do you explain all the evil in the world? To
make this day seem harmless is just another way he deceives the world. I would
suggest you investigate… read a little. Start with the Bible. Wake up!
Name withheld
I believe Halloween should be banned. If you read about Halloween , it all
started from witchcraft. When humans were sacrificed to the devil. It’s a devil’s
holiday turned into a good holiday. I personally believe they should ban
Halloween, but people are going to do want they want. There’s nothing you
can say to your kids to defend this so-called holiday. Once the kids come out of
age they will find out for themselves.
No! Don’t ban Halloween!
Hi, Patty,
Satan worship is alive & well I’m sure, but that is not the origin of
Halloween, so why ban a great holiday for their sake? Witchcraft is a pagan
religion, there are lots of witches who are willing to explain their practices, & it
doesn’t seem like they are a threat to humanity. Halloween doesn't have to be
dangerous if a few simple precautions are taken. Make sure children’s
costumes won’t restrict movement, can be seen easily in the dark, & make sure
they are accompanied on their trick-or-treat. Don’t let kids eat the sweets until
they are home again & you have inspected every one.
You’re right, children do look up to us, so why not show them that they
can rise abovenegative bahavior such as Satan worship & enjoy a great time?
Halloween is fun for adults too, & it can be a great stress reliever for us
Kate Gallivan, Board Leader,
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Being a grandparent I’m mad as hell just to think that there are people out
there that would want to destroy an innocent child’s enjoyment. If some one
said to me that Halloween was devil worship I’d ask them if they were lost in a
dream world
Maude Browne
They should not ban Halloween!
Halloween shouldn’t be banned ! it outrages me that some people would try
to take awaythe tradition that lets children have fun & get the candy that they
love to eat. It is definitely NOT devil worship, & whoever thinks so is just plain
stupid. How can people can actually believe that young children practice devil
worship, when 99 percent of the time they don’t even what it is? &many young
girls dress up in fancy little dresses &put makeup on their faces, which can
definitely not be defined as devil worship. So thank you for hearing my opinion
of the story, which is obviously the correct one.
Sincerely, Briana, a 14 year old in California
All you have to do is to join in the festivals to know that it;s good way for
families with children to have fun. Even if you don’t have children it’s
good way to socialize at costume parties, make new friends& generally
forget about the stresses of everyday life. I have children & I take
precautions to protect my kids. I believe al children should experience
trick or treating. Any responsible parents would make sure to check ALL
candy & do not let them eat anything homemade, unless it’s form
someone you know & trust with your children’s life. Lighten up, we need
these kind of holidays not only as a celebration, but also as an outlet to
the stresses of everyday life.
Sally, mother of 2
Halloween has to be one of the best times of the year for kids. It is a time when they can
be someone or something else & have fun with it. It keeps their minds creative. Take
away Halloween & you yourself become devil!
Name withheld
Have we forgotten that this is AMERICA?
It is not really up for debate whether we should or shouldn’t celebrate
Halloween. Give me a break! Those that wish to celebrate it. As I have all me
life, may do so & those who don’t want to are free not to. Have we forgotten
that this is the American way? How can we debate whether people have
rights to celebrate a holiday or not? I thought we settled that we left Britain
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many years ago. People can do what they like as long as they remember that
others also have the right to behave how they like – that’s what makes us
American. So although I will celebrate Halloween I also support all those who
Jimmy, 19
Module 3
Valentine's Day
1. a) Discuss:
 What are the symbols of love in
your country?
 What do you know of this holiday?
What do you usually do on that
occasion? What is people’s opinion of
celebrating that holiday in Russia?
b) Read the text about the origin of that holiday &
underline the key words that are necessary to retell the
Text 1
Valentine's Day History
There are varying opinions of the origin of Valentine's Day. Some experts
state that it came from St. Valentine, a Roman who was martyred for refusing to
give up Christianity. He died on February 14, 269 A.D., the same day that had
been devoted to love lotteries. Legend also says that St. Valentine left a farewell
note for the jailer's daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it "From
Your Valentine". Other aspects of the story say that Saint Valentine served as a
priest at the temple during the reign of Emperor Claudius. Claudius then had
Valentine jailed for defying him. In 496 A.D. Pope Gelasius set aside February 14
to honour St. Valentine.
Gradually, February 14 became the date for exchanging love messages and
St. Valentine became the patron saint of lovers. The date was marked by sending
poems and simple gifts such as flowers. There was often a social gathering or a
In the United States, Miss Esther Howland is given credit for sending the
first valentine cards. Commercial valentines were introduced in the 1800's and now
the date is very commercialised. The town of Loveland, Colorado, does a large
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post office business around February 14. The spirit of good continues as valentines
are sent out with sentimental verses and children exchange valentine cards at
c) Answer the questions
 How many opinions are there about the origin of that holiday?
 According to the legends who was St. Valentine?
 What do people do on that day?
 What are commercial valentines? When did thy appear? What does it mean
‘the holiday became commercialized’?
d) Find the English equivalent for the following & make up
sentences with the words
Мученик, до нашей эры, тюремщик, священник, оказать сопротивление,
коммерческие открытки, отвергнуть христианство, покровитель,
происходить, обмен валентинками, дух добра.
Text 2 &3
2. Read the two texts about one more origin of that holiday
in more detail. Compare these two texts. Are they the same?
In what are they different? Which is more interesting to read
& easier to understand & remember? What is the target
audience for the second text?
The History of Saint Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day started in the time of the Roman Empire. In ancient Rome,
February 14th was a holiday to honour Juno. Juno was the Queen of the Roman
Gods and Goddesses. The Romans also knew her as the Goddess of women and
marriage. The following day, February 15th, began the Feast of Lupercalia.
The lives of young boys and girls were strictly separate. However, one of the
customs of the young people was drawing. On the eve of the festival of Lupercalia
the names of Roman girls were written on slips of paper and placed into jars.
Each young man would draw a girl's name from the jar and would then be partners
for the duration of the festival with the girl whom he chose. Sometimes the pairing
of the children lasted an entire year, and often, they would fall in love and would
later marry.
Under the rule of Emperor Claudius II
Rome was involved in many bloody and
unpopular campaigns. Claudius the Cruel was
having a difficult time getting soldiers to join
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his military leagues. He believed that the reason was that roman men did not want
to leave their loves or families. As a result, Claudius cancelled all marriages and
engagements in Rome. The good Saint Valentine was a priest at Rome in the days
of Claudius II. He and Saint Marius aided the Christian martyrs and secretly
married couples, and for this kind deed Saint Valentine was arrested and the
Prefect of Rome condemned (приговорил) him to be beaten to death with clubs
(дубинка, палица) and to have his head cut off. He suffered martyrdom on the
14th day of February, about the year 270. At that time it was the custom in Rome,
a very ancient custom, indeed, to celebrate in the month of February the
Lupercalia, feasts in honour of a heathen (языческий) god. On these occasions,
amidst a variety of pagan ceremonies, the names of young women were placed in a
box, from which they were drawn by the men as chance directed.
The pastors of the early Christian Church in Rome tried to do away with the
pagan element in these feasts by substituting the names of saints for those of
maidens. And as the Lupercalia began about the middle of February, the pastors
appear to have chosen Saint Valentine's Day for the celebration of this new feast.
So it seems that the custom of young men choosing maidens for valentines, or
saints as patrons for the coming year, arose in this way.
St. Valentine's Story
Let me introduce myself. My name
is Valentine. I lived in Rome during the
third century. That was long, long ago! At
that time, Rome was ruled by an emperor
named Claudius. I didn't like Emperor
Claudius, and I wasn't the only one! A lot
of people shared my feelings.
Claudius wanted to have a big army.
He expected men to volunteer to join.
Many men just did not want to fight in wars. They did not want to leave their
wives and families. As you might have guessed, not many men signed up. This
made Claudius furious. So what happened? He had a crazy idea. He thought that if
men were not married, they would not mind joining the army. So Claudius decided
not to allow any more marriages. Young people thought his new law was cruel. I
thought it was preposterous! I certainly wasn't going to support that law!
Did I mention that I was a priest? One of my favourite activities was to
marry couples. Even after Emperor Claudius passed his law, I kept on performing
marriage ceremonies -- secretly, of course. It was really quite exciting. Imagine a
small candlelit room with only the bride and groom and myself. We would whisper
the words of the ceremony, listening all the while for the steps of soldiers.
One night, we did hear footsteps. It was scary! Thank goodness the couple I
was marrying escaped in time. I was caught. (Not quite as light on my feet as I
used to be, I guess.) I was thrown in jail and told that my punishment was death.
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I tried to stay cheerful. And do you know what? Wonderful things happened.
Many young people came to the jail to visit me. They threw flowers and notes up
to my window. They wanted me to know that they, too, believed in love.
One of these young people was the daughter of the prison guard. Her father
allowed her to visit me in the cell. Sometimes we would sit and talk for hours. She
helped me to keep my spirits up. She agreed that I did the right thing by ignoring
the Emperor and going ahead with the secret marriages. On the day I was to die, I
left my friend a little note thanking her for her friendship and loyalty. I signed it,
"Love from your Valentine."
I believe that note started the custom of exchanging love messages on
Valentine's Day. It was written on the day I died, February 14, 269 A.D. Now,
every year on this day, people remember. But most
importantly, they think about love and friendship.
And when they think of Emperor Claudius, they
remember how he tried to stand in the way of love,
and they laugh - because they know that love can't
be beaten!
 What is the social meaning of
the holiday?
Text 4
3. Read the text & discuss the
valentine traditions & superstitions
Valentine Traditions
Hundreds of years ago in England, many
children dressed up as adults on Valentine's Day.
They went singing from home to home. One verse
they sang was:
Good morning to you, valentine;
Curl your locks as I do mine --Two before and three behind.
Good morning to you, valentine.
In Wales wooden love spoons were carved and given as gifts on February
14th. Hearts, keys and keyholes were favourite decorations on the spoons. The
decoration meant, "You unlock my heart!"
In the Middle Ages, young men and women drew names from a bowl to see
who their valentines would be. They would wear these names on their sleeves for
one week. To wear your heart on your sleeve now means that it is easy for other
people to know how you are feeling.
In some countries, a young woman may receive a gift of clothing from a young
man. If she keeps the gift, it means she will marry him.
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Some people used to believe that if a woman saw a robin (малиновка)
flying overhead on Valentine's Day, it meant she would marry a sailor. If she saw a
sparrow (воробей), she would marry a poor man and be very happy. If she saw a
goldfinch (щегол), she would marry a millionaire.
A love seat is a wide chair. It was first made to seat one woman and her wide
dress. Later, the love seat or courting seat had two sections, often in an S-shape. In
this way, a couple could sit together -- but not too closely!
Think of five or six names of boys or girls you might marry. As you twist
the stem (стебель) of an apple, recite the names until the stem comes off. You will
marry the person whose name you were saying when the stem fell off.
Pick a dandelion (одуванчи к) that has gone to seed. Take a deep breath and
blow the seeds into the wind. Count the seeds that remain on the stem. That is the
number of children you will have.
If you cut an apple in half and count how many seeds are inside, you will
also know how many children you will have.
4. Follow up discussions
a) Below is the poem ‘Valentine’. Read it &
decide which symbol of love the poet is offering her
Not a red rose or satin heart
I give you an onion
It is a moon wrapped in
brown paper
It promises light like the careful undressing of
Here it will blind you with tears like a lover
It will make your reflection
a wobbling photo of grief
I’m trying to be truthful.
Not a cute card or kissogramm
I give an onion
Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips,
Possessive & faithful as we are,
for as long as we are
Take it. its platinum loops shrink to
If you like. Lethal.
Its scent will cling to your fingers,
cling to your knife
Carol Ann Duffy
b) Read the statements below & sat what you think
which statement the poet would agree with & why?
Love is a wonderful romantic thing
Love will make you cry
Love lasts for ever
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c) Listen to the poem & then listen to some people
discussing it.
d) What do you think of the poem & love.
Module 3
1. Read the descriptions of the holidays
celebrated in Russian & match them to the their title
a) April 12 - Yew Sunday.
b) January 7 - Russian Orthodox
c) September 1 - Day of Knowledge.
d) October 5 - Teacher's Day
e) November 4 - Day of Accord and
f) March 2-9 – Maslenitsa.
g) March 8 - Women's Day
h) April 1 - Day of Laughs.
i) April 19 - Russian Easter.
j) May 1 - Day of Labor and Spring.
k) May 9 - Day of Victory.
l) June 1 - Day of Children's
m) June 12 - Day of Independence
n) January 1 - New Year
o) January 13 - Russian Old New
p) January 19 – Epiphany.
q) January 25 - Student's Day
(Tatiana's Day).
r) February 23 - Day of the Army
1. ………………………………………………………..
This is one of the greatest non-religious holidays in Russia,
celebrated on a noble scale. The main attributes are the New
Year's tree, Grandfather Frost, and the Snow Maiden. This
amazing holiday is accompanied by the Presidential speech,
chime of bells, fireworks, hymns, and family feasts. It is a
tradition to drink a glass of Champagne and to wish for
something after the last stroke of chime. Gift-giving is
especially loved by children: sweets, toys, dolls, bicycle, etc.
But grown-ups also do not miss a chance to congratulate each
other on the beginning of New Year. The best gifts for this
holiday are: fruit basket, jewelry, wool blankets, wine.
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2. ………………………………………………………..
Religious holiday, celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ.
According to the Russian Orthodox church, Christmas occurs
on January 7. All the family members gather on this day
together and have a delicious dinner. Duck with apples is a
traditional meal for Russians on this day. Many people attend
special church services and pray. Like New Year, Russian
Orthodox Christmas is a family holiday. Among presents for
this day the 1st places are taken by fruit basket and wool
3. ………………………………………………………..
The tradition to celebrate this holiday is explained by the fact
that the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the old
calendar. On this day we say farewell to the passed year,
hoping that next year will realize all our dreams. They say that
it's also a good chance, for those who haven't managed to relax
to their fullest during New Year celebrations, to have fun. Giftgiving is not compulsory for this holiday, but to please their
close friends and relatives, people can present soft toys or some
6. ………………………………………………………..
It's a great religious holiday. On the eve of Epiphany it's
customary to make holy water at the church and wash yourself
with this water. Many people connect this holiday with the
beginning of the strongest frost, called "Epiphany frosts". The
most decisive men practice bathing in the ice-hole, cut out in
the form of a cross. For such brave people the best presents for
this holiday will be soft towels.
7. ………………………………………………………..
It's the founding day of the State Moscow University and at the
same time the holiday of all Russian students. This day was
previously known as the day of the saint martyr Tatiana, who
was later declared the patroness of the Russian Studentship.
This holiday is celebrated heavily all over Russia. The most
typical presents for students are textbooks, books, dictionaries,
and for ladies with the name "Tatiana" – flowers, perfume and
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8. ………………………………………………………..
The origin of this day goes back to 1922, when the formation
of the Russian Red Army began. All the defenders of our
motherland celebrate this great holiday together with their
families. Grandfathers (veterans of different wars), fathers,
brothers, uncles, sons, nephews are congratulated, no matter
whether they are real soldiers, military men or just future
defenders. Gifts must typically be manlike; however in Russia
very often among military men you can find women. And for
them it is a real pleasure to receive something feminine for this
"Men's Day": flowers, perfume, elegant dresses and shoes.
9. ………………………………………………………..
………… Cheesefare Week, or Pancake, week is a
Russian religious and folk holiday. In 2008 it will be celebrated
from the 2nd till the 9th of March. ......... has a dual ancestry:
pagan and Christian. On the pagan side, ……………. is a sun
festival, celebrating the imminent end of the winter. On the
Christian side, …………. is the last week before the onset of
Great Lent. Pancakes, masquerades, snowball fights, sledding,
effigy of Lady …………… (called Kostroma) and a great
bonfire are the symbols of this typically Russian holiday.
Among gifts there may be Recipe-books, tea-sets and, of
course, sweets.
10. ……………………………………………………..
All the women and young ladies are looking forward to this
great and important holiday. It's a deserved day when women
can relax to the fullest, get as much attention, love,
compliments, presents and flowers as they want. All the day,
ladies are devote to themselves, go for different beauty
services, and their loving husbands and boyfriends prepare
magnificent Romantic dinners, give them gorgeous bouquets of
flowers and jewelry. And in the evening couples can go for a
"sweet love story" to cinemas or theatres and enjoy the
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
11. ……………………………………………………..
The day is marked by the commission of hoaxes and other
practical jokes of varying sophistication on friends, enemies
and neighbors. Russian jokes and hoaxes are harmless in
comparison with American ones. The most popular phrase this
day is: "Your back is white!" Nobody knows the origin of the
Day of Laughs, but involves making fun of other people with
great pleasure. Presents are not typical for this holiday, if it's
not something really amusing. It's better to present a ticket to
some comedy or a ticket to the Ice Palace where everybody
will have a lot of fun.
12. ……………………………………………………..
It's a religious Christian holiday, celebration the entering of
Jesus to Jerusalem. It's customary to decorate rooms with
willow branches, which symbolize palm branches of the people
who met Jesus. This holiday occurs on Sunday one week
before the Easter. In 2009 it will be celebrated on the 12th of
13. ……………………………………………………..
It's an ancient Christian holiday, commemorating the
Resurrection of Jesus Christ. In 2009 it will be celebrated on
April, 19. There is always a great church service for all the
parishes. During the day there are different open-air
celebrations. The symbols of Russian Easter are painted eggs
(eggs - breaking) and Easter cakes (kulichi). You can send such
presents as a pizza, fruit basket or a pot-plant (as a symbol of
life and coming summer).
14. ……………………………………………………..
Previously it was called May Day. It was an important official
holiday of the Soviet Union, celebrated with elaborate popular
parades in the centre of the major cities. It was first openly
celebrated on May 1, 1917. The biggest celebration was
traditionally organized in the Red Square. After the demise of
the Soviet Union, May Day became a two-day holiday (Labor
Day and Spring Holiday). Spring flowers will be the best
present for someone special on this day.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
15. ……………………………………………………..
Victory Day marks the capitulation of Nazi Germany to
the Soviet Union in the Second World War in 1945. All the
veterans take part in the parades in their native cities and in the
Great Parade in Moscow. The president addresses the people
with a greeting speech, and congratulating the whole country
with the victory. After the parades different open-air
celebrations are organized (concerts, competitions, etc). This
wonderful day ends with a great fireworks display. Veterans
will be pleased to receive some wool blankets or flowers
(especially, carnations) on this holiday.
The holiday originated in France in 1949, but was first
celebrated in Russia in 1950. The whole day is devoted to
children's rights. Different meetings are held for the defense of
children. Lots of organizations organize concerts, competitions,
and performances for children; they visit orphanages and help
with toys, furniture, and books for the orphans. The motto of
this day is: Children are our Future!!! Toys, sweets, bicycle,
tickets for cartoons and comedies make children smile.
17. ……………………………………………………..
It is the main state holiday of the Russian Federation. It marks
the declaration of Russian Sovereignty (from 1991). Since
2002 according to the decree of the President this holiday
became the Holiday of Russia. There are lots of concerts,
meetings, and festivals on this day, ending with a great
fireworks display. All the buildings are decorated with small
Russian flags, and the whole atmosphere is festive and solemn.
The best present for this day is something typically Russian: a
wristwatch with a Russian flag on it, a good Russian movie or
18. ……………………………………………………..
It's a very important day for all the students in Russia. It is the
day when the school year traditionally starts in Russia, and
many other former USSR republics. It has special significance
for the incoming class of 1st graders who will come to school
for the first time and often participate in a celebratory assembly
on this date. Students in other grades may begin studies on 1st
of September or a few days later, usually without any special
festivities. Students bring bouquets of flowers to their teachers,
and very often students go to cinemas and their parents present
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
them with books, sweets, etc.
19. ……………………………………………………..
It was celebrated for the first time in 1965. Till 1994 Teacher's
Day always occurred on the first Sunday of October, but then it
was decided to celebrate it on October, 5. It's a professional
holiday of all the teachers in Russia. They receive presents,
flowers, and greeting cards from their students. All the schools
organize special concerts where children congratulate teachers
on this wonderful holiday.
20. ……………………………………………………..
Previously this holiday was celebrated on the 7th of November
and was called the Day of the October Revolution. But later it
was decided to celebrate it earlier and to change the name. It's a
tradition to apologize on this day for all the bad things you've
done. If a person has some enemies or he/she was offended by
somebody, he/she must forgive those people and make peace
with them. Some people give presents (toys, fruit basket,
sweets, etc) on this day to their close friends or relatives to
please them.
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Часть 2 Module 3
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30. All pictures taken from
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Учебное издание
Войткова Анастасия Николаевна
(in the world of linguo-cultural studies & cross
cultural communication)
Учебное пособие
Печатается в авторской редакции
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