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240.Let`s speak about family and traditions

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
О. В. Евстафиади, Л. А. Ласица, М. Ю. Романюк
LET‘S SPEAK ABOUT FAMILY AND TRADITIONS
Рекомендовано Ученым советом федерального государственного бюджетного
образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет» в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального
образования по направлению подготовки 035700.62 Лингвистика
Оренбург
ОГУ 2014
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УДК 811.111‘27 (075.8)
ББК 81.432.1 я73
Е26
Рецензент – доктор педагогических наук, профессор В.Л. Темкина
Е26
Евстафиади, О. В.
Let‘s speak about family and traditions: учебное пособие ⁄ О.В.
Евстафиади; Л.А. Ласица, М.Ю. Романюк; Оренбургский гос.
ун-т. – Оренбург : ОГУ, 2014. –143 с.
ISBN
В учебном пособии «Let‘s speak about family and traditions»
представлены упражнения и задания, необходимые для успешного освоения
разделов «Воспитание детей: проблемы и трудности», «Семейная жизнь»,
«Праздники и традиции».
Учебное пособие предназначено для обеспечения аудиторной и
самостоятельной работы бакалавров очной формы обучения по направлению
035700.62 Лингвистика, профили «Теория и методика преподавания
иностранных языков и культур» и «Перевод и перереводоведение» по
дисциплине «Практический курс первого иностранного языка» в 7 – 8
семестрах.
УДК 811.111‘27 (075.8)
ББК 81.432.1 я73
ISBN
© Евстафиади О. В.,
Ласица, Л. А.,
Романюк М. Ю., 2014
© ОГУ, 2014
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Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………. 4
1 Upbringing…………………………………………………………………… 5
2 Family life……………………………………………………………………. 43
3 Festivals and special occasions….…………………………………………… 88
Bibliography………………………….………………………………………... 140
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Introduction
«Let‘s speak about family and traditions» – учебное пособие к
практическому курсу первого иностранного языка, предназначенное для
обеспечения аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов-бакалавров
очной формы обучения по направлению 035700.62 – Лингвистика, профилям
«Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур» и «Перевод
и перереводоведение» с целью систематизации и обобщения практического
материала по темам «Воспитание детей: проблемы и трудности», «Семейная
жизнь» и «Обычаи и традиции» (в соответствии с 22, 31 и 33 разделами рабочей
программы).
Учебное пособие состоит из трех разделов: «Upbringing», «Family life»,
«Festivals and special occasions ». Каждый раздел включает в себя задания
способствующие совершенствованию навыков речевого общения, чтения,
письма и аудирования.
В каждом разделе используется материал медиаконтента на английском
языке. Студентам предлагается выполнить задания, связанные с поиском
информации по изучаемым темам, а затем выразить собственное мнение;
прослушать речь носителей языка или просмотреть аутентичные видеосюжеты;
выполнить
проверочные
задания
с
возможностью
самоконтроля.
Использование материалов разнообразных on-line ресурсов призвано повысить
познавательный интерес учащихся к процессу обучения и сформировать
навыки информационной грамотности.
Необходимость создания данного учебного пособия продиктована
потребностью ознакомить студентов с представленными интернет ресурсами,
направить их способности владения компьютером в образовательное русло,
сформировать более высокий уровень самообразовательных навыков, умения
ориентироваться в информационных потоках и выделять главное, обобщать,
делать выводы и использовать их в процессе общения на английском языке.
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1 Upbringing
Lead-in
Picture 1.
Look at the pictures above (Picture 1). Describe the children and their
parents. Are they happy or not? What problems can parents and their children
have?
a.
b.
e.
f.
c.
d.
g.
h.
Picture 2.
Task 1. Look at the pictures above (Picture 2) and match them to the
character adjectives.
1. optimistic
5. ambitious
2. sociable
6. hard-working
3. shy
7. lazy
4. moody
8. untidy
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Task 2. Do the quiz given below and discover what kind of person you are.
What kind of person are you?
1.
Do you usually smile?
2.
Do you enjoy the company of other people?
3.
Do you find it difficult to meet new people?
4.
Do you have definite plans for your future career?
5.
Does your mood change often and suddenly for no reason?
6.
Do you notice other people‘s feelings?
7.
Do you think the future will be good?
8.
Can your friends depend on you?
9.
Is your room often a mess?
10.
Do you get annoyed if you have to wait for anyone or anything?
11.
Do you put off until tomorrow what you could do today?
12.
Do you work hard?
13.
Do you keep your feelings and ideas to yourself?
14.
Do you often give presents?
15.
Do you talk a lot?
16.
Are you usually calm and not worried by things?
Task 3. Match these adjectives with the questions in the quiz.
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reliable
lazy
optimistic
generous
sociable
moody
talkative
hardworking
reserved
easy-going
shy
untidy
impatient
cheerful
ambitious
sensitive
Which adjectives describe you?
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Task 4. Which adjectives describe positive qualities and which describe
negative? Which describe both?
Positive
Negative
Both
reliable
Task 5. Write the opposite of the adjectives in Task 4. Remember that the
prefixes in- and un- can sometimes be used to make negatives. Which of the
adjectives can use these?
Task 6. Describe any person from Task 1 using as many character
adjectives from Task 3 as possible.
Task 7. Describe any person in the class to your partner, but don‘t say
who it is. Ask your partner to guess who it is.
Task 8. Match each adjective (1-11) with its synonym or near-synonym (ak).
1.
half-witted
a.
outgoing
2.
impolite
b.
curt
3.
inward-looking
c.
down-to-earth
4.
quarrelsome
d.
sly
5.
sensible
e.
stubborn
6.
obstinate
f.
dim
7.
brusque
g.
bright
8.
cunning
h.
introverted
9.
smart
i.
reliable
10.
trustworthy
j.
discourteous
11.
sociable
k.
argumentative
Task 9. Which people does the speaker approve of and which does the
speaker not approve of?
Example: Jack’s miserly but Jill is generous.
The speaker doesn't approve of Jack but does approve of Jill.
a. Sam is broad-minded and Sue is original.
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b. Amos is inquisitive and Anna is naive.
c.
Mark is arrogant and Mary is curt.
d.
Dave‘s pig-headed and Debby‘s brusque.
e. John is pushy but Jane is assertive.
Task 10. Rewrite the sentences in Task 9. Use adjectives given below to
show that this speaker has a different opinion about if the people‘s traits of
character are positive or negative.
ambitious
inquiring
frank
bossy
open
innocent
determined
self-assured
unprincipled
extravagant
thrifty
weird
Example: I don’t agree. I think Jack is thrifty and Jill is extravagant.
Task 11. Match the adjectives given below to the people who are being
described.
jealous
relaxed
eccentric
optimistic
envious
gifted
sincere
sensitive
nosy
cruel
easy-going
Example: optimistic – Jill always sees the bright side of things.
a.
Robert always wants what other people have got.
b.
Sandra plays the piano better than anyone else I know.
c.
Beth takes everything in her stride and never gets upset.
d.
Paul seems to enjoy pulling his cat‘s tail.
e.
Dan doesn‘t mind what we do when we stay at his place.
f.
You always know that Clare means what she says.
g.
Julie felt terrible when her boyfriend left her for someone else.
h.
Becky only ever wears black clothes and black lipstick.
i. Whenever we have visitors, our neighbour Fred is at his window watching who
it is.
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j. Emma always gets very upset if she feels that she is being criticised or laughed
at.
Task 12. Match the words with their definitions.
aggressive
a person who hurts, persecutes, or intimidates weaker people
outgoing
relieving (someone) of anxieties
bullying
kind or lenient, often to excess
consistent
a rough, vicious, or violent person
just
imposing control by oneself on one's own feelings, desires, or
actions
reassuring
(of a person) fond of company; sociable
self-restrained
holding to the same principles
indulging
fair and right
impulsive
harsh or sharp
fussy
physically or mentally strong and able to cope with hardship
rough
refusing to agree or give in
tough
moody or silent because of anger or resentment
selfish
very particular about detail
sulky
tending to act without thinking first
stubborn
concerned chiefly with one's own personal profit or pleasure
belligerent
determined to do things in one's own way
willful
marked by readiness to fight
Task 13. Answer the questions using the vocabulary under study. Motivate
your answer.
Which of the following traits of character do you find positive and negative?
What traits of character do you consider most favourable for a child?
Which traits of character are brought about: a) by harsh discipline and pressure;
b) by lack of control, discipline and permissiveness?
What kind of parents‘ attitude may make a child irresponsible and unable to
cope with difficulties?
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Under what circumstances would a child grow confident, self-possessed and
able to cope with difficulties?
Task 14. Read the following texts and say what kind of grown-ups the
narrators have grown. Use the topical vocabulary.
1)
I grew up in a huge family and I helped my mother look after the
younger children. It never crossed my mind to complain about having to do this. As
kids, we all knew we had to help out.
2)
I was an only child and my parents gave me everything. They worried
about me all the time and they were very selective about the children they would
allow me to play with.
3)
When I was a child we lived really well. We had a beautiful house, a
maid and expensive foreign holidays. My parents never saved a penny. Then my
father lost his job. After that we were always terribly short of money and I couldn't go
to college because I had to go out and get a job.
4)
I was very close to my grandparents when I was growing up. They used
to take me out and buy me things and tell me all kinds of stories which I loved
listening to.
Task 15. Choose any cartoon character from the pictures below (Picture 3)
and describe his or her childhood using the vocabulary from Tasks 8, 10, 11, 12.
Pay special attention to the events that influenced their characters.
a.
d.
b.
c.
e.
f.
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g.
h.
i.
Picture 3.
Task 16. Follow the link http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/i-wannatalk-about/my-son (Picture 4) and listen to Ron who talks about his pride and joy
- his lovely son. Do the given vocabulary exercises and the tasks suggested to
check your comprehension.
Picture 4.
Task 17. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=beuvyZfBFGQ
(Picture 5) and watch a video which depicts the teens talking about living with
parents and siblings. Note down the things they argue about and how they get
along.
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Picture 5.
Task 18. Agree or disagree with the statements. Motivate your answers
using the topical vocabulary.
a)
There‘s never a problem child, there are only
problem parents.
b)
Children are not supposed to have their opinion, but if they do, the adults
ignore them.
c)
Under dictatorial control adolescents work enthusiastically, show much
initiative.
d)
The difference between a child and an adult amounts to achieving the
state of independence.
e)
The most painful time is adolescence with intense feelings, lack of
confidence and rebellion authority.
f)
The essence of happiness is complete freedom from care.
g)
Most adults think of their childhood as being most happy time.
Task 19. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djCG9gNbcw
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(Picture 6) and watch a video which depicts the impact of ADHD 1 on a family.
Describe Liam‘s behaviour using the topical vocabulary. Sum up the problems
of Liam‘s upbringing. Express your opinion on this problem and suggest
possible way-outs of this situation.
Picture 6.
Task 20. Read the text to find out how parents in an Amazonian Indian
tribe bring up their children.
―We never hit children or even like to scold them. We
like to pick them up or ask them what is wrong, because if
we punish them they will grow up to be difficult or badtempered. So we bring up our children mainly by talking
and explaining things to them‖.
(Chief of Amazonian Indian tribe)
1
ADHD is an abbreviation for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is a
psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant
problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for
a person‘s age.
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Answer the questions:
Do you agree with this way of bringing up children?
Compare their way of upbringing with the way children are brought up
in your society.
Task 21. Write down five characteristics of ideal parents. Think about
factors such as age, personality and behaviour.
Task 22. Make a list of ways in which parents discipline their children.
Discuss the questions given below for each punishment on the list.
1.
Is this a reasonable punishment for a child in our
society?
2.
What age of child is each punishment suitable for?
3.
Who can give this punishment to a child (parents, teachers, other
relatives)?
Task 23. Read the letter of Jennifer Stark written to a British psychologist
Virginia Ironside given below. What problem does Jennifer have?
Dear Virginia,
I’m a loving aunt to my younger half-sister’s children. I see a great deal of
them and my only problem is that I feel she’s too hard on them. They seem
permanently to be on the “naughty step” and often when I go round there I find
one or other of them sitting unhappily on the stairs, choking back their sobs and
waiting for permission to return to the playroom. They’re only two and three years
old, and my heart bleeds for them. Can I say anything? I feel so powerless.
Yours sincerely, Jennifer Stark.
Task 24. Read the answers that were given by two readers by e-mail to
Jennifer and choose the best title for each letter.
a. Set an example;
b. Pamper-Resistent;
c. Give her a break;
d. Nagging won't help;
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e. Naughty toddlers.
1. Your sister may be feeling
2. Your heart bleeds for the
anxious and need reassurance that she
children, but do tread softly – and don‘t
is being a good parent. If you show her
nag. Try showing more compassion for
that you cherish her children by
your half-sister because she‘s obviously
praising them and her, she may copy
stressed. Caring for two toddlers is an
your
called
exhausting business. If she‘s feeling
modelling, and by being set an
trapped at home, your frequent calls
example she may change her parenting
may be adding to the pressure on her.
style, and as she begins to feel more
Offer to take the kids off her hands
confident her anxiety may abate.
whenever possible. Go out with them on
behaviour.
This
is
Certainly learning to play with
your own for an hour or two, while their
one‘s children is a skill to develop and
mother gets some valuable time to
something that doesn‘t necessarily
herself. Have them round to your place
come naturally.
on a regular basis. Bring more variety
and fun into their lives – that‘s the best
Shirley Strowbridge
gift any aunt can provide.
Bella Turner
Task 25. Make four true sentences:
Shirley Strowbridge
advises to take the children out and let the mother have rest.
thinks that showing care and praising the children would
help.
Bella Turner
thinks showing more compassion to the toddlers' mother
would make the situation better.
thinks that one should develop a skill of playing with
children .
Whom do you agree? Why?
Task 26. Read the advice Virginia has given to Jennifer Stark. Does she
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approve of the naughty step? Why?
I share your anxiety about the naughty step. As a brief punishment for doing
something really bad, a few minutes on your own as a punishment can‘t do any harm.
But some parents use it for longer periods, and not as a punishment but as a result of
a tantrum or a crying fit.
The truth is that tiny people have emotions raging through them and they
haven‘t got the skills to work out how to deal with them. I always think that tantrums
consist half of the original emotion – despair, anger, etc – but at least half of the
explosion is fear about their raging emotions. Children just feel they‘re going mad
and they don‘t know how to handle themselves. To chuck them out of the room and
say, in so many words: ―You deal with it!‖ isn‘t an answer. We are, after all, the
adults. We should be present through a child‘s tantrums or tears, a strong, solid and,
assuring presence, giving the message that there is nothing to worry about, and that
though they may be frightened, we aren‘t.
As an adult, I‘ve very occasionally been reduced to a state of utter terror, panic,
confusion and powerlessness – when a computer goes wrong, for instance. If my
partner were to insist I go and sit on the stairs, the feelings of frustration would rise –
particularly against him. The feeling that I was an uncontrollable monster would be
confirmed and put me in a constant state of anxiety afterwards, and the feeling of
abandonment would be something I could never forgive. What we need is a cuddle,
or simply a calm presence saying: ―It‘s fine. We‘ll sort this out.‖
As a child grows up he can incorporate this calm figure into his own repertoire
and say it to himself. But sitting himself on a stair, doing nothing, will only
exacerbate the feelings of self-loathing and fear.
I am astonished that anyone can think that a withdrawal of love, to be
abandoned and put in solitary confinement, can be of any help at all. I well remember
the misery of being sent to my room, for the most minor expressions of emotion.
Next time your half-sister sends her child to the naughty step, insist you join
him on the stairs, and try to deal with the situation in a kindly and patient way.
When he calms down, you can both come back, and you might make an effort to
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be particularly kind and loving to your sister, too, because in order to put her child
on the naughty step she‘s had to get into a state of uncontrollable fury, and the last
thing she needs, just like her own child, is an atmosphere of disapproval and
exclusion.
How should parents deal with children's tantrums and tears? Would
smacking a child help in that case?
Task 27. What are the ways of disciplining children? Read the
statements given below and say whether you agree or disagree with them. Why?
An adult hitting a child of any age is not right and there are much better
ways to discipline children.
Children should have the same rights as adults. Adults cannot hit other
adults, so they should not be allowed to hit children either.
Task 28. Look through a list of punishments and say if there are any
reasonable ways. Motivate your answer.
a.
smacking a child;
b.
a blowing from a belt or from a cane;
a.
sending a child to his / her bedroom for some time;
b.
not allowing the child to meet his / her friends for a week;
c.
stopping the child‘s pocket money;
d.
not allowing the child to watch TV for a week;
e.
not allowing the child to play computer games;
f.
giving the child extra jobs around the house.
When (at what age) is it no longer appropriate to discipline children?
Task 29. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4ATYLnzoe4
(Picture 7) and watch a TV interview of Dr. Jane Nelsen who discusses the
difference between discipline and punishment. Note down what positive
discipline is. Make a report about new parenting skills you can put into practice.
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Picture 7.
Task 30. Reading a newspaper article.
1 You are going to read a newspaper article which consists of six
paragraphs. First read the opening of each paragraph.
1
Perhaps memories of my own 4
I know of no other country where so
childhood have been coloured by
many crimes are committed against
time. I grew up during the war and
children.
without a father.
2
The British tradition of boarding 5
In public, at least, the British appear
school
cold.
will
always
remain
a
mystery for us poor foreigners.
3
Women friends who travel to Italy 6
How can I say that the British do not
with their children come back
make good parents, when I happen to
glowing with praise for the way
be married to an Englishman who is a
their children (and they themselves)
wonderful father and husband, and
are treated.
have many English friends whom I
consider to be excellent parents?
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a)
How do you think the paragraphs will continue?
b)
What in your opinion is the article about?
2 Read the whole article below and match the openings in Exercise 1 to the
paragraphs (a-f). Example: a) =2.
(a)
And yet every day the evidence before me in the streets and in the
newspapers suggest that they are unusual. Where is the warmth and tenderness
between adults and children which is so prevalent in my native Italy, among all
classes and types of people? Is this the famous British 'reserve'?
(b)
and their children certainly look as if they bear the brunt of this national
characteristic. In my experience, children thrive on tenderness. I have looked, but
there certainly does not seem to be a lot of it among the British. Perhaps in private
they are warm and affectionate parents, but in public they seem to go to extraordinary
lengths to hide it.
(c)
it could almost be called the English disease. It seems almost impossible
to turn on the television without some new crime being reported. Of course, there are
similar horror stories in other countries, including Italy, but one does not hear about
them with such appalling regularity. To what extent, I wonder, is football
hooliganism the result of bad parenting?
(d)
Not only are they not shunned, but seats are proffered, doors smilingly
held open for pram-pushing mothers and tables miraculously appear in crowded
restaurants. Why is it that children are so unwelcome – and so rarely seen – in
restaurants here?
(e)
In the course of our travels, my husband and I have often met British
diplomats and foreign correspondents who, between gulps of pink gin at one party or
another, would bewail the departure of their eight-year-old child, usually a son. Why
were these distressed parents sending their children away? 'It's a beastly family
tradition ... a high standard of education ... blah blah blah.' And if they have to go,
why on earth when they are only eight? Of course some children like it. But what
happens when children hate it? From countless melancholic memoirs, biographies
and novels it seems that when it comes to tradition children have to do what they are
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told.
(f)
What kept us going was the love and support of family and friends.
There was always that feeling of tenderness which I so often find lacking over here.
(from The Independent)
3 Choose the best title for this article:
The British and boarding schools
A national lack of tenderness
Parents' contribution to football violence
Children in Britain and Italy
4 Complete the following sentences.
a) ________ The writer comes from_________________.
b) _______________ The British ‗national characteristic' is
________________ _________________.
c) ________ The ‗English disease‘ is _____________________.
d) _______ The writer had a very_______________ childhood.
e) She thinks that being a bad parent can lead to ___________.
5 Answer the questions:
a)
What is the British attitude to children in restaurants?
b)
What does the author think of parents who send their children to
boarding schools?
c)
What is her opinion about the way her friends bring their children up?
Picture 8.
Task 31. Look at the pictures (Picture 8) above and discuss the questions
below with other students.
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1)
How much difference does having one, two, three or more children in a
family make to the children?
2)
Do you think there is an ‗ideal‘ number of children in a family?
3)
Do you think the position (i.e. oldest/youngest) can affect the personality
of a child? If so, how?
Task 32. Read the text ―How the Family Pecking Order Affects You‖ and
do the comprehension tasks.
1 Before you read the text, have a look at the glossary, which explains
some of the most difficult words and expressions.
Glossary
pecking order – the order of seniority or power in a group
to pamper – to treat (someone) with excessive indulgence or care; spoil
dethronement – removal from a throne or deprive of any high position
to strive – to make a great effort
bias – mental tendency
sibling – a brother or sister
level-headed – calm and sensible
to outdo – to be more successful or better than (someone or something )
in performance
2 Read the article below. What is an ideal number of children in a family
according to the article?
How the Family Pecking Order Affects You
Are you the eldest in your family? Do you strive for perfection but you are
never quite satisfied with what you do?
Perhaps you are the middle child and feel a compulsion towards attentionseeking behaviour, or the youngest child who needs other people to sort out your
problems. Countless academic studies say your place in the family is such a strong
factor in developing your personality that it can have a major influence on the rest of
your life.
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Joy Berthoud, the author of a new book, Pecking Order, has been convinced by
research confirming this. But she is quick to point out that there are many variables,
dictated most notably by age gap and the gender of the children. ‗A girl with a sister
two years her senior will be closer to the model of the second child than a girl with a
brother 10 years older, who might well display more of the 20 characteristics of a
first or only child.‘
As a first child, according to Berthoud, you will probably adopt some of your
parents‘ behaviour and generally be quite ‗grown-up‘. You receive all their attention,
but all their expectations are also heaped on you. ‗When child number two arrives,‘
she explains, ‗there will be fear of the withdrawal of your parents‘ love and, more
than likely, a noticeable reduction in the amount of attention they give you. This is
when you will start to try to please adults, to become even more like them conservative and responsible - in an effort to win back what you‘ve lost. As you grow
up, this can lead to feelings of never being good enough, but with or without this
insecurity, you‘ll probably be a high achiever because you‘re trying so hard.‘
‗I have one clear memory of my sister Jane arriving on the scene,‘ says Julie,
31, a civil servant. ‗I was two and a half, and I climbed into her carry-cot when she
wasn‘t in it and lay down. I think I must have wanted to be a baby again, and get all
the attention she was getting. I was quite like my mum and dad - they‘re both
teachers with a strong art bias, and I became quite arty, too,‘ says Julie. ‗I went on to
study graphic design. But Jane was into numbers and computers. She was also far
more outgoing than me, with an active social life. I was less confident and much
more level-headed and sensible.‘
The second child is most commonly identified as so taking the opposite line to
their older sibling. Feelings of inferiority can inspire the second to outdo the first in
academic areas, but they will usually find something else to be good at. This position
in the pecking order will also give you less respect for the established order, unlike
the older sibling trying to be like the adults. There will be nothing to be gained from
it. The behaviour of these children will, in short, generally lean towards that which
attracts attention, and they will more than likely have a more relaxed attitude to life.
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Sibling rivalry is also common.
Karen Gunn, 29, a writer and assistant on a magazine, has a brother, Douglas,
seven years her junior. She also has a sister, Fiona, who is 31. Middle children are
often left feeling like the odd out, not having the attachment to their parents that their
older sibling has but also not being the baby of the family, with the consequent
attention heaped on it. This often provokes attention-seeking behaviour.
Karen admits she has always striven to be noticed. ‗I was always the crashbang wallop one of the family. Fiona was much more reserved and thoughtful when
we visited relatives. I‘d always be saying, ―Look at me, I can do a hand stand‘.
The youngest child doesn‘t have to worry about dethronement and can
consequently focus on the road ahead with no distractions. But equally, being
pampered might undermine his or her ambition. Only children are similar in many
ways to first children, but their behaviour is not modified by dethronement. Constant
interaction with adults gives them social maturity but emotional immaturity. The
strong parental relationship can be supportive and encourage self-confidence, but it
can also be claustrophobic. Only children may well leave home early.
3 Read the article again and answer questions given below. Motivate your
choice.
1. Joy Berthoud feels that academic research regarding position in the family
A should be treated with scepticism.
В is still in its early stages.
С needs to take complicating factors into account.
D has made good progress in recent years.
2. Joy Berthoud believes that the effect of the arrival of the second child on the
first is
A
largely negative.
В
largely positive.
С
equally positive and negative.
D
never the same.
3. Julie‘s comments about her sister
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A
contradict Berthoud‘s theory.
В
only partially support Berthoud‘s theory.
С
support Berthoud‘s theory to a large extent.
D
raise issues not referred to by Berthoud.
4. Berthoud believes the second child‘s attitude to the first child will
A
lack respect.
В
be competitive.
С
be quite relaxed.
D
be resentful.
5. Middle children
A are quite reserved.
В get the most attention.
С are often rather clumsy.
D can feel disregarded.
6. Only children
A have the same personality characteristics as first children.
В may feel a strong need to break away from their parents.
С will only benefit from the amount of contact with adults.
D can experience a sense of general insecurity.
4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of being:
an only child;
the eldest child;
the youngest child;
the middle child.
5 How does the family pecking order affect you?
Task 33. Compound nouns: family relationships
1
Give one word to describe each of the following family relationships (1-5).
Use the prefixes and suffix half-, great-, step-, ex- and -in-law.
a.
the father of the man a woman has married
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b.
a man who is not a child‘s natural father but who their mother has
married
c.
a sister related to another child through only one of their parents
d.
the woman who a man used to be married to but isn‘t married to any
e.
the grandfather of someone‘s father or mother
more
2 Complete the following interview with a woman called Susan, using the
compound nouns from Task 33.1 and the phrasal verbs in the box. Use each
compound noun and phrasal verb once only.
bring up
take after
grow up
look down on
take care of
take to
Interviewer: Susan, you (1) ...... in a huge old castle in Scotland. I imagine you
were quite a well-off family.
Susan: Oh, yes. My (2) ........ on my father‘s side of the family had made a
fortune, back in the nineteenth century. Then my mother‘s father had done well in
business, too.
Interviewer: So your father was already wealthy when he married, and then he
also had a (3) .................................. who had made a lot of money.
Susan: Yes, that‘s right. We were lucky, really.
Interviewer: I suppose you must (4) in a pretty traditional, conservative way?
Susan: Not really. My mother taught my brother and me that we should never
(5)
people who were less fortunate than ourselves.
Interviewer: Do you think you (6)
your mother or your father?
Susan: My mother. Her respect for people has stayed with me all my life and I
know I think like her. Unfortunately my father was killed in the war when I was quite
young.
Interviewer: Did your mother remarry?
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Susan: Yes, she did, so my brother and I had to get used to having a (7)
.
Interviewer: Was that difficult?
Susan: Not really, because we (8) him straightaway. He was a kind man who
showed us a lot of love and (9)............... us as if we had been his own children. When
he married my mother, he already had a daughter but she was often away, staying
down in London with his (10) ................
Interviewer: So, he had already been married once before when he married
your mother?
Susan: Yes, that‘s right. So, he sort of inherited us, then he and my mother had
a child together, a girl, so I have a brother and a …..(11)… .
Task 34. Read the text ―How to Raise a Happy Child‖ by Sylvia Rimm. Do
the vocabulary exercises and answer the questions.
How to Raise a Happy Child
by Sylvia Rimm
The complexity of today's parenting makes it important to develop
some basic principles to guide parents. In Dr. Sylvia Rimm's book Smart Parenting,
four chapters emphasize the foundational concepts that can help parents raise happy,
achieving children. She has now developed a top ten list to summarize essential
principles to assist parents:
1. Praise moderately to avoid pressure; postpone "super-praise". Praise conveys
your values to your children and sets expectations for them. No praise conveys the
message that you don't believe in them. Reasonable praise, like "good thinker," "hard
worker," "smart," "creative," "strong," "kind," and "sensitive" sets high expectations
that are within your children's reach. Words like "perfect," "the best," "most
beautiful," and "brilliant" set impossible expectations. Children internalize those
expectations, and the expectations become pressures when children find they can't
achieve those high goals.
2. Do not discuss children's problem behaviors within their hearing. Discussion
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about children also sets expectations for them. If they hear you talking to
grandparents and friends about how jealous or mean they are or how shy or fearful
they are, or if you refer to them as "little devils" or "ADHD kids," they assume you're
telling the truth and believe they can't control these problem behaviors.
3. Build resiliency; don't rescue your child from reality. Although children
need
to
develop
sensitivity,
overprotection
encourages
dependency
and
oversensitivity. You can be kind without being oversympathetic. Your children will
need to learn to recover from losses and failures, and resiliency will permit them to
triumph over obstacles.
4. Stay united, be willing to compromise, and say good things about your
child's other parent Leaders in a family that lead in two opposite directions confuse
children. Children will not respect parents who show no respect for each other.
Turning your children's other parent into an "ogre" or "dummy" may make you feel
like a good parent temporarily, but your sabotage will backfire and your children will
no longer respect either of you. This is especially hard after divorce, but it is even
more important in divided families.
5. Hold teachers, education, and learning in high regard. Set your children's
education as first priority. This ideal will become more clear if they hear how much
you value learning. Tell them about the best teachers you had and elevate their
teachers as well. Set expectations for higher education early so they will assume
education does not stop after high school.
7. Be positive about your own work and that of your child's other parent. If
you walk in the door and complain about your work daily, your children will become
anti-work kids. They'll complain about their schoolwork and household chores. If you
don't like your work, attempt to find better work and remind them that education
provides more job choices.
8. Be a role model of ethics, activity, and hard work. Locate other good role
models for your children. Your children are watching you. When you ―get away
with‖ speeding, keep too much change, or are disrespectful to your mother (their
grandmother), they'll notice. When you're interesting and energetic, they'll be equally
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impressed. You can be a good role model without being perfect, but your
imperfections are showing. You don't have to do it all. Introduce your children to
friends and mentors who also will be positive influences.
9. Enjoy learning experiences with your child. Too many parents of twentyyear-olds have sobbed in my offices because they couldn't find time for their kids
when they were growing up. Make time for learning with your kids, and they'll be
learners forever. You'll not have regrets, only memories.
10. Keep a separate fun time and adult status without giving adult status too
soon. Enjoy adult life without your children. Weekly dates and a few adult vacations
a year will keep you excited about life. Give your children something to look forward
to. They can watch and wait and do child activities with the family. Kids who get
adult privileges have responsibilities beyond their maturity.
1 Match the words with their definitions.
1) empower
a) to believe to be possible or likely in the future
2) resiliency
b) an adviser or guide
3) envision
c) the quality of recovering easily and quickly from
misfortune or illness
4) mentor
d) any monstrous or cruel person
5) ogre
e) to destroy or disrupt
6) sabotage
f) to give (someone) the power or authority to do
something
2 Choose the principle that you find the most reasonable one. What other
principles can you add?
3 Make up 10 rules how to raise a loser in life.
Task 35. Follow the link
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhL0PEF4uHw
(Picture 9) and watch a video telling how to parent a difficult child. Note down
how to cope with difficult behavior.
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Picture 9.
Task 36. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ts-7C_H6J8
(Picture 10) and watch a video telling how to help a child who is always angry.
Picture 10.
Task 37. When teenagers have problems, they sometimes write to ―advice
goddess columns‖2 in magazines or on the Internet. Read this letter to an Agony
2
Advice goddess column or Agony column — a part of a newspaper, esp. a
tabloid, or a magazine containing letters from readers about their personal problems
together with advice from the newspaper or magazine.
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Aunt3 and find out what the problem is. Now complete the text by using only one
word for each gap.
Dear Amy Alkon,
My family are very strict ... (1) ... their
rules and religion, and forbid me ... (2) ... have
a girlfriend until I leave ... (3) ... house or
preferably to them, until marriage. ... (4) ..., I ... (5) ... been secretly dating a girl for
six months now and she wants ... (6) ... meet my parents. She knows ... (7) ...
situation, but I feel awful refusing her. I get... (8) ... well ... (9) ... my mum and dad
and they‘re great and have done ... (10) ... lot for me. But ... (11) ... go their views and
religions? Is ... (12) ... harsh and disrespectful?
Love, Anonymous.
What advice would you give ―Ashamed‖?
Task 38. Read the reply Agony Aunt has written to ―Anonymous‖. Do you
think she offers good and wise advice?
Now reread the text. Tick the lines which are correct (˅). Where a line has
an extra word which should not be there, write it down.
Dear Anonymous,
3
1
I think it‘s a great that you have someone you love and who can
2
understand you, and still be with you, despite of the possible
3
consequences and conditions, she sounds lovely!
4
As for the situation. You say you are get on well with your
5
parents, and you have to remember, THEY LOVE YOU NO
6
MATTER WHAT. They‘re your mother and father, and should
7
always support with you. You say you get on with them and they
8
sound understanding. I think you should to start off by talking to
9
them gently about your views and their rules about relationships,
This time the Agony Aunt is Amy Alkon, a syndicated advice columnist, a
journalist, an author and a blogger.
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10
but talk as a GENERAL thing, so they don‘t get suspicious.
11
I‘m sure they will understand and compromise with you.
12
Now and again, after you having the other talk with them,
13
prompt them and maybe drop hints that you‘re seeing someone,
14
and eventually, when you think the time it is right, tell them and
15
say that you‘re happy with her, and explain to them about her
16
and how she understands of everything. It may be over a long
17
period of a time that this happens, but I‘m sure it will all work
18
out for the better in the end. Good Luck!
Love from Agony Aunt.
Task 39. Look at this letter from Richard G. Complete it by changing the
word in capitals into a suitable form to fill each gap.
Six years ago when I was a student I was short of money. Once a
week I used to go home to see my parents. Although I had a good
(1)… with my mother I never got on well with my father. I
RELATE
could never live up to his high (2)… of me. I had always
EXPECT
been (3)…at the things he valued and he was always
HOPE
putting me down with his continuous (4)…. .
CRITICISE
One day I did a really (5)… thing. I stole some money from
FORGIVE
him. I had started off by asking him if he could lend me some.
He refused saying I was (6)… with money. We then had a
RESPONSIBLE
terrible row and he went out. I was so angry, I stole ten pounds
from his wallet. When he noticed its (7)… , he asked me who
APPEAR
had taken it.
After I told him he banned me from the house. I have been back
there since but he still looks down on me for what I did. I want to
make things up but I feel completely (8)… . Half of me
HELP
wants to say ―Sorry Dad‖ while the other half still thinks he is
behaving (9)… by having kept up this attitude for so long.
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How can I bridge this endless (10)… ?
UNDERSTAND
Yours sincerely,
Richard G.
Task 40. Write a reply from Angela to Richard‘s letter. Remember that it
should be in an informal, friendly style. Look through Amy Alkon‘s first letter
to ―Anonymous‖ and find the language she uses to give advice.
Task 41. A. Read the introduction and guess what the girl‘s problems are.
Angela is 14 and lives with her mother, father, an older brother
and two younger sisters and a brother. She doesn‘t get on well with
any of her family and plans to leave home as soon as she is old
enough...
Task 42. Read Angela‘s letter to an Agony Aunt and compare your
answers with it.
One of the worst things about my house is the lack of privacy. If I disappear
into my room for some peace, it‘s guaranteed that someone will come after me,
wanting to know what I am up to. The thing is because I share a room with my little
sisters, I can‘t just shut the door, and keep (1) everyone out. They‘re always
complaining that it‘s their room, too. Even worse, it means nothing is safe. I guess
they go through all my stuff, muck about with my toiletries, and eat the sweets I keep
(2) in my room. If I want to keep (3) anything secret, I have to use a lock and key on
my cupboard.
I don‘t know who I dislike more, my older brother, who‘s sixteen, or my
younger one, who‘s eleven. My older brother is a total creep. He pushes me around a
lot and is always making nasty little comments about me. I hate being in the house
alone with him. My little brother is just a geek. He asks me embarrassing questions
about boys and stuff, and always shows me up in front of my mates. If I‘m on the
phone to one of my friends, he picks up the extension and listens in.
Although I‘m nearly fifteen, my mum and dad treat me like a baby. They don‘t
let me out at night during the week and if I want to go to a friend‘s house at the
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weekend, they phone up her parents first and arrange what time I‘ve to be home by.
Dad always asks me about boys, warning me that I‘m not allowed to go out on a real
date till I‘m at least fifteen — what a joke! He keeps (4) nagging me about
homework and studying, and he doesn‘t believe me when I say I don‘t have any to
do. He just thinks I‘m being lazy when I sit watching the telly at night.
The other thing that bugs me is that I‘m treated like an unpaid slave in the
house. I have to do the dishes, help with the ironing... I wouldn‘t object to this if
everyone in the house did their fair share, but my brothers only keep (5) their room
clean, and my sister just acts like a baby and does nothing. Mum tells me
that
she
needs the help and I‘m the best at doing housework, but that‘s because I‘m the only
one who does it!
I‘m going to leave home as soon as I‘m old enough. It‘d be great if I could get
a job and a flat when I leave school, but that‘s not very likely, so I‘m going to apply
to a college that s across the other side of the country. I wish I just
had
one
tiny
room of my own. My mates always say that I‘ll miss my family once I leave, but I
doubt that!
Glossary:
creep (informal) — someone who you dislike.
geek [gik] slang, especially AmE — a stupid or annoying person.
Task 43. Here are some of the meanings of keep:
a)
not give back;
b)
to leave something in a particular place so that you can find it easily;
c)
make someone or something continue being in the same state or
situation;
d)
do something repeatedly.
Which of them appear in the text?
Task 44. Match the words and phrases from the text with the closest
meaning.
1 lack of privacy
a)
making you feel nervous and uncomfortable
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2 to show somebody up
b)
to look at or examine carefully
3 embarrassing
c)
the state of being unable to be alone
4 to nag
d)
to behave towards someone in a particular way
5 to act like a baby
e)
to distribute the responsibilities in a fair way
6 to do their fair share
f)
to make someone feel embarrassed by behaving
in a stupid or unacceptable way when you are with
them
7 to treat
to express one‘s negative attitude to someone‘s
g)
behavior in a very boring way
8 ......to go through
h)
to behave in a childish way
Task 45. Answer the following questions:
a.
What are Angela‘s complaints?
b.
Do Angela‘s complaints seem quite objective and fair to you? Why?
Why not?
c.
What resolution of her problems has she chosen?
d.
What does it tell you about her character?
e.
What alternatives would you suggest?
Task 46. Role Play: A family therapy session
Angela‘s family have read her letter in the Internet. They are worried
about the situation in the family and have decided to discuss the problems with a
family therapist.
A. Choose one of the following roles:
-
Angela
-
Angela‘s mother
-
younger brother
-
Angela‘s father
-
younger sister
-
elder brother
-
a family therapist
B. Preparation
Divide into small groups, consisting of ―mothers‖ (―fathers‖ etc.) only.
Working together (e.g. the group of ―mothers‖) try to explain Sasha‘s
attitude to you and the whole family.
In the ―therapist‖ group brainstorm questions you could ask each
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member of the family to clear up the situation.
In ―Angela‘s‖ group try to collect all the arguments to explain your
attitude to your family.
In ―the boys‘‖ group try to be objective to girls‘ problems — you might
have never taken them seriously.
C. Performance
Form groups containing one representative of each role.
Exchange your opinions.
If you are a therapist — take notes and ask questions. Then summarise
what you have heard from all the members of the family. Try to analyse the situation
in a short report.
Task 47. Read the letters to ―advice goddess columns‖ and summarise the
problems Rob and John have in one sentence each. Both letters end in appeal for
help. What advice would you give to Rob and John?
...I‘m a normal teenager. I want
My problem is that every time I
to go out and have fun with my friends
need new clothes my mum comes with
and do teenage things. Then I have my
me to buy them. We don‘t have a lot of
parents. They have to know what I am
money, so any new clothes I need go on
doing and with whom. I have no
one of the credit cards. She's quite old-
freedom. All they ever want to do is to
fashioned and will only take me to shops
talk to me about how bad I am at
like Burton's as she says all the other
things and how I should focus more on
shops only sell rubbish and she wants me
my school.
to get something that's good quality and
Right now in my life my friends
will last.
mean everything to me. I don‘t hang
I've tried to get her to take me to
out with a bad crowd; I‘m just a basic
Top Man as I know Burton's card
teenager who wants to have some fun.
can also be used there, but she just says
So how do I get my parents off my
no. The last time I got clothes my friends
back and let me go and do the things I
saw me with Mum in Burton's and really
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that I want to do? Please, help me
made fun of me for it. Please, help!
before I go out of my mind.
John
Rob
Task 48. Choose any picture from the below ones (Picture 11) and make
up dialogues between parents and their children. Use the vocabulary from Task
44.
Picture 11.
Task 49. Match the pictures (Picture 12) to the groups these people belong
to. What do you know about them?
1 Goths
2 Punks
3 Hippies
Picture 12.
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Task 50. Read the texts and find a title to each text among the names of the
groups in Task 49.
a)_______
They are opposed to the values, norms and materialism in the society.
They express this in loud and violent music, lyrics which frequently contain oppositional themes (anti-romantic love songs, anti-parents, anti-police, etc.), strange clothing
and hair of unusual colours.
b)_________
As punk faded, they became a subculture in their own right. With startling white
make-up, black or purple hair, black lipstick and fingernails, these people certainly stand
out in the crowd. They see the world as a dark place and like it that way.
c)________
They don't conform to society's standards, showing this by dressing in unusual
clothes, having long hair and living in groups together.
For them loving means accepting others as they are, giving freedom to do as one
pleases and to go where the flow takes you.
How are the members of these subgroups different in appearance? How are
they different in ideas?
Task 51. Work in groups. Share your opinion on the following questions:
a) Would you be interested in joining any of these groups? Why/ why not?
b) What is easier: to join a group or to leave it? Why?
c) Do you become different or stay the same when you join a group?
Task 52. Work in groups of three or four. Arrange a discussion ―Belonging to
a subgroup: for and against‖.
for
you find like-minded friends
against
you have to obey the rules of the group
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Make use of the following statements:
Points for
Points against
- Firstly…
- By contrast…
- To begin with…
- Whereas…
- Secondly…
- on the one hand… / on the other
- Moreover…
hand…
- Besides…
- In fact…
- Furthermore…
- Sadly…/ unfortunately
- For example… / for instance…
Task 53. Read the text ―The Teen Commandments‖4.
THE TEEN COMMANDMENTS
I was thirteen when I wrote my first book. It was called The Teen
Commandments, and consisted of advice to parents on how to behave and not to
irritate their children to death. Sadly, before I could ram the book into a safe, and
profit from its sage counsel in later life, I lost it. To jog my memory and in a faint
hope of reducing the guerilla warfare at home, I asked my own children for their list
of ―Do‘s and Don‘t‘s‖ for parents.
Top of the list was unanimously: parents should not pry. This involved asking
questions such as: ―Where are you going?‖ ―Who with?‖ ―Will you be back for
supper?‖ ―Who was that on the telephone?‖ ―Why were you so long on the telephone?‖ ―Was it a good party?‖ And (worst of all), ―Did you meet anyone nice?‖
Parents should not then resort to MI5 tactics, ringing up best friend Louise‘s
mother, asking if Louise had a nice time at the party then casually asking if Louise
mentioned Emily getting off with anyone — and then saying: ―Oh, his parents are
supposed to be rather nice, aren‘t they?‖ Parents should not force their children to go
to frightful parties where they won‘t know anybody, on the premise that they might
4
Commandment — one of the ten rules given by God in the Bible that tell
people how they must behave.
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meet Master Right.
Parents should cook and foot the drinks bill for their children‘s parties, but not
attend them. Nor should they invite any guest without consultation — just because a
boy washes and goes to Winchester, it doesn‘t stop him being a wimp.
Parents should never make comparisons, saying: ―When I was your age, I had
hordes of boys from Eton, Marlborough and Radley after me, but we never did
anything, of course — we were so innocent those days‖.
Parents should not automatically turn the volume knob 45 degrees to the left
whenever they enter the room. They must appreciate that homework is only possible
if stereo, radio and television are blaring. They must never storm into the sitting room
howling: ―I‘m not having you glued to the television on a lovely day,‖ then spend the
rest of the afternoon themselves watching the rugger international.
Parents should never make personal remarks. If their children wish to appear
with their hair like an upside down lavatory brush, dipped in plum jam, that‘s their
problem.
Parents should provide a twenty-four-hour taxi service and always lend their
children the car to practise driving. After all, Volvos are built to withstand a few
gateposts and stone walls.
Parents should never dictate their children‘s diet. Four Mars bars, seventeen
packets of crisps, two pounds of Granny Smiths5, a litre of Coke and four mugs of hot
chocolate — leaving the relevant milk-coated pans in the sink — are the ideal
substitute for three meals a day.
Parents should never answer ‗Yes‖ to the question: ―Is there anything I can
do?‖ Nor make the most biddable child do the most housework. Parents must
appreciate that there‘s no time like the future. Bedrooms can be tidied next year,
washing brought down next week, as long as it‘s then done immediately, as the child
needs it before lunch.
Parents should not throw tantrums over inessentials such as every towel in the
5
Granny Smith — a kind of eating apple with a slightly sour taste.
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house wet under the bed, topless ketchup bottles, encrusted forks in ancient half-filled
baked beans tins behind the sofa, and twelve newly ironed shirts hopelessly creased
because someone rummaged through the hot cupboard after a pair of tights.
Children should not lose-too much sleep — their mothers and fathers may just
be going through a difficult, rebellious age. But sadly, as Anthony Powell6 once
pointed out: ―Parents are often a great disappointment to their children. They seldom
fulfill the promise of their early years‖.
(from “Turn Right at the Spotted Dog” by Jilly Cooper)
Task 54. Answer the following questions:
a)
Why do you think the relationships in this family are called ―guerilla
warfare‖? What is meant by this?
b)
Would you describe your family relationships as ―guerilla warfare‖?
Why? / Why not?
c)
Which of your parents‘ questions would you find most irritating?
d)
What kind of tactics are MI5 tactics?
e)
Do you sometimes have to go to ―frightful parties‖? Can you describe
one of them?
f)
Who is meant by ―Master Right‖ in the text? Can you describe Master or
Miss Right as your parents imagine him or her?
g)
Does the author mean the city, the cathedral or the school when she
mentions Winchester?
h)
What kind of boys are those who study at Eton or Marlborough?
i)
Do you have the same problem with the volume of stereo, radio and
television? Why do parents do this?
j)
What is the Russian equivalent for the hairstyle described? Would you
like to do your hair in this style? Why?/Why not?
k)
6
Do you like this diet? What diet would you have if you could choose?
Antony Powell (b. 1905 ) — British novelist, born in London and educated at
Eton and the University of Oxford.
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l)
―There is no time like the present‖ is a popular saying. Why has it been
changed in the text?
m)
Do you have similar arguments about housework with your parents? Do
you think it is important to keep one's house tidy?
n)
When do parents go through "a difficult, rebellious age"? Is the author
serious here?
o)
Whose ―early years‖ are meant — parents‘ or children‘s?
Task 55. Arrange the expressions below into three columns as in the chart.
Refers to:
parents
children
both
to provide a service
to go through a difficult age
to be glued to the television
to dictate sb's diet
to make sb do housework
to resort to MI5 tactics
to foot the bills
to profit from sb's counsel
to be a wimp
to get off with sb
to irritate sb to death
to reduce guerilla warfare
to force sb to do sth
to pry
to make personal remarks
Task 56. Choose one paragraph from the text and discuss it in pairs:
a) Is this ‗commandment‘ a fair demand? Why / why not?
b) Is it possible for parents to fulfill this ‗commandment‘?
c) What is the author‘s message?
Task 57. Write your own ―Teen‖ Commandments for teenagers on your
parents‘ behalf or on your teachers‘ behalf using topical vocabulary. Dwell upon
the following points:
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personal relationships
financial matters
household duties
appearance
behavior
spending free time
Task 58. Write a story to the magazine on one of the happenings in your
childhood which much influenced you. Use the topical vocabulary under study.
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2 Family life
Lead-in
Picture 13.
Look at the pictures above (Picture 13). What do you think about these
peoples‘ relations?
Vocabulary
Task 1. Read the text.
Your family members are also called your relatives. You have an immediate or
nuclear family and an extended family. Your immediate family includes your father,
mother and siblings. Your extended family includes all of the people in your father
and mother's families.
Your sibling is your brother or sister. If you have 1 brother and 2 sisters, then
you have 3 siblings. Your parent is your father or mother. Your child is your son or
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daughter. Your spouse is your husband or wife.
You may also have a stepfamily. Your stepfamily includes people who became
part of your family due to changes in family life. These changes may include death,
divorce or separation. New partnerships create new children. The new children and
their relatives become part of your blended family. Some people are born into a
stepfamily.
Task 2. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R49zGknt7EE#
aid=P9yQVmCO8HA (Picture 14) and get to know how to talk about your
family.
Picture 14.
Task 3. Insert the missing words according to what you‘ve read and
listened to.
My relatives
Relationship to
female
I usually call
me
him...
relative of whom I
Parent
am the child
Father
Father, Daddy, Dad,
Papa
her...
Mother,
Mummy,
Mum,
Mommy,
Mom, Mama
Sibling
Brother
aunt
we have the same
first name;
father and mother
sometimes Bro
sibling of my
Uncle [first name]
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first
name;
sometimes Sis
Aunt/Auntie
[first
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parent
name]
…….., Grandpa
Grandparent
Grandmother, …….
Grandfather
child of my uncle
Cousin
first name
or aunt
relative to whom I
Spouse
first name
am married
Husband
relative of whom I
Child
daughter
Nephew
am the parent
Niece
child of my child
Grandchild
Grandson
first name
first name
Grand
daughter
Greatgrand
parent of my
father
grandparent
brother-in-law
mother
parent of my
in-law
spouse
sister inlaw
Great Grandma
first name; Dad
first name; Mum,
Mom
sibling of my
first name
spouse; spouse of
my sibling
my previous
ex-husband
first name
spouse (we
divorced)
half-
my sibling born to
sister
my father or
first name
mother but not
both
new spouse of one
step-parent
of my parents
step-father
first name
step-child
step-son
first name
stepdaughter
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In a family, the word generation means all the people in one stage of the
family. For example, your parents are one generation, you and your siblings are the
next generation, and your children and their cousins are another generation.
Task 4. Find a photograph of your family. Label yourself as "Me" and
then label the other people in relationship to you (e.g. "Mother", "Sister",
"Brother" etc.) This exercise will help you remember the vocabulary you‘ve
learned.
Task 5. Read the following birth announcement. Then answer the
questions below it.
Paul and Kerry McDonald would like to welcome their new son Christopher
Casey to the clan! Weighing 4.2 kilograms, Chris was born on January 2nd at
3:30pm. He will join sister Rachel, 6 and brother Malcolm, 4 in the McDonald
household in Vancouver, Canada. Christopher's proud aunts Kathy McDonald and
Sherry Smith were present at his birth. Grandparents, Lisa and Mike Smith were also
present. Chris's grandmother in Texas will be arriving soon to meet her new
grandson. Cousins Jerry, Fern, and Lindsay can't wait to meet baby Chris too! The
proud parents would like to thank all of their extended family for the warm wishes
and gifts.
1.
What is Christopher's mother's name?
2.
Who are Christopher's siblings?
3.
How is Kathy McDonald related to the newborn?
4.
Who will be coming to see Chris soon?
5.
Who is Kathy in relation to Kerry?
Task 6. Writing Practice
A) Create your own birth announcement. You don't have to include all of
your family members. Make sure to mention some of your extended relatives.
Which family members were present at the time of your birth?
B) Look at Tom‘s family tree (Picture 15). Write the relationship. Ex: Bill
is Henry's son.
C) Create your own family tree. Add the names of your family members in
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the correct spots. Or, create a graph, indicating how many siblings, aunts,
uncles, cousins and grandparents you have.
Picture 15.
Task 7. A) Read the text.
Family traditions in England
Family traditions in England can stretch back for hundreds of years, through
lots of generations, or have just been made up in the last fifty years. For many years
on Sunday, lots of families enjoy 'Sunday Dinner' which usually takes longer to
prepare and is considered higher quality and more special. Sunday Dinner normally
consists of lamb, turkey, or another type of meat that is roasted, roasted potatoes, and
peas and another assortment of small vegetables. Sometimes it is acceptable to drink
red wine with Sunday Dinner. Sunday Dinner may be linked to the Christian religion,
as Sunday is considered a day to go to church if you are religious and more people
used to go to church, and it could be considered a small celebration.
At Christmas it is common in most English speaking countries to send close
friends and relatives 'Christmas cards' through the post, often with a small greeting
such as 'Merry/Happy Christmas' and 'Seasons Greetings', though the latter is more
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common in North America, as it generalizes the holiday so that more people celebrate
it without it being exclusive.
Most families put up a Christmas tree, usually either a fir tree, pine tree or
today artificial trees are much more common. People decorate the trees with baubles,
little spherical shaped objects, usually with glitter and lots of bright colours,
Christmas lights, Christmas cards suspended from string, and on top people put either
a model of a fairy or angel, or a star.
At Christmas, some of the more enthusiastic households go out and walk
around the neighbourhood knocking on their neighbours doors and singing Christmas
carols to try and spread Christmas awareness and celebration and normally a small tip
is expected. At Christmas, the patriotic families gather near the television to listen to
the queen's speech that is when queen reflects on the year and talks about the
achievements of the nation. At least once a week lots of families have a day out,
which can range from the local playground, a shopping centre, to a zoo or multiplex
cinema. The adults sometimes go to a public house to buy beer and play darts and it
is not uncommon to have a television or projector showing a game of football, tennis
or cricket. On Saturday lots of people tune in to watch football, or sometimes go to a
football stadium to see the action in real life.
B)
Follow
the
link
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-djJ7n-c3MA
(Picture 16) and get to know how the Royal Family spend Christmas.
Picture 16.
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С) Tell your group mates about traditions of your family.
Task 8. Family Members.
For each sentence, choose the best word or phrase to complete the gap
from the choices below.
1.
You know Sarah has two children, a son and a ________.
A daughter
2.
C husband D cousin
Ali's father and my father are brothers. We're _______.
A parents
3.
B girl
B sons
C cousins
D nephews
I've got two brothers, Mark and Simon and a younger ______ called
Mary.
A nephew
4.
C girl
D sister
My sister has had a baby, so now I'm a/an _____.
A parent
5.
B son
B uncle
C cousin
D grandparent
There are three generations in my house. Me, my mother and father, and
my ____________.
A nephews B cousins
6.
C grandparents
D uncles
I love my brother, but I don't like Sonia, his ____. They've been married
for three years.
A wife
7.
C daughter
D girlfriend
My sister has a new boyfriend. They have been going ___ for 2 months..
A through
8.
B sister
B about
C in
D out
In England it's normal to live with your _______ when you are 18, but
not when you are 50.
A sisters
9.
B parents
C children D brothers
My sister met her _______ when they were at university and they got
married soon after.
A brother
10.
B step father
C husband
D parent
My uncle and aunt live in Australia, so I don't see my _______ very
often.
A cousins
B sisters
C grandchildren
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11.
Everyone came to the party - my brother, his wife, and also her parents,
my _______.
A step parents
12.
B in-laws
C outlaws D uncles
My father re-married, and his new wife already had one son, so I have a ____________.
A nephew
B half-brother
C brother-in-law D step brother
Task 9. Read the texts.
Who is your hero?
Task 10. Decide if the following statements are true or false.
a. Judy's great-aunt left to another country.
b. Andy likes her brother because he gives him chocolate.
c. Judy's great-aunt was always listening to the news when Judy arrived home.
d. Andy's brother has attended tennis tournaments several times.
e. Judy is grateful because her great-aunt made her childhood miserable.
f. Andy thinks that he can always count on his elder brother.
Task 11. Fill in the missing words in the correct form in accordance with
the text.
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Judy loves and highly __________ her great-aunt while Andy __________ to
his brother who is older than he is. Both children find their heroes
very __________ so they described them as people who share everything they have.
Judy's great-aunt served the children __________ when they got home from school.
She always tried to help the kids by __________ them when they were sad.
She __________ them a lot of stories and __________ songs. Andy's brother
has __________ playing tennis for more ten years. He __________ work as he
studies at university. He is very busy but he always finds time to give his brother a
piece of ___________ to help him make__________. Andy can __________ on his
brother because he has always been there for him. Judy is very __________ for her
aunt because she __________ her childhood happier.
Task 12. Learn the following idioms and figurative expressions:
1
2
3
4
to be head over heels in love with
1
eg Pam and Tony are head over heels to be very much in
быть по уши
in love with each other. They are
love with sb
влюбленным в
to live
жить
independently
самостоятельно
to see eye to eye
to agree completely
смотреть на
eg Lucy and Dick never argue. They
with, to have
что-л. одними
see eye to eye on almost everything.
identical views
глазами
planning to get married.
to be on one’s own
eg – How long have you been living
2
alone?
– I‘ve been on my own since I
graduated from high school.
3
4
to marry a fortune / money
жениться
eg I‘ve never expected Helen to marry to marry sb for
(выйти замуж)
Mr. Soams. I guess she got tired of
по расчету / на
money
living in poverty and decided to marry
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a fortune.
смотреть сквозь
to turn a blind eye on/to sth
5
eg He seemed to turn a blind eye on
to pretend not to see
пальцы на что-
her behaviour but I could see that he
it
л.; закрывать
глаза на что-л.
suffered.
scales fell from his eyes
eg I hope scales will fall from Mr.
6
to be no longer blind пелена спала с
Brown‘s eyes and he‘ll see how
greedy, envious and inconsiderate the
on / to one‘s faults
его глаз
to live on what you
жить по
earn
средствам
lady of his choice is.
to cut one’s (the) coat according to
one’s cloth
eg – Dad, I want to buy a new car.
7
– A new car? What‘s wrong with
your Ferrari? Don‗t you think
you should cut your coat according
to your cloth?
to make a good husband (wife) for
eg – My nephew can cook, wash,
8
to be one‘s good
clean the rooms...
husband (wife)
– Well, I think he‘ll make a good
стать хорошим
мужем (женой)
для
husband for some girl.
pinned (tied) to one’s wife’s
(mother’s) apron strings
9
always following a
быть под
stronger person
башмаком у
to be not a (good) match for / to be
not to suit sb in
не пара
not the right man for
some respect, with
кoмy-л.
eg Basil never does anything unless
his mother says it‘s okay. He‘s tied
to her apron strings.
10
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eg He is a typical butcher, stupid,
regard to certain
with a red bull neck and bulging
qualities (often in
eyes. I‘m sure he is not the right man reference to a
for Susan who is so graceful and has
suitability for
such fragile health.
marriage in terms of
social or financial
status, age
appearance)
to nurse sb, (who is
to make a sissy out of sb
11
far from being a
eg Of course, my wife knows much
baby), without
about child-raising. But I‘m afraid
teaching him to
she is making a sissy out of Mike.
make a decision
делать из когол.
маменькиного
сынка
to be (get) out of hand
12
eg Mrs. Black has a lot of trouble
to be (get) out of
with her elder son. He got out of
control
отбиться от рук
hand after his parents‘ divorce.
to lead a cat and dog life
eg Mrs. Brown is getting her divorce
13
with her husband. She says she is
to be constantly in a
state of quarrel
tired of leading a cat and dog life
жить, как
кошка с
собакой
with him.
14
to wash one’s linen in public
to discuss family
eg Please never tell anyone about our quarrels, unpleasant
problems. I hate the idea of washing
personal affairs, etc.
our linen in public.
in the presence of
выносить сор
из избы
other people
15
to be the appropriate age to be his /
to be old enough to
он/она годится
her mother / father
be one‘s mother /
ей/ему в отцы /
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eg – Marry, do you remember
father
матери
Miranda?
– Certainly. Why?
– She is going to marry her boss.
– Oh God! Mr. Jones is the
appropriate age to be her father.
to carry on an affair with / to have
16
an affair with
to have an
eg Well, I know why Mr. Black
emotional (and
looks so happy. He is carrying on an
sexual) relationship
иметь роман с
affair with my friend Julia.
to make (both) ends meet
17 eg John is out of work again and we
to balance a budget
can hardly make both ends meet.
сводить концы
с концами
to eat one’s heart out
eg – I‘ve never heard Jane complain
18
about her husband‘s weakness for
to suffer in silence
alcohol.
молча страдать
– She is ashamed to speak about it.
She eats her heart out.
to cook up
19
eg The teacher was angry that John
сочинить
was late again, but John immediately to invent (a story,
(историю,
cooked up an excuse. He said that his excuse, etc)
предлог и т.д. в
grandmother had broken her leg and
извинение)
he had to take her to hospital.
to make (earn) one’s living
20
(as/by/from)
eg He makes his living by selling
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to have as one‘s
зарабатывать
work or livelihood
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newspapers / as a newspaper seller /
from selling newspapers.
Task 13. Match the following pictures (Picture 17) with the idioms. Give
examples or situations in which you would use those idioms.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Picture 17.
Task 14.
A) What do you think the following expressions mean?
1) to see eye to eye (with someone) (on something)
2) to have/get one's own way
3) to be close to someone
4) to be the black sheep of the family
5) to take someone's side
B) Now decide which expressions you could use in the sentences below.
a. The problem is that her parents never stop her doing anything that she wants
to do. She's become a very spoilt child as a result.
b. My family is very ashamed of my brother and never talk about him. He was
expelled from school and has been in prison twice.
c. Whenever I had an argument with my mother or father. I could always rely
on my grandparents to support me.
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d. My father and I usually agree about most things, but when it comes to
politics we have completely different views.
e.
I can talk to my sister about my problems because I know she will
understand me and share my feelings.
Task 15. Speaking (Pair Work).
1) What is the best environment to raise a family in (e.g. apartment, village,
etc)?
2) What was the worst thing you did as a child? Did you get caught?
3) Is there anything funny or different about your family?
4) Does someone in your family maintain a family tree? How far back can you
trace your family history?
Task 16. Read the text and answer the questions.
The nuclear family is the traditional family structure in the West. This term,
originating in the 1950s, describes families consisting of a father, a mother, and their
offspring. Under this structure, the family is seen as the basic unit in society; the
father functions as the breadwinner and the mother as the homemaker. Nowadays,
alternative family types are becoming more prevalent, such as single-parent families,
families headed by same-sex parents, and extended families where families live with
their kin, which may include several generations. Extended families are less common
in North America, where it is not uncommon to place grandparents in retirement
homes.
A Social Trends survey in 2013 reported radical changes in child rearing and
marriage practices in the United Kingdom. Figures showed that while 30 percent of
women under thirty had given birth by the age of 25, only 24 percent had tied the
knot. This marked the first time childbirth had become the first major milestone in
adult life, ahead of marriage. In 1971 in the U.K, 3/4 of women were married by the
age of 25 and half were mothers.
Judging by the high rates of divorce and the increasing number of children
born out of wedlock, it would appear that the family as an institution is in decline.
American sociologist Stephanie Coontz believes so too, but for different reasons.
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Coontz points out that marriages are no longer arranged for political or economic
reasons, and children are no longer required to contribute to the family income.
Marriages nowadays are founded on love. She believes this shift towards love and
free choice has actually weakened both the family by making it optional and the bond
between the husband and wife by making it contingent on emotional fulfillment.
1) What is a nuclear family?
2) True or False: extended families are replacing nuclear families in North
America.
3) How has marriage and raising children changed in the U.K. since 1971?
4) Why does Stephanie Coontz believe the institution of the family has
weakened?
5) Do you agree or disagree with the ideas in the article?
Task 17.What do you do? (Pair Work)
Discuss with a partner what you should do when…
-
your six year-old child asks where babies come from.
-
your child fails his English test.
-
your 13-year old gets a tattoo on his back of a tarantula.
-
your child won‘t eat his/her vegetables at dinner.
-
your 12-year old daughter says she‘s dating a high school student.
-
your child won‘t stop screaming because you won‘t buy him candy in
the grocery store.
-
your child tells you that he or she is gay.
-
your marriage becomes stale.
-
your child graduates university.
Task 18. What do you do? (Pair Work)
Student A
Your parent (Student B) is 98 years old and lives with your family. He/she is
completely dependent on you. This is having a bad affect on your personal life and
career. He/she never goes out. You have decided to put him/her in a retirement home,
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where he/she can be with other seniors and get the care he/she needs. Tell him/her
your plan.
Student B
You live with Student A, who is your daughter/son, in a house you built with
your own hands in 1930. You are old now. Your daughter/son says she/he wants to
speak with you about something.
Task 19. Discuss the Questions.
1)
Violence: Is it ever okay to hit a child? What is the custom or law in your
country?
2)
Due to population growth and environmental problems, should families
have fewer kids?
3) What is the ideal number of children to have?
4) Is it better for a child to have one parent or two homosexual parents?
5)
Is it tradition in your culture for women to adopt their husband‘s last
name? Is this fair?
6)
In your country, are mothers allowed maternity leave (from work)? What
about paternity leave for fathers?
7) What is a mid-life crisis? How can one be avoided?
8) When are children old enough to move out of the house? MY
Task 20. Pair Work. Here you can find some questions you can ask your
partner during conversation about family. Discuss the questions using the words
given below. FAMILY
1. How big is your family?
2. Do you live with your parents?
3. Do you live with your grandparents?
4. Are you the oldest or the youngest among your brothers and sisters? (If you
have any)
5. Are you married?
6. Do you have children? If so, how many? How old are they?
7. What is the best number of children to have?
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8. Have you or has anyone from your family adopted a child?
9. What do you think about adopting a child?
10. Should people adopt children from other countries?
11. How did you get your name?
12. Were you named after any member of your family?
13. How do you get along with your parents?
14. How do you get along with your brothers or sister? (If you have any)
15. How do you get along with your grandparents?
16. How often do you visit your grandparents?
17. Does your father work?
18. Does your mother work?
19. Does your wife/husband work? (If you have any)
20. Who is the breadwinner in your family?
21. Who does the housework in your family?
22. Did/do you help your parents with the housework?
23. Should children help with the housework?
24. Were your parents strict?
25. Are you strict to your children? (If you have any)
26. How should we discipline children?
27. How many aunts and uncles do you have?
28. Do you often meet your aunts and uncles? When?
29. How many cousins do you have?
30. Do you often meet your cousins? When?
31. How many in-laws do you have? (If you have any)
32. Do you get along well with your in-laws?
33. How important is family in your country?
34. Describe a typical family unit in your country. Has it changed over years?
Task
21.
Follow
the
link
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=v66VMFBPq8E (Picture 18) and listen to the girl speaking about her father.
Does love play an important role in family relations?
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Picture 18.
Task 22. Read the text and do the tasks.
All you need is Love - A true Celtic Fairy Story.
by Leanne Meyer
Leanne Meyer, who lives in Ireland, brings the true story of a large Irish
family, and how they coped with life.
The first thing you notice is the fire. And then
you realise that this has more to do with the family
than the outside temperature. Their father used
to stoke the fire each morning to warm them up
before school, and this was also where he would toast
the bread which would blacken their faces and taste like charcoal.
Sadly, their father died a year ago. But as we speak "Mammy", at sixty-five, is
walking to town to buy the goodies her boys need for the weekend.
What makes their mother remarkable is that she bore six boys, four of whom
still live at home, along with 12 girls, two of whom are also still at home. Yes,
Mammy was pregnant for 18 years of her life and almost produced a child a year.
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All the babies arrived naturally with the smallest weighing a good seven pounds and
Owen, the biggest, registering a whopping 13 pounds on the scales.
After the birth of Susie (the youngest) however, Mammy moved out of the
marital bed and into the "girls room." As committed Catholics, who ensured that
their family went to confession every Saturday and mass each Sunday, this was the
right and only way.
All eighteen children still live in Waterford, Ireland. Not one child has been
lost. Twelve of them have their own families, making Mammy a grandmother fortyeight times over, with three great grandchildren as well. One daughter-in-law claimed
that she would break Mammy's record. Not surprisingly she gave up after the birth of
her tenth child.
Mammy on the other hand revelled in raising her brood with not even the
assistance of a disposable nappy. Meals were cooked in a pot "big enough to bath a
baby in", using all four plates on the cooker. The twelve girls shared a room and the
six boys shared another. Each room had a double bed, where on average six kids
slept. If you were small enough you slept in the chest of drawers which has only
recently been sold. Otherwise you had to find your own spot somewhere between the
bed and the chest. When it came to personal hygiene, you just made sure that you got
into the bath or sink (depending on your size) first. Understanding the scale of what it
means to have twenty people in the house, had to lead to the question, "How did your
father afford it? ». This stops the conversation immediately.
"Daddy was a block layer (a builder) which was a very good job in those days."
They truly believe that they were blessed; that they did not want for anything.
Yet they tell stories that fellow countrymen have written books about, lamenting the
conditions in which they grew up.
Firstly there was the food. They reminisce about how their father used to make
the most delicious chicken soup. But how all that changed when Carole found the
rabbit
carcasses
in
the
shed.
Their
father
also
later
admitted
to
using sweetbreads when no rabbit could be found. "You know testicles form part of
sweetbreads."
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Then gales of laughter are the only response to what some would
consider a gourmet horror. Then there had to be the pig's head. These girls,
however, are quite practical about how pigs tongue really tastes like corned beef, and
then proceed to tease Susie because their father used to give her cooked pigs tails to
suck on as a baby, and she apparently loved it.
Even in midwinter when building work was scarce and there often wasn't
enough money for electricity, they spent time in the upstairs room telling ghost
stories, which in retrospect, they point out is quite silly as they would all be terrified
but could not switch the lights on. When sleep came there was always a fight about
who would sleep in the middle, as this was the warmest place to be.
The only thing the children say they missed while growing up was being
Mammy or Daddy's "pet." There was never space for one child to be treated
differently from another; but that, no doubt, was actually the key to this abundant
family's remarkable coherence.
All this joy in living may sound the stuff of fairy tales; but this is the story of a
real family that is solidly anchored in reality, with moments of drama and pain.
Often the children missed out on school trips as there was not enough money to
pay for the outing. In fact, daughter Carole was once so keen to go on a trip that she
encouraged her teacher to come and speak to her parents. Proud Mammy told the
teacher that Carole was ill and would not be able to attend; but. unfortunately for
Mammy, Carole was listening upstairs and shouted down that she was not sick. She
went on that trip and still remembers it as "one of the best days of my life."
Susie is still recovering from the loss of her fiancé at sea. Carole can recall the
horrors of the convent she was sent to when, unmarried, she announced that she was
expecting a baby. Yet it seems that it is all a question of attitude and approach to life.
It this family, it was all a matter of love, with no room for self-indulgence and selfencompassing privacy. All you need is love.
WORDS:
attend: participate
blessed: looked on favourably by God
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brood: young ones
charcoal: partly burned wood
committed: devout
cope with: deal with, succeed in
gale: storm
goodies: nice things to eat
gourmet horror: something inedible
nappy: cloth worn by young babies who are not yet toilet-trained
pet: favourite
plates: hotplates, burners
pregnant: expecting a baby
reminisce about: recall
revel in: really love
runaway: very big
scales: apparatus for measuring weight self encompassing privacy: the desire of people to have their own personal space
self indulgence: egocentric behaviour
stoke: disturb
sweetbreads: the pancreas and thymus
tease: mock
want for: lack
whopping: very big
A) Comprehension questions:
1. How old was Mammy when she spoke to the writer?
2. How many children did she have?
3. How many grandchildren does she have?
4. How many sons does she have?
5. Who is the youngest child?
6. How heavy was the heaviest baby at birth?
7. What town does Mammy live in?
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8. How big was Mammy's cooking pot?
9. How many bedrooms did the children have?
10. Where did the smallest kids sleep?
11. What was the father's profession?
12. How do the children feel about their childhood?
13. What did their father make his so-called "chicken soup" with?
14. What did Susie do with pigs' tails?
15. Why did the girls tell ghost stories in the dark sometimes?
16. Why did they fight after telling ghost stories in the dark?
17. What did the children miss most about their childhood?
18. What else did they regret?
19. Why did Carole ask her schoolteacher to talk to her Mammy?
20. What did Mammy tell the schoolteacher?
21. Why was Carole sent to a convent?
22. What tragedy affected Susie's life?
B) Replace the missing relative -or nominal relative - pronouns (that,
which, who, whom, what, how) in the following sentences. These sentences are
very indirectly modeled on examples in the article.
1. My brother is a computer expert, _________ is a well paid job.
2. I told them about __________ we found our way home again.
3. Many Irish writers are among the great names of ________ is known as English‖
literature.
4. They could never agree about ________ would use the bathroom first.
5. ________ I can‘t understand is ________ he made chicken soup using rabbits.
6. I have four brothers, one of _________ is in the navy.
7. This is an exercise ________ is not very easy.
8. I told them _________ I thought about their ridiculous proposals.
9. Read the instructions if you want to know _________ to do.
Task 23. Reading and speaking.
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A) Look at the adjectives of personality below. With a partner, say if you
consider them to be positive or negative qualities, and why. Would you use any
of them to describe yourself?
cautious
conscientious
independent
logical
rebellious
self-sufficient
curious
loyal
easy-going
mature
quiet
sensitive
B) Complete the questions with a verb from the list in the right form.
catch
face
get
go with
hurt
keep
make
plan
tell
1. Do you usually ________ your holidays a long time in advance, or at the
last minute?
2. What do you do if you're reading a text in English and you _______stuck on
a particular word?
3. Do you always ___sure that you have your mobile with you when you leave
the house?
4. When you are shopping for clothes, do you usually buy the first thing that
______ your eye or do you look at a lot of things before you make a decision?
5. When you have to make a decision, do you usually__________ your get
feeling, or do you ask other people for advice?
6. Do you tend to________ problems head on, or do you try to avoid conflict?
7. In what situations do you think it's better to________ a white lie, in order
not to _________ people‘s feelings?
8. When you reply to a friend's email, do you usually write a lot or___it short?
C) Ask and answer the questions with a partner.
D)
Choose five more words or phrases from the questionnaire that you
think are useful for you.
Task 24. A) Match sentences 1-8 with A-H.
1. He's not very sociable.
A. I think it's because he hasn't got any brothers
or sisters.
2. My dad's so absent-minded!
В. Не often has a drink with us, but he never
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pays.
3. My brother-in-laws not very
С. He's got to make an effort to be more open-
ambitious.
minded.
4. He's a bit of a hypochondriac.
D. He has a real tendency to argue with people
in authority.
5. My nephew is a bit egocentric. E. He has been working m the same job for 15
years.
6. He's incredibly intolerant.
F. He hasn't been to a parly for ages.
7. Chris is so rebellious!
G. He has to write everything down otherwise
he forgets it.
8. I think our boss is rather mean. H. He has his blood pressure checked every
week.
B) Look at sentences A-H and answer the questions.
1. In which sentences is have
a) a main verb b) an auxiliary verb?
2. What implications does this have for making questions and negatives?
Task 25. Test your memory. Do the quiz with a partner.
Family quiz
What do you call...?
1.your grandmother's mother
2. all your relatives, including aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.
3. a family where there is only a mother or a father
What's the difference between...?
4. a stepbrother and a half-brother
5. a nuclear family and an extended family
6. take after your father and look like your father
Replace the highlighted phrase with an idiom.
7. My sister and my cousin don't speak to each other.
8 My brother and I don't have the same opinions about politics.
9. Who is the dominant partner in their marriage?
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10. They're a strange family. I'm sure they have a few dark secrets.
Task 26. Answer the questions below with a partner. Try to use the bold
words.
1. Who do you take after in your family? In what way?
2. Who are you closest to in your family?
3. Is there anyone in your family you don't get on with?
4. Are there any subjects on which you don't see eye to eye with other
members of your family?
5. Are there any people in your family who aren't on speaking terms?
6. Are there any physical characteristics which run in your family?
7. How often do you have family get-togethers? Do you enjoy them?
8. Is there a black sheep in your family?
Task 27. A) Work in groups of three or four. You are going to debate some
of the topics below. Each student must choose a different topic and make brief
notes about what he or she thinks.
1. Children are left far too much on their own nowadays. It would be better if
one parent didn't work and stayed at home until the children leave school.
2. Working parents should not use their own parents to look after their
children. Grandparents should be allowed to relax and enjoy their retirement.
3. Your parents brought you up, so it's your responsibility to look after them
when they're old.
4. In the 21st century, friends are the new family.
5. It's better to be an only child than to have brothers and sisters. You get all
your parents' love and attention.
6. The family is a trap from which it can be difficult to escape.
B) Have a short debate on the topics you have each chosen.
The person who made the notes should give their opinion first, and then the
rest of the group say what they think. Try to use language from the box in b to agree
or disagree with the other people in your group.
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Task
28.
Follow
the
link
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
3MUohoDv3XE (Picture 19) and listen to a story of a man who has to live
without his relatives while earning the family‘s living abroad. Is it important for
family members to stay together? Why? Motivate your answer. Can you give
any example of family separation from literature/cinema?
Picture 19.
Task 29. A) Read the following three interviews and answer the questions.
1) What kind of relationship do the children have
with their parents?
2) Are the parents strict?
3) According to the mother, what is it like being a
parent and what is a good parent?
1. Interview with 16-year-old daughter Helen.
Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
Helen: I think I get on with them very well, really. We don't always see eye to
eye on some things, like boyfriends - they don't always approve of them - but on the
whole they're very understanding. If I had a personal problem, I think I could confide
in them, and if I was ever in trouble 1 know 1 could rely on them to help me.
Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
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Helen: Well, my Dad's quite strict about staying out late at night, but 1 can
usually get round him. If I'm nice to him, he lets me come home a bit later. My Mum's
always telling me to tidy up my bedroom and put things away after I use them, and I
have to do some of the housework. But if I compare them with other parents I know,
they aren't very strict.
Interviewer: And who are you most like in your family?
Helen: Oh, I think I take after my mother. Everybody says we're both very
independent and strong-willed. I like to have my own way a lot of the time, but I'm
not spoilt. I don't always get my own way. And my parents always tell me off if I do
anything wrong.
2. Interview with 17-year-old son David.
Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
David: I look up to them because I know they've worked hard to bring us up
properly.
Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
David: They can be very strict at times. I told my Dad I wanted a motorbike,
but he said it was out of the question - it was too dangerous. My mother is strict
about keeping things tidy. I can't get out of doing the washing up and things like that,
unless I'm very busy.
Interviewer: How do you get on with your sister?
David: I never agree with what she says, so we are always arguing. We've
never been very close, but I get on all right with her. 1 think I'm much closer to my
mother.
3. Interview with mother.
Interviewer: What's it like being a parent?
Mother: Bringing up children is very difficult. You always worn' about them.
You have to be very patient and put up with a lot - like noise and even criticism. And
you can't always get through to them -sometimes they just won't listen. But the
advantages of being a parent outweigh the disadvantages. The main thing is to enjoy
your children while they are young because they grow up so quickly nowadays.
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Interviewer: How strict are you with your children?
Mother: I suppose I'm reasonably strict. They can't do what they like and get
away with it, and I tell them off when they do something wrong.
Interviewer: And what is the secret of being a good parent?
Mother: I think you have to give them confidence and let them know you love
them. And you have to set a good example through your own behaviour, otherwise
they won't look up to you.
Interviewer: And what do you want for your children in the future?
Mother: I want them to be happy, and I want them to look back on their
childhood as a very happy time in their lives.
B) Try to work out from the context the meaning of the multi-word verbs
in the passage. Then match the verbs in A with the definitions in B.
A
B
1. to get round someone
a. to respect and admire someone, to
have a very good opinion of someone
2. to take after someone
b.
to escape being punished for
something
3.
to tell someone off (for doing c. to think about something that
something)
happened in the past
4. to look up to someone
d. to reprimand, to speak severely to
someone because they have done
something wrong
5. to bring someone up
e. to persuade someone to let you do
or
have
something,
usually
by
flattering them
6. to get out of doing something
f. to raise a child, to look after a child
until it is adult and try to give it
particular beliefs and attitudes
7. to get through to someone
g.
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family in appearance or character
8. to grow up
h. to avoid having to do something
9. to get away with something
i. to succeed in making someone
understand the meaning of what one is
saying
10. to look back (on something)
j. to become more adult and mature
C) Work with your partner. Take turns asking and answering the
questions opposite. Try to use the multi-word verbs and expressions in the box
in your answers, as well as the verbs above.
Example. A: How do you get on with the other people in your family? В: I don't
get on with my sisters very well, but I'm very close to my mother. I feel I can confide
in her.
bring up
look back on
tell off
take after
get away with
grow up
have one's own way
get on with
get round
look up to
be close to
see eye to eye
a. What kind of relationship do you have with the people in your family?
b. Are you similar to anyone in your family?
c. Do you have the same opinions as other members of your family?
d. Where did you spend your childhood?
e. Who took care of you when you were very young?
f. Did you have a strict upbringing?
g. When were you reprimanded as a child/teenager? h. Were you able to do
what you wanted all the time?
h. Who did you admire and respect when you were a child/teenager? j. When
you think about the past, what do you remember?
D) Work with a different partner. Use the multi-word verbs and idiomatic
expressions you have learnt to describe your relationship with one of the
following people.
grandparent
teacher
uncle/aunt
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brother/sister
neighbour
boss
cousin
Task 30. Speaking. Work in pairs. Discuss one of the following questions.
- Should boys and girls be brought up in exactly the same way?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of being an only child?
Task 31. Writing. Using the multi-word verbs and idiomatic expressions
you have learnt in this unit, write about a relationship which has had an
important influence on you.
Task 32. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7l6JY2pNiU
(Picture 20) and watch a video of a young man speaking about his children. Is
Roman a good father? Give your ideas about being a good parent.
Picture 20.
Task 33. Read the text and summarize it.
When Our Children Become Adults.
Written by Dr. Wayde Goodall.
How do family relationships change when children become adults?
A. Expectations should change, as children become adults.
Cultures expect various behaviors from adult children. Much depends on the
view of the larger family. In some places, parents expect their adult children to
remain under the authority of the family leader. Other cultures expect the adult to
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move into his own home and become independent in every way. But all cultures
recognize that we should not treat adults as if they were children. And all agree that
adults should have more responsibility for their own lives. So as children become
adults, both the parents and the mature children think differently about each other.
1. Parents expect a mature son or daughter to:
Care for self, manage finances, and be a good
citizen; Develop friendships;
Find purpose and spiritual meaning in life.
2. Mature children expect their parents to:
Allow them to make their own decisions;
Recognize that adult children are responsible for their
decisions;
Show joy and confidence in them;
Reduce or stop financial support;
Talk to them as they talk to other adults.
Believers care about the spiritual life of their children. Will their adult children
continue to develop, as believers, in their spiritual life? Many young adults question
their beliefs, and some turn away from the church.
Once your children are young adults, you should not push them too hard
spiritually. You can have some expectations for them as long as they live with you.
But you cannot demand that they believe what you have taught them. The door to the
world outside must be fully open to adult children. This can be the most frightening
time for parents. Most parents want to keep control to prevent their children from
making mistakes. But young adults make better choices when rebellion is not the
only path to freedom. The plain truth is that love and freedom go together. So parents
who love their older children should treat them like adults.
B. Relationships can deepen, as children become adults.
1. The relationship between parents and children changes, but it can grow as
well. Parents and children can discover each other in new ways once they begin to
relate as adults. But no matter how old children become, they must honor their
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parents. To honor means "to respect, appreciate, and value." God's command to honor
parents is for all of life.
Some parents abuse, neglect, or mistreat their children. God does not command
us to honor the evil ways of our parents. But all parents deserve a measure of respect
such as polite words, love, and kindness. While the relationship between a parent and
child changes, it always requires honor.
2. The relationship between a husband and wife can grow when children
become adults. For many years, the mother and father spend most of their time,
energy, and money on their children. But as children become adults, parents may
wonder, "Now what will we do?" For some parents, this question is like a giant
standing over them. The marriage often goes through pressure when the couple is
alone in their home. For decades, they have focused their attention on the children.
Often, a husband and wife have forgotten to strengthen their
relationship with each other. They may need to get to know
each other again. Without the children, old problems may
resurrect. It is hard to ignore problems when there are no
children needing attention in the home. Husbands and wives
can have a new beginning when their main focus returns to each other. Their
friendship and love can grow. Facing the past, they can remember the miles they have
walked and the mountains they have climbed. There are many memories to discuss.
Facing the future, they can walk new paths together. The marriage relationship will
change when children become adults. Some call this the time of the empty nest. The
husband and wife can make this a good time. And soon, in the nest that once had
children, there will be grandchildren!
Task 34. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHc1J6T3XuA
(Picture 21) and listen to Victoria Beckham describing her family. What do you
think about relations in the Beckham Family? Is it difficult to be a wife of a
famous husband?
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Picture 21.
Task 35. Follow the link http://family-relationships.com/videos/healthymarriages?nPartner=familyAdwords02&gclid=CLLFrv2pzr0CFWQDcwodCL
QAOg (Picture 22) and listen to Dr. Wayne Goodall who talks about healthy
marriages. Make a list of items necessary for healthy marriages.
Picture 22.
Task 36. Read the text. Give recommendations how to act during marriage
conflict.
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Good Communication During Marriage Conflict
Dr. Wayde Goodall
Five Ways People React to Conflict
People react to conflict based on their culture, their
nature, and the examples they have seen. Most people react to
conflict in one of five ways.
1.
My way. This person feels that his way is the only way. He keeps
pushing until he gets his way or until the other person gets out of the way.
2.
No way. This person ignores the problem. Nothing is solved because he
walks away from the conflict.
3.
Your way. This person wants the other person to be happy. He wants
peace or approval so much that he always submits to the other person. This way can
be peaceful, for a time, but it is also frustrating.
4.
Half way. This person gives up some things, part of the time. Each
person gets some of what he wants. But he also loses some of what he wants.
5.
Our way. This couple works out problems together. They care about
solving problems. But they also care about each other and their marriage. They want
each person to be satisfied with the solution. And they each view their spouse as
more important than their own personal needs.
In which of the five ways do you respond to conflict? Can you improve?
People can change their responses to conflict. They can learn new responses if their
ways are not as wise as they desire. God wants us to be at peace with each other. We
are to be reconciled with God and with people. Paul tells us to protect the unity of the
Spirit through the bond of peace. A good response to conflict enables us to live at
peace within marriage.
Five Good Actions to do During Conflict
1. Listen in an active way.
Ask questions that relate to the topic and to what you heard.
Restate what you are hearing.
Be open to the other person's ideas rather than trying to defend yourself.
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2. Clarify the problem.
Ask yourself and your spouse, "What is wrong?"
Ask, "Why is this important to you?"
Acknowledge your spouse's point of view. Say, "I can see this is
important to you."
3. Ask for suggestions.
Ask, "What is your solution?" Too often, people criticize or complain
without seeking a solution. The time must come in conflict when you turn from the
problem to seek the solution. Parents, you should always make it clear to your family
members what they can do to please you. Otherwise, they will become discouraged
and stop trying to please you.
Describe changes in behavior that you can make, "What can I do
differently?"
Identify what a time of peace will look like. Ask, "How will we know
that things have changed?"
4. Share your thoughts.
Stay calm.
Give information.
Clarify your point of view.
Find something in your spouse's complaint that you can agree with.
5. Agree on a solution.
State what you will do in the agreement and what your spouse can do to
help you.
Affirm that both of you want to solve the problem. Write the agreement
in a book and have all sign it who are concerned. Otherwise, the time may come
when someone forgets the agreement.
Set a date to review your progress.
Task 37. Read and translate the text. Have you or any of your
acquaintances occurred in similar situations? If so, share your experience.
Children and Stepparents
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by Brenda Harkins
Hostility seems to be the most common characterization of
the child / stepparent relationship. The description is
stereotypical, and very unfortunate. However, when you
combine a child who is not too thrilled about having an extra parent, with a
stepparent who may feel threatened with all the unique challenges now facing him or
her, it is more common than not that some sparks will fly.
Children struggle with accepting a new family. They often view their
stepparent as the "enemy." Most children have an insatiable desire for their parents to
be together again. This is natural and understandable. In a child's mind, divorce, or
even death, does not necessarily mean "the end." Hope can carry them beyond reality
to a place where the impossible just might become possible. This hope in their hearts
wrestles with accepting anything that would keep their parents apart. To accept a
stepfamily, and perhaps even like the stepparent, would mean the death of their hopes
and dreams. The stepparent becomes the best possible target of blame for the child's
unhappiness.
Being a stepparent is not easy, either. It can, however, be very rewarding.
Stepparents have quite an interesting set of challenges. Parenting children who don't
want you in their lives can be rather difficult. Be assured that they will test you, and
probably in ways you have never dreamed. But honestly, can you blame them? They
are hurting and confused and don't have a mature understanding of what to do with
those emotions. While we may not welcome these challenges with open arms, we
would be wise to welcome this opportunity set before us to grow in Christ's character.
Extend Christ's love and compassion to your new children. Show them unconditional
acceptance. Forgive them. Stretch yourself...and grow.
The potential is great for stepfamily relationships to become healthy and
strong. Successfully thriving in a stepfamily is possible. Hebrews 12:1 says, "...let us
throw off everything that hinders and the sin that so easily entangles, and let us run
with perseverance the race marked out for us." The race before both the child and the
stepparent is not a hundred-yard dash. It is a marathon, and as in any race, it is
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accompanied by pain. Just as there are pulled leg muscles in a physical race, there are
pulled heart muscles in our unique race. Stripping off those things that slow us down
is required if we are to finish and win. The Lord will grant us the grace to move
through the pain with love, acceptance, and forgiveness if we allow Him. We must
guard our hearts and keep running. A personal transformation that untangles our
sinful tendencies, and transcends our pain by the supernatural love of the Lord, will
benefit and bless our entire family.
Task 38. Read the letters. Share your opinion on some of the topics.
DIVORCE LETTERS:
I've been married twice, and both times I went into it with a lot of hope and
enthusiasm. Both times, I planned to remain married to this person forever and ever,
amen. And both times, I didn't. Both times, I was the instigator in the divorce.
I reflect on that often, and wonder how much we as a couple failed, and how
much was a failure of the institution of marriage itself. Is marriage essentially
flawed, or am I?
The word contract is used to describe both marriage and business, with one big
difference; we go into marriage with a naïve, "YES! Whatever, forever! Love
conquers all!" Yet we enter our relationships with our cell phone companies with
multi-page documents. We start a relationship with our mortgage holder with at least
a 30-page document.
People sign agreements with employers committing to binding arbitration and
non-competition clauses, but we place our happiness in trust based on unspecified
faith in love. I can't be the only one who thinks that maybe we need to put as much
thought into the marriage contract as we do all the other contracts in our lives.
Perhaps, when we write our vows, we need to think a little bit more about
practicalities and less about abstract love. For example, it's pretty common to pledge
monogamy, but how does that actually work? What constitutes cheating? Can the
woman read erotica? Can the man watch porn? Is online chatting the same as
cheating? What if the woman kisses a girl? How much sex does each partner expect?
Under what circumstances can that change? How will each partner deal with potential
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changes? It seems like common sense, and I am sure all couples talk about these
nuances before marriage, but maybe writing it down would help keep everyone on
the same page.
Marriage is about unspoken assumptions, and the
failure of many marriages is based on people having
different assumptions as to what constitutes appropriate
behavior. There's an old adage, "Men marry women hoping
that they will never change, but women marry men hoping to change them," and in
many cases I think this is true, but I don't think either view is entirely correct.
People aren't static; we change and grow, as well we should, but what about
how that affects the marriage? Do we have a right to assume the person we marry
will remain the person we fell in love with, even ten, twenty, thirty years down the
road?
Marriage as an institution is in trouble. Half of them end in divorce. Heck, I
personally have increased the divorce rate in the country by twice my fair share. I am
not purporting to be an expert on marriage, but perhaps marriage needs to change
with the times.
I may sound cold, but when you realize that most serious ruptures in marriages
are from a failure to communicate properly, perhaps the best defense of marriage is to
be a little less Pollyanna about it.
One would never sign an employment agreement that stated, "I will do
whatever work the company feels is necessary, regardless of the hours or toll it
takes." Yet, we form households with vague divisions of labor that are often filled
with animosity. No one would ever think to divide out household tasks in their marital
agreements, yet that is what most people fight over. I once kicked my husband for not
taking out the dog when it was his turn, then pretended I did it in my sleep and had
no idea what he was talking about. Is that direct communication? No!
What would have happened if we had a clearly written document that detailed
our expectations, including time spent with friends and family, managing disposable
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income, division of work, and raising children? What do you love best about your
mate? How can you ensure that part of them doesn't change?
How will you deal with the times when compromise is
necessary, and no one wants to? There was a sitcom once about
two friends in business together, and each was given a set
number of "insists," which they could use to dissolve an
impasse. What if, in your marriage, you could say, "I'm using my insist!" when things
got too heated? (This could only work if each person only had three insists a year.)
What are the "deal-breakers" of your particular marriage? Mental health
issues? Drug addiction? Bad behavior? Violence? Being taken for granted? Under
what conditions will counseling be insisted on? What if, when you reached an
intolerable point in your marriage, instead of saying, "I don't know what to do," you
had already agreed on what to do?
Personally, I can't promise to live with someone "til death do us part" without
some measure of "unless" involved. I don't think it's healthy to give someone a free
pass to treat you however they want, or for you to treat them badly either. I think one
of the drawbacks of marriage is that it is all too easy to take our partners for granted
and stop bringing our best selves to the relationship.
How might that change if you knew you had to re-sign your contract every five
years, and your spouse was able to invoke the predetermined dissolution clause with
pre-negotiated spousal support and division of assets? Might men and women both
try a little harder to be good to one another?
What if you got all of that fighting resolved before you spent thousands of
dollars on a wedding? What would life look like if we paid as much attention to the
nuts and bolts of forming a household unit as we did to the selection of the DJ for the
reception?
Task 39. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y8u42OjH0ss
(Picture 23) and listen to Jenna McCarthy who shares surprising research on
how marriages (especially happy marriages) really work. Do you agree with the
author?
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Picture 23.
Task 40. A) Read about Marriage Contracts.
In a marriage contract, the spouses and future spouses can choose their
matrimonial regime, indicate who will receive property after the death of one of the
spouses, and provide for gifts to one of the spouses or to the children.
Couples in a civil union can have a similar contract, but it‘s
called a "civil-union contract‖ because a civil union is different
from a marriage.
Your Notary... A Valuable Partner.
A marriage contract must be notarized, which means the spouses must sign it in
front of a notary. For advice on how a marriage contract can be useful in your
situation, don‘t hesitate to contact a notary.
When to Sign a Marriage Contract.
The spouses can sign a marriage contract before they are married; it will
come into effect on the day of the marriage. A person under the age of 18 who wants
to get married needs the court‘s approval to sign a marriage contract, and the court
will ask the parents for their opinion.
The spouses can also sign a marriage contract after they are married; it will
come into effect on the day they sign it. For example, if the purpose of the contract is
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to change the spouses‘ matrimonial regime, it will end the matrimonial regime that
applied from the day they were married until the day they signed the marriage
contract. Therefore, property the spouses acquired before they signed the contract
might have to be partitioned or divided. You can contact a notary to learn more about
the consequences of signing a marriage contract after you get married.
Advantages of Signing a Marriage Contract
Choosing a Matrimonial Regime.
Spouses and future spouses can choose the matrimonial regime that is right for
them in a marriage contract. A matrimonial regime provides the rules for managing
the spouses‘ property while they are married and at the end of the marriage, for
example, if the spouses divorce or if one of them dies.
Spouses can enter into a marriage contract to choose a matrimonial regime
such as separation as to property or create a regime that meets their particular needs,
as long as it‘s not against the law.
Couples can use a marriage contract to establish more flexible rules based on
their objectives.
Making Gifts.
Spouses and future spouses can provide for gifts to the other spouse or to the
children in a marriage contract, though this is not very common.
Gifts can include property, buildings or money.
Making Gifts That Take Effect When a Spouse Dies.
Spouses can use a marriage contract to make gifts after they die, but only to
the other spouse or the children. A marriage contract is therefore more limited than
a will because anyone can inherit under a will. A marriage contract therefore protects
the spouse and their children if one of the spouses dies.
A marriage contract can also contain a "conventional appointment"
or "surviving spouse" clause. In other words, the property of the spouse who dies
first goes to the spouse who is still alive. It‘s an alternative to having a will.
Here are some examples of what a surviving spouse clause can mention:
a specific piece of property
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a category of property
all of the spouse‘s property
These gifts can be changed by a will, unless the marriage contract says they are
"irrevocable,‖ that is, they can‘t be changed. In this case, the person who was
originally supposed to receive a gift under the marriage contract must agree to the
change.
If you are divorced, you should contact a lawyer to learn whether you still have
to give your former spouse the gifts you promised in your marriage contract.
Changing Your Marriage Contract.
Spouses can make changes to their marriage contract at any time. They can
make changes to their existing contract, or they can make a new marriage contract.
However, the new marriage contract must be signed in the presence of anyone
mentioned in the first marriage contract and with their consent.
A creditor who suffers damage when spouses change a marriage contract can
ask the court for a judgment stating that the changes don‘t apply to him. For example,
a husband gives his wife a car under a marriage contract to prevent the dealer from
seizing the car. The dealer can ask the court to authorize the seizure, even if the
marriage contract says that the car is a gift from the husband to the wife.
B) Make a list of pros and cons about marriage contracts.
Task 41. Divorce. Dealing with Divorce. Children & Divorce. Helping Kids
Cope with Separation and Divorce. Read the text. With your partner ask and
answer questions on the plot of the text. Can you advice more about how to
behave in such a situation?
The dissolution of a marriage is a legal act that may not always coincide with a
couple's emotional tearing asunder. Divorce is typically a painful process for all
concerned. While it can take adults time to regain psychological equilibrium, whether
or not children ever recover a stable perspective continues to be debated. Post-divorce
hostility between adults, in addition to directly harming kids, is a sure indicator that
the emotional split is incomplete.
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In the U.S., divorce rates have been rising since the beginning of the 20th
century, and especially since the 1970s, when no-fault divorce was instituted. Some
experts contend that the easing of divorce laws has helped make marriage stronger by
rooting it more deeply in personal choice, although it does little to give people the
skills needed to work out the inevitable difficulties that arise in marriage.
Although divorce is a sad ending to a marriage that began in love, divorce does
not have to be damaging to children. Here are the ten most important
things parents can do to help their kids navigate the stormy seas of divorcing parents.
1. Don't try to recruit your child into siding with one parent
against the other.
2. Do contain your hostility in front of the children. Hearing
divorcing parents argue is the most common cause for a child of
divorce to have problems.
3. Do renegotiate a healthy co-parenting relationship after divorce. You don't
have to be best friends with your ex, but you do need to have a civilized relationship
so that your child is not burdened by your ongoing anger.
4. Don't badmouth your ex in front of your child. In fact, make a point of
telling your child a few good things about the other parent.
5. Do get on the same page with your ex about all rules concerning the
children-bedtime, homework, amount of screen time, curfew, and so forth.
6. Do take a parenting class or attend family therapy with your ex if you are
having trouble coming to agreement about rules and consequences for your child.
Allow a professional to help you manage your anger at your ex.
7. Don't badmouth your ex's parents or other family members. Children love
their grandparents, aunts, and uncles, and if a parent says negative things about them
the child will feel conflicted.
8. Do reassure your child that she did not do anything to
cause the divorce. Children often feel guilty when parents get
divorced and need to be reassured that the divorce was not their
fault.
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9. Do tell your child that both parents will continue to love him and spend time
with him.
10. Do tell your child that you expect her to continue to do well and be happy.
Task 42. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOaBbNj
OTSM (Picture 24) and listen to John Mark Comer speaking on ‗What Is The
Purpose Of Marriage?‘. Make a list of A) for and B) against marriages.
Picture 24.
Task 43. Read the text given below and give your ideas on the topic ―The
Best Age to Get Married‖. Make a list of for/against of early/late marriages.
Last week on the subway in New York, I overheard three guys discussing
another friend‘s impending engagement.
―When he told me he bought her a ring, I almost started
crying,‖ one of them declared, to a chorus of sighs.
They all chimed in about their pal‘s doomed future.
―It‘s such a mistake,‖ one muttered, ―He‘s way too young.‖
These guys, I should add, were all about thirty years old.
It‘s a conversation I‘ve had a million times with friends of both genders and
various sexual orientations—exactly when are we grown up enough for marriage?
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And why does there seem to exist an ever-growing divide between men and women
over the most appropriate age for tying the knot?
Task 44. Follow the link http://www.gty.org/MediaPlayer/sermons/1828
(Picture 25), listen and make a list of pros and cons of married life.
Picture 25.
With your tutor, conversation partners, or classmates, you may wish to
discuss the following:
1.
Do you agree that married women (or men) have fewer health risks than
single people?
2.
Why do you suppose there is a connection between marital happiness
and health?
3.
Could an unhappy marriage lead to health problems? Why or why not?
4.
Do you think that living with (but not being married to) a partner can
produce the same health benefits? Why or why not?
5.
What are the health benefits and/or risks of having children?
6.
What are the advantages/disadvantages of remaining single?
7.
Does health necessarily decline as a result of being divorced or
widowed?
8.
For Additional Practice take a survey of your married and single friends.
9.
Who do you think is better off in terms of health, wealth, happiness?
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3 Festivals and special occasions
Lead-in
b
a
d
c
e
f
Picture 26.
Look at the pictures above (Picture 26) and answer the questions:
1. Where are the people?
2. What are they doing?
3. Why are they doing it?
4. How do they feel? What are they like?
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5. What special occasion is shown?
6. Have you ever taken part in such event?
Language focus
Task 1. Match words from the box with their definitions. Some words can
be defined twice.
tradition holiday vacation special occasion folklore observance
celebration festival custom public holiday bank holiday movable feast
1.
A day of festivity or recreation when no work is done;
2.
a day or period of celebration, typically for religious reasons;
3.
a fixed holiday period between terms in universities and law courts
(chiefly American);
4.
an organized series of concerts, plays, or films, typically one held
annually in the same place;
5.
the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed
through the generations by word of mouth;
6.
a long-established custom or belief that has been passed on from one
generation to another;
7.
a traditional and widely accepted way of behaving or doing something
that is specific to a particular society, place, or time;
8.
an exceptional or important time, event, ceremony;
9.
a religious holiday that is on a different date in different years (Easter,
Good Friday etc.);
10.
the holiday authorized by law and limiting work or official business;
11.
а legal holiday when banks are ordered to remain closed (chiefly British);
12.
a time or program of special events and entertainment in honor of something;
13.
a joyful occasion for special festivities to mark some happy event;
14.
the act or custom of keeping or celebrating a holiday or other ritual occasion.
Task 2. Fill in the gaps in the sentences with vocabulary from task 1.
1.
One of our town‘s time-honored ……………… is to have an Easter egg
hunt the week before Easter.
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2.
The university in Washington, D.C. will be closed for Christmas …………..
3.
The whole family came for our anniversary ……………..
4.
March 17 is a ……………. in Northern Ireland as all banks, schools and
many organizations are closed. But this day is only an ……………. in American culture
in the United States.
5.
July 4 is a national ……….. in the U.S.
6.
The Edinburgh International ………….. is three weeks of the finest music,
theatre, opera and dance during August each year.
7.
………….consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular
beliefs, fairy tales, stories, tall tales, and customs included in the traditions of a culture,
subculture, or group.
8.
It is the …………. for the bride to wear a white dress on her wedding day.
9.
………….. is a synonym of ―bank holiday‖.
10.
Pancake Day is a ………. that falls on different dates in different years.
Task 3. Which of the given quotations appeal to you most? Comment upon
the ideas they convey.
1.
I once wanted to become an atheist, but I gave up – they have no
holidays. (Henny Youngman)
2.
Christmas comes during a season when the Earth is in its darkest time.
It's a holiday for the family and for everyone. (Melissa Etheridge)
3.
We don‘t want tradition. We want to live in the present and the only
history that is worth a tinker‘s dam is the history we make today. (Henry Ford)
4.
Tradition is the illusion of permanence. (Woody Allen)
5.
Custom is the great guide to human life. (David Hume)
6.
Take the course opposite to custom and you will almost always do well.
(Jean-Jacques Rousseau)
7.
I don‘t really care what people tell children – when you believe in Santa
Claus, the Easter Bunny and the Tooth Fairy, one more fib won‘t hurt. But I am
infuriated by the growing notion, posited in some touchy-feely quarters, that all
women are, or can be, beautiful. (Julie Burchill)
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Task 4. Read the text ―The Importance of Celebration‖
a) Before reading answer the questions:
1.
What can we celebrate?
2.
Why do we celebrate holidays and spatial occasions? What role do
celebrations play in our life?
3.
Can a person do without celebrations?
4.
Make a list of reasons why people should take time for celebrations and
compare it with the author‘s one.
The Importance of Celebration
There are many important things in life. Learning, growing, loving, and exploring
are all things that each person should take time for. Celebration is another thing that
everyone should take time for. Celebration adds an excitement and a lot of fun to life.
Celebration can happen for a variety of formal or informal reasons. Probably most
people have gone to a celebration in honor of someone‘s birthday, wedding, or the birth
of a new baby. There is something deep inside humanity that loves to celebrate the best
things in life. We love a good Christmas or Fourth of July celebration or other
celebrations that mark special holidays or family traditions.
Celebration doesn‘t have to be reserved for the biggest events or holidays of the
year though. Because the majority of our days are spent doing trivial tasks like working
or cleaning our homes, we all need things to look forward to. Celebrations of all kinds
give us the excitement to keep making it through days that seem purposeless. Have you
ever felt like life was a little too routine? I‘m confident that by the time the next holiday
or birthday celebration rolled around you were grateful for the change of pace.
Celebration allows us to relax and unwind in the midst of busy and crazy lives.
We use celebrations as an excuse to gather with the friends and family that mean that
most to us. We also enjoy celebrations because they allow us to remember the things in
life that truly matter. As we celebrate, we allow the stresses of life to fall behind and we
spend our time doing things we love with the people we love. There is something about
a great celebration that reminds us of the purpose of our life and of the power of our
closest relationships.
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Think of ways to incorporate celebrations of all kinds into your life. Make a big
deal out of birthdays, weddings, or anniversaries. Throw huge celebrations for
Thanksgiving, Christmas or other holidays that are important to your religious beliefs.
One of the biggest keys to getting the most out of life is to have celebrations for no real
reason at all. Just invite your friends over, cook great food and spend a few hours
playing games that cause laughter and build friendship.
Perhaps the best thing about celebration of any kind is that it makes our lives
richer and more full.
b) After reading: explain the phrases in italics.
Do you share the author‘s opinion about the role of celebration?
Task 5. Group work. Split into two groups and get ready to discuss pros
and cons of taking time for celebrations.
Use the following phrases that can help to express opinions.
Personal / General
Agreeing with
Disagreeing with
Point of View
an opinion
an opinion
In my experience…
I agree with you entirely.
As far as I'm concerned…
That's not entirely true.
That's just what I was On the contrary…
Speaking for myself…
thinking.
I'm sorry to disagree with
I'd suggest that…
I couldn't agree more.
you, but…
I'd like to point out that…
That's a good point.
Yes, but don't you think…
What I mean is…
I'd go along with that.
That's not the same thing at
It is thought that...
all.
It is considered...
I'm
It
is
generally
accepted
afraid
I
have
to
disagree.
that...
It's unjustifiable to say
that...
Task 6. Follow the link http://www.timeanddate.com/ to fill in the table 1
with information about enumerated holidays.
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Table 1. Holidays worldwide
Weekday
if fixed
Date
Holiday name
Holiday type
(National holiday
Public holiday,
Observance, Christian,
bank holiday)
New Year‘s Day
Martin Luther King Day
Groundhog Day
Valentine‘s Day
Presidents‘ Day
St. David‘s Day
Mother‘s Day / Mothering Sunday
Shrove Tuesday/Mardi Gras
Ash Wednesday
St. Patrick‘s Day
Good Friday
Easter Sunday
Easter Monday
St. George‘s Day
April fools‘ day
1 May
Early May Bank Holiday
Memorial Day
Spring Bank Holiday
Queen‘s Official Birthday
Father‘s Day
Flag Day
Independence Day
Summer Bank Holiday
Labor Day
Patriot Day
Columbus Day
Halloween
All Saints' Day
Guy Fawkes Day
Remembrance Sunday
Veterans Day
Thanksgiving Day
St Andrew‘s Day
Christmas Day
Boxing Day
New Year's Eve
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Where it is
observed
(USA, UK,
Russia)
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Task 7. Find holidays that have been hidden in the grid (21), then read an
appropriate message.
Holidays not indicated in the table but shown in the grid: Canada Day, Cinco
de Mayo, Hanukkah, Yom Kippur, Carnival. Find out their type, date and country of
observance.
Task 8. Use the indicated web-based resource to learn the way New Year is
celebrated around the World and answer the questions from Table 2.
http://www.fathertimes.net/traditions.htm
Table 2. New Year around the World
Russia
Scotland
1.
When is it?
2.
Is it a religious
holiday?
3.
How long do
celebrations last?
4.
Do people send
greeting cards?
5.
Is it time for
visiting relatives?
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Table 2. New Year around the World
6.
What do people do
to bring good luck?
7.
What typical food
is eaten?
8.
Do people dance /
drink a lot?
9.
Do they make
predictions
or
resolutions?
What
happens
at
midnight on New Year‘s
Eve?
Task 9. Pair work. Make up and act out the dialogue discussing the way
New Year is celebrated in two countries: Russia and Scotland; the USA and
China; Russia and China, etc.
Task 10. Follow the link indicated below (Picture 27) and solve the puzzle;
note down your results.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/quizzes/crossword/090
102_crossword_newyear.shtml
Picture 27.
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Task 11. Read about New Year‘s
resolutions and answer the questions.
In Britain and the USA people make
resolutions on New Year‘s Eve – make decisions
on the first day of the year about the things that
you intend to do or stop doing during the coming
year.
Did you make any resolutions last year?
What were they? Did you keep them?
What do you regret having done last year?
Picture 28.
What were the best / worst things that happened to you last year?
Is it important to make resolutions, and to have aims and ambitions in your life?
Comment upon the picture (Picture 28).
Reading and Writing
Task 12. Read the article and insert the missing parts into the text. There is
one extra part.
А. Be playful
В. Understand what a resolution really is
С. There is more than one new year
D. So, if you‘re not writing the shoulds, what do you write?
E. Banish the idea of shoulds when writing your resolutions
F. How to keep New Year‘s Resolutions
How to Write and Keep New Year‘s Resolutions
Please read this article about New Year‘s Resolutions with an open mind. I
know this is the time of year when people make jokes about not keeping resolutions,
but that‘s just taking the easy way out. I have written resolutions every year of my
literate life and I have kept nearly every one of them. Many people misunderstand the
purpose and the process of writing resolutions, so they wind up feeling like a failure for
trying or they pre-emptively scoff them. For me, resolutions have been an impetus for
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change, a source of strength and a guidepost to keep my life on track. Here are a few
tips I‘ve learned over the years.
1. _______ Start with the word, resolve, and break it apart. Re + solve. Re
means again, so resolve means: to solve something again. Many people mistakenly
think of resolutions as rigid solutions that result in a black-or-white, pass-or-fail
finality. In truth, they are much more fluid. A resolution is simply another attempt to
solve a problem. It‘s approaching something in a new light or from a different angle. If
your new solution doesn‘t work, all you have to do is re-solve it again. It‘s not failure;
it‘s the need for another attempt, another solution.
2._________You should lose weight. You should stop smoking. You should
amass that emergency fund and a retirement savings. All of those things are true, but
they don‘t all belong on a New Year‘s Resolutions List. It‘s intimidating and
exquisitely challenging to tackle such a formidable list. Your innate sense of rebellion
is bound to kick-in when faced with a list full of shoulds.
Instead, only write down what you in your heart feel you are ready and willing
to change right now. Block out other people‘s voices and block out the shoulds. People
lose weight, quit smoking, and pull their finances together when they really want to. It
can absolutely be for New Years, but before you write a resolution, make sure it stems
from a deep motivation already present in your spirit.
3. ________The purpose of resolutions is to help you to live a deliberate life.
Think about the kind of person you‘d like to be and the life you would like to live.
Craft resolutions that will help put you on that path. So often, years fly by and our lives
are spent jumping from task-to-task. A moment of truth will suddenly grab our
attention, and we‘ll look around and wonder what happened to our dreams. Resolutions
are the steps you take towards being the person you want to be and living the life of
your dreams. Think of skills you‘d like to acquire. Think of experiences you long to
have. Think of qualities you‘d like to cultivate. Think of all the little things and the big
things you wish you did or did better. That‘s where you will find resolutions you‘ll
love and keep.
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4. ________. Self-improvement isn‘t all fun and games. Although it is
wonderful to kick a bad habit, make sure you round out your list with some lighter
tasks. Think of things that will enrich your life or things that just sound fun. Include
seemingly trivial items on your list.
For instance, one of my most trivial items this year includes: Learn how to put
on false eyelashes. It‘s a silly thing to accomplish. I hardly even go out these days, but
I‘ve always wanted to get the hang of it. Several times I‘ve attempted, but it always
resulted in messing up my make-up right before going out. The act of resolving to
learn this little skill somehow gives me the focus and permission to devote an hour or
so to learning it. In the scheme of life, I know how trivial this is, but I also know it will
be great to be able to confidently put them on anytime I want to for the rest of my life.
It‘s also an easily attainable goal, so after a single afternoon, I can check it off my list
and declare it done. Every time a resolution is kept, no matter how silly it may be,
confidence gets bolstered and the more significant resolutions seem more attainable.
5.________ The reason New Year‘s Resolutions seem so powerful is the blank
slate aspect of a fresh new year, but there is more than one start to the new year. Your
birthday is another fresh start. Chinese New Year is just around the corner. Some
religions have their own new year during various holidays. Each one of these affords
you a blank slate. In truth, a blank slate appears anytime you want it to: a new day, a
new week, a new month, a fresh breath with a resolution from this moment on. Life is
yours for the changing, or as I like to see it, the subtle shaping. Every time you decide
to live deliberately, you begin living a better life.
More Brainstorming Ideas
Think about these categories and see if anything springs to mind: a skill; a
hobby; a place you‘d like to go; a solution to a small thing that always irritates you; a
quality you‘d like to cultivate and radiate; something that will make you happier;
something you can gladly do for someone else; something from your big LIFE: TO DO
LIST (You‘ve got to start sometime. Those mountains won‘t climb themselves.);
something you can accomplish in 1-3 hours; something you can focus on all year
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Only write down what you truly want to do. I usually write between 30-100, but
that‘s just me. I get excited thinking about what a wonderful year I have ahead of me.
If you plan to go out and party on New Year‘s Eve, you may want to delay these
until Chinese New Year or another date. I always give myself a 12 hour lead time
before my resolutions begin, so I can be organized, clean, and refreshed at the start. For
me that means early to bed on New Year‘s Eve, but start whenever and however you
want. It‘s your life: live it on purpose. Happy New Year!
Rebecca Cofiño
Posted at http://mamaguru.com/
Task 13. Write the summary of the article.
Task 14. Follow advice given in the article and write the list of your
a) New Year‘s Resolutions; b) New School Year‘s Resolutions.
Task 15. Use the Internet to learn more about Martin Luther King and
answer the questions:
1. Where and when was Martin Luther King born?
2. What kind of family was it?
3. What was his real name? When and why did he change it?
4. What caused Montgomery Bus Boycott?
5. Where and when did he give his ―I have a dream‖ speech?
6. How old was Martin Luther King when he got the Nobel Peace Prize?
7. Under what circumstances was he assassinated?
8. Speak about the way Martin Luther King Day is celebrated in the USA.
Task 16. Read the extract from Martin Luther King‘s ―I have a dream‖
speech and fill in the gaps with words from the box.
American
Dream
Difficulties
Injustice
Colour of their Four children
Brotherhood
Meaning
skin
Freedom
Slave
Together
Friends
Red hills
Day
Hands
Vicious
owners Equal
I say to you today, my 1) _____, so even though we face the 2) _____ of today
and tomorrow, I still have a 3) ______. It is a dream deeply rooted in the 4) ______
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dream. I have a dream that one 5) ______ this nation will rise up and live out the true
6) _______ of its creed: ―We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created 7) _____.‖ I have a dream that one day on the 8) ______ of Georgia, the sons
of former slaves and the sons of former 9) ________ will be able to sit down together
at the table of 10) __________. I have a dream that one day even the state of
Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of 11) _______, sweltering with the heat
of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of 12) _________ and justice.
I have a dream that my 13) _______ will one day live in a nation where they
will not be judged by the 14) _______ but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its
15) ______racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of
―interposition‖ and ―nullification‖ – one day right there in Alabama little black boys
and black girls will be able to join 16) _______ with little white boys and white girls
as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today!
Task 17. a) Read about Groundhog Day and answer the questions.
Groundhog Day falls on February 2 in the United States, coinciding with
Candlemas. The groundhog, also known as the woodchuck or marmot, is believed to
make weather predictions relating to winter and spring according to superstition.
Movies, advertisements, cartoons and other media have portrayed the legendary role of
the groundhog in popular culture. The term ―Groundhog Day‖ is a phrase that is
sometimes used to express if the same events or actions occur repetitively for a period of
time.
What do people do on this day?
Tell about Groundhog Day History.
b) Follow the link http://www.animalplanet.com/tv-shows/animal-planetpresents/videos/groundhog-day-can-groundhogs-really-predict-spring.htm
(Picture 29) to find out if Groundhogs can really predict spring.
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Picture 29.
Task 18. Look at the photo (Picture 30) and answer the questions.
1. Who are these people?
2. Why are they famous?
3. Where is the monument?
4. Who is the author?
5. When was the monument created?
Picture 30.
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Task 19. Find the names of 43 American Presidents that have been hidden
in the grid (Picture 31).
Picture 31.
Task 20. Read the blog by Valerie Strauss from 02/16/2014.
a) Before reading try to predict why Presidents‘ Day is slightly strange.
Why Presidents‘ Day is slightly strange
Most federal holidays are clear-cut. On the Fourth of July, for example, Americans
celebrate the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. On the other hand,
Presidents‘ Day is a slightly strange holiday for three main reasons:
– There is no universal agreement on the actual name of the holiday.
– There is no universal agreement on which presidents are being honored.
– There is no agreement on something as simple as whether is an apostrophe in
―presidents.‖
Ask a handful of people who the holiday is meant to recognize, and you aren‘t
likely to get the same answers. In fact, what is generally called Presidents‘ Day is still
recognized by the U.S. government as Washington‘s Birthday. USA.gov lists it like this:
George Washington‘s Birthday (Presidents‘ Day) – February 17 and it describes the
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holiday this way: Washington’s Birthday is observed the third Monday of February in
honor George Washington, the first President of the United States. This date is commonly
called Presidents’ Day and many groups honor the legacy of past presidents on this date.
Some states do in fact honor both Washington, who was born Feb. 22, and
Abraham Lincoln, who was born Feb. 12. But other states honor Washington and Thomas
Jefferson, but not Lincoln, on this holiday and some states honor all the presidents. Then
there are a handful of states, including Illinois that have declared Lincoln‘s birthday a state
holiday – whatever day of the week Feb. 12 happens to fall – while also marking the
federal holiday. In Virginia, Washington‘s home state, the holiday is called George
Washington‘s Day. In Alabama, it is called ―Washington and Jefferson Day‖ (although
Jefferson was born on April 13).
How did this holiday come to be? Washington‘s actual birthday, Feb. 22, became a
U.S. government holiday back in 1885. In the early 1950s, there was a movement led by a
coalition of travel organizations to create three-day weekends by moving the celebration
of some holidays to Mondays. One of the suggestions was to create a Presidents‘ Day
between Washington‘s birthday and Lincoln‘s birthday, which was a holiday in some
states. A few states tried the new arrangement, but it was not universally adopted across
the country. Also in the early 1950s there was a proposal to make March 4 – the original
presidential inauguration day – a holiday to honor all presidents, but that went nowhere.
The National Holiday Act of 1971 passed by Congress created three-day weekends
for federal employees by moving the celebration of some holidays to Mondays, although
states did not have to honor them.
So, today, though the federal holiday is marked on the third Monday in February,
there is no agreed-upon name, no universal agreement on who is being celebrated, and the
use of the apostrophe in the name is varied: sometimes it isn‘t used at all (as in Presidents
Day), sometimes it is placed between the last two letters (President‘s Day) and sometimes
it is after the last letter (Presidents‘ Day).
Put all this together, and it seems fair to see that Presidents‘ Day, or President‘s
Day, or Presidents Day, is a slightly strange holiday.
b) Answer the questions:
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1.
Why do a lot of Americans have problems explaining who the
Presidents‘ Day is meant to recognize?
2.
What American presidents does the holiday honor? Why these?
3.
Explain why the holiday is observed on the third Monday of February?
4.
Why does the holiday have several variants of the name: Presidents‘
Day, or President‘s Day, or Presidents Day?
Task 21. Match names of religious festivals and their definitions. Complete
Table 3 answering the question ―What do people do on that day?‖
Table 3 Lent – a Christian Festival.
Name
1.
Shrove
Tuesday/
Mardi Gras
2.
Ash
Wednesday
3.
Palm
Sunday
4.
Maundy
Thursday
5.
Good
Friday
6.
Holy
Saturday
7.
Easter
Sunday
8.
Easter
Monday
What do people do?
Definition
a. It is the beginning of Holy Week. This day
is also on the Sunday before Easter Sunday.
b. The day, also known as Holy Thursday,
occurs during Holy Week and falls on the
Thursday
before
Good
Friday.
It
commemorates Jesus Christ‘s last supper and
the initiation of the Eucharist, which is
observed in many Christian churches.
c. It is a public holiday in the United
Kingdom
which
commemorates
the
crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
d. It is the first day of Lent – the day after
Shrove Tuesday.
e. It commemorates the day when Jesus
Christ lay in the tomb after his death,
according to the Christian bible. It is also
known as Easter Even and the Great Sabbath.
f. the last day before the fast for the Lent
period. It is also known as Pancake Day.
g. It occurs after Easter Sunday, which
commemorates Jesus Christ's resurrection,
according to Christian belief. It is a bank
holiday in England, Wales and Northern
Ireland but not Scotland.
h. It is the first Sunday after the first full
moon on or after the March equinox. This
day is traditionally about Jesus Christ‘s
resurrection from death, according to
Christian belief.
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Task 22. Follow the link http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/pancake-day-2014places-hot-pancake-race-london-1438801 (Picture 32) to see Parliamentary
Pancake Race with your own eyes.
Answer the questions:
1.
Where does the Pancake Race take place?
2.
How many times has it already been run?
3.
How many teams take part in the Race? Who do they consist of?
4.
What title do the contestants struggle for?
5.
The House of Lords won the Race, didn‘t they?
Picture 32.
Task 23. Writing a report.
In the UK, there are many customs observed during Lent. Make a report (with
presentation) about a) customs involving eggs: Pace Egging, Egg rolling, Egg
Jarping, Egg giving and Easter egg hunts; b) Easter Food; c) Easter Superstitions; d)
Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday) and traditional events; e) origin of names of all days
of Holly week.
Task 24. Reading
Explain the difference between words: a hoax / a prank / a practical joke.
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Picture 33.
Look at the photos (Picture 33) and discuss the questions.
What do things depicted on the photos have in common? Read the text to find
out.
Some best April Fools‘ Day news hoaxes
By Emily Heward
Unsuspecting readers and viewers beware - the mischievous media's favourite day
of the year is nearly upon us. Newspapers and broadcasters revel in reporting
implausibly silly stories on April Fools' Day.
So before anyone falls for this year's inevitable crop of pranks, we've put together
some of our favourites from over the years to serve as cautionary tales.
1.
The Swiss spaghetti harvest. The BBC was inundated with calls from
viewers asking where they could get their own pasta plants after it featured a threeminute segment on an 'exceptionally heavy spaghetti crop' in the Swiss town of Ticino in
1957. The footage, narrated by Richard Dimbleby, showed women carefully plucking
strands of spaghetti from a tree and laying them in the sun to dry. The Italian staple was
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then not widely eaten in the UK and was considered an exotic delicacy. The
mockumentary is believed to have been one of the first-ever televised April Fools' Day
stunts.
2.
Flying penguins. Another corker from the Beeb, which claimed to have
discovered 'a colony of penguins unlike any other' in this 2008 nature documentary
trailer. Harsh Antarctic winters had forced them to adapt and ―fly thousands of miles to
the rainforests of South Africa where they spend the winter basking in the tropical sun‖,
it claimed.
The documentary, titled Miracles of Evolution, was hosted by Monty Python's
Terry Jones and filmed by Prof Alid Loyas – an anagram of April fool‘s Day.
Newspapers were also in on the act – the Mirror carried the wind-up on its front
page while the Telegraph hailed the film as an 'instant classic', adding: ―It is
accomplished work of this kind that guarantees the BBC its unique status.‖
3.
Diet tap water. It sounded too good to be true – and it was.
In 2004, news of a diet tap water that would help people lose weight made a
splash. Yorkshire Water claimed a revolutionary new water treatment it had pioneered
gave the liquid a negative charge that would attract positive fat cells in the body when
drunk. The Yorkshire Evening Post and GMTV played along with the PR stunt,
resulting in more than 10,000 people calling the company to enquire about having a
special tap installed in their homes.
4.
The left-handed burger. As far as hoaxes go, Burger King's 1992 trick
was a whopper. The fast food chain published a full-page advert in USA Today
announcing it was introducing a new left-handed Whopper Burger to its menu. The
sandwich contained the same ingredients as the regular version but with the condiments
rotated 180 degrees for the benefit of its left-handed customers. Thousands of customers
went into restaurants to order it, the company claimed the next day – with many others
requesting the original right handed version.
5. Big Ben to go digital. The BBC had listeners in uproar when it reported that Big
Ben was moving with the times and going digital in 1980. The corporation's Japanese
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service also announced that the clock's hands would be sold to the first four listeners to
contact them. One Japanese seaman in the mid-Atlantic immediately radioed in a bid.
Answer the questions:
1. Have you been sucked in by any of these hoaxes / any other hoaxes in mass
media?
2. Which one did you find most believable?
3. Why do hoaxers do it? What type of person do you need to be?
4. Why do intelligent people such as journalists and scientists fall for hoaxes?
5. Have you played a good April Fools‘ Day prank on an unsuspecting friend,
colleague or family member? Tell us about your practical jokes.
Task 25. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NomwLVtj4rU
a) to learn about Top 10 Hoaxes (Picture 34). Do the following tasks.
Picture 34.
b) Put the hoaxes in order they are mentioned.
Balloon boy
Alien Autopsy
Raëlians clone the first human.
Megalodon is alive and well
The war of the worlds
The Piltdown man
Manti Te`o and the fake GF
The Cardiff Giant
Bower and Chorley‘s crop circles
Cottingley fairies
c)
Watch and fill in the gaps in the sentences with necessary words or
word combinations.
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1.
A found footage documentary shows a present-day boat being attacked
by___________.
2.
Cloning is the key to___________.
3.
People can be genetically duplicated and _______________can be
transferred to their clone.
4.
To prove to ______________that the fairies they claim to have seen
were real two cousins photographed them in________.
5.
At first it was unclear whether Te`o was involved in _____but it was
eventually revealed that a male acquaintance perpetrated the con to_______.
6.
When a balloon in question landed with Falcon nowhere to be found
people panicked that he‘d fallen out prompting _______________to scour area
around his Colorado home Turns out the entire thing was_________.
7.
___________Charles Dawson presented parts of scull discovered
English gravel pit as he had discovered missing links between ______________on
the evolutionary scale significantly impacting public perception of the theory.
8.
__________Dad Bower and Dave Chorley confessed that with the help
of some simple tools they created hundreds of _________in British countryside alone
basically as a prank.
9.
Ladies and gentlemen I have ________________to make – incredible as
it may seem. Both the observation to science and evidence of our eyes lead to the
inescapable
assumption
that
those
strange
beings
who
landed
in
_______________tonight other then got up an invading army from__________.
Task 26. Read the text about Queen‘s
Birthdays and complete it with suitable words
(prepositions, articles, conjunctions, auxiliary
verbs etc.).
Before reading answer the questions:
When does Queen Elizabeth II have her
Her Majesty The Queen at her 88
anniversary.
birthday?
Do you know that she celebrates her birthday
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twice? Why?
How are both of them celebrated in the UK?
The Queen celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual birthday ___ 21 April
and her official birthday on a Saturday ____ June.
Official celebrations to mark Sovereigns‘ birthday have often ____ held on a
day other _____ the actual birthday, particularly when the actual birthday ____ not
been in the summer. King Edward VII, ____ example, was born on 9 November,
____ his official birthday was marked throughout his reign in May ___ June when
there was a greater likelihood ____ good weather for the Birthday Parade, also
known ____Trooping the Colour.
The Queen usually spends her actual birthday privately, but the occasion is
marked publicly _____ gun salutes in central London ____ midday: a 41 gun salute
____Hyde Park, a 21 gun salute in Windsor Great Park ____ a 62 gun salute at the
Tower ____ London. In 2006, Her Majesty celebrated ____ 80th Birthday with a
walkabout in the streets outside of Windsor Castle to meet well-wishers.
On her _____ birthday, Her Majesty is joined by other members of ____ Royal
Family at the spectacular Trooping ____ Colour parade _____ moves between
Buckingham Palace, The Mall and Horseguards‘ Parade.
b)
Find out more about Trooping the Colour and answer the questions.
1. Who is Trooping the Colour carried out by?
2. Who is Trooping the Colour watched by?
3. What does the Queen do during the ceremony?
4. What did she use to do?
Describe the ceremony of Trooping the Colour?
The
following
website
can
be
of
great
help:
http://www.royal.gov.uk/RoyalEventsandCeremonies/TroopingtheColour/Troop
ingtheColour.aspx
Project work
Task 27. The UK is the country with a lot of traditions and customs, which
is very respectful towards its history. The Royal family is one of the examples of
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this attitude. The Queen the members of her family are involved in a great
number of traditional events and ceremonies. Make a report and a presentation
about one of them: Changing the Guard; Garden Parties; Garter and Thistle
Services; Gun Salutes; Holyrood Week; Royal Maundy Service; Swan Upping; State
Opening of Parliament
Follow the link to find the information http://www.royal.gov.uk/Royal
EventsandCeremonies/Overview.aspx.
Task 27. Fill in table 4 with information about Spring and Summer Bank
Holidays in the UK and compare them.
Table 4. Spring and Summer Bank Holidays in UK
Early May
Bank Holiday
Time
Spring
Bank Holiday
Summer Bank
Holiday
of
observance
What
do
people do?
Traditional
events
Traditional
places to go
Origin
Task 28. Pair work. Use information from task 5 to make up and act out
the dialogue discussing plans for Spring / Summer Bank Holiday between
a) a British man and a foreigner; b) friends; c) an employee and his boss.
Use the following phrases that can help to express opinions.
Phrases for invitations
Responses to invitations
Formal
Accepting an invitation
Would you like to go to…?
I'd like that very much.
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I would like to invite you to…
Thank you for the invitation. I'd love to.
I was wondering if you would like to go...
What a great (wonderful, good) idea! I'd like
We would be very pleased if you would attend … that very much.
Informal
Declining an invitation
Let's go to…
Thank you for the invitation, but I may be
Do you feel like going to…?
busy.
Why don't we go to…?
That's not a bad idea, but maybe some other
How about…?
time, OK?
I wish I could, but I really can't.
Task 29. Each country has several national symbols - emblems or signs
chosen by a country and manifested to the world as signs of a national
community. National symbols usually include the coat of arms, the national
anthem and the national flag. In every state there is a day to honor the national
flag. Complete Table 6 with information about Flag‘s Day.
Table 6. Flag Day
Russia
The UK
Date
Holiday type
What do people do?
Nickname of the
flag?
Why does the flag
look the way it
does? What does it
symbolize?
Origin of the flag?
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Task 30. Follow the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ELJ0pfJFLSU
(Picture 35) and learn some Interesting Facts: Why Americans celebrate the 4th of
July? Write them down.
Picture 35.
Task 31. Read the text about Labour Day and complete the gaps using
appropriate passive voice forms.
The US: Labour Day vs. Loyalty Day
In the 1880s, an 8-hour workday was one of the most important demands of the
labour movement in America. One of the first labour parades (1 organise) _____ in
New York City on September 5th, 1882 by the Knights of Labour. A similar parade
(2 hold) ______ in 1884 and the Knights wanted to make the September parade an
annual event. At the same time other labour organisations (the American Federation
of Organised Trades and Labour Union) also demanded an 8-hour workday. They
believed that it should (3 introduce) _____ on May 1st, 1886.
However, the demands (4 not/fulfill) _____ Thus, on May 1st, 1886, a strike
for an eight-hour workday (5 start) _______ in Chicago and it continued for a few
days. On May 4th, a protest meeting began in Haymarket Square in Chicago. Later
that day 12 people (6 kill) ______ by a bomb probably thrown by an anarchist.
Although there was no evidence, seven activists (7 sentence) _______ to death and
another one to fifteen years in prison. Four of them (8 actually/hang) ______, one
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committed suicide in his cell. The remaining 3 (9 pardon) _____ in 1893 by John
Peter Altgeld, Illinois governor.
The Haymarket Square riots resulted in protests all around the world.
Meanwhile, in the United States, president Grover Cleveland decided to support the
petition of the Knights of Labour. He feared that a holiday on May 1st could (10 use)
_____ to commemorate the riots. Since the 1880s, Labour Day (11 celebrate) ____ on
the first Monday in September in the United States.
However, in 1889 May 1st (12 officially/appoint) _____ the International
Labour Day by socialist delegates in Paris. It also became an official holiday in many
European countries. When Labour Day (13 approve) _____ by the Soviet Union, it
became a communist holiday for Americans. As they wanted a counterweight to it,
they set up Americanisation Day, which (14 celebrate) _____ since the 1920s on May
Day. Americanisation Day, which (15 know) _____ today as Loyalty Day, praises the
heritage of American freedom and loyalty to the US. Although it (16 celebrate) ____
with parades and marches in many American towns and cities, it is not a federal
holiday.
Task 32. Answer some questions about Columbus Day.
Who is Christopher Columbus?
What is he famous for?
How much do you know about Columbus and Columbus Day?
a) Try to answer these questions by choosing the best answer.
Student B – look at page 137.
Student A
1. When is Columbus Day celebrated?
a) always on October 12th, the anniversary of Columbus‘ landing in America;
b) on the second Monday in October every year;
c) on the first Sunday after October 12th.
3. Was Columbus the first European to reach the American continent?
a) no, but he gave America its name;
b) yes;
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c) no, but his voyages are important as they created permanent links with
America.
5. How many days did Columbus and his crew spend at sea before they
reached America on their first voyage?
a) two weeks;
b) 36 days;
c) 65 days.
7. How many expeditions to America did Christopher Columbus lead?
a) four;
b) two, in 1492 and 1498;
c) one, in 1492.
When you are ready, read four short texts. These are the answers to the
questions students B have on their worksheets (but they are in the wrong order).
D. He had three ships. Their names were
the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria.
Columbus was captain of one of the
ships. He also took his two brothers,
who were in charge of the other two
ships. Santa Maria did not return to
Spain. It was wrecked near Haiti.
F. It is generally assumed that Columbus
reached America in 1492. Actually, on
October 12, 1492 he landed on an island
in the Bahamas which he named San
Salvador. He reached the mainland
continent
only during his third expedition to the
New World (1498-1500).
E. It is celebrated in many countries, e.g.
Italy, where Columbus was born, and
Spain, as the Spanish king financed his
expeditions. In Latin America it is
usually called ―Dia de la Raza‖ (Day of
the Race). On the other hand, some
countries in the Caribbean region don‘t
celebrate it. They resent the notion that
they were ―discovered‖ in 1492.
G. It was in New York City in 1792. It
marked the 300th anniversary of his
landing in the Bahamas. Columbus Day
became a public holiday in the US only
in 1937.
b) Pair work. Work with a partner who has the answers to your questions.
Check your answers following the procedure below:
– students A read one of the questions on their worksheets to students B;
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– students B listen to the question and then find the correct answer on their
worksheets;
– finally, students B read the answers back to students A.
– take turns in reading questions and answers until they have checked and
corrected all the answers.
Task 33. Language focus.
Do you know many Halloween words? Try to build 7 words using these
bricks. Then, explain their meaning and how they are related to this festival.
WIT-
-AT
-ST
GHO-
-LE
-RY
TRITRE-
APPSCA-
-CK
-CH
SWE-
-ET
Enumerate as many words associated with Halloween as you can.
Task 34. Complete the text with correct information about Halloween.
1. Halloween is celebrated annually on ____
2. The festival is especially popular among children in countries such as ….
3. The word Halloween comes from a shortened version of ____ a day before
November 1st, which is a day during which Catholics honour _____
4. It was believed that on 31st October the spirits of all those who had died
throughout the preceding year came back in search of_____
5. The still-living dressed up in all manner of ghoulish costumes in order to
__________.And they do it now.
6. But Halloween is much more than just costumes: there would be no
Halloween without _____
7. On this night children knock on their neighbours‘ doors and yell ____
8. Easily recognizable symbol of Halloween is a _____ a hollowed _____ with
a face carved in it made into a lantern.
9. Certain traditions, such as bobbing for ____, roasting _____, and baking
cakes which contain _____, are actually ancient methods of telling fortunes.
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Many people in Britain and the USA, including the police, do not like
Halloween. What reasons do you think they give? What do you think?
Do you think Halloween is popular in Russia? Why / Why not?
Task 35. There are quite a lot of jokes connected with Halloween. In some
of them the humour results from the fact that some words are pronounced in the
same way although they are spelt differently. Here‘s an example:
Question: Why did Dracula take cold medicine?
Answer: To stop his coffin.
Make two-line jokes by matching a question from column A with an answer
from column B. The humour in some of them will be of the kind shown above.
1. What do you call a witch who lives at the beach?
a. A mummy and deady.
2. Why didn‘t the skeleton dance at the Halloween party?
b. A cereal killer.
3. What are ghosts‘ favourite kind of streets?
c. A grave problem.
4. What happens when two vampires meet?
d. Dead ends.
5. What do you call a little monster‘s parents?
e. It‘s a pain in the neck.
6. What‘s it like to be kissed by a vampire?
f. He had nobody to dance
7. What‘s it called when a vampire has trouble with his with.
house?
g. A sand-witch.
8. What is a witch‘s favourite subject at school?
h. Spelling.
9. What do you call a monster who poisons corn flakes?
i. It‘s love at first bite.
10.Why didn‘t the skeleton cross the road?
j. He had no guts.
Task 36. Follow the link http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/studybreak/video-zone/halloween-party-snacks (Picture 36) and find out how to make
some super-easy and fun Halloween snacks! Do every offered exercise.
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Picture 36.
Task 37. What famous festival does the following nursery rhyme describe?
Remember, remember the fifth of November
Gunpowder, treason and plot
I see no reason why gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot
Task 38. Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated in Britain annually. Do you
know anything about this festival?
a) Answer these questions to find out! Choose the correct answer(s): there
may be more than one correct answer to each question!
1) Guy Fawkes Night is also known as
a) The Gunpowder Plot; b) Bonfire Night; c) Firework Night.
2) Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated in
a) Great Britain; b) Newfoundland (Canada); c) some areas of New Zealand.
3) Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated on
a) 4th November;
b) 5th November;
c) 6th November.
4) The origin of this celebration stems from events which took place in
a) 1605;
b) 1715;
c) 1825.
5) What was the object of the Gunpowder Plot, the event which is the origin of
this celebration?
a) to blow up English Parliament;
b) to kill King James I;
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c) to restore Catholics to power.
6) What do people do on Guy Fawkes Night?
a) watch fireworks displays;
b) burn Guy Fawkes dummies in bonfires;
c) blow things up.
b) Read the text below to check your answers to the questions of the test.
Give yourself one point for every correct answer you gave. Take away one point
for every incorrect answer.
Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated annually on 5th November. The event is
accompanied by fireworks displays, the lighting of bonfires and the burning of a lifesized dummy called ‗the guy‘ made of old clothes, newspapers and straw and
supposed to symbolise a man called Guido (or Guy) Fawkes. Guy Fawkes Night is
not solely a British celebration. The tradition was also established in the British
colonies by the early American settlers and actively pursued in the New England
States under the name of ‗Pope Day‘ as late as the 18th Century. Today, the
celebration of Guy Fawkes remains a tradition in such places as Newfoundland
(Canada) and some areas of New Zealand, in addition to the British Isles.
The origin of Guy Fawkes Night, also known as ―Firework Night‖ and
―Bonfire Night‖, stems from events which took place in 1605 and was a conspiracy
known as ―The Gunpowder Plot‖, intended to take place on the day set for the
opening of Parliament that year. The conspirators' goal was to blow up the Houses of
the Parliament with the intention of killing King James I as well as all the members
of the government. It was hoped that such a disaster would initiate a great uprising of
English Catholics, who were unhappy about the severe laws directed against them.
How to interpret your score?
Score: 10 – 12 points Your knowledge of British festivals is truly impressive!
How about writing a quiz for your classmates?
6 – 9 points Your initial knowledge had a few minor gaps but after reading
your text and talking to your partner, you know so much more!
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0 – 5 points Well, one doesn't have to know everything, right? I bet you know
a lot about some other British festivals; I'm sure Christmas holds no secrets for you.
Although you could ask your partner for a copy of his text, just to be on the safe
side…
Task 38. Follow the link http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/uknow/video-uk/bonfire-night to find out more why the British celebrate people
trying to blow up Parliament! Do the Preparation task first. Then watch the
video. Next go to Task and do the activity.
Task 39. Read the text about Remembrance day and do the tasks after it.
Remembrance Day is also known as Poppy Day, and in America it is called
Veteran‘s day. It was first observed in 1919, however until 1945 it was called Armistice
Day. Traditionally there is two minutes of silence at the eleventh hour of the eleventh
day of the eleventh month because that was the time (in Britain) when the armistice
became effective in 1918.
Today, in the UK Remembrance Sunday is also observed on the Sunday nearest to
November 11th. Remembrance Sunday ceremonies are held at War Memorials, all over
the UK and over the years it has become a day to commemorate not just the sacrifice of
servicemen and women but the suffering of civilians in
times of war.
Remembrance Sunday is commemorated by church
services around the UK and a parade of ex-service
personnel in London‘s Whitehall. A national ceremony
takes place at the Cenotaph in Whitehall, London. The Queen lays the first wreath at the
Cenotaph.
Wreaths of poppies are placed on war memorials all over Britain. Small wooden
crosses are placed in Gardens of Remembrance as private acts of remembering
individual losses and suffering and people pin poppies to their coat or jacket.
History states that it was the poem ―In Flanders Fields‖ written in 1915 by
Colonel John McCrae, a Canadian Medical Officer that captured the imagination of the
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British people in the dark days of trench warfare on the Western Front when so many
young soldiers failed to return. Six months before the Armistice, McCrae was brought
on a stretcher to a big hospital on the French coast and saw the cliffs of Dover from his
room. He died that night and was buried in a cemetery above Wimereux. Before he died,
he said to the doctor: ―Tell them this: If ye break faith with us who die, we shall not
sleep‖. An American woman, Miss Moina Michael, wrote a moving poem in reply and
bought 25 red poppies, wearing one herself as a way to keep faith with the war dead; a
French woman, Madame Guerin, came up with the practical idea of making and selling
artificial poppies to help ex-service men and their dependents in need.
Britain‘s first Poppy Day was held in 1921 and the money raised helped children
in war-devastated areas. The Royal British Legion opened its own poppy factory in
London in 1922 to give practical help in time of need to all who have served in the
armed forces and their widows and dependents. The paper poppies that are worn today
are made by ex-service personnel and are sold by representatives of the Royal British
Legion, an organisation of ex-servicemen and women. Today, they make more than 35
million poppies and 65,000 wreaths for the annual poppy appeal.
The poppy, one of the most ancient of plants, was selected originally as the
emblem of consolation, denoting sleep, rest and repose. In Roman mythology,
Morpheus, the god of dreams, fashioned crowns of poppies to give to those he wanted to
send to sleep. The ancient Egyptians used the poppy in burial ceremonies as part of the
gifts and utensils considered essential to ensure life after death. Well preserved poppies
have been found in tombs dating from the time of the Pharaohs, over 3000 years ago.
But most importantly the poppy tends to grow where ground has been disturbed. They
grew in great abundance in the shell-torn fields of Flanders during the War. Because of
its abundance it became the symbol of remembrance of two world wars.
b) What do the following numbers stand for: 11, 1919, 1945, 1922, 35, 65?
c) Complete the following sentences with information from the text:
1. Remembrance Day is also known as …
2. Until 1945 it was called Armistice Day because…
3. . Over the years Remembrance Day has become a day to commemorate …
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4. A national British ceremony takes
place at ….. in….
5. A symbol of this day is ….
6. People wear poppies …
7. The poem ―In Flanders Fields‖ written
in …. by ….
8. The money raised from Britain‘s first
Poppy Day …..
9. The reasons why a poppy became the symbol of remembrance are …
Task 40. a) Read the poem and point out the idea the author tried to
convey.
In Flander's Fields
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved, and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up your quarrel with the foe;
To you from falling hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
Written by Liet.-Col. John McCrae, a Canadian serving at Ypres
b) Answer the questions:
1)
Why did the author write about poppies? What do they often symbolize?
2)
Why does the action take place In Flanders fields?
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3)
The first stanza of the poem provides visual imagery of the graveyard.
What do poppies; larks, ‗still bravely singing‖; ―guns below‖ symbolize?
4)
What does the line ―The torch; be yours to hold it high‖ refer to?
c)
Write a review of the poem.
Task 41. Compare the way people in different countries celebrate
Veterans‘ Day, Remembrance Sunday, Patriot Day, Memorial Day and Victory
day (Russia). Do they honor the same event / people?
Task 42. Follow the link indicated below (Picture 37) and solve the puzzle
(Remembrance Day); note down your results.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/quizzes/crossword/091
106_crossword_remembrance.shtml
Picture 37.
Task 43. Read the text about Veterans Day and do the tasks.
a) Complete this text about the origins of Veterans Day in the US with the
correct form of the verbs in the brackets.
Veterans Day is a serious holiday honouring men and women who
(serve)…….in the military. Originally, the holiday (call) …… Armistice Day. It
(establish) ………by President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 to commemorate the
signing of the armistice (on November 11, 1918) that (bring) ……an end to World
War I. In 1954, President Dwight Eisenhower (sign) … a bill changing the name of
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the holiday to Veterans Day and extending its significance so that it now honors
American veterans of all wars.
The armistice between the opposing forces in World War I (sign) ……in the
eleventh month, on the eleventh day, at 11 a.m. Some people still (observe) ……two
minutes of silence at that time.
b) Complete with appropriate prefixes and suffixes.
On Veterans Day, the flag is __played, and veterans march in parades in many
communities. Special Services are held at the Tomb of the __knowns in Arlington
Nation___ Cemetery. The Tomb of the __knowns is special to Americ___ because
the __identified members of the military buried there symbol__ everyone who has
died in defence of the US.
c) Complete with correct words derived from the words in the brackets.
On this holiday, veterans‘ (organize) … in many countries sell paper poppies
to raise money for (need) ………veterans. Poppies became associated with World
War I because of a (fame) …. poem by John McCrae. They (symbol) …the contrast
between the (beauty)…, (peace)….landscape and the bloody (battle) ………… it
once was.
(adapted from E. & M. Tiersky, The U.S.A. Customs and Institutions, p. 274)
Task 44. Read the text about Thanksgiving Day and make a literary
translation.
Thanksgiving Day is one of those joyous events we celebrate with lots of love
and gratitude. Its a very significant day in United States and the world over. Happy
Thanksgiving!.
In September 1620, a small ship called the Mayflower left Plymouth, England,
carrying 102 passengers – an assortment of religious separatists seeking a new home
where they could freely practice their faith and other individuals lured by the promise
of prosperity and land ownership in the New World. After a treacherous and
uncomfortable crossing that lasted 66 days, they dropped anchor near the tip of Cape
Cod, far north of their intended destination at the mouth of the Hudson River. One
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month later, the Mayflower crossed Massachusetts Bay, where the Pilgrims, as they
are now commonly known, began the work of establishing a village at Plymouth.
Throughout that first brutal winter, most of the colonists remained on board the
ship, where they suffered from exposure, scurvy and outbreaks of contagious disease.
Only half of the Mayflower‘s original passengers and crew lived to see their first
New England spring. In March, the remaining settlers moved ashore, where they
received an astonishing visit from an Abenaki Indian who greeted them in English.
Several days later, he returned with another Native American, Squanto, a member of
the Pawtuxet tribe. Squanto taught the Pilgrims, weakened by malnutrition and
illness, how to cultivate corn, extract sap from maple trees, catch fish in the rivers
and avoid poisonous plants. He also helped the settlers forge an alliance with the
Wampanoag, a local tribe, which would endure for more than 50 years and tragically
remains one of the sole examples of harmony between European colonists and Native
Americans.
In November 1621, after the Pilgrims‘ first corn harvest proved successful,
Governor William Bradford organized a celebratory feast and invited a group of the
fledgling colony‘s Native American allies, including the Wampanoag chief
Massasoit. Now remembered as American‘s ―first Thanksgiving‖ – although the
Pilgrims themselves may not have used the term at the time – the festival lasted for
three days. While no record exists of the historic banquet‘s exact menu, the Pilgrim
chronicler Edward Winslow wrote in his journal that Governor Bradford sent four
men on a ―fowling‖ mission in preparation for the event, and that the Wampanoag
guests arrived bearing five deer. Historians have suggested that many of the dishes
were likely prepared using traditional Native American spices and cooking methods.
Because the Pilgrims had no oven and the Mayflower‘s sugar supply had dwindled by
the fall of 1621, the meal did not feature pies, cakes or other desserts, which have
become a hallmark of contemporary celebrations.
President George Washington issued the first national Thanksgiving Day
Proclamation in the year 1789 by the national government of the United States; in it,
he called upon Americans to express their gratitude for the happy conclusion to the
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country‘s war of independence and the successful ratification of the U.S.
Constitution.
Thanksgiving Traditions
In many American households, the Thanksgiving celebration has lost much of
its original religious significance; instead, it now centers on cooking and sharing a
bountiful meal with family and friends. Turkey, a Thanksgiving staple so ubiquitous
it has become all but synonymous with the holiday, may or may not have been on
offer when the Pilgrims hosted the inaugural feast in 1621. Today, however, nearly
90 percent of Americans eat the bird – whether roasted, baked or deep-fried – on
Thanksgiving, according to the National Turkey Federation. Other traditional foods
include stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. Volunteering is
a common Thanksgiving Day activity, and communities often hold food drives and
host free dinners for the less fortunate.
Parades have also become an integral part of the holiday in cities and towns
across the United States. Presented by Macy‘s department store since 1924, New
York City‘s Thanksgiving Day parade is the largest and most famous. It typically
features marching bands, performers, elaborate floats conveying various celebrities
and giant balloons shaped like cartoon characters.
Beginning in the mid-20th century and perhaps even earlier, the president of
the United States has ―pardoned‖ one or two Thanksgiving turkeys each year, sparing
the birds from slaughter and sending them to a farm for retirement. A number of U.S.
governors also perform the annual turkey pardoning ritual.
b) Put the pictures a-i (Picture 38) in order and tell the history of
Thanksgiving Day with their help.
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a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
Picture 38.
Writing
Task 45. Read the article from E-magazine Parents.com about things we
are thankful for.
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Thanksgiving is about giving thanks for the people and blessings of the past
year. From pre-meal prayers to providing holiday meals to the homeless, the holiday
is truly a celebration of praise and thanksgiving.
E-magazine Parents.com asked the readers a question ―What are you grateful
for this Thanksgiving and all year round?‖ and received encouraging, joyful,
heartfelt, and inspiring stories. Read some of them.
I'm thankful for my children...
I am thankful for my adopted daughter and my biological son. My 10-year-old
daughter chooses every day to love me in return. She has not once ever uttered the
words, "I hate you" or "I don't have to listen to you. You're not my mother!" Instead,
she thanks me for being the best mommy that I can be. She is the most beautiful girl
that I know, inside and out. My 3-year-old son wasn't supposed to be, but now I have
a handsome little red-headed firecracker who proves that doctors are not, in fact,
God. My son taught me what it meant to never give up and my daughter taught me
that blood doesn‘t mean family. – Jackie Tinsley
I'm thankful for friends and family...
I am thankful for the 18 years that I had with my father before he passed away!
He was the best dad in the entire world, and I only wish he is here today to meet his
beautiful granddaughter! He would have been head over heels in love with her! Just
be thankful for what you have every single day. – Corbin's Closet
I'm thankful for people who changed my life...
I'm very thankful for my neurologist, Dr. Marden in Brainerd, Maine. She
found the problem that has been making me miserable after several years of X-rays,
MRIs, pokes, and probes. I‘m suffering from a very rare genetic blood disease called
porphyria. I am very blessed to be under the care of so many caring, well-educated
staff members at the Mayo Clinic. I am treated like a family member and not a
number. Thank you, Dr. Marden and the staff at Mayo. I'm so blessed and thankful
for your hearts of gold! – LeeAnne Marie Eklund
I'm thankful for being happy and healthy...
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Last month my children's schoolmate was diagnosed with leukemia. Our
community rallied to raise money for her medical bills and to give support to the
family. I'm so thankful that I live in a community where it really does take a village
and that, so far, my four kids are healthy and happy. Little else matters. – Shauna
Espinoza
I'm thankful for the everyday things in life...
We take so much for granted. Here are a few things I give thanks for: The
health of my children; waking up each day and being able; clean, running water to
bathe, drink, and cook with; a dependable car; and being able to pay my bills and
finances. I am thankful for everything, including the ups and the downs. – Rebekah
Newsome
Task 46. Write your answer to the question ―What are 5 things you are
grateful for?‖
Task 47. Almost all of us are sure that we know absolutely everything
about Catholic Christmas. Answer the questions to check if it‘s true.
1.
What‘s the name of the period leading up to Christmas?
a)
Advent;
2.
Boxing Day is the day after Christmas. Why is it called so?
b) November; c) Boxing Day.
a) there is an annual boxing competition on that day;
b) in the morning children get presents in boxes;
c) employers used to give presents to their workers in boxes;
d) there used to be charity boxes in churches for the poor which were opened
on the day after Christmas.
3.
Where did the name Santa Claus originate from?
a)
―Sinterklaas‖, from the Dutch;
b)
―Santa Claws‖, from the colonial British bedtime story;
c)
―Santaclause‖, from the German;
d)
―Siintaklass‖, which means ―Christmas‖ in Finnish.
4.
Where does the tradition of kissing under mistletoe come from?
a)
most believe it originated from Norse Mythology;
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b)
it was first mentioned in ―Twas the Night Before Christmas‖;
c)
it started at the turn of the 20th Century when mistletoe became plentiful
in the United States;
d)
in medieval Romania, when Christmas trees were unavailable, people
started using mistletoe instead.
5.
In what decade was the first Christmas Card sent in the UK?
a)
1770;
6.
Where and when did the custom of having and decorating Christmas
b) 1905;
c) 1843.
trees originate?
a)
Bremen, Germany circa 1570;
b)
Riga, Latvia 1510;
c)
Oslo, Norway 1525;
d)
in Rockefeller Plaza, on Christmas. Duh!
7.
The Christmas tree in Trafalgar Square, London is an annual gift from
which nation?
a) Russia;
b) Finland; c) Norway; d) the USA.
8.
Who is said to have introduced the Christmas tree into the UK?
a)
Prince Albert;
b)
Elisabeth II;
c)
Henry VIII;
d)
William the Conqueror.
9.
Which English leader banned Christmas in 1647 ?
a)
King Charles; b) Oliver Cromwell;
10.
Which British monarch was the first to broadcast their Christmas
c) King Henry VII.
message on television ?
a)
Queen Elizabeth II; b) George VI;
c) prince Charles.
11.
From which country were turkeys introduced into the UK in the 16th
Century?
a) Turkey;
b) America;
c) India;
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12.
What should be eaten on each of the twelve days of Christmas to bring
good luck?
a)
Mince Pie;
b) pudding; c) Brussels Sprouts.
13.
What in the UK was traditionally mixed into the Christmas pudding to
bring good luck to the recipient?
a)
a coin;
b) a horseshoe;
c) a leaf of mistletoe.
14. What alcoholic sauce is usually served with Christmas pudding?
a)
Red wine sauce;
b) Brandy Sauce;
c) Bourbon sauce.
15. What year did the Christmas movie ―It‘s a Wonderful Life‖ come out?
a)
1942;
b) 1956;
c) 1946;
c) 2000.
Task 48. Follow the link http://www.merriam-webster.com/video/0022xmas.htm to learn whether words Christmas and Xmas mean the same.
Task 49. Read the post of Rosemary Orchard where she compares the way
Christmas is celebrated in two different countries: the UK and Germany.
Comparing Christmases
Monday, 16 April, 2012
I‘m originally from the UK, and I‘ve spent the last 19 Christmases in England having a typical English experience, now I‘m in Germany for this year and it‘s
completely different!
What is a typical English Christmas?
Christmas in England starts in mid-October, or at least it does in the shops.
You can see Christmas decorations on sale, ‗present idea‘ shelves with selections of
things you might like to buy your mother, your sister, and in fact anyone at all! In
early to mid-November, depending on the shop, they will usually start to play
Christmas music. This includes carols and also more modern hits such as Slade, Paul
McCartney and Mariah Carey. By now towns will usually have put up decorative
lights in the streets ready for the official ‗turn on‘.
In the last week of November or the beginning of December Christmas will
officially begin. People will start to put up Christmas trees in their homes, buying and
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wrapping presents to give to each other, exchanging Christmas cards and if people
are lucky, they might even get snow!
On Christmas Eve children are advised to be good and go to bed early so Santa
will come to deliver their presents. On Christmas morning, I would always wake up
very early and run downstairs to see how many presents there were, and my father
would help me make breakfast in bed for mother. Slightly later (usually 9am or so)
we would sit together and open presents. In my family we also make a list of who has
given whom what gift so that ―thank you‖ notes can be sent later.
Christmas lunch is traditionally turkey or goose with ‗pigs in blankets‘ (small
cocktail sausages wrapped in bacon), stuffing, chestnuts and sprouts, roast potatoes
and hot gravy. For pudding there is Christmas pudding, which is a dark pudding
containing raisins, sultanas, almonds and many other ingredients. Traditionally it is
made 2 to 3 months before Christmas and then ‗fed‘ brandy or rum on a regular basis
to enhance the flavour. The pudding is then cooked and served with brandy butter,
egg custard or cream (and sometimes all three!). While the pudding is being cooked
the alcohol is burned off so only the flavour remains.
After the Christmas lunch, which normally takes place slightly later in the day
than a normal lunch at 2 or 3 pm, families often sit around playing games or watching
films. When I was very young everyone used to come to my house for lunch and after
we would all play Monopoly or Scrabble in the afternoon. Now everyone is older so
we eat lunch at our own houses and my parents and I visit the other relatives in the
afternoon, we sit around chatting, watch the Christmas special from the makers of
‗Wallace & Gromit‘ and discuss plans for the next year.
What is a traditional German Christmas?
In Germany Christmas begins on 6th December with St. Nicholas Day when
children hang a shoe outside. If they have been good St Nicholas fills it with sweets,
if they have been bad it is filled with coal or twigs.
Christmas markets are opened in later November and they contain little log
huts where vendors sell their wares – these range from homemade household items to
things you would find commercially produced in shops. In the centre of the
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Christmas Market there is usually a stall that plays or a place for a choir or band to
play Christmas music. At every Christmas market you can buy mulled wine, which is
a warmed wine, there is also a warm fruit punch for children.
On Christmas Eve either the Christ Child, who is like an angel or the Christmas
Man, who is like Father Christmas or Santa, visits every house and delivers presents.
In the evening, after mass at 4pm, the families return home and read the Christmas
story, eat snacks such as marzipan and nuts and open their presents. On Christmas
Eve there is traditionally a feast, but no meat is eaten for religious reasons.
On Christmas Day families eat a suckling pig or other roasted meat, along with
many other things such as macaroni salad and gingerbread. Gingerbread is very
popular and Germany is famous for the gingerbread houses it produces.
Germany is actually the home of many Christmas traditions that have come to
other parts of the world over the years. The most famous ones include the Christmas
tree, and the carols ―Silent Night‖ and ―O Christmas Tree‖.
Having never experienced a German Christmas I‘m very excited this year and
can‘t wait to find even more differences – both seem wonderful to me!
b) Answer the questions:
1. When does Christmas begin in Britain and Germany?
2. Are traditional dishes different in two countries?
3. Who delivers presents in Britain and Germany?
4. What do people usually do on Christmas?
c) Write about Christmas in our country answering the following
questions.
1. Do you celebrate Christmas in your country? What do you do?
2. What‘s Christmas like in your house? Do you have any special traditions?
3. Are there any famous Christmas songs in Russia?
4. Are there any films that are shown on Christmas?
5. What are traditional dishes cooked on Christmas?
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Task 50. Christmas has a long history and it has been celebrated by
different people in many different ways. In the UK, having a special Christmas
meal with family and friends is a very important custom for many.
Follow the link http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/overcooked/tellme-about-christmas-part-1 and get to know some of the traditionally served
Christmas food in the UK, like mulled wine, mince pies, Christmas pudding, etc.
Do the vocabulary tasks suggested.
Task
51.
Follow
the
link
http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/
overcooked/tell-me-about-christmas-part-2 (Picture 39) to know more about the
festive decorations and items you can find in the Christmas period. Do the
vocabulary tasks suggested.
Do you celebrate Christmas? How would you celebrate it? Besides Christmas
trees, what other Christmas decorations do you know?
Picture 39.
Task 52. The main symbol of Christmas is a fir tree. It‘s traditional to put
up Christmas trees in Britain but nowadays most people prefer artificial ones,
not real ones. Follow the link http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/
freetime/video-zone/how-christmas-trees-are-made (Picture 40) to find out
where they come from and how they‘re made!
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Picture 40.
Task 53. Follow the link http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/studybreak/video-zone/worst-christmas-presents (Picture 41) to learn about the most
bizarre electrical Christmas present. Have you ever received a strange electrical
gift? Do the vocabulary tasks suggested. Tell us about the worst present you‘ve ever
received! What was it and who gave it to you?
Picture 41.
Task 54. Phrasal verbs. When a person wants to celebrate something he as
a rule throws a party. Planning to throw a party?
a) Read some advice and comment upon them.
-
The host is expected to lay on food and drink, which can be expensive
and time-consuming. Consider asking others to make a contribution and bring
something.
-
A lot of food means a lot of clearing up. Think about disposable plates
and cutlery.
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-
Don‘t advertise it on the internet beforehand. You don‘t want
gatecrashes.
-
Parties take a while to warm up. Consider music (not so deafening that
it drowns out the conversation) or party games to liven things up.
-
Finally, don‘t get carried away. You are planning a party, not a theme
park.
b) Complete the dialogues with a suitable word from part A.
1. Whose party is it? – Paola and Simon are the _______
2. Can we throw the plates away? – Yes, they are ______
3. Can we do anything we like? – Yes, but don‘t get ______
4. Did it take long? Yes, it was very _____
5. She is always out with people. – Yes. She _____ a lot.
6. Why did you turn up the music? – To _____ the noise from the next door.
7. Did people help out at the party? – Yes, everyone made a ______
c) Match phrasal verbs and their definitions.
1.
Throw a party
a. to invite someone to your house, for example for a
meal
2.
Come to an end
b. to stand somewhere and do nothing, often when
you should be doing something
3.
Let smb know smth
c. to have a good, bad relationship with someone
4.
Invite smb around
d. to organize a party, especially in your own home
5.
be on good / bad terms e. to accept someone or something unpleasant in a
with smb
patient way
6.
Run the risk of doing f. to finish
smth
7.
Put up with smb
g. to reduce the amount of sound, heat, or light
produced by a piece of equipment by pressing a
button or moving a switch
8.
Turn smth down
i. at the most effective or highest level of operation
or activity
9.
Stand around
j. to be in a situation in which something bad could
happen
10. In full swing
k. to tell someone something
11. let their hair down
l. enjoy themselves / have a good time
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d) Complete advice how to avoid conflict with neighbors with phrases
verbs from task 54c.
Here are some tips how to stay _______ your neighbors.
-
Make sure you ____ the neighbors _____ you‘re having a party. If you
like, _______ them round.
-
When it starts to ______, turn the music ______ to an acceptable level.
-
Keep the windows closed when the party is _______.
-
When the party is coming _______, ask your guests to leave quietly, and
not to stand around outside chatting. You don‘t want to ________ walking your
neighbors up.
-
If all goes well, thank the neighbors afterwards for ________ any noise.
e) Complete the text using vocabulary from task 54.
Last week I had my birthday so I decided to _______. As all my friends use
gadgets I ____ them _____ about the party on the internet beforehand. I informed
them about the day, time and place of the event and asked to ________ and bring
something tasty. But first of all I informed my neighbors. Unfortunately, we are
_______ with them because the last time we _____ some people _____, they all stood
_____ outside making a lot of noise, and my neighbors had to complain. This time,
however, I ____ them _____ in advance about the party and told it wouldn‘t go on
after midnight. On the day of the party they looked out of the window at about 11.30
to see what was going ___ and it was really quiet – we had _____ the music___. And
I actually brought the party to _____ before midnight. No sooner my friends had left I
went to bed, as I didn‘t have to ______ because we had used ______ plates and
cutlery.
Task 55. ―Festival‖ also means‖ an organized series of special events and
performances, usually in one place‖. Great Britain is rich not only in holidays but in
festivals held all year round in different parts of the kingdom. Listen to the
presentation about unusual British festivals and do the exercises to practise and
improve your listening skills. Follow the link http://learnenglishteens.
britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/unusual-british-festivals.
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Which of these traditions would you like to take part in?
Do they remind you of any other festivals that you know about?
Tell about the festivals that take place in your city. Have you ever attended it?
Task 56. Write about traditions kept in your family.
Task 57. Follow the link http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-New-Traditionwith-the-Old-Ones to find how to Make a New Tradition with the Old Ones.
Create new traditions for 1) your family; 2) friends; 3) university group; 4) you
and your boyfriend/girlfriend; 5) yourself.
I’m going to talk about …
I’d like to say something about …
To begin with/First of all, …
So, what can I say about …?
Secondly/Next/Also …
Speaking personally, …
To finish with/Finally …
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Student B
I. How much do you know about Columbus and Columbus Day? Try to
answer these questions by choosing the best answer.
2. Is Columbus Day celebrated outside the US?
a) yes, but only by Americans living abroad
b) no
c) yes, e.g. in Italy and most Spanish-speaking countries
4. When did Columbus reach America?
a) in 1453 b) in 1492 c) in 1776
6. How many ships did Columbus have on his first voyage to America?
a) one b) three c) ten
8. When was Columbus Day celebrated for the first time?
a) in 1792 b) in 1620 c) in 1789
When you are ready, read four short texts. These are the answers to the
questions students A have on their worksheets (but they are in the wrong order).
H. The journey across the Atlantic Ocean
took them 36 days. After about a month,
the crew wanted to turn back to Spain
because they were afraid they would die
at sea. On October 10, Columbus and his
men agreed to sail west for just 3 more
days. Fortunately for Columbus, they
reached an island within these three days
and did not return to Europe immediately.
I. There were probably some Europeans
who managed to cross the Atlantic before
Columbus. One of the earliest explorers
was Eric Ericsson, a Norwegian who in
the 10th century AD sailed to
Newfoundland. Still, this contact with
America did not last long and it did not
change anything.
J. Although Columbus reached America
on October 12, Columbus Day is not
always celebrated exactly on this day. It
is celebrated on the second Monday in
October every year.
K. He led four expeditions: 1st – 14921493; 2nd –1493-1496; 3rd – 1498-1500;
4th – 1502-1504. He died soon after the
last one, in 1506.
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ADHD: A Family Problem. – URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
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Being good parents. – URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7l6J
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3.
Brainy Quote
– коллекция
цитат, крылатых
выражений и
высказываний известных людей. – URL: http://www.brainyquote.com
4.
Child Psychology: How to help a child who is always angry. – URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ts-7C_H6J8.
5.
Child Psychology: How to Parent a Difficult Child. - URL: http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=lhL0PEF4uHw.
d_jCG9gNbcw.
6.
Dr. Wayne Goodall talks about healthy marriages. - URL: http://family-
relationships.com/videos/healthy-marriages?
7.
Enchanted Learning – образовательный ресурс для детей. – URL :
http://www.enchantedlearning.com
8.
Family life. – URL: http://www.familylife.com/.
9.
Fathertimes – сайт о традициях празднования Нового года в разных
странах. – URL : http://www.fathertimes.net
10.
How
the
Royal
Family
spend
–
Christmas.
URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-djJ7n-c3MA.
11.
How to Discipline a Child - Dr. Nelsen TV Interview - Positive
Discipline. – URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4ATYLnzoe4.
12.
How
to
talk
about
your
family.
–
URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R49zGknt7EE#aid=P9yQVmCO8HA.
13.
International Business Time – официальный сайт газеты. – URL :
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/
14.
Is it important for family members to stay together? – URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MUohoDv3XE.
15.
Jenna McCarthy: What you don't know about marriage. – URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y8u42OjH0ss.
16.
John Mark Comer speaking on ‗What Is The Purpose Of Marriage?‘ –
URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOaBbNjOTSM.
17.
Ken‘s quiz site – сайт, содержащий викторины, вопросники. – URL:
http://www.kensquiz.co.uk/
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18.
Kentuckyfolkweb.com – блог о моде, новостях из мира шоубизнеса. –
URL:http://www.kentuckyfolkweb.com/the-importance-of-celebration/
19.
Mamaguru.com – блог писательницы Ребекки Кофино. – URL :
http://mamaguru.com/
20.
Manchestereveningnews.co.uk
–
официальный
сайт
газеты.
–
URL:http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/
21.
Merriam-Webster
–
Dictionary
толковый
словарь.
–
URL:
http://www.merriam-webster.com/
22.
My Father. – URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v66VMFBPq8E.
23.
My
Son.
British
Council
Listen
and
–
Watch.
URL:
http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/i-wanna-talk-about/my-son.
24.
Parents.com – интернет-журнал. – URL: http://www.parents.com/
25.
Pearson – официальный сайт книжного издательства. – URL:
http://www.pearson.ba/old/teacher-s-resources-202/festival-worksheets.html
26.
Poetryteachers.com – сайт для учителей английского языка о том, как
использовать
поэзию
на
в
процессе
обучения.
–
URL
:
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Project Britain – сайт о жизни и культуре Великобритании. – URL:
http://projectbritain.com/festivals/november.htm
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Teens
Talk
About
–
Family.
URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=beuvyZfBFGQ.
29.
The
Beckham
–
Family.
URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHc1J6T3XuA.
30.
The
Free
Dictionary
–
коллекция
словарей.
–
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–
URL:
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official
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of
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https://www.royal.gov.uk/Home.aspx
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Time and Date – сайт, предлагающий разные типы календарей,
содержащий
информацию
о
праздниках
http://www.timeanddate.com/
142
во
всем
мире.
–
URL
:
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33.
To
Marry
or
Not
to
–
Marry.
URL:
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Virginia Ironside's Dilemmas: Should toddlers be sent to the naughty
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http://teenagonyaunt.tumblr.com/DearAgonyAunt.
37.
Исторический
сайт
–
URL:
http://www.history.com/topics/thanksgiving/history-of-thanksgiving
38.
Сайт
специализирующая
некоммерческой
на
преподавании
http://www.learnenglish.de/
143
добровольной
английского
организации,
языка.
–
URL:
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240, tradition, family, speak, let
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