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259.Health and body care

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
А. В. Павлова, О. А. Хрущева
HEALTH AND BODY CARE
Рекомендовано
Ученым
советом
федерального
государственного
бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального
образования «Оренбургский государственный университет» в качестве
учебного пособия для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего
профессионального образования по направлению подготовки 035700.62
Лингвистика
Оренбург
2012
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
П 12
Рецензент – ст. преподаватель АФМПАЯ, к. филол. наук Е. В. Турлова
Павлова, А.В.
Health and body care: учебное пособие / А. В. Павлова, О. А.
Хрущева; Оренбургский гос. ун-т. – Оренбург : ОГУ, 2012. – 113
с.
ISBN
П 12
В учебном пособии представлены материалы, необходимые для
успешного освоения системы лингвистических знаний, включающей в
себя знание основных фонетических, лексических, грамматических,
словообразовательных явлений и закономерностей функционирования
английского языка.
Учебное пособие предназначено для занятий по дисциплине
«Практический курс первого иностранного языка», для студентов 2
курса очной формы обучения по направлению 035700.62 Лингвистика,
профиля «Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и
культур».
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
ISBN
© Павлова А.В.,
Хрущева О.А., 2012
© ОГУ, 2012
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Contents
Введение……………………………………………………………………
4
1 Disease or illness?……………………………………………………….
5
2 Pain, ache or hurt?………………………………………………………..
14
3 Test for parts I and II……………………………………………………...
19
4 Common injuries…………………………………………………………
22
5 What are your symptoms?………………………………………………
26
6 At the doctor’s…………………………………………………………….
29
7 What’s the diagnosis?…………………………………………………..
33
8 Test for parts IV, V, VI, VII……………………………………………...
40
9 Treatment. Alternative medicine………………………………………….
42
10 Phrasal verbs…………………………………………………………….
48
11 Changing climate and public health……………………………….
50
12 Final test…………………………………………………………………
52
13 Sports to keep fit………………………………………………………...
55
14 Sports and games………………………………………………………..
63
15 Test for Parts XIII and XIV……………………………………………..
79
16 People in sport…………………………………………………………...
80
17 Places in sport…………………………………………………………...
87
18 Extreme sports…………………………………………………………...
90
19 Foul sports……………………………………………………………….
93
20 Test for Parts XVI-XIX………………………………………………….
98
21 Sports idioms…………………………………………………………….
99
22 Phrasal verbs…………………………………………………………….
102
23 Final test…………………………………………………………………
106
Bibliography……………………………………………………………….
108
Appendix A ..……………………………………………………………….
111
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Введение
«Health and body care» - учебное пособие к практическому курсу первого
иностранного языка, предназначенное для обеспечения аудиторной и
самостоятельной работы студентов-бакалавров 2 курса 3 семестра очной
формы обучения по направлению 035700.62 – Лингвистика, профилю
«Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур» с целью
систематизации и обобщения практического материала по темам «Здоровье.
Болезни» и «Спорт» (в соответствии с 13 и 14 разделами рабочей
программы).
Настоящее пособие состоит из 17 разделов: 1. “Disease or illness?”, 2.
“Pain, ache or hurt?”, 3. “Common injuries”, 4. “What are your symptoms?”, 5.
“At the doctor’s.”, 6. “What’s the diagnosis?”, 7. “Treatment. Alternative
medicine.”, 8. Phrasal verbs,
9. “Changing Climate and Public Health”, 10.
“Sports to keep fit”, 11. “Sports and games”, 12. “People in sport”, 13. “Places in
sport”, 14. “Extreme sports”, 15. “Foul sports”, 16. “Sports idioms”, 17. Phrasal
Verbs.
Каждый
раздел
содержит
лексический,
фонетический
и
грамматический материал и упражнения, необходимые для активизации,
закрепления и контроля степени его усвоения. Для организации контроля и
самоконтроля предложены шесть тестовых заданий: четыре промежуточных
и два итоговых теста по материалу каждого раздела.
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1 Disease or illness?
Study the following meanings of the words disease and illness.
Disease noun
1) [uncoun. and count.] an illness which affects a person, animal, or plant
COLLOCATIONS
have/suffer from a disease, heart/liver/brain etc disease, a disease of the
brain/stomach etc, catch a disease, contract a disease formal (=catch a disease),
a disease spreads/the spread of a disease, infectious/contagious disease (=one
that spreads quickly from one person to another), a fatal/deadly disease (=one that
causes death), an incurable disease (=one that cannot be cured), a degenerative
disease (=one that gradually gets worse and worse), a cure for a disease, the
symptoms of a disease (=the things that show that someone has it).
E. g. Heart disease runs in our family.
The first symptoms of the disease are vomiting and a slight fever.
The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific
problem.
Dementia is a word for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect
the brain, it is not a specific disease.
A degenerative disease is any disease in which deterioration of structure or
function of tissue occurs. Kinds of degenerative diseases include arteriosclerosis,
cancer, and osteoarthritis.
In the simplest terms, contagious diseases can be defined as diseases that
can be transmitted from one person to the other through direct physical contact or
by coming in contact with the infected person's bodily secretions.
The average life expectancy at the beginning of the 20th century was 47.3
years. A century later, that number had increased to 77.85 years, due largely to the
development of vaccinations and other treatments for deadly diseases.
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2) [countable] something that is seriously wrong with society or with someone's
mind, behaviour etc:
E. g. Loneliness is a disease of our urban communities.
—diseased adj: diseased muscles
Illness noun [uncount. and count.] a disease of the body or mind, or the
condition of being ill
COLLOCATIONS
have an illness/suffer from an illness, recover from an illness, serious illness,
minor illness, short/long illness, childhood illness, acute illness (=an illness that
becomes serious very quickly), chronic illness (=an illness that lasts a long time
and cannot be cured), fatal illness (=an illness which causes death), terminal
illness (=an illness which cannot be cured and that causes death, often slowly),
mental illness, the symptoms of an illness (=the things that show that someone
has it), through illness (=because of illness).
E. g. She had all the normal childhood illnesses.
I'd been told I'd been suffering from various illnesses.
Stress can cause mental illness.
I've never missed a day's work through illness in my life.
WORD CHOICE: illness, disease
Illness and disease are often used in the same way and are equally common in
spoken English. However, illness is more often used to refer to the length of time
or state of being unwell • E. g. He died after a long illness. • Do not use illness to
talk about less serious problems such as headaches or colds. Disease is a
particular kind of illness, especially one that spreads from one person to
another or affects a particular part of your body • E. g. infectious diseases •
heart disease. Disease can also be used to mean a lot of different diseases • E. g.
Cigarette smoking causes death and disease.
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Read the following texts to get general information about some widely
spread illnesses and diseases, pay attention to the use of these words: illness
and disease.
Dementia is a word for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect
the brain. It is not a specific disease. People with dementia may not be able to think
well enough to do normal activities, such as getting dressed or eating. They may
lose their ability to solve problems or control their emotions. Their personalities
may change. They may become agitated or see things that are not there.
Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by
itself does not mean you have dementia. People with dementia have serious
problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language.
Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease
and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs
cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve symptoms or slow
down the disease.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures.
The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out
the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave
strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness.
Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury and
abnormal brain development. In many cases, the cause is unknown.
Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important
to start treatment right away. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can
control seizures for most people. When medicines are not working well, surgery or
implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators may help. Special diets can help
some children with epilepsy.
A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your
brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke.
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The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that
blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic
stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. "Ministrokes" or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the
brain is briefly interrupted.
Symptoms of stroke are:
•
sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on
one side of the body);
•
sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech;
•
sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes;
•
sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination;
•
sudden severe headache with no known cause.
If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to
begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by
quickly dissolving the blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke
rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke
damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment for
stroke.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder.
Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes,
vision problems and poor muscle coordination progress quickly to dementia, coma
and death. Most patients die within a year.
The three main categories of CJD are:
•
sporadic CJD, which occurs for no known reason;
•
hereditary CJD, which runs in families;
•
acquired CJD, which occurs from contact with infected tissue, usually
during a medical procedure.
Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease." There is concern that people can get
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a variant of CJD from eating beef from an infected animal, but there is no direct
proof to support this.
Your body normally cools itself by sweating. During hot weather, especially
with high humidity, sweating just isn't enough. Your body temperature can rise to
dangerous levels and you can develop a heat illness. Most heat illnesses occur
from staying out in the heat too long. Exercising too much for your age and
physical condition are also factors. Older adults, young children and those who are
sick or overweight are most at risk. Drinking fluids, replenishing salt and minerals
and limiting time in the heat can help.
Heat-related illnesses include:
•
heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may
rise above 106 F in minutes; symptoms include dry skin, rapid, strong pulse and
dizziness;
•
heat exhaustion - an illness that can precede heatstroke; symptoms
include heavy sweating, rapid breathing and a fast, weak pulse;
•
heat cramps - muscle pains or spasms that happen during heavy
exercise;
•
heat rash - skin irritation from excessive sweating.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium
Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting.
Normally a human gets cholera from eating or drinking infected food or water.
And untreated, the disease will progress from massive diarrhea to shock in 4-12
hours and possibly death within 18 hours or several days. Luckily, with oral
rehydration therapy, a person can survive from cholera; however, in its most severe
form, cholera can kill within three hours. But good sanitation practices can curb an
outbreak. As the old saying goes – don’t drink the water – in many underdeveloped
countries. Primary treatment is with oral rehydration solution and if these are not
tolerated, intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are beneficial in those with severe disease.
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Worldwide it affects 3-5 million people and causes 100,000-130,000 deaths a year
as of 2010. Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by
epidemiological methods.
Rabies. Foaming at the mouth, difficulty swallowing, a maniacal fear of
water, anger and hostility, delusions and hallucinations, general all-round insanity.
You may recognize these symptoms from that pack of rabid raccoons in your
backyard, but a couple of hundred years ago, a lot more humans found themselves
acting like those unfortunate animals. Back before Louis Pasteur’s groundbreaking
vaccine hit the scene in 1885, rabies was a widely feared disease (and it still is in
some parts of the world). Spread through saliva (usually through dog bites), the
rabies virus attacks the nervous system; once it’s gotten to your brain, it’s pretty
much over. Today, mandatory animal vaccination programs have pretty much
wiped out the disease in humans in the developed world, but the disease still kills
millions of animals and up to 50,000 people worldwide each year. Consider that a
reminder to vaccinate Fluffy.
HIV
(Human
immunodeficiency
virus)/AIDS
(Acquired
immune
deficiency syndrome)
HIV leads to AIDS, which cripples a human’s immune system. AIDS has
been categorized as an epidemic by the CDC and the life expectancy has been
extended despite the lack of a vaccination or cure. While on its own, the Ebola
virus is much more deadly in the short term, most AIDS victims eventually
succumb to death from an AIDS related sickness. This condition progressively
reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible
to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of
a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such
as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk. This transmission
can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic
needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth,
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breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids. AIDS is now a
pandemic. As of 2009, AVERT estimated that there are 33.3 million people
worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.6 million new HIV infections per year
and 1.8 million annual deaths due to AIDS. In 2007, UNAIDS estimated: 33.2
million people worldwide had AIDS that year; AIDS killed 2.1 million people in
the course of that year, including 330,000 children, and 76 % of those deaths
occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. According to UNAIDS 2009 report, worldwide
some 60 million people have been infected, with some 25 million deaths, and 14
million orphaned children in southern Africa alone since the epidemic began.
Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the
late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified
in the early 1980s.
While anthrax can be produced in vitro and has been used as a biological
weapon before, a person dies from anthrax after inhalation of the spores or through
eating or coming in contact with animals who have ingested the spores. Once
contaminated, the bacteria quickly multiples and kills its host by producing two
lethal toxins. Death can take from two days up to a month from the cold like
symptoms, which then lead to serious breathing problems, shock and the eventual
fatality. Large amounts of antibiotics have been shown to be able to stop the
disease. A vaccine is known, then again there are also antibiotic-resistant strains of
anthrax. The dead body of an animal that died of anthrax can also be a source of
anthrax spores.
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Exercise 1. Explain the use of disease and illness.
1. 80 % of patients now recover completely from this illness and are able to
lead perfectly normal lives.
2. Childhood diseases such as measles and chickenpox are highly
contagious.
3. Doctors believe he may have contracted the illness while he was in Africa.
4. Minor illness such as colds are usually best left to get better by
themselves.
5. Malaria is still a common disease in West Africa and is often fatal.
6. Nationalism can be a serious disease.
7. Most childhood illness can now be easily prevented.
8. She suffers from a rare disease of the nervous system.
9. People are often too embarrassed to admit that they have suffered from
any form of mental illness.
10. She died yesterday after a long illness.
Exercise 2. Choose the correct variant.
1. Fat control is still very important for reducing risks for heart …….
2. Should doctors always tell patients that they have terminal ……such as
cancer?
3. You are allowed time off work only in cases of serious …… or
bereavement.
4. Smoking is a major cause of heart …… .
5. About 30 percent of people with a mental …… also are drug or alcohol
abusers, the audit said.
6. The most common symptoms of the …… are a high temperature and
spots all over the body.
7. Experiments involve a spurious association between the novel food and
the …… which is usually induced chemically or by X-rays.
8. Thousands of people in this area are dying from hunger and …… .
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9. He himself was thin and pale from ……, and was lying on the bed,
wrapped in an old coat.
10. Travellers to India are advised to get vaccinated against infectious ……
such as typhoid before they go.
Exercise 3. Do you think these people have an illness or a disease
(Pictures 1-2)? Explain your choice.
Picture 1
Picture 2
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2 Pain, ache or hurt?
Study the following meanings of the words pain, ache, hurt.
Pain noun
1) [uncount. and count.] the feeling you have when part of your body hurts
COLLOCATIONS
have a pain in your stomach/leg/side etc, be in pain, chest pain/back pain/neck
pain etc, severe/terrible/chronic pain, sharp pain (=a short but severe pain),
excruciating pain (=very severe pain), dull pain (=one that is not severe but
continues for a long time), nagging pain (=one that continues for a long time and
keeps bothering you), shooting pain (=a severe pain that starts in one place then
quickly moves to another), ease/relieve/kill pain, pain relief/control, inflict pain
(on somebody), labour pains (=pain felt by a woman who is starting to have a
baby), aches and pains (=slight feelings of pain that are not very serious).
E. g. The pain in her jaw had come back.
Greg was in a lot of pain.
The patient complained of severe chest pains.
Morphine is used to relieve pain.
2) [uncount. and count.] the feeling of unhappiness you have when you are sad,
upset, etc:
E. g. The pain and grief of bereavement
cause (somebody) pain/inflict pain on somebody
E. g. She hated to say the words, for fear of causing pain.
3) be a pain (in the neck)
E. g. There were times when Joe could be a real pain in the neck.
E. g. It’s a pain, having to go upstairs to make the coffee every time.
4) take/go to (great) pains to do something also take pains with/over
something to make a special effort to do something:
E. g. He’s taken great pains to improve his image.
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5) be at pains to do something - to be especially careful to make sure people
understand what you are saying or what you plan to do:
E. g. Roy was at pains to point out that English was the only exam he'd ever failed.
6) for your pains - as a reward for something you worked to achieve - used
especially when this is disappointing:
E. g. I fetched the file, and all I got for my pains was a dirty look from Simon.
7) on/under pain of death -at the risk of being killed as punishment, if you do not
obey:
E. g. Communist activity was prohibited on pain of death.
Pain:
pain in different parts of your body: headache, backache, toothache, earache,
stomach ache, my leg/arm/neck etc hurts
to feel a lot of pain: be in agony
what do you say when something hurts? – “ouch”
Ache verb[intransitive]
1) if part of your body aches, you feel a continuous, but not very sharp pain
there [= hurt]: E. g. His feet were aching from standing so long.
2) to want to do or have something very much
ache for
E. g. I’m aching for sleep.
ache to do something
E. g. He ached to reach out and hold her close.
3) to have a strong unhappy feeling
ache with
E. g. Sarah ached with sadness that her brother was so ill.
E. g. Tim’s heart was aching for her.
Ache noun [count.]
1) a continuous pain that is not sharp or very strong: a stomach ache
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E. g. A dull ache throbbed at the back of David’s head.
aches and pains (=slight feelings of pain that are not considered to be serious)
E.g. Apart from the usual aches and pains, she felt all right.
2) a strong, mostly unhappy, feeling: the ache of his loneliness
—achy adj: E. g. I’m feeling tired and achy.
Hurt verb, past tense and past participle - hurt
1) injure somebody [transitive]
to injure yourself or someone else:
E. g. Was anyone hurt in the accident?
hurt your arm/leg/nose etc
E. g. He hurt his knee playing football.
hurt yourself
E. g. Be careful you don't fall and hurt yourself.
2) feel pain [intransitive]
to feel pain in part of your body:
E.g. My back hurts.
E. g. Where does it hurt?
E. g. It hurts when I try to move my leg.
hurt like hell informal (=hurt very much)
3) cause pain [transitive]
to cause pain in a part of your body:
E. g. The sun’s hurting my eyes.
4) insult somebody [intransitive and transitive] to make someone feel very upset,
unhappy, sad etc:
E. g. I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings.
it hurts (somebody) to do something
E. g. What hurts is that he never even said goodbye.
E. g. It hurt me to think that you hated me.
it won't/doesn't hurt (somebody) to do something
E. g. The house looks pretty good, but a fresh paint job wouldn’t hurt either.
it won't/doesn't hurt (somebody) to do something
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Read the following texts to get general information, pay attention to the
use of these words: pain, ache and hurt.
Your abdomen extends from below your chest to your groin. Some people
call it the stomach, but your abdomen contains many other important organs. Pain
in the abdomen can come from any one of them. The pain may start somewhere
else, such as your chest. Severe pain doesn't always mean a serious problem. Nor
does mild pain mean a problem is not serious.
Call your healthcare provider if mild pain lasts a week or more or if you
have pain with other symptoms. Get medical help immediately if:
•
you have abdominal pain that is sudden and sharp;
•
you also have pain in your chest, neck or shoulder;
•
you're vomiting blood or have blood in your stool;
•
your abdomen is stiff, hard and tender to touch;
•
you can't move your bowels, especially if you're also vomiting.
The following steps may help an earache:
•
a cold pack or cold wet wash cloth applied to the outer ear for 20
minutes may reduce pain;
•
for children old enough to safely chew gum, chewing may help relieve
the pain and pressure of an ear infection;
•
if a child is uncomfortable lying down, resting in an upright position
can help reduce pressure in the middle ear;
•
over-the-counter ear drops are gentle and effective, as long as the
eardrum has not ruptured;
•
over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen,
can provide relief for children and adults with an earache (do NOT give aspirin to
children).
You can relieve ear pain caused by rapidly descending from high altitudes
by swallowing or chewing gum. Allowing infants to suck on a bottle or breastfeed
while the plane is descending can help.
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Exercise 1. Explain the use of pain, ache, hurt.
1. Dan was a good man. He'd never hurt anyone deliberately.
2. A slipped disc can cause severe back pain.
3. Every inch of my body ached after skiing.
4. I fell and banged my knee, and it really hurts.
5. You won't feel any pain during the operation.
6. Put the stick down, Terry. You might hurt someone with it.
7. The sight of those children at their mother's funeral made my heart ache.
8. Dash put his head in his hands, as if in pain.
9. Did it hurt when they stuck the needle in?
10. Your limbs can ache and your muscles can feel weak.
Exercise 2. Choose the correct variant.
1. I can’t go running this week – I’ve …… my foot.
2. In college, Durban began to suffer from headaches and … in his arms and legs.
3. Stop it – you’re …… me.
4. Over time, the …… usually lessens and goes away, but this may take several
months to several years.
5. I would never do anything to …… her.
6. My arms …… from carrying all the groceries.
7. It …… my knees to run.
8. He told the doctor he was suffering from chest …….
9. She had been …… for him since she had first seen him straddling that bike with
such lazy arrogance.
10. The drug is often used to ease the …… of dying cancer patients.
11. I went to dance class last week, and I've been …… ever since.
12. She felt hot and her head was beginning to …… .
Exercise 3. Make a short dialogue, discussing the usual aches and pains
of the youth.
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3 Test for parts 1 and 2
Exercise 1. Choose the correct variant. In some sentences more than one
variant is possible.
1. His preparation to be a deacon was disturbed by a death and by mental …… .
a) disease; b) illness; c) pain.
2. It really …… me that Troy didn’t even bother to introduce me.
a) pain; b) hurt; c) ache.
3. It is state officials who are responsible for finding victims and easing their ……
with financial help.
a) ache; b) illness; c) pain.
4. The mental, emotional and other consequences are similar for all addictive ……
a) illnesses; b) aches; c) diseases.
5. Two days later, after refusing to eat and complaining of stomach …, Jimmy was
hospitalized.
a) pain; b) ache; c) illness.
6. It won't ……, I promise.
a) pain; b) hurt; c) ache.
7. We are bitten by mites and ticks, some of which carry dangerous ……….
a) illnesses; b) diseases; c) pains.
8. Most …… and infections are easier to treat if they are diagnosed early.
a) pains; b) diseases; c) illnesses.
9. For years, her chest …, her abdomen … .
a) hurt; b) ached; c) pained.
10. Whether the abandoned innards, which are consumed by coyotes and ravens,
harbor the …… is hotly debated.
a) disease; b) illness; c) pain.
11. The …… is getting worse.
a) pain; b) ache; c) illness.
12. I wanted to sit down, 'cause my leg was really …… me.
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a) aching; b) hurting; c) paining.
13. His head ……, the cool air no panacea (something that people think will make
everything better and solve all their problems), and his thoughts, too, were
disturbed.
a) ached; b) hurt; c) pained.
14. Our hospitals would be empty if we tried to discriminate between self-induced
or even partially self-induced ……, and naturally developed diseases.
a) diseases; b) illnesses; c) pains.
15. It …… me to think that you still don't trust me.
a) hurts; b) ached; c) pains.
16. Many had been lost through …… or in the floods or to thieves.
a) ache; b) illness; c) disease.
17. If unusual …… or symptoms occur consult physician.
a) illness; b) pain; c) disease.
18. It won't …… Julia to get up early for a change.
a) hurt; b) pain; c) ache.
19. I clung so hard to the window frame that my hand …….
a) ached; b) pained; c) aches.
20. People whose disabilities begin with severe …… or injury find themselves in
medical hands whether they like it or not.
a) illness; b) disease; c) pain.
21. My neck felt stiff and my shoulder …….
a) hurt; b) ache; c) pain.
22. They simply tell us that some one has some very specific desires, … and … .
a) aches; b) pains; c) diseases.
23. Sammy! Don’t throw stones, you’ll … someone.
a) ache; b) pain; c) hurt.
24. He knew the pleasures and …… of trying to earn money as a writer.
a) aches; b) pains; c) illnesses.
25. That's a sharp knife. Be careful, don’t …… yourself.
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a) hurt; b) ache; c) pain.
26. Kerry had to drive herself to the hospital when the labor …… began.
a) pains; b) illnesses; c) diseases.
27. These are the truly intractable …… and they are called intractable because they
respond to no known form of therapy.
a) pains; b) aches; c) diseases.
28. Nick’s …… his back, and the doctor says he will have to rest for a few weeks.
a) hurt; b) ached; c) pains.
29. The fact that his parents take little interest in his life … him more than he
admits.
a) hurt; b) pained; c) hurts.
30. It is going to …… him here.
a) hurt; b) pain; c) ache.
Exercise 2. Describe each picture (Pictures 3-4) in five sentences.
Picture 3
Picture 4
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4 Common injuries
Read and study (Picture 5)
Picture 5
An injury is damage to part of your body. These are common injuries.
What’s the problem?
How did it happen?
result
Solution
1. She cut her finger
using a knife
it’s bleeding
put a plaster on it
2. He twisted his ankle
running for a bus
he can’t walk
put a bandage on it
3. She’s got a bruise
she hit her ankle
it’s swollen
ice pack
when she fell over
black and blue
4. He broke his arm
he fell off his bike
he can’t use it
a sling
5. She burnt her hand
on the kettle
it’s very
put ice-cream on it
painful
Hospital treatment
John fell out of the window and hit his head on the ground. His wife called an
ambulance but John was still unconscious when it arrived. He was rushed to
hospital (= taken to hospital very quickly) and when he came round (= became
conscious), he didn't know where he was.
Wounds and injuries
Wound and injury describe damage to the body, but a wound is usually caused
by a weapon (e.g. gun or knife) and happens in fights and wars. The verbs are
wound and injure.
E. g. He was seriously (= badly) injured in a car crash.
E.g. Two of the soldiers were wounded.
E. g. Someone shot him (with a gun).
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E.g. He got into a fight and he was beaten up.
Minor ailments and ways of talking about minor problems
The fixed expression cuts and bruises can refer to minor injuries.
- I hear you fell off your bicycle. Are you all right?
- Yeah, fine, just a few cuts and bruises, nothing serious.
Some other kinds of physical discomfort
My hand is stinging since I touched that plant. [sudden, burning pain]
My head is throbbing. [beating with pain]
I have a stiff neck from turning round to look at the computer screen all day. [pain
and difficulty in moving your neck round]
I feel a bit dizzy. I think I should sit down. [a feeling that you are spinning round
and can't balance]
She was a bit feverish this morning, so I told her to stay in bed. [with a high
temperature] I had a terrible nauseous feeling after taking the medicine, but it
passed.
He was trembling all over; I knew it must be something serious [shaking]. My
nose is all bunged up today with this horrible cold. [blocked]
Exercise 1. Match the wounds/injuries on the left with the results on the
right.
1. He hit his head on the door
a) It’s swollen and it hurts when he walks
2. He bruised his leg
b) He was beaten up quite badly
3. He broke his leg
c) It’s very painful
4. He cut his finger
d) He’s got a big bruise on it
5. He burnt himself
e) It’s still bleeding
6. He got into a fight
f) He won’t be able to walk for six weeks
Exercise 2. What medical problems might you have if………..
1) you wear shoes that rub?
7) you eat food you’re allergic to?
2) you eat too fast?
8) you run unusually fast for a bus?
3) you smoke a lot?
9) you eat food that is bad?
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4) you play football?
10) a mosquito bites you?
5) you go skiing?
11) you get wet on a cold day?
6) you stay out in the sun too long?
12) you think you are ill all the time?
Exercise 3. Describe pictures 6-9 (not less than 10 sentences).
Picture 6
Picture 7
Picture 8
Picture 9
Exercise 4. Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space.
A Disastrous Holiday
The day Gerald arrived at the Almara Beach Hotel, he fell (1) ………. the stairs.
The manager called a/an (2) …… , but fortunately Gerald’s leg was only badly (3)
……, and not broken. The doctor (4) …… swimming as further (5) …… but gave
Gerald a/an (6) …… for some tablets in case his leg became (7) …… . The next
Gerald sunbathed by the pool, and then took a deep (8) …… and dived into water.
There was not very much water in the pool, and he (9) …… one of his arms when
he hit the bottom. This time he complained to hotel manager, who sent a special
meal to Gerald’s room. Later that night, Gerald was (10) ……from a (11)
……back, the injuries to his arm and leg, and also had a terrible (12) …… . He had
a high (13) …… and felt terrible. Luckily he the tablets the doctor had given him
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to (14) …… the pain. As he reached for them, he fell out of bed and broke his (15)
…… . He spent the rest of his holiday in bed.
1. a) down;
b) to;
c) with;
d) for.
2. a) stretcher;
b) prescription;
c) ambulance; d) emergency.
3. a) sick;
b) bruised;
c) hurt;
d) infected.
4. a) went;
b) prevented;
c) said;
d) recommended.
5. a) medicine;
b) cure;
c) drugs;
d) treatment.
6. a) recipe;
b) paper;
c) prescription; d) order.
7. a) painful;
b) pained;
c) painless;
d) pain.
8. a) end;
b) breath;
c) mouthful;
d) water.
9. a) hurt;
b) injury;
c) ached;
d) sore.
10. a) ill;
b) injured;
c) suffering;
d) damaged.
11. a) sunny;
b) sunburnt;
c) sunshine;
d) grilled.
12. a) agony;
b) hurt;
c) heat;
d) stomachache.
13. a) pain;
b) temperature;
c) ache;
d) degree.
Exercise 5. Read what Andy says and write what he wishes as in the
example:
“I had an argument with my wife. I was driving my car too fast. I had that
accident. I can't control my temper. My wife won’t come and visit me. My leg
hurts. The man in the next bed won’t stop talking. I can’t get out of bed.”
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5 What are your symptoms?
Read and study.
I've got a cold / a cough / a sore throat / a temperature [a higher
temperature than normal] / a stomach ache / chest pains / earache / a pain in my
side / a rash on my chest / spots / a bruise on my leg [e.g. after playing football] / a
black eye [e.g. after being hit in the eye] / a lump on my arm / indigestion [after
eating too fast] / sickness and diarrhea, an upset stomach which makes you vomit
and need to go to the toilet frequently] / sunburn / painful joints [e.g. ankles, knees,
wrists, shoulders] / blisters [after wearing new, tight shoes].
I feel sick/dizzy [my head is spinning] / breathless / shivery [cold and hot] /
faint [light-headed]. I am depressed/constipated/tired all the time.
I’ve lost my appetite/voice; I can’t sleep, my nose itches, my leg hurt.
Exercise 1. Match the diseases with their symptoms:
1) flu
a) swollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain on eating
2) pneumonia
b) burning pain in abdomen, pain or nausea after eating
3) rheumatism
c) rash starting on body, slightly raised temperature
4) chickenpox
d) dry cough, high fever, chest pain, rapid breathing
5) mumps
e) headache, aching muscles, fever, cough, sneezing
6) an ulcer
f) swollen, painful joints, stiffness, limited movement
Exercise 2. Match the symptom on the left with the cause on the right.
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1. I’ve got a blister.
a) I think I’ve been working too much.
2. I’ve got a headache.
b) Our bed is too soft. We need to get a firmer one.
3. I’ve got jetlag.
c) I had too much to drink at dinner last night.
4. I’ve got a bad back
d) I’ve just been chopping some wood.
5. I’m feeling run down.
e) It must have been that take-away last night.
6. I’ve got a splinter in f) It was an 18-hour flight and a 10-hour time
my hand.
difference.
7. My nose is blocked up. g) I always get hay fever at this time of year.
8. I’ve got diarrhoea.
h) I wore the wrong shoes to go hill-walking.
Exercise 3. What’s happened to a woman (Picture 10)? What are the
symptoms of this feeling ill?
Picture 10
Exercise 4. Complete the following dialogues with the sentences below:
a) I’ve got a bit of a hangover;
b) I feel dizzy;
c) I’ve caught a cold;
d) You’ll make yourself ill;
e) I always get seasick;
f) I’ve got indigestion.
1. – What’s the matter?
– I think I ate my dinner too quickly. ..................................................
2. – Maybe we should take a boat. It’s much cheaper than flying.
– Oh, no, I’d rather not. .......................................................................
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3. – I think ..................................................................................................
– Well, why don’t you have a glass of hot lemon and honey and get an
early night?
4. – .............................................................................................................
– Well, it’s your own fault. You shouldn’t have opened that second bottle
of wine!
5. You look exhausted. You’ve been working too hard recently. If ou don’t
slow down a bit, ...................................................................................................
6. – Are you all right? You’ve gone as white as a sheet!
– No, I need to sit down. I .....................................................................
Exercise 5. Choose one illness. Describe its symptoms. Do not name the
illness, because your fellow students will guess it. (Not less than 10 sentences)
Exercise 6. Correct the mistakes, which have been underlined for you.
Suggest a suitable alternative for each one. The first one has been done for you.
Yesterday, I decided to visit my (0) medicine.
0 doctor
I’ve been having (1) aches in the chest.
1 ...................
I (2) heat all the time, and
2 ...................
then I suddenly (3) cold.
3 ....................
I (4) don't have hunger at all
4 ....................
and I think I’m (5) thinning.
5 ...................
I (6) tire myself easily, as well.
6 ....................
Last week I developed a (7) sore neck and could
7 ...................
hardly speak. I hoped it would (8) better,
8 ...................
but in fact it got (9) worst.
9 ..................
The doctor (10) interrogated me
10 .................
and gave me a (11)recipe.
11..................
You can get this medicine at the (12) pharmacist’s.’ 12 ................
he said. “Don’t worry. You'll soon be (13) alright.” 13.................
1(14) pleased the doctor to give me
14 ................
some (15) advices.
15 ...............
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“When you feel better, (16) make plenty of exercise, 16 ...............
and you need plenty of (17) open air.
17................
You’ll be (18) good in no time.”
18................
I thanked the doctor as the (19) nanny showed me out19...............
before leading in the next (20) customer.
20..............
6 At the doctor’s
Read and study
What do doctors do?
They take your temperature, listen to your chest, look
in your ears, examine you, take your blood pressure, ask you some questions
and weigh and measure you before sending you to the hospital for further tests.
Read and study
What does the doctor prescribe?
a) Take one tablet three times a day after meals.
b) Take a teaspoonful of medicine last thing at night.
c) Rub this ointment on you and don't spend too long in the sun without suncream.
d) We’ll get the nurse to put a bandage on your wrist.
e) You’ll need to have some injections before you go to the Amazon.
f) I’ll ask the surgeon when he can fit you in for an operation.
g) You’ll have to have your leg put in plaster until the break mends.
h) I think you should have total bed rest for a week.
Exercise 1. Read the “case history” below, translate it, and learn the
phrases.
“You’re in perfect health ... as fit as a fiddle ... there’s nothing wrong with
you.”
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“I feel a bit off-colour ... rather under the weather ... I do feel funny ... I
really don't feel well... I think I'm sickening for something ... I feel feverish ... like
death warmed up.”
“He’s been taken ill... he's in a coma ... fighting for his life ... still critically
ill... in a very critical condition ... no change ... still seriously ill... still hasn't
regained consciousness ... is responding to treatment... off the danger list...
showing signs of coming round ... making progress ... his condition is satisfactory
... he’s come out of the coma ... he's as well as can be expected ... comfortable ...
no change ... he’s turned the corner ... he’s on the mend.”
“We all wish you a speedy recovery ... get well soon ... we’re glad you’re over
it.”
“The worst is over ... he’s almost completely recovered ... he’s practically
cured ... he’s convalescing ... coming along nicely ... he’ll be on his feet again
soon ... he’ll be out and about again in a few days.”
“He’s had a relapse ... he’s no better ... he’s getting worse ... his condition is
deteriorating ... he’s getting weaker ... he’s slipping away ... fading fast... his life
is hanging by a thread ... it’s just a matter of time ... he could go at any
second!”
“He’s made a miraculous recovery ... he’s as good as new ... as right as rain
... he'll live till he’s a hundred.”
Exercise 2. Match the words (1-8) with the definitions (a-h):
1) ward
a) a piece of paper on which a doctor writes what medicine a
person should have
2) prescription
b) a large room in a hospital where people who need medical
treatment stay
3) surgeon
c) a medical condition in which you become ill or get a rash
because you have eaten certain foods, touched certain things,
etc.
4) operating
d) a doctor who performs operations in a hospital
theatre
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5) injection
e) a physical condition that shows you have an illness
6) symptom
f) the room in a hospital where surgery is carried out
7) allergy
g) a doctor or nurse who has been trained to give drugs to
make you sleep during an operation
8) anaesthetist
h) an act of giving a drug by using a special needle
Exercise 3. What does the doctor or nurse use the following things for?
E. g. stethoscope is used for listening to a patient’s chest.
1) thermometer;
3) syringe;
2) scales;
4) scalpel.
Exercise 4. Complete these sentences with the given words.
dosage prescription
allergic to medication symptoms vaccinations
sick
note
1. I can’t take penicillin; I’m………………………..it.
2. Before you take those pills, read the label to see what the correct ……….is.
3. I’m going abroad next month so I have to get the necessary……………….. .
4. If you consult a new doctor you should tell him or her if you are already on any
…… .
5. Did the doctor give you a ……..? Do you want me to take it to the chemist’s for
you?
6. I told the doctor my ……. , but I don’t think she was listening.
7. The doctor gave me a …………. for my employer. I was off work for two
weeks.
Exercise 5. Look at the statements. What do you think the doctor said to
each of the following patients.
1. Anne with bad sunburn.
2. Jo who’s broken her leg.
3. John who’s off to the Tropics.
4. Paul with flu.
5. Liz with a bad cough.
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6. Sam who needs his appendix out.
7. Rose suffering from exhaustion.
8. Alf who’s sprained his wrist.
Exercise 6. Imagine you are visiting a GP (general practitioner). Act out
a dialogue between the doctor and patient, using the words and expressions
from Exercise 1.
Exercise 7. Have you ever been at the dentist’s? Tell your fellow
students about your last visit to the dentist’s? Was it the same like in picture
11? (Not less than 10 sentences).
Picture 11
Exercise 8. Guess what happened with the boy (Picture 12). Write down
an essay describing this case.
Picture 12
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7 What’s the diagnosis?
Read and study.
You’ve got flu / chickenpox / mumps [singular noun] / pneumonia /
rheumatism an ulcer / a virus / a bug / something that's going round. You’ve
broken your wrist and sprained/dislocated your ankle. You're pregnant / a
hypochondriac. He died of lung cancer / a heart attack / a brain haemorrhage /
AIDS.
Exercise 1. Which is the odd one out in each group, in terms of the
main word stress?
EXAMPLE tablets medicine prescription (answer: prescription; stress on the
second syllable):
1) diabetes, bronchitis, cholera;
2) heart attack, sore throat, lung cancer;
3) hepatitis, typhoid tuberculosis;
4) illness, disease, sickness;
5) consultant, doctor, surgeon;
6) hospital, ambulance, transfusion;
7) heart disease, surgery, TB.
Exercise 2. What are these people suffering from (Pictures 13-16)?
What do you think the reasons are?
Picture 13
Picture 14
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Picture 15
Picture 16
Exercise 3. Here are some of the best-known and least-wanted diseases
and conditions. In each group there is an odd one. Can you identify it?
The heart and blood vessels
Infectious fevers
poor circulation
measles
high blood pressure
chickenpox
a stroke
German measles (rubella)
heart attack
smallpox
jaundice
pleurisy
cardiac arrest
glandular fever
heart failure
yellow fever
scarlet fever
Food poisoning
whooping cough
typhoid
influenza
dysentery
leprosy
diarrhoea and vomiting
malaria
salmonella
mumps
The stomach and intestines
The liver
appendicitis
gallstones
stomach ulcer
cirrhosis of the liver
polio
hepatitis
a hernia
cancer of the liver
constipation
coronary thrombosis
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The joints
The blood
rheumatism
anaemia
enteritis
pneumonia
arthritis
leukaemia
fibrositis
a haemorrhage
a blood clot
The lungs and respiratory system
The nervous system
diphtheria
migraine
catarrh
epilepsy (epileptic fits)
sinusitis
Parkinson's disease
tonsillitis
multiple sclerosis
laryngitis
muscular dystrophy
asthma
angina
Mental disorders
cholera
schizophrenia
bronchitis
manic
tuberculosis (ТВ)
depression
lung cancer
neurosis
paranoia
Exercise 4. State the diagnosis according to the patients’ complaints.
1. I’ve got a terrible cough and pains in my chest, and I seem to be
constatntly short of breath.
2. I feel absolutely awful. My temperature is 40°, and I’ve got a headache
and a runny nose. I’ve got a sore throat – it’s agony every time I swallow.
3. I can’t go near cats. I come out in a horrible red rash.
4. I’ve been off University for two weeks now. I’ve got a temperature and
I’ve covered in little red spots. I’ve completely lost my appetite – I’ve not eaten
a thing fot the last three days.
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5. I think it must be something I ate. I was sick all night. I still feel sick
now and I’ve got a terrible stomach ache.
6. It’s the same every summer. My eyes get really itchy and I can’t stop
sneezing.
Exercise 5. Can you describe the health of these two old men with
good sense of humour (Picture 17), using the names of diseases from Ex. 3.
Picture 17
Exercise 6. You are going to read a magazine article about how different
people handle stress. For questions 1-14, choose from the people (A-E). Some
of the people may be chosen more than once. This is the example at the
beginning (0).
Which of the people
has friends who are about the same weight?
0-A
wishes they looked different?
1-
says a particular time in their life affected their future?
2-
finds that being organized helps them to cope with stress?
3-
uses their imagination to help them calm down?
4-
believes that in the future they will benefit from going to a particular place? 536
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feels that very few people understand their problems?
6-
appears to have a new ambition?
7-
says that they are different from other people with a similar problem?
8-
was not especially clever at school?
9-
feels that their family contributes to their stress?
10- 11-
benefits from something which is physically tiring?
12- 13-
has both family and professional responsibilities?
14-
How I combat stress
A Kylie
Like every 15-year-old, I often feel under pressure about all sorts of things. I
tend to be dissatisfied with my weight when I compare myself with girls who are
taller and slimmer than me, but my mum points out that I am no different from the
majority of my friends, who are really just as plump as I am. Another problem is
schoolwork, and the end of term is a time when I get especially anxious because of
exams. I have developed a range of strategies for periods when I have a lot to do
and get really worked up. One of them is making a list of all the things that I have
to get done, in order of importance. That way, I can plan my time better.
B Mario
I recently realized that my stress and anxiety is due to the absence of
direction in my life. For me, schooldays were a time when I misbehaved and
fooled about. I wasn’t the brightest pupil around and I found most lessons very
demanding. Sport was the only thing I was good at. This means that I now do not
have the qualifications that I need to get a good job. So I have decided to set
myself some goals and enroll at a college where I will be attending evening
courses for adults next term. I hope this will give me the confidence that I lack, and
better job prospects.
C Lukas
Being 16, my biggest cause of anxiety and stress is my future. I sometimes
feel I shall never satisfy my parents, whose own professional success means that
they expect me to do well in life. The only person who really understands me is my
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brother, and when we are together, we joke and talk about anything that makes us
forget about our responsibilities. I have also joined a sports club, where I work out
twice a week, and that has made a difference. After I have been to the gym, I find I
am physically tired, but I have the mental energy to face the problems that seemed
impossible to me earlier on.
D Nefeli
While I am aware that being overweight is a health risk, I don’t get worried
about my excess kilos or my appearance. Instead of just worrying about being fat, I
go to keep fit classes, which is marvelous for reducing stress. Being active is not
only good for losing weight but is also good for the circulation. I am not a fanatical
weight-watcher, although I try to keep to a balanced diet that includes plenty of
fruit, vegetables, whole grain bread and milk. I am not like those health freaks who
tear around health food stores examining the labels on food products to see how
many calories they contain. I just use my common sense. It amazes me more
people do not adopt a similar attitude.
E Magdalena
I have a husband, four children, and a full time job, which is a very good
reason why I can’t call my time my own. There is always someone who wants
something, or some job that needs doing. At the times when I can’t cope any more,
I sit or lie down and just close my eyes and think of somewhere quiet and relaxinga warm, sandy beach, a grassy meadow or even the local park. Afterwards, I have a
wonderful sense of relief and the things that I thought were urgent are not so
important any more. Just a few minutes of this makes all the difference.
Exercise 7. The text contains the phrase under pressure. Look at the
following phrases, read them, translate and remember.
under pressure = having a lot of responsibilities
under attack = being the victim of attack
under development = something which is being developed or improved
under the weather = feeling ill (idiom)
under the impression = to have the idea or belief
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under control = being controlled or dealt with successfully
Exercise 8. The verb have + noun is a very common pattern in English.
Look at the examples, translate and learn them.
have a good time have a rest have a break
have a headache have time to have a right to
have no right to have faith in
Exercise 9. Rewrite the second sentence in each pair so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the appropriate phrases with
under from Exercise 6, the appropriate phrases with have from Exercise 6
and the words given.
1. “I enjoyed learning first-aid at school,” Joanna told Vagelis. HAD
Joanna told Vagelis she .....................................learning first-aid at school.
2. Unless you stop working for a while, you will feel tired. BREAK
If you don’t ................................................... for a while, you will feel tired.
3. “You are not in a position to tell the patients what to do,” said the nurse.
RIGHT
“You.......................................... to tell the patients what to do,” said the nurse.
4. “I am too busy to see you at the moment,” said the dentist. NO
“I ..................................................to see you at the moment,” said the dentist.
5. We had thought she was feeling well. UNDER
We ...................................................................... that she was feeling well.
6. He has a lot of responsibilities and strain in his work. PRESSURE
He is ..................................................................................... in his work.
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Exercise 10. Look at the photos of people in stressful situations
(Pictures 18-19) and answer the questions.
Picture 18
Picture 19
1. What is happening in each picture?
2. How do you think the people feel? Give reasons for your answer.
3. Have you ever been in any of these situations?
4. What situations are most stressful for you?
5. What do you do to reduce the effects of stress?
8 Test for parts 4, 5, 6, 7
This is a section on symptoms, possible diagnosis and remedies. These six
exchanges between doctor and patient have been mixed up. Decide which response
should follow which question.
1. I’ve been suffering from insomnia a) Possible. Try this lotion for a few
lately. Do you think I might be heading days to stop the itching, then start
for a nervous breakdown?
putting on this powder at night.
2. I seem to have some sort of stye (an b) Unlikely, but I’ll let you have some
infected place on the edge of your cough
mixture
to
relieve
the
eyelid) or infection in my right eye. Do symptoms. You can get yourself some
you think I might have conjunctivitis?
lozenges, if you like.
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3. I can’t stop scratching this place on c) I would doubt it. Here, rub this
my foot. Do you think it's athlete’s foot. cream in for the next few nights to help
reduce the swelling.
4. I’ve got a rather sore throat, and I d) No, of course not. But I’ll prescribe
keep feeling a bit flushed. Do you think some barbiturates - sleeping pills - to
it could be flu?
help you get a good night's rest. OK?
5. I’ve got a big bump on the back of e) I wouldn’t have thought so. But I’ll
my head. Do you think it might be more give you a prescription for some drops
than a bruise?
to try and clear it up.
6. I keep getting shooting pains down f) Well, the X-ray didn’t show
my shin and ankle. Is it possible that anything. If it’s so painful, you'd better
I've broken or sprained something?
have some crutches to walk with and
some painkillers to ease the pain.
7. I’ve got a dull ache in my arm and g) Mm, sounds a bit like it. I’ll make
occasionally I get a spasm. Could it be a you out a prescription for some
minor fracture, a chipped bone or penicillin,
and
some
menthol
something?
might
speed
up
inhalations
the
recovery.
8. I’ve got these tiny little bumps all h) It’s just possible. I’ll strap it up
over the back of my neck. Do you think anyway and put it in a sling. That
it might be gland should reduce your should reduce your discomfort quite a
discomfort quite trouble?
lot.
9. I’ve come out in a rash on my chest. i) Oh, I shouldn't think so, but I think
Do you think it could be a skin disease perhaps you ought to start taking these
like impetigo or dermatitis?
tranquillisers, to at least get your
blood pressure down.
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10. I keep getting short of breath. Is j) Oh no, no, no. You’d know if it was.
there any way I could be suffering from I’ll give you some ointment to rub in to
asthma?
get rid of the inflammation.
11. I think I’ve got an ulcer in my k) Probably not. I’ll put you on a
mouth. Do you think it could be a sign course of tablets to prevent them from
that I’m run down?
spreading. They should go soon.
12. I feel so feverish, and I’m sure I’ve l) It might well be. I’ll put you on
got a temperature. I’m so afraid that antibiotics for a while anyway, to
there’s something wrong with my lessen the risk of serious infection.
heart.
9 Treatment
Antibiotics Aren't Always the Answer
Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses like colds, most sore
throats and bronchitis, and some ear infections. Unneeded antibiotics may lead to
future antibiotic-resistant infections. Symptom relief might be the best treatment
option.
Colds and many other upper respiratory infections, as well as some ear
infections, are caused by viruses, not bacteria. If antibiotics are used too often
for things they can't treat – like colds or other viral infections – they can stop
working effectively against bacteria when you or your child really needs them.
Antibiotic resistance – when antibiotics can no longer cure bacterial infections –
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has been a concern for years and is considered one of the world's most critical
public health threats.
Antibiotic resistance is also an economic burden on the entire healthcare
system. Resistant infections cost more to treat and can prolong healthcare use.
Taking antibiotics when you or your child has a virus may do more harm
than good. In fact, in children, antibiotics are the most common cause of
emergency department visits for adverse drug events. Rest, fluids, and over-thecounter products may be your or your child's best treatment option.
Get smart about when antibiotics are appropriate—to fight bacterial infections.
Taking them for viral infections, such as a cold, most sore throats, acute bronchitis
and many sinus or ear infections:
•
Will not cure the infection;
•
Will not keep other people from getting sick;
•
Will not help you or your child feel better; and
•
May cause unnecessary and harmful side effects.
Alternative medicine
Nowadays a lot of people prefer alternative medicine (different from
typical western systems). For example:
acupuncture
chiropractic
herbal medicine
homeopathy: taking tiny amounts of natural substances to treat an illness
aromatherapy: using aromatic oils and massage
Exercise 1. What do we call the type of alternative medicine which ...
1) uses herbs and other natural plants?
2) uses oils which smell nice and are rubbed into your body?
3) uses needles to stick into specific parts of your body?
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4) uses tiny amounts of substances which cause the illness the doctor is
trying to cure?
5) manipulates your spine and bones to ease backache and other pains?
Exercise 2. You are going to read the article “Why laughter is the best
medicine”, try to predict what it will be about. The following words all appear
in the article. Match each one with its correct definition on the right.
1) to giggle
aa) to reduce or lessen pain or some
2) to monitor
3) to relieve
other unpleasant feeling
b) funny, amusing
c) what the body uses to defend itself
against things that enter it and cause
disease
4) research
d) the treatment of illnesses of the
mind or body without drugs or
5) humorous
6) to stimulate
operations
e) to watch, listen to or examine what
is happening
f f) to make something more active or
7) immune system
develop more quickly
g) to laugh in a silly, childish way
8) therapy
h) detailed study of a subject to find
out something new
Exercise 3. Now read the article and answer the following questions.
1. Do doctors now understand exactly how laughter helps?
2. Do people generally laugh more or less than before?
3. Is there any real evidence to suggest laughter helps?
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Why laughter is the best medicine
A group of adults are lying in a circle on the floor listening to a recording of
“The Laughing Policeman”. At first everyone feels ridiculous and there’s only the odd
nervous giggle, but suddenly the laughter becomes real. It quickly spreads around the
room until everyone is infected by it. (1______)
Doctors are starting to believe that laughter not only improves your state of mind,
but actually affects your entire physical well-being. The people lying in a circle are
attending a workshop to learn the forgotten art of laughter. (2_________)
Britain’s first laughter therapist, Robert Holden says: “Instinctively we know that
laughing helps us feel healthy and alive. Each time we laugh we feel better and more
content.” (3 __________)
A French newspaper found that in 1930 the French laughed on average for nineteen
minutes per day. By 1980 this had fallen to six minutes. Eighty per cent of the people
questioned said that they would like to laugh more. Other research suggests that
children laugh on average about 400 times a day, but by the time they reach
adulthood this has been reduced to about fifteen times. (4______________)
William Fry - a psychiatrist from California - studied the effects of laughter on the
body. He got patients to watch Laurel and Hardy films, and monitored their blood
pressure, heart rate and muscle tone. He found that laughter has a similar effect to
physical exercise. It speeds up the heart rate, increases blood pressure and quickens
breathing. (5_____) Fry thinks laughter is a type of jogging on the spot.
Laughter can even provide a kind of pain relief. Fry has proved that laughter
produces endorphins -chemicals in the body that relieve pain.
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Researchers from Texas tested this. (6_________) The first group listened to a
funny cassette for twenty minutes, the second listened to a cassette intended to relax
them, the third heard an informative tape, while the fourth group listened to no tape at
all.
Researchers found that if they produced pain in the students, those who had listened
to the humorous tape could tolerate the discomfort for much longer.
Patch Adams is both a doctor and a performing clown in Virginia, America.
(7________) “There’s evidence to suggest that laughter stimulates the immune
system,” says Adams, yet hospitals and clinics are well-known for their depressing
atmospheres. Adams practices what he preaches. He wears his waist-length hair in a
ponytail and also has a handlebar moustache. He usually puts on a red nose when
seeing patients.
Exercise 4. The following sentences have been removed from the article.
Decide in which numbered gap each one should go. There is one extra
sentence which you do not need to use.
A. Somewhere in the process of growing up we lose an astonishing 385 laughs
a day.
B. It also makes our facial and stomach muscles work.
C. He is convinced that humour should be a part of every medical consultation.
D. Some have even been referred by their family doctors.
E. They divided forty university students into four groups.
F. This will also help improve your personal relationships.
G. But we could be losing our ability to laugh.
H. This laughter therapy in action.
Exercise 5. What would you do to treat the following illnesses or
problems? Use the ideas in the box or your own ideas:
1) a toothache;
5) a sore throat;
9) sunburn;
2) a broken arm;
6) a high temperature;
10) a cut;
3) a cough;
7) a rash;
11) a wound;
4) an infection;
8) pneumonia;
12) a sprained ankle.
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Have it set in plaster
Put a plaster on it
Drink lots of liquids
Apply some skin cream
Stay in bed for a weak
Call a doctor
Use
some
lotion
antiseptic Tie it up with a tight Take
bandage
a
painkiller
(antibiotics)
Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps in the following text with an appropriate
word. You have been given the number of missing letters in each case.
40 years in bed – with flu
A doctor taking over a local practice visited a 74-year-old woman (1) _ _ _
had been bedridden for 40 years. He wasn’t (2) _ _ _ _ to find anything wrong
with her. He discovered that the doctor before him (3) _ _ _ ordered the woman
to bed because she had influenza and had told (4) _ _ _ not to get up again until
he returned. Unfortunately, he had forgotten (5) _ _ return.
Within a (6) _ _ _ days, the 34-year-old single woman had recovered. But
she remained in her sickroom waiting for (7) _ _ _ doctor’s visit. Several weeks
went by and he still did not call. But then the patient had discovered that she
enjoyed (8)_ _ _ _ _ looked after so much that she refused to move.
At first she (9) _ _ _ nursed by her mother. But when the old woman died, a
brother-in-law took over. Finally, a new doctor to the area paid a routine call to
(10) _ _ _ patient’s home in Taunton, Devon, and examined the woman, now
(11) _ _ _ _ 74 and still determined to keep to her bed. It took seven months
(12) _ _ sympathetic encouragement before the old lady was persuaded (13) _ _
leave her bed, but happily she was on her feet again (14) _ _ _ three fairly active
years before her death (15) _ _ the age of 77.
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10 Phrasal verbs
Read and study.
These speakers all have health problems that can be described using phrasal
verbs or in the case of blocked-up, an adjective based on a phrasal verb:
1) I keep throwing up1;
2) I think I’m coming down with flu2;
3) I’m going down with flu3;
4) I’m fighting off4 a sore throat;
5) I’ve put my shoulder out5;
6) I can’t shake off 6 this cold;
7) My ankle has swollen up7;
8) My nose is blocked-up8;
9) I’ve passed out9 a couple of times recently.
One medical story
Maggie has had a hard time recently. Firstly, her sister broke down10 after
her divorce and was sick for several months. Maggie was still caring for11 her
when her brother was hit on the head by a tile that fell from a roof. He was
unconscious for a couple of days. Fortunately, he pulled through12 and has now
more or less fully recovered although he does seem to have slowed down13 a lot.
No sooner were they both better than their grandfather passed away14 and then
just a few weeks later their grandmother passed on15 too.
1
(informal) vomiting,
becoming ill, usually with a disease that is not very serious, e.g. flu, a cold,
3
(informal) see note 2,
4
trying hard to get rid of,
5
dislocated or injured by making a bone move from its usual place,
6
get rid of,
7
become larger or rounder than usual,
8
(adjective) filled so that you are unable to breathe normally,
9
become unconscious; fainted,
10
became mentally or physically ill because of an unpleasant experience,
11
looking after someone who is too ill, too young, or old to look after themselves,
12
recovered from a serious illness,
13
become less physically active than before,
14
died,
15
died.
2
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Exercise 1. Complete this text, using the phrasal verbs.
I feel as if I’m coming …… (1) with flu. I’m fighting …………(2) a sore
throat and my nose is constantly blocked-…………… (3). My glands have swollen
……..(4) and, if I try to eat anything, I feel as if I’m going to throw …………. (5). I
wish I could shake it ………… (6) as I have so much work to do. I can’t afford to be
absent.
Exercise 2. Rewrite the underlined parts of these sentences, using a
phrasal verb.
1 I've had a sore throat for a week now - I just can't get rid of it.
2 Meg hadn't eaten anything for 48 hours and so it wasn't surprising that she
fainted in the middle of her gym lesson.
3 The doctors were afraid that the old man wouldn't survive the attack of
pneumonia, but amazingly he recovered and was soon on his feet again.
4 I think I'm just about to get a cold - I feel a bit shivery.
5 My thumb became bigger after I accidentally hit it with a hammer.
6 The sea was so rough that many people were vomiting over the side of the
ship.
7 People usually write letters of condolence to the relatives of someone who has
died.
8 The old lady is in great pain because she has dislocated her hip.
9 After the operation, her sister nursed her until she was completely
recovered.
10 How do you think you contracted chicken pox?
Exercise 3. Match the beginning of each sentence (1-6) with its ending (af).
1)Jim’s uncle passed…
2)Sonya is fighting…
3)Rita is kept very busy caring…
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4)Mary’s ankles swelled…
5)Most people usually slow…
6)I think Joe is going…
a) for her elderly mother.
b) down a bit as they get older.
c) down with flu.
d) off a bout of flu.
e) up during the long flight.
f) away last year.
Exercise 4. Sort these everyday phrasal verbs and expressions
connected with health and illness into two groups, depending on whether
they have positive or negative meaning with regard to health. Use a
dictionary if necessary.
Feel a bit under the weather
Be poorly
Be back on one’s feet again
Be on the mend
Be over the worst
Get over
Fight off
Come down with
Exercise 5. Complete these sentences in any way that makes sense.
1 When her great-aunt passed away Mary felt very ………………………
2 Jack broke down when …………………………………………………
3 The last time I threw up was……………………………………………
4 You can get a blocked-up nose if ………………………………………
5 Kate's finger swelled up after …………………………………………..
6. The best way to fight off a cold is to......................................................
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11 Changing climate and public health
Exercise 1. Read the text and give its summary.
The changing climate endangers human health, affecting all parts of society.
Scientists and public health experts are studying how quickly and how much the
climate is changing, and ways in which humans can adapt to these changes.
The environmental consequences of climate change are happening now and
are expected to increase in the future. Signs of a changing climate include:
•
sea-level rise;
•
changes in precipitation causing flooding and drought;
•
heat waves;
•
more intense hurricanes and storms;
•
poor air quality.
These climate changes will affect human health both directly and indirectly.
Addressing the health effects of climate change is challenging. The issue is
broad and complex. Both the surrounding environment and the decisions people
make can influence human health. Research is needed in a number of areas,
especially in how the changing climate affects the
spread of diseases such as Malaria and Dengue
Fever which are spread by mosquitoes.
Over the last several decades, Alaska has
warmed twice as fast as the rest of the country.
Dozens of Alaskan natives will become part of the
sentinel surveillance system, created by the
Institute for Circumpolar Health Studies at the University of Alaska Anchorage.
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They will document changes in weather, harvesting, and food and water safety.
They will also record health changes, such as shellfish poisoning caused by "red
tide" algae blooms. In addition, Alaskan villagers will be trained to collect data on
temperature and precipitation in eight communities. In isolated villages, some
effects of climate change may have gone unnoticed by the scientific world, but this
study could help fill in those gaps.
As a result of the changing climate, heat waves are expected to become more
severe and more frequent, particularly in the northern latitudes. The toolkit is
designed to provide information for older adults, people with a chronic medical
condition, children, the homeless or poor, outdoor workers, and athletes at risk of
heat sickness.
12 Final test
Exercise 1. Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a word
that fits in the space in the same line.
A visit to the doctor’s
Jim decided to visit the doctor after his trip to the jungle. He was MUSCLE
normally a tall (1) ……… person, but over the past month he
had lost a lot of (2) …… .He had also noticed that his ankles and WEIGH
Knees had become rather (3) …… . He thought that he might
PAIN
have eaten or drunk something (4) or caught some kind of
POISON
(5)…disease. The doctor took some blood for tests and told Jim INFECT
to go back a week later.
This time the doctor had an optimistic (6)… on her face, and Jim
EXPRESS
felt quite (7) … . “Don’t worry,” said the doctor “it’s nothing
HEART
serious. You haven't caught an (8) … disease, or anything
CURE
terrible like that. It’s a simple virus, and you will need some (9) TREAT
……… . Take these tablets twice a day for two weeks,
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and you’ll make a full (10) ………… .
RECOVER
Exercise 2. Look at Pictures 20-27. Guess the illness/disease/unhealthy
condition. Make up 5 sentences, containing the symptoms and ways of
treatment.
Picture 20
Picture 21
Picture 22
Picture 23
Picture 24
Picture 25
Picture 26
Picture 27
Exercise 3. Write down the composition, describing your last illness
according to the following plan. Do not name the illness, because your fellow
students will guess it (not less than 20 sentences).
1. When did it happen?
2. What were the symptoms?
3. What was your condition?
4. What medical treatment did you get?
Exercise 4. Supply the best word or words.
Are you a hypochondriac?
1. Hypochondriacs are healthy people who a) suffering from
b) enduring
imagine they are …serious illnesses.
2. Do
you often visit the doctor's a) surgery
………….?
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3. Do you often imagine you will be killed a) mortal
in a ………….
b) fatal
accident?
4. Have you ever experienced ……… pain? a) intensive
b) intense
5. Do you think you might suddenly drop a) insult
b) attack
dead from a heart …………….?
6. Do you think you need to see ………..?
a) an expert
b) a specialist
7. Do you sometimes feel you have a
a) ache
b) pain
a) breath
b) breathe
mysterious ……………..in the chest?
8. Do you ever find it difficult to ………?
9.
Do
you
often
….of
mysterious a) protest
b) complain
headaches?
10. Are you losing your ………..?
a) remembrance
b) memory
11. Do you constantly feel ………..?
a) exhausted
b) exhausting
12. When you get up in the morning, do you a) poorly
b) sickly
usually feel ……………. ?
13. Do even the smallest things………?
a) get on your b)
nerves
14. If you have a cough, are you convinced a) grippe
enervate
you
b) flu
you have a bad case of ………………?
15. Do you imagine you have …………?
a) temperature
16. If you are in a crowd, are you afraid you a) pick
b) fever
b) pick up
will ……… a cold?
17. Do you wash your hands all the time a) microbes
b) germs
because you are afraid of ………..?
18. Do you only eat things that are ……..for a) hygienic
b) good
you?
19. Do you think that lack of sleep will a) harm
b) hurt
…….you?
20. Do you have bad ……….?
a) flesh
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21. Do you worry about …… on your face?
a) spots
22. Are you convinced that life is a fatal …? a) disease
b) specks
b) illness
13 Sports to keep fit
Exercise 1.
1
Answer the following questions:
1.
Are you a sporty person? Do you think you are fit? Can you touch
your toes without bending your knees?
2.
How far do you walk every day? How many stairs do you climb every
day? How long do you spend sitting down?
3.
What kind of sport or exercise do you do now or you did in the past?
4.
Is there a sport you would like to try? Why?
5.
Is there a good sports centre or a gym near your house? Is it expensive
to join?
6.
How many hours of sport should there be on a school and university
timetable? What can you say about your PE classes?
7.
Are you a sports fan? Do you visit sports competitions? What
sportsmen or sportswomen do you admire?
8.
Do you like watching sport on TV? What do you watch? Are there any
sports events that are not so exciting on TV?
9.
It’s not the winning, it’s the taking part. Do you share this opinion?
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2 Have a look at page 111, follow the instructions and find out what
kind of sport reflects your personality best.
3 Comment upon the result. Do you agree that the suggested activity is
the best for you? Why (not)?
Exercise 2.
1
Read the text.
Are you looking after yourself?
In the hectic world of today, people are always searching for more ways of
keeping fit and healthy. Here are some ways of looking good and feeling good.
Running is excellent exercise. Before you start running, you should warm up
first, using slow movements that make all your muscles work. But be careful! If
you stretch when your muscles are cold, you might do yourself an injury.
Always wear comfortable clothing and make sure your trainers are in good
shape. If you wear shoes that give good support to your whole foot, you will put
less pressure on your knees. You should start exercising slowly, at a pace you can
keep up for about 15-20 minutes. Try to exercise on soft ground as this will protect
your knees and hips from too much stress.
Make sure you get a good night’s sleep by going to bed and getting up at
regular times: don’t burn the candle at both ends. During the day, keep active: if
you don’t get enough exercise during the day, you may end up sleepless all night.
Did you know that standing, sitting and walking can make you look heavier
than you really are? If we watched the way we sat and stood, it would improve our
appearance a great deal. Stand in front of the mirror with your feet apart and your
legs straight. Pull in your tummy, check that your ears, shoulders, hips, knees and
ankles are in line with each other. You should be feeling and looking better
already!
Most of us live in large polluted cities. If we got more fresh air, we would
look healthier and more attractive. A brisk walk is one of the best things you can
do for your circulation and appearance. Walking slowly is useful but a quick pace
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gets more oxygen into your lungs. So don’t go for a pleasant stroll, try and find an
area that doesn’t have much pollution and get moving!
2 Choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for the following questions:
1. The article says that you should …
a) start running as quickly as possible;
b) run slowly before you start exercising;
c) do stretching exercises before you warm up;
d) warm up by moving your body slowly.
2. Why is running on soft ground best?
a) it makes your hips stronger;
b) you feel more relaxed;
c) it is better for your knees;
d) it protects your trainers.
3. Some people look heavier than they are because
a) they sit down a lot;
b) they don’t walk enough;
c) they don’t stand with their backs straight;
d) they eat too much chocolate.
4. The best way to get fresh air is …
a) walking slowly in the park;
b) walking quickly along the street;
c) strolling in the open air;
d) walking quickly where there is no traffic.
5. Which of the following the author might say is the best way to protect your
appearance?
a) wearing the righ clothes;
b) going for daily walks;
c) getting regular exercise;
d) getting up early every morning.
3 Do you look after yourself? What do you do to keep fit?
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Exercise 3. Study the list of popular sport activities to enjoy and keep
fit; share your knowledge of these activities (consult information sources if
necessary).
- Exercise (weights, stretching)
- Paintball
- Aerobics
- Parkour
- Yoga
- Nordic walking
- Pilates
- Exergaming
- Rollerblading
- Callanetics
- Bowling
- Playing pool
- Hiking
- Snorkelling
- Bicycling
- Darts
- Rollerskating
- Jogging
Exercise 4.
1 Browse the tips concerning snorkeling and underline the correct
modal verb.
Snorkelling: information and safety tips.
1. You mustn’t\needn’t go snorkeling alone.
2. You mustn’t\don’t have to be an athlete to go snorkeling.
3. You don’t have to\mustn’t go snorkelling in dangerous waters.
4. You needn’t\mustn’t buy your own equipment. You can rent it.
5. You needn’t\mustn’t harm the wildlife when you go snorkeling.
6. You mustn’t\don’t have to wear equipment that doesn’t fit properly.
2 Describe some other activities, their rules and safety tips using modal
verbs.
Exercise 5.
1 Complete the phrases below with these prepositions:
up(2) – in – of – on – with
I’m really interested …
I’m very keen …
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I’m absolutely obsessed …
I’m a big fan …
I took …
I used to do something but I gave it …
2 Use these phrases to speak about the activities you practice to keep fit.
Exercise 6.
1 All the expressions below will help you to say how often you do a
particular activity. Use these words to complete the expressions:
time – often – twice – other – every – used – possible – times
1. As … as I can.
5. Every … Sunday.
2. Not as often as I … to.
6. ... a week.
3. three … a week.
7. As often as … .
4. All the … .
8. … Friday night.
2
Think of some activities you enjoy. How often do you do them?
Exercise 7.
1
Have you ever practised aerobics and jogging? Is\Was your
experience positive or negative?
2
Read an article from The Guardian newspaper where these
activities are compared. Answer the questions as quickly as possible with both
activities.
According to the text, with which sports …?
1) are there two different varieties;
2) can you easily get bored if you don’t vary what you do enough;
3) do some specific muscles become stronger;
4) do you work on the lower body more than the upper body;
5) does it take the longest time to show any benefits;
6) does having the right teacher strongly influence your enjoyment;
7) can you aggravate an existing injury if you don’t do it properly;
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8) may you not actually improve your fitness;
9) will you learn to stand better.
10) will you lose weight the most quickly.
Battle of the workouts
Running or aerobics? Making the decision to get fit is the easy part –
choosing how to go about it is the difficult bit. Peta Bee offers some advice.
Running.
How quickly will it make a difference? After two to three weeks if running
three or more times a week.
How many calories does it burn? Around 612 per hour if you run ten
kilometers per hour. You will burn more calories running off-road as your legs
have to work harder on soft ground.
Will it keep me motivated? Treadmill running, hamster fashion, can be
tedious: run outside, changing your route and terrain whenever you can. As you get
fitter, challenge yourself more by entering fun runs.
What are specific benefits? The basic running action strengthens the
hamstring, quadriceps, iliopsoas muscles at the front of the hips, calf, and the
gluteus maximus muscles each time you take a stride forward. The pumping action
of your arms will strengthen the upper body to some extent. And it’s among the
best forms of aerobic exercise.
What are the risk factors? Your feet absorb three to four times your body
weight every time they strike the ground and a shock reverberates up through your
legs and into your spine. Good shoes help to cushion the blow and reduce the risk
of injury to the knees and other joints.
Aerobics.
How quickly will it make a difference? After four to five weeks of twiceweekly classes.
How many calories does it burn? 374 per hour.
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Will it keep me motivated? It depends on your instructor. Classes that stick
to exactly the same format every week can become too predictable for both
muscles and mind. As with all-class based workouts, there is little scope for
progress, so there will come a time when you will want to try something different.
What are specific benefits? Aerobics classes incorporate an element of dance
that will improve coordination and spatial awareness.
What are the risk factors? Low-impact aerobics – at least one foot remains
in contact with the floor at all times – are preferable to high-impact classes for
anyone prone to back and joint problems.
3 Read the text again. In this pair of activities which do you think,
according to the article, was the winner?
4 Compare and contrast some other sport activities, e.g. yoga and
pilates, etc.
Exercise 8. Rewrite the text putting the adverbs in the correct place.
Run to the beat!
Did you know that listening to music while you exercise can increase the
amount of time you’re able to exercise (significantly)?
In a recent study, researches chose a selection of songs and asked a group of
joggers to listen to them (carefully). They told the joggers to run in time to the beat
of the music and stop only when they felt too tired to continue (exactly).
The results were interesting (extremely). The researches found that the
joggers ran 15% longer than usual when they listened to the music (almost). The
joggers reported that listening to the music made them feel energetic and improved
their mood, too (greatly).
So, what are you waiting for? If you don’t listen to music when you
exercise, why not bring along your MP3 player the next time you go jogging or go
to the gym (normally)? You’ll be surprised with the results (probably)!
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Exercise 9. Project work “What are you good at?”
1 Study the scheme containing information about Capoeira.
Background information
Capoeira originated in Brazil.
It was started by the African slaves.
It is a kind of martial art, which is also like a dance.
Personal qualities necessary
You need to be very fit and strong.
You should have good control of your body.
You have to use your hands to balance.
Main actions
Everyone sits around in a circle, singing and playing
music.
As soon as you see the other person’s hand or foot coming
towards you, you have to move away quickly.
You must be careful the other person doesn’t kick you.
If the other person kicks you, then you lose.
Afterwards
You can relax and talk about the fight.
Other information
I have been doing it for … years.
I have improved a lot since I first started.
I would like to …
2 Choose a skill (it could be anything you enjoy or are good at) and
prepare to tell other students about it. Use the scheme to help you plan your
ideas.
3 As you listen to the other students, think of one or two questions you
can ask them when they finish.
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14 Sports and games
Exercise 1. Study the list of sports and games. Transcribe the words.
Acrobatics – акробатика
Marksmanship – стрельба
Angling – рыболовный спорт
Motor-racing – мотоспорт
Archery – стрельба из лука
Mountaineering – альпинизм
Artistic gymnastics – спортивная
Ping-pong=table tennis – настольный
гимнастика
теннис
Badminton – бадминтон
Rowing – гребля
Bandy – хоккей с мячом
Rugby – регби
Baseball – бейсбол
Rhythmic
Basketball – баскетбол
художественная гимнастика
Boxing – бокс
Sailing – парусный спорт
Chess – шахматы
Scuba diving – подводное плавание
Cricket – крикет
Skating – конькобежный спорт
Cycling – велосипедный спорт
Skiing – лыжный спорт
Draughts – шашки
Sky-jumping – парашютизм
Fencing – фехтование
Soccer=football – футбол
Football – футбол
Squash – сквош
Hand-gliding – дельтапланеризм
Surf-riding – катание на водных
High board-diving – прыжки в воду
лыжах
Golf – гольф
Swimming – плавание
Grass-hockey – хоккей на траве
Tennis – теннис
Gymnastics – гимнастика
Tourism=hiking – туризм
Handball – гандбол
Track-and-field – легкая атлетика
Hiking – туризм
Tumbling=acrobatics – акробатика
Hockey – хоккей
Volleyball – волейбол
Horsemanship – конный спорт
Water polo – водное поло
Ice-skating – фигурное катание
Weight lifting – тяжелая атлетика
Karate – карате
Wrestling – борьба
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Exercise 2. Rearrange the words given in Exercise 1 into two groups:
a)
winter kinds of sport;
b) summer kinds of sport.
Exercise 3. Rearrange the words given in Exercise 1 into two groups:
a) team sports;
b) individual sports.
Exercise 4. Find out and discuss which kinds of sport are popular in:
a)
Great Britain;
c)
Russia;
b)
the USA;
d)
other countries.
Exercise 5. What kind of sport do the images a-n illustrate (Picture 28)?
a)
d)
h)
l)
b)
e)
c)
f)
i)
g)
j)
k)
m)
n)
Picture 28
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Exercise 6. Mystery Activities.
A group of teenagers are on holiday in Wales. They do different activities
every day. What have they been doing today? Look at the images a-j on page 66
(Picture 29). They show you the teenagers but not their equipment. Find the ten
activities in the word square and circle them. The word square contains four other
activities. Circle them in a different colour and write the four things Arthur has
done.
S
K
I
I
N G R O W
Q A D A
F C H
A C
L
Y C
I
I
N G
I
N G A W
A C N K L L
T
I
Z D S
E
S W A M M E R
S
E
C R A U R
C O H O R S
E
-
R
I
D A M B
D I N G
I
I
N G
-
Z E S B S
C A N O E
I
N G
S
E S H A O
L
P
I
S
I
D W C H T H A
N A E
H K D
I B T O
I
B N O H
I
I
N G A I
N
M O
R
S
I
I M M
B H
I
K
I
N G X N
I
F
N
I
N G G
E
G
N
E
G C K S W
I
M M I N G A
I
K A
G Q
C
E
-
S
L
J
F
I N G U
T
I N G
I N G E
1. Lauren has been … .
6. Danny … .
2. Tim and Matthew have been
7. Nicky … .
….
8. Ben … .
3. Iqbal has been … .
9. Chloe and Emily … .
4. Kirsty … .
10.Nathalie … .
5. Cherie and Ellie … .
11.And Arthur? He’s been very active! He … , … , … and … .
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a) Lauren
b) Tim and Matthew
c) Iqbal
d) Kirsty
e) Cherie and Ellie
f) Danny
g) Nicky
h) Ben
i) Chloe and Emily
j) Nathalie
Picture 29
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Exercise 7. “Yes” or “No” Game.
Work in groups of three or four. One student chooses one of the leisure
activities in the box. The other members of the group have to ask questions to
guess the leisure activity you have chosen. You can only answer their questions
with yes or no. Use the following questions to find out about the leisure activity or
make up your own.
Do you do it on your own?
Do you do it outside or inside?
Does it need any special equipment?
Do you have to be fit to do it?
Is it usually done by both men and women?
Is it dangerous?
Baseball, motor racing, surfing, tennis, golf, athletics, boxing, yoga, jogging
Exercise 8. How do you imagine the world of sport will change over the
next 50 years considering the area of new sports?
Exercise 9. Sports: do, play, go.
1 Study the table below that gives examples of common sporting
collocations with do, play and go.
You do
gymnastics, judo, weightlifting, aerobics, yoga, wrestling, circuit
training, archery, athletics
You play
games, badminton, billiards, hockey, bowls, rugby, golf, (table\lawn)
tennis, cricket, baseball, chess, darts
You go
skiing, bowling, cycling, skateboarding, surfing, snowboarding, handgliding, climbing, hill walking, sailing, jogging, swimming
You can also say you go to aerobics/judo/yoga/karate – this means that you
go to a class in this sport. If you are a serious sportsperson, you will certainly
practise your sport that means you do it again and again to get better at it, in other
words to train.
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2 Complete the sentences with do, play or go in the correct form.
New Sports Club Opening Next Week
You can ____ judo!
You can ____ badminton!
You can ____ swimming!
You can _____ weight lifting!
You can ____ circuit training!
You can _____ table tennis!
You can ____ skateboarding!
You can even ____ darts!
In fact, you can _____ almost any sport you can think of! So join now!
3 Study the following information and note the words in italics.
Winning and losing
Sportsmen and sportswomen want to win matches, not to lose matches. But
you can’t win all the time! Sometimes a team or player deserves to win, but gets
narrowly defeated/beaten.
Before they go in for / enter a competition, athletes train hard. They
probably attend/ do at least five training sessions a week. They are likely to put up
a fight to gain/get a place in the next stage/round of the competition. Of course, a
sportsperson’s ultimate aim is to break the world record in their sport. If they
succeed, they set a new world record and become a world record holder. They are
sure to come up against fierce/intense competition as they try to achieve their
ambitions. Sometimes they are satisfied if they just achieve a personal best.
Some sports people so desperately want to win that they take drugs to
enhance their performance. This will be discovered when they fail a drugs test.
4 Make collocations by matching a word from the left column with a
word from the right column.
Personal
a record
Fail
a competition
Enter
Performance
Set
a drugs test
Achieve
Best
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Enhance
Ambitions
Fierce
Sessions
Training
Competition
Get
Holder
Record
a place
5 There are six verb + noun errors in this e-mail. Find and correct them.
Hi, Jose,
Do you fancy coming on a sporting weekend with me next month? It sounds great
– would make a change from playing computer games. You can make lots of
different activities. You could even do fishing, I think. You can’t go skiing at this
time of year but you can make water skiing, if you like. Everyone has to make
general exercises first thing in the morning and then you can make whatever sport
you like, more or less. I’ve never practiced badminton so I think I’m going to do
that. Then in the afternoon I’m looking forward to the chance to practice my tennis
serve with their professional coach. Please try to come!
Giorgio.
Exercise 10.
1
Study the following information.
What’s the score?
In most games you score goals (e.g. football, hockey) or points (e.g. table
tennis, basketball).
At the end of the game there is a result (= players\teams win, lose). If both
teams or players have the same score, it is a draw (e.g. 2-2 is a draw). We can also
use draw as a verb, e.g. we drew yesterday’s match\game 2-2.
When the game is still in progress, we often use the verb lead to describe the
position of the teams and players, or latest to describe the score: HALF-TIME
SCORE: SPAIN 2 SWEDEN 1 (at half-time, Spain are leading Sweden two-one =
the latest score is two-one to Spain).
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However, the scoring system – and the way we describe it is different from
game to game.
Football
Tennis
Spain 0-0 Italy (nil-nil)
15-0 (fifteen-love)
Spain 1-0 Italy (one-nil to Spain)
30-0 (thirty-love)
Spain 1-1 Italy (one-all)
30-30 (thirty-all)
Spain 1-2 Italy (two-one to Italy)
40-40 (deuce – pronounced like
Spain 2-2 Italy (two-all)
“juice”)
If the final score is 2-2 in a cup
Advantage X
match, you may have to play extra
Game X
time. And if the score is still 2-2 at the
Game and set to X (e.g. 6-3 or 7-5).
end of extra time, there is a penalty
If the score reaches 6-6 you have a
shoot-out.
tie-break to decide the set.
Competitions
In many sports, players and teams play every week in a league (the
player\team that wins the most games in a season is the winner of the league
championship). In most sports, there is also a cup championship, which is usually a
knock out competition.
2 True or false?
1. A set in tennis is always decided on a tie-break.
2. If two teams have the same score at the end of the game, it is a draw.
3. If someone gives you the latest score, the game has finished.
4. In a knock-out competition, you can lose one or two games but still win the
competition.
5. If the final score is 2-2 in a cup match, you may have to play extra time.
3 How do you say these scores?
1. Football: 0-0, 2-1, 4-4.
2. Tennis: 15-0, 40-30, 40-40.
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4 Complete the table with the correct forms.
Infinitive Past tense Past participle
Infinitive Past tense Past participle
Win
Lead
Lose
Catch
Beat
Draw
5 Fill in the gaps in these texts with suitable words or phrases.
In the World Cup Final of 1994, Brazil (1) _______ Italy 3-2 in a (2) ______
shoot-out. After ninety minutes the (3) _______ was 0-0; and it remained the same
after thirty minutes of (4) _______, but then Italy (5) ________ 3-2 in the penalty
shoot-out after Baresi and Baggio both missed. This was the fourth time that Brazil
had (6) _______ the World Cup.
Ivanisevic (7) ________ to Sampras in the second round. He (8) _______
the first (9) _______ 6-4, but then (10) _______ the second (11) ________ on a
(12) ________. After that, Sampras dominated the rest of the (13) _______ and
won easily. The final (14) _______ was 4-6, 7-6, 6-1, 6-2.
Exercise 11. Read the text and answer the questions.
Sports in GB
Great Britain is responsible for many things for which we should all be very
grateful; it is the country of Shakespeare, Harry Potter, the Beatles and mushy
peas. We also have England to thank for most of the sports played in modern
society. Many popular sports originated in England, including football, cricket,
rugby and tennis. These sports are now played all over the world at various levels
of professionalism.
In England today a huge importance is placed on sports. It is the favourite
pastime of most citizens, and you’d be hard pressed to find anyone who does not
follow at least one kind of sport. They get started young: children in Britain,
especially boys, are usually forced by a combination of parents and school (and
occasional natural zeal) to get up at an ungodly hour on Saturday mornings and run
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around in the mud for the sake of training the nation’s future athletes. As people
grow older, they can play sports in many local amateur or semi-professional clubs.
It’s also just as popular for groups of friends to head down to the local park for a
casual game of football or cricket.
We may thank England for many other sports too: horse racing, netball,
darts, rounders, badminton … the list goes on. Although there are obviously more
influences than just Great Britain on modern sport, we can see in this country an
impressive passion for running round in the mud and an admirable desire to make
proper rules for activities that were just games, not sports. Any visitor to England
would be silly not to experience this huge part of their culture by going to some
sort of match, be it football, cricket or tennis (and, in the true British tradition,
going down to the pub afterwards).
What idea did you get of sports in Great Britain from the text?
What else can you say about British sports (kinds, success and failures,
famous sportsmen and women).
Speak about sports in Russia. What kinds of sport can be considered
national in our country? How to attract Russian citizens into sports?
Ball games
Study the vocabulary tips and do the exercises.
Equipment
For most ball games you need boots or training shoes (trainers).
For tennis, squash and badminton you need a racket. Badminton is played with a
shuttlecock.
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For baseball and table tennis you need a bat. For golf you need clubs.
In tennis, volleyball and badminton there is a net across the middle of the court.
There is also a net around each goal in football.
Things you can do with a ball
Exercise 1. Write down:
1) five games where you can hit the ball (with various kinds of equipment);
2) four games where you can pass the ball;
3) three games where you can catch the ball;
4) two games where you can kick the ball;
5) one game where you can head the ball.
Exercise 2. Football. Study the text below, note the words in italics.
You can play or have a (football) match \ game (of football). It might be a
home or an away match depending on whether you’re playing on your team’s home
ground or not.
The aim is to score a goal. Players may tackle an opponent to try to take
possession of the ball (1). If you tackle in an illegal way, you foul your opponent.
This will lead to the referee blowing his whistle and an opponent taking a penalty
or taking a free kick. If someone isn’t playing very well the manager may decide to
drop the player from the team or bring on a substitute (2). Both teams hope that
they will have taken the lead (3) by half-time.
(1) get the ball
(2) replace one player with another
(3) be in a winning position
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Exercise 3. Complete the collocations in this report.
Cambridge were happy to (1) _______ their last match 6:0. Oxford, the
opposing team, put up a good (2) ______ and some people thought they (3)
_______ to win. They were fearless in (4) ______ their opponents, but every time
they took (5) _____ of the ball, Cambridge managed to win it back. Cambridge
have now (6) ______ a place in the next (7) ______ of the competition. They will
undoubtedly come up against some fierce (8) ______. However, they have already
managed to (9) _______ an interesting world record by having four members of
the same family in their winning team!
Exercise 4. Read the text and discuss the most interesting facts that
you’ve learnt.
World Cup trivia
Have fun reading these facts on football and the World Cup.
In total, 207 nations have competed for the World Cup but only eight
countries have ever won. They are: Argentina, Brazil, England, France, Germany,
Italy, Uruguay and Spain.
South American and European countries have won the World Cup 9 times
respectively. Up until now no other continent has produced a World Cup
champion.
The original FIFA World Cup trophy was called the Jules Rimet Cup after
its president and the main organizer for the first World Cup. The trophy was stolen
in 1966, while on public display at Westminster Hall in London. It was eventually
found under a bush by a dog called Pickles.
At the very first World Cup in 1930 there were a total of 13 teams: Uruguay
(the host), Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Mexico, the United
States, Belgium, France, Romania and Yugoslavia. There was no qualifying round
as there is today, and teams were simply invited to play. Very few European teams
chose to participate because of the long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean.
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The very first World Cup match kicked off on 13th July 1930, with France
beating Mexico 4-1. Incidentally, the soccer balls used for this tournament were
monkey skulls wrapped in paper and leather.
The Qualifying Round – Information
The World Cup is divided into a number of rounds. The first stage is known
as the “Qualifying Round” or “Qualifying Stage”. During this period, a number of
teams play against one another to see who gets a place in the World Cup, also
known as the “World Cup Finals”. This is a confusing term as the actual last game
in the World Cup is also known as the “final”. Anyway, here are the different
rounds in the World Cup Finals:
1.
The First\Group Stage – this is when the 32 teams who qualified for
the World Cup play against one another.
2.
The Second Round\The Round of 16 – this is the second stage when
just half the teams qualify (16).
3.
The Quarterfinals\The Round of 8 – there are just 8 teams at this
4.
The Semifinals – now there are just 4 teams.
5.
The Final – two teams compete to see who the winner is. The team
stage.
that loses is known as the “runner-up”.
Exercise 5. Quiz “Football”.
1. What is the name of the break in a football match that players take after
45 minutes?
a) mid-time;
b) full-time;
c) half-time;
d) teatime.
2. Which of the following does the referee use as a warning to a player who
is breaking rules during a match?
a) a yellow card;
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b) a red card;
c) a sending off;
d) a telling off.
3. Which of the following verb + noun collocations is not correct?
a) kick the ball;
b) dribble the ball;
c) head the ball;
d) score the ball.
4. It’s all everyone is talking about, the whole country has been gripped by
World Cup _____!
a) fever;
b) illness;
c) flu;
d) temperature.
5. If a match has extra time, a single goal decides the result – this is called a
_____ goal.
a) gold;
b) golden;
c) silver;
d) bronze.
Exercise 6. Football Reporter.
There was a dramatic football match last Saturday and you were the reporter.
1 Complete your report. Use the Past Simple.
The match _____ (begin) badly. Robertson _____ (foul) Jones in the penalty
area – he _____ (kick) him viciously in the foot. The referee ______ (see) the
incident and _____ (send) Robertson off immediately. Jackson ______ (take) the
penalty kick. As he ______ (run) up to the ball, he ______ (seem) to hesitate
slightly. The crowd _______ (roar) as Johnson, the Rovers’ goalkeeper, ______
(make) a dramatic save.
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There ________ (be) a dramatic moment right at the end of the first half.
United’s Johnny James _____ (pass) the ball to Black. Black _______ (turn), he
_______ (take) aim – and ______ (score). Rovers ______ (try) to make the score
one-all. MacDonald _____ (head) the ball towards the net but he ________ (fail) to
score. The game _______ (end) dramatically. The Rovers fans _____ (cheer)
madly as Wilson ______ (kick) the ball from 25 yards. But he ______ (miss) the
net. United ______ (win) the match, one-nil.
2
You are the reporter. Say what happened in the match. You can
use real teams if you like, or even invent super teams with famous players.
Useful expressions:
- the crowd roared when …
- there was a dramatic moment when …
- in the (89th) minute …
- right at the beginning of the match …
- just before the final whistle …
- (three) minutes into the (first) half …
Athletics
There are two types of athletics: track events are all those which take place
on the running track; all other events, except the marathon, are field events. The
event when you have to hop, step and jump is called the triple jump. A sprint is a
short race – 100 metres, for example. The 800, 1500 and 3000 metre races are
middle-distance events. A long-distance race is 5000 metres or more.
Exercise 1. Name the sports (Picture 30):
Picture 30
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Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or -ing
form.
The New York City marathon
Every year, New Yorkers look forward to (1) seeing (see) one of the world’s
greats: races take place on their streets – The New York City Marathon! About
40,000 people including celebrities, world-class athletes, and, of course people
who just want (2) _____ (have) fun, enjoy (3) _____ (run) this famous race each
year! To finish the race runners must (4) ______ (complete) a 26.2 mile course.
Two million people and more than 100 music bands cheer them on from the
streets. The atmosphere is so fantastic many runners consider (5) ______ (cross)
the finishing line in Central Park to be one of the best feelings in the world!
Would you like (6) ______ (take part) in NYC marathon? All you need to do
is to put your name on a list. Afraid you are too unfit (7) ______ (enter)? Don’t be!
(8) _____ (walk) is entirely acceptable. In fact, over the years, people as old as 88
have completed the marathon. What’s more, you may just (9) _______ (win) some
of the $800,000 prize money that is up for grabs. Good luck!
Martial arts
Exercise 1. Boxing. Complete this newspaper report of a boxing match
with these words and phrases:
First round
Bell
Corner
On points
Right hand
Title
Heavyweigh
Knock-out
Lewis retains title
The world ______ champion, Lennox Lewis, successfully defended his ____
against American Evander Hollyfield last night. Right from the very start Lewis
had Hollyfield in trouble and at the end of the _____ Hollyfield was clearly very
relieved to get back to his _______ . The ______ went for the second round and
Lewis immediately knocked his opponent down with a huge _____ and it seemed
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only a matter of time before Lewis would win by a _____. But Hollyfield
recovered and as the fight went on he got increasingly stronger, causing the
champion serious problems. In the end it went the full twelve rounds and Lewis
was quite relived to win _________.
Exercise 2. Fighting sports. Answer the questions below about these
sports:
Boxing
Kick boxing
Karate
Judo
Wrestling
1. Which three sports take place in a ring?
2. In which of the sports do you use gloves?
3. In which of the sports can you become a black-belt?
4. In which of the sports do you throw your opponent?
15 Test for parts 13 and 14
Exercise 1. Complete the words for sports:
1) shoo_____
2) gym______
3) weight____
4) wre_______
5) cyc_______
6) ath________
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Exercise 2. Guess which sport is being described in each sentence.
1. The referee gave the try although many people thought it was a forward pass.
2. He scored the winner with a beautiful free kick from just outside the penalty
area.
3. He served fifteen aces and not one double fault.
4. The coach called a time-out with just 45 seconds left and two points between
the teams.
5. He crashed into the car in front with just two laps remaining.
6. First he was booked for a bad tackle, and then he handled the ball inside the
penalty area, so the referee had to send him off.
7. In the 200 metres freestyle, he overtook the Russian on the final length to win
the race.
8. She sprinted away from the rest of the field on the final lap and won easily.
16 People in sport
Study the vocabulary tips and do the exercises.
Word
Example
Meaning
referee
the referee gave out five the official person in control in
ref (inf)
yellow cards.
some sports (in tennis this is an
umpire)
linesman
the linesman put his flag up a person who helps the referee in
for offside but I think he some sports
was wrong
manager
syn. referee’s assistant
Jose Mourinho has been the person in control of a fooball
manager
of
Porto
and team
Chelsea.
coach
(also
coach
in
some
countries)
Andy Murray has a new a person who gives practical
tennis coach.
teaching to make sb better in a
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sport
captain
Fabio Cannavaro was the the player who is leader of the
Italian captain in the 2006 team
World Cup.
spectators
Spectators
ran
onto
the people who watch a game
the crowd
pitch.
supporters
Many football supporters people who regularly watch a
fans
travel all over Europe to see team play
their team.
commentator I thought the commentator a person who describes a game
was talking rubbish.
on TV or the radio
We usually add -er or player to a noun or verb for the person who does a sport:
golfer, swimmer, skier, racing driver, boxer, tennis player, rugby player.
But: athletics – athlete; gymnastics – gymnast; cycling – cyclist; canoeing –
canoeist; archery – archer.
Exercise 1. Complete the list of people doing sports:
1) golf;
2) athletics;
3) boxing;
4) motor racing;
5) rugby;
6) skiing;
7) gymnastics;
8) football.
Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer:
1. They have a special manager\coach to improve their fitness.
2. The captain\manager wears an armband during the game.
3. The referee\umpire gave him a red card.
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4. I lead\support Real Madrid, and go to most of their home games.
5. In the men’s singles final at Wimbledon, they had a Portuguese
referee\umpire.
6. There were 40,000 in the ground, of which about 5,000 were Arsenal
spectators\supporters.
Exercise 3. Complete the words in the text.
There was trouble at last week’s game. Our (1) c____ got a red card in the
second half for arguing with the (2) r_______, and then the other team scored a
goal in the last minute, although the (3) l_____ had his (4) f_____ up for offside.
Even the (5) c_____ on the radio thought it was offside, but the ref gave the
goal.
At the end of the match, some (6) f_____ who were in the (7) c______
then ran onto the (8) p____, and the referee had to have a police escort. In the
press conference after the game, our (9) m_______ was still very angry.
Exercise 4. Read the text and think of the word which best fits each
space. Use only one word in each space.
Formula one and only
Mika Hakkinen had hardly changed out of his overalls, which were
soaked in champagne, when he promised he (1) ______ keep the world drivers’
championship after winning the Japanese Grand Prix. He (2) _____ that the
accident he had suffered in Australia in 1995 had (3) ______ his life and that
from that day on he had (4) ______ a different person. He (5) ______ he would
never forget that time and the support the team had (6) _____ him. He explained
that he thought (7) _______ things more now. He (8) _____ not thinking much
about the future except that he and the McLaren team (9) ______ remain
champions. Hakkinen’s victory came after his great rival Michael Schumacher
had a blow out. “From that moment on. I knew I (10) ______ win the race,” he
said.
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Exercise 5. Read the text. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.
The best basketball player in the world
If you haven’t heard of Lauren Jackson, you can be (1) _____, FORGIVE
but she is quite (2) ______ the most talented basketball player POSSIBLE
in the world. In 1998, at the age of 17, she became the top (3) SCORE
_____ in Australia and helped her team to win the (4) _____. CHAMPION
Her coach, Tom Maher, says she is one of the most (5) ATHLETE
_______ he has ever seen. More impressive than her physical ABLE
(6) ______, however, is her mental approach. She is, says LEARN
Maher, a fantastic (7) _____ and a great team person. The TOTAL
Australian team is (8) ______ based around her and it is only a FAME
matter of time before she is (9) _____ internationally. Her DEVELOP
physical (10) _____ is not complete yet, so her potential is still FULL
not (11) ______ realized. With a few more years of (12) _____ GROW
she will become one of the all-time greats.
Exercise 6.
1 What champion athletes can you name? What were their
achievements?
2 Read the article and answer the questions.
1. What reasons are given for improved performance?
2. How did drugs distort world records in the 1980s?
3. What would the effect of “gene-doping” be?
4. What was the original “Olympic spirit”?
The 100 metres in 8 seconds?
Many contemporary amateur athletes and swimmers would have broken
world records if they had taken part in the first Olympic Games. Since then,
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records have tumbled in track, field and swimming events as performance has
improved dramatically.
If records fall, it is usually due to better equipment, training and diet but
recently improvements have begun to slow down. In Sydney, only three runners
achieved Olympic bests with no world records. Some experts predict a ceiling
for many events, such as 9.5 seconds for the 100 metres – Maurice Greene’s
current record is 9.79 seconds.
However, past predictions are nearly always wrong. All the levels of
performance predicted in the 1930s had been reached by the 1970s. Ron
Maughan, from Aberdeen University, believes that if more people around the
world took part in organized sport, more records would have fallen.
One factor is the use of performance-enhancing drugs, or “doping”. Ben
Johnson would still be the 100 metres world record holder if he had not been
caught taking drugs. Other records remain dubious, like Florence Griffith’s 100
metres record back in 1988. Did she take drugs? If current Olympic champion,
Marion Jones, took such drugs, she would probably have broken that world
record more than once.
Unless we are careful, “gene-doping” will be the next big threat. For
medical purposes scientists have already found ways to build muscle and
increase stamina through gene therapy. If gene therapy were used now, it would
be almost impossible to detect. In the future, genetically-modified athletes might
be able to run the 100 metres in 8 seconds or the marathon in under two hours.
However, if a generation of genetic monsters were created, it would show that
the whole point of sport has been lost. It would be much better to forget the
records and return to the original Olympic spirit – taking part is more important
than winning.
3 Match the conditional sentences in italics in the text with the
following types:
- zero conditional;
- 1st conditional;
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- 2nd conditional;
- 3rd conditional.
Which of the sentences in italics talk about the past, the present and
the future?
4 Make conditional sentences about these situations:
1. Ben Johnson took drugs – he was banned from sport.
2. Athletes earn a lot of money – they train hard.
3. Someone will run 100 metres in 9.3 seconds – nobody will believe it.
4. Gabriela Szabo is very fit – it’s easy for her to run long distances.
5. An athlete will win four gold medals in athletics – they will be a record
breaker.
6. In 1980 the Olympic Games were organized in Moscow – the USA didn’t
take part.
5 Answer the following questions (use mixed conditionals):
1. What would the situation be now if performance-enhancing drugs hadn’t
been developed?
2. What would or would not have happened in the past if football was a less
popular sport?
Compare your answers with your partner’s.
Exercise 7.
1 Discuss with a partner which of these sentences you think are
positive and which are negative. Explain your decisions.
1. She just lacks a certain self-belief.
2. He’s gorgeous.
3. He’s all power and strength, and no touch.
4. He’s the weak link in the team.
5. He’s a really nasty player.
6. They have too many off days.
7. He must be on something.
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8. He’s an up-and-coming player. He’s the new Pete Sampras.
9. He’s got such drive and intensity.
10.She’s quite underrated.
11.He’s past it.
12.They’ve never quite fulfilled their potential.
13.He went off the rails.
14.He’s trying to rejuvenate his career.
15.He’s a gutsy player. He never gives up.
16.He can’t handle it when the pressure’s on.
2 Make a list of sportsmen, sportswomen or teams which you could
use some of these expressions to describe.
3 Choose someone you would like to nominate for the title of the
world’s greatest sportsperson. Write down the facts about them and make a
speech.
4 Name a sportsperson who has had a number of setbacks in their
career. Tell the group about them.
5 Name a sportsperson who has made a comeback after a period of
absence.
Exercise 8.
1 Read the text below. Is it written by someone who:
- doesn’t like football fans?
- can’t understand football fans?
- is a completely dedicated fan?
- wishes he wasn’t a fan?
The life of a football fan
Being a fan is not a vicarious pleasure, despite all appearances to the
contrary. Our fun is not a (1) _____-down version of the team’s fun, even
though they are the ones that get to score the goals. The (2) ______ we feel on
occasions like this is not a (3) _____ of others’ good fortune, but it is truly our
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own. And when there is a (4) ______ defeat the sorrow that engulfs us is, in
effect, self-pity. The players are merely our (5) ______ . I am a part of the club,
just as the club is part of me; and I say this with total (6) _______ that the club
(7) ______ my views, and treats me (8) ______ on occasions.
2 Read the text again. What part of speech e.g. noun, adjective etc.
should go in each space? Should the missing word be in a positive or
negative form?
3 Use the following words to form one word that fits in the text: water,
excite, celebrate, disaster, represent, aware, regard, appalling.
17 Places in sport
Study the information and do the exercises
- The Camp Nou Stadium (1), the ground (2) of Barcelona football club, is the
largest stadium in Europe with a capacity (3) of 98,800 spectators.
- Hochenheim is a motor-racing circuit (4) where the German Grand Prix
sometimes takes place. One lap of the track (4) is 4.574 kms.
- The Centre Court (5) at Wimbledon is famous worldwide. Now they have
constructed the new roof, the All England Championship won’t be interrupted
because of rain.
- A standard Olympic swimming pool is 50 metres long, 25 metres wide, and has
a minimum depth of two metres.
(1) a large structure where people sit and watch sport;
(2) an area of land where a game is played and people watch;
(3) the amount or number that a space or container will hold;
(4) an area of land, often in a circle, where a race takes place; syn. track;
(5) a place where tennis, basketball or badminton are played.
Exercise 1. Complete the words in each text.
1. Liverpool Football C____ is planning to c_____ a new football s______, with
a c______ of over 60,000.
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2. The Chinese Grand Prix is raced over 56 l____ of the Shanghai International
C_______. It’s the most expensive t_____ ever c_____, costing $240 m.
3. The French Open Tennis C______ at Roland Garros is famous w_____ as the
only one of the four major tournaments that is played on clay c_____s.
4. Unfortunately we don’t have a s______ Olympic swimming p_____. The one
we use for competitions is only 25 metres l_____ and 15 metres w____. The
m_____ d_____ is one metre, and the m______ is two metres.
Exercise 2. Write down which sports these places are associated with:
a) course;
b) ring;
c) pitch;
d) rink;
e) alley
f) piste (slopes).
Exercise 3. Read the text and comment upon the Olympic
constructions in London.
Venues of 2012 Olympics
The breathtaking Aquatics Centre is one of the permanent venues
specially constructed for London 2012. It forms part of the gateway to the
Olympic Park – more than two-thirds of spectators will enter the Park via a
bridge that forms part of the venue’s roof. With a capacity of 17,500, the
Aquatics Centre’s spectacular wave-like roof is 160m long and up to 80m wide
– giving it a longer single span than Heathrow Terminal 5. The venue’s roof
proved to be one of the most complex engineering challenges of the Olympic
Park big build. After the Games the Aquatics Centre will be transformed into a
facility for the local community, clubs and schools, as well as elite swimmers.
The new Basketball Arena is one of the largest temporary venues ever
built for the Games. The arena will be one of the most heavily-used venues
within the Olympic Park, with competition events taking place almost every
day. The venue’s frame is made up of 1,000 tonnes of steel and is covered in
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20,000 square metres of a recyclable white fabric that will form the canvas for
spectacular lighting displays during the Games. The venue is just as visually
impressive from the inside, with its black and orange seats representing the
colours of a basketball. The Basketball Arena will be taken down after the
Games. Parts of it are expected to be reused or relocated elsewhere.
The iconic Copper Box will host some of the most exciting action on the
Olympic Park during the London 2012 Games. The venue is extremely flexible,
with retractable seating that can change the floor size within the venue,
facilitating different activities both during and after the Games. The venue was
designed and built with sustainability as a priority. Among its many innovative
features, the roof of the Copper Box is fitted with 88 light pipes that allow
natural light into the venue, reducing the demand for electric lights. Rainwater
collected from the venue’s roof will be used to flush toilets. The Copper Box
will become a multi-use sports centre for community use, athlete training and
events. Its flexible design and retractable seating mean it will be suitable for
activities ranging from international competition to community sports, and for a
wide range of indoor sports, including basketball, handball, badminton, boxing,
martial arts, netball, table tennis, wheelchair rugby and volleyball.
The Olympic Stadium will host the four spectacular Opening and Closing
Ceremonies at London 2012, as well as some of the most iconic Games events.
The Stadium is at the heart of the Olympic Park on an ‘island’ site, surrounded
by waterways on three sides. Spectators will reach the venue via five bridges
that link the site to the surrounding area. The innovative flexible design of the
Olympic Stadium means its 80,000 capacity can be reduced after the Games. An
Olympic Stadium with such a large removable element and mix of permanent
and temporary seating has never been attempted before. The Stadium is also the
most sustainable ever built for an Olympic Games. It is a visual testament to
London 2012's efforts to 'reduce, reuse and recycle'.
Discuss these and other Olympic venues built in London; accompany
your speech with photos or PP presentations.
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Exercise 4.
1 Think of an important sporting event, such as the opening of the
Olympic Games, or the final of the World Cup. Imagine you’re giving a
commentary of the scene to radio listeners. Make notes on what you can
“see”.
2 Work in groups of four or five. Give your commentaries to the rest
of the group but don’t mention the name of the sport. Can the others guess
the sporting event you’re describing?
Exercise 5. Use the cards with words and pictures given on page 112113 to do the following tasks:
a) Work in pairs. Sort the given cards into four piles: equipment, places, people
and events. The pair that finish first (with all correct) are the winners.
b) Match sports with the appropriate picture of equipment and places needed for
playing the sport.
18 Extreme sports
Exercise 1. What sports do you consider the most dangerous? Share
your ideas and organize them in order starting with the most dangerous
one.
Exercise 2.
1 Reading. Work in two groups. Group A – read about Tanya. Group
B – read about David.
Free-diving
As a child, Tanya Streeter always loved swimming in the sea – she grew
up in the Cayman Islands in the Caribbean. She could always dive the deepest
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for seashells but she didn’t know then that she could dive deeper than anyone
else in the world.
Tanya discovered her diving abilities in 1997, when she joined a class in
free diving. Free-diving is a new sport. It’s very dangerous because you dive
with no oxygen. There were only men in the class and no one wanted to dive
with her because she was a girl. But her class was surprised when they saw how
long she could swim underwater for nearly six minutes with just one breath!
Last year she broke the world free-diving record. She dived 121 metres with one
breath.
She says: “At the bottom of the sea I’m calm. I love the peace and quiet
down there. Coming up again is very difficult. You can’t think about the pain!
I’m not planning to break any more records for a while. I’m going to wait and
see if anyone breaks my last record. In the future I’m going to teach free-diving
and work for sea-life conservation.”
Free-running
David Belle grew up in the countryside, and he always loved the feeling
of freedom there. He liked running, jumping, and climbing trees in the woods
when he was a child. At the age of nine, he and his family went to live in Lisses,
a town outside Paris. But he continued to jump and climb there. He loved doing
gymnastics at school.
As a teenager in 1989, David invented the sport of Le Parkour or “freerunning”. The idea of Le Parkour is to find new and often dangerous ways to
travel across the town. The runners or “traceurs” work in groups. They run and
jump over walls, roofs and buildings – everything! They try to move like cats.
David and his friend Sebastian spent ten years in Lisses practicing their moves
and jumps and teaching other people. Last year they were on television for the
first time. David says that Le Parkour is an art and a philosophy, not a sport.
They are not trying to win medals. They just want to learn new moves and do
them well. They like to feel free.
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David says: “We do it because we need to move. We are going to take our
art to the world and show people how to move. And we are going to go here no
human ever went before.”
2 Answer the questions about your person.
1. Where did he\she grow up?
2. What did he\she like doing as a child?
3. how did he\she become interested in the sport?
4. How does he\she feel when he\she does the sport?
5. How dangerous is the sport?
6. Does he\she teach the sport?
7. What did he\she do last year?
8. What are his\her future plans?
Work with a partner from the other group. Compare Tanya and
David using your answers.
3 Work in pairs. Imagine you are the person you read about.
Interview each other.
Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or -ing
form.
Extreme sports – do something different!
Extreme sports are not for everyone. But for people who enjoy (1) living (live)
life to the full, they are the only type of sports worth (2) _______ (do)! The
latest extreme sport to become popular is sandboarding. It involves (3) ______
(slide) down extremely high sand dunes on a board. You can (4) ______ (lie
down) or stand up. When standing up, both your feet are tied up to the board to
prevent you from (5) ______ (fall off). Some sandboarders, however, prefer (6)
_______ (keep) their feet untied because it allows more freedom of movement.
Lying down can be even more fun. Can you imagine (7) _______ (speed)
headfirst down a sand dune at 80 km\hr? Because that’s how fast you can expect
(8) ______ (go)! Sounds like fun? People who have tried sandboarding say it’s
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totally addictive! So head to a desert and try it out. You don’t need (9) _____
(have) any experience, but you should (10) _____ (love) danger and excitement!
19 Foul sports
Exercise 1. Match these sportsmen and sportswomen to their sports:
1. Michael Schumacher
a) athletics.
2. Tiger Woods
b) tennis.
3. David Beckham
c) Formula One.
4. Venus Williams
d) football.
5. Marion Jones
e) golf.
All these professionals are multi-millionaires as a result of salaries, prize
money, sponsorship and endorsements.
- Who do you think is paid the most? Why? Who is paid the least? Why?
- Are they paid too much, in your opinion?
- How much do the top sportsmen and women get paid in your country?
- Who is one of the highest paid? Do you think (s)he deserves that salary?
Exercise 2.
1 Read this father’s view and decide which sport he is talking about.
Can his criticism apply to sports in general?
Immoral Earnings?
What in the world is happening to professional sport? When I was a kid, it
cost $5 to get a decent seat at the stadium, and my dad would buy me a hot dog
and himself a beer which would bring the total cost to about $10.
Last Saturday I took my little boy to see the Giants play. After the
parking, tickets, refreshments and souvenirs, I walked out of there with $75 less
in my pocket. Just ask me how soon I’ll be going back!
But it got me thinking: why am I paying so much to watch a group of men
throw a ball around? And then I realized: I was paying Billy Slater’s salary:
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$350,000 a yea. And Matt Jerrold’s salary: $500,000 a year. Oh, and how could
I forget Sal Ibarra’s new contract - $3 million over the next three years.
Where is the perspective here? What are our priorities as a society?
There are 35,000 homeless in this city who don’t have a roof over their heads,
clothes to keep them warm or food to fill their stomachs. And we are paying
these 6- and 7-figure salaries to keep ourselves entertained!
Something’s gone wrong!
2 Look back at the article and answer these questions with a partner:
1. What things did the man have to pay for at the baseball game?
2. Why does he say “Just ask me how soon I’ll be going back”?
3. What does he mean when he says that he’s paying the players’ salaries?
Do you agree?
4. Why does he start talking about homeless people?
3 Discuss the following questions:
1. Do you basically agree with the man or does he have an old-fashioned,
nostalgic view of sport?
2. Do you go to live sport events? What is the most expensive sports event
you have been to? Was it worth it?
3. Have you ever paid to watch a big sports event on pay-TV? If so, how
much did you pay?
Exercise 3.
1 Read this text and underline all the expressions with “worth”.
A UK Football Match
Going to see my football team is not cheap – the cheapest seat is £20 – but
I think it’s worth it. Usually you get your money’s worth – especially with our
new centre forward, Rivaldo. Apparently, he’s on £4 million a year, but he’s
such a brilliant player, I think he’s worth every penny.
Recently, I took my whole family to see a game. There are some guys
who sell tickets illegally outside the stadium – they’re called ticket touts – and
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you can get into trouble if you buy from them. Normally, I would have said that
it’s more trouble than it’s worth, but since I’d brought my whole family, which
was going to be very expensive, I thought it was worth a try. So, I went up to
one of those guys and negotiated four fantastic seats for £80 – quite a bargain
for such an important game and such great seats. They were actually worth
around £120. When we tried to get into the stadium, we were told that our
tickets were forgeries! £80 down the drain! You can imagine how we felt!
So, we went back home to watch the game on TV. My advice is never buy
from a ticket tout. It’s not worth the risk.
2 Complete the expressions with one word:
1. I _______ it’s worth it.
2. You get your _____ worth.
3. He’s worth every _______.
4. It’s more _______ than it’s worth.
5. I thought it was worth a _______.
6. They were actually worth ____ £120.
7. It’s not worth the ______.
3 What do you think “£80 down the drain” means?
Exercise 4. Discussion.
The average professional footballer in the Premier League in England
earns £400,000 a year – around £7,600 a week. He trains, for three hours a day
and plays one or two games a week for 10 months of the year. This means he
earns around £520 per hour. So, after one training session, he is £1500 richer.
For the very top players, multiply all these figures by 6 or 7. People argue that
the following reasons justify the salaries. Which do you think are good reasons?
1.
It’s a short career – 18 years maximum – then you’re finished as far
as playing is concerned.
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2.
Top players can’t go out partying and eating and drinking whatever
they want. They have to look after themselves and be highly disciplined. They
have a severely restricted social life for maybe 20 years.
3.
Your career could end at any time through injury.
4.
It requires a very high level of skill, which only a very few people
possess. They should be rewarded for that.
5.
Julia Roberts gets $4 million to make a film, so why shouldn’t top
footballers get similar pay? They are just like film stars.
6.
Top players are high profile superstars who can’t leave home
without the media following them. The money they get is compensation for
having no private life.
Exercise 5. More issues to discuss:
1.
The men’s Wimbledon tennis champion wins £477,500. The
women’s champion gets £430,000. What is the reason for this? Women nearly
always get less than men in sport. Why is this?
2.
Some people think that money has ruined sport. People used to play
for the glory of winning. Now they are open to bribery and corruption. What
would you do about it?
3.
“As individuals become rich, sport becomes impoverished”. Can
you think of any examples that support this opinion?
Exercise 6. Talking points.
1.
How important is the concept of “fair play” in sport? Read the
following quotation and express your point of view: “Serious sport has nothing
to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard
of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence. In other words, it is war
minus the shooting” (George Orwell).
2.
Drug use in sport.
a)
What do you think about sportsmen and women who take drugs?
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b)
Is taking drugs cheating, or is it necessary to be able to compete in
today’s sporting world?
c)
Should athletes who take drugs be banned for life? Why (not)? If
not, what penalty is suitable?
d)
The idea of holding two Olympic Games has been suggested. One
where competitors can use drugs, and one where they’re banned. What do you
think of this idea?
e)
What do you think could be done to stop drug use and cheating in
sport? Educating young sportsmen and women or heavily penalizing famous
stars to act as a deterrent?
f)
Are there any other ways of cheating in sport?
g)
Imagine you work for the drug-testing agency. Sally Gates, a world
champion, has tested positive for banned steroids. She is a hero in the country,
the first person to win a swimming gold for 32 years. Any publicity will be bad
for the sport, and will lead to a loss of funding from the government, and you
need every penny you can get! It’s possible she took the drug accidentally, but
there was such a high trace, you think this unlikely. You need to make a
decision, and think of any implications.
3.
Hooliganism in sports. Have there been any problems with it
recently?
4.
International sport breeds an unhealthy kind of nationalism. Do you
support this opinion? Do you think there is much racism in sport?
5.
Violence in sports. Violent sports like boxing have no place in
civilized society. Do you agree with this position?
6.
Have a speech on major sporting events that Russia has hosted or is
going to. Consider their impact on people, economy etc.
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20 Test for parts 16-19
Exercise 1. Quiz.
1. How many players are there in a baseball team?
2. Name two sports that need bats.
3. Name two pieces of equipment you need to play golf.
4. Which two sports have eleven players in a team?
5. Name two sports that need racquets.
6. Name one sport played on a court and one sport played on a pitch.
7. Name two sports that have nets.
8. Which sport uses a shuttlecock?
9. Name two sports that have goals.
10.Name two sports that are played against one opponent only.
Exercise 2. Underline the two correct words or phrases:
1) five thousand spectators\commentators\supporters;
2) a football ground\stadium\circuit;
3) a tennis lap\court\umpire;
4) the new spectator\coach\manager;
5) a motor-racing track\ground\circuit;
6) a football club\referee\umpire;
7) a worldwide\deep\standard pool.
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with a suitable word.
1. The other members of the team chose him as their _____.
2. They’re ______ a new stadium. It will be finished next year.
3. The ground has a ______ of 50,000.
4. I watch my team every week. I’ve _____ them for 25 years.
5. Alonso completed the last _____ of the circuit in one minute and 37
seconds.
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6. The game was _____ for 25 minutes because the lights went out.
7. A ____ of a football pitch is about 100 metres; the ____ is about 50.
8. A _____ of 28,000 watched the last game.
9. Who won the Drivers’ World ____ last year?
Exercise 4. Match 1-10 with a-j.
1. It was an outstanding
a) overall.
2. About thirty took part
b) of the performance.
3. It was a very one-
c) the record.
4. He was critical
d) place on Tuesday.
5. He still holds
e) in yesterday’s race.
6. She’s the favourite
f) to win.
7. She’s in the semi-
g) performance.
8. The game takes
h) sided contest.
9. He’s a difficult
i) final.
10. She won five titles
j) opponent.
21 Sports idioms
Exercise 1. Boxing idioms. Use each of these nouns to complete the
expressions below:
towel – bell – belt – ropes - punches
1. If I take an unfair advantage of you, you could say: That was below the ___.
2. If I tell you what I think very directly, I won’t pull my ____.
3. If you are in a difficult situation, you can say you are on the ____.
4. If you are in a difficult situation but you get out of it at the last minute, you
can say: Saved by the ____!
5. If you keep trying to do something but don’t succeed and describe it’s not
worth continuing, you can throw in the _____.
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Exercise 2. A level playing field. Use the following idiomatic
expressions in the situations below:
a) keep moving the goalposts;
b) a level playing field;
c) back the wrong horse;
d) par for the course;
e) horses for the courses;
f) touch base;
g) neck and neck;
h) a major player;
i) keep (people) onside;
j) heavyweight.
1. Joining the European Union was supposed to guarantee a _____ for us. But
lower taxes in some continental countries still make it difficult for us to
compete.
2. You’ve been saying Arsenal all season, but Unites are champions. It looks as
if you _____ this time.
3. Hello, Dolly. I haven’t seen you for a while and I’m going to be in Cambridge
on Thursday so I thought I might look in and ______. Is that convenient?
4. We can’t just use one lawyer. It’s _____. We need somebody to do our own
contracts of employment and a specialist to deal with the European contracts.
5. The BBC hope to become a ______ in digital television.
6. Arsenal and Manchester United are still ________ at the top of the league
with only two games to go.
7. Head Office told us we had to achieve an 8% increase. We do what they ask
and, guess what, they _____. Now they want 12%.
8. The British Americans and the French are all in agreement, but in a situation
like this, everyone knows how important it is to keep the Russians ______.
9. There is strong opposition to the policy from a number of _____ politicians,
including the former Prime Minister.
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10. I see Jeff’s off ill again. – Well, that’s _____, isn’t it? Two Fridays every
month on average.
Note! In an informal meeting you can say: Shall we kick off by looking at
this month’s figures? If Tony wins an argument you can say: Game, set and
match to Tony!
Exercise 3. The ball’s in your court. Use these expressions containing
the word ball in the situations below:
a) drop the ball;
b) on the ball;
c) play ball;
d) we’re in a whole new ball game;
e) the ball’s in your court;
f) run with the ball.
1. I think we should go ahead. I’ve done everything I promised I would, so now
__________.
2. Bob seems to know everything that’s going on round here. He’s _____, isn’t
he?
3. This is a fantastic opportunity. If the sales team ____, we’ll make a lot of
money.
4. If the Sales Director had dealt with it himself, everything would probably
have been all right but he sent his assistant instead and he _____.
5. We want to expand the business and take on more staff but we need the help
of the bank and they are refusing to _____.
6. Since the collapse there have been major changes in the political situation
_____ in fact.
Note! If someone asks, “What’s the score?” they mean, “What’s the present
situation? It is difficult to play cricket if the pitch (wicket) is wet (sticky), so
if someone talks about sticky wicket, they mean a difficult situation.
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Exercise 4. Study the following sport metaphors, explain their
meaning and use them to rewrite the sentences below:
To score an own goal –
To move the goalposts –
A level playing field –
In the running –
Neck and neck –
To skate around (a subject) –
To sail through (an exam) 1. Sarah passed her exams without any difficulty at all.
2. I wish he’d get directly to the point.
3. I’ve been told that they are seriously considering me for the job of
supervisor.
4. Although he meant it as a compliment, Rick didn’t improve his chances
with Helen when he told her as if she had put on some weight.
5. The situation is hardly fair when 18-year-olds take the same exam as 15year-olds.
6. It’s hard to know what to do when the regulations seem to be constantly
changing.
22 Phrasal verbs
Exercise 1. Study these items from newspapers.
1. WEATHER DELAYS CUP FINAL
The kick-off (1) of the Cup Final between Arsenal and Liverpool was delayed
yesterday due to bad weather.
(1) – noun – start of a game of football
2. JOHNSON TO ATTEMPT RECORD
Welsh swimmer Peri Johnson says he is going for (2) the world record in
tomorrow’s 100 metres freestyle event.
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(2) Will try to achieve something difficult (e.g. break a record, win a medal)
3. ARCHERY: England defeated
ENGLAND were knocked out (3) of the European Archery Championship this
afternoon in a surprise win by Sweden.
(3) forced to leave the competition because they were defeated
4. DORNTON TO PLAY HARSFIELD
With both teams on 28 points, Dornton will meet Harsfield in a play-off (4) this
Saturday at Dornton’s home ground to decide who goes up to the first division.
(4) – noun – game to decide the winner, especially when the teams or
competitors have the same number of points
Read the information provided by people talking about their sporting
activities
- I work out (1) at the gym three times a week to try to burn off (2) the calories
and stay slim. I find it also helps me to work off (3) the stress of work.
(1) exercise in order to improve the strength or appearance of your body
(2) use or get rid of energy, calories or fat by doing a lot of physical exercise
(3) get rid of an unpleasant feeling, e.g. aggression or anger, by doing something
energetic
- Before I start a match I always do a warm-up (4). Then after the match I make
sure I cool down (5) and stretch properly.
(4) – noun – gentle exercises which prepare you for more serious exercise (from
the verb warm up)
(5) become cooler
- World-class marathon running can be very hard. You need great mental
stamina, and you must never give in (6). it’s a great feeling when you pull ahead
(7) of the rest of the field and know you’re winning.
(6) accept that you have been defeated and agree to stop competing or fighting
(7) suddenly get in front of another person who was previously running at the
same speed as you
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- Table tennis is a great sport. Anyone can join in (8). We have a knockout (9)
competition at work every month, just for fun.
(8) become involved in an activity with other people
(9) – noun – a competition in which only the winners of each stage play in the
next stage, until one person or team is the final winner
Exercise 2. Match the phrasal verb on the left with its more formal
equivalent on the right.
1) join in
attempt to achieve;
2) give in
defeat;
3) go for
surrender;
4) pull ahead
participate;
5) knock out
overtake.
Exercise 3. Choose phrasal verb expressions to complete each of these
notices from a sports club noticeboard.
1. Always do a _________ before doing any strenuous exercise.
2. Sign below if you would like to take part in next month’s _______
squash tournament.
3. Eat healthily. Remember you have to exercise for at least two hours to
____ the calories from one cream cake!
4. Regular exercise helps to _____ stress.
5. Don’t forget to _____ before running round the track.
6. Remember it’s just as important to _____ properly as it is to warm up.
Exercise 4. Answer the questions using full sentences.
1. How often do you work out each month and what do you do when you work
out?
2. How might you warm up before running a marathon?
3. Why would you be pleased if you pulled ahead of the other runners in a race?
4. Which sport is better for burning off calories and why – tennis or table tennis?
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5. Would you prefer to join in a snooker game or a football game after work?
6. What kind of medal would a top athlete go for?
Exercise 5. Describe what is happening in pictures a-c (Picture 31),
using one of the nouns or verbs given above.
a)
b)
c)
Picture 31
Exercise 6. Here are three more phrasal verbs with sporting
connections. Can you choose the correct definition from the box for each of
them?
was defeated by – progressed – told to leave
1. If a footballer gets a red card, he is sent off the pitch.
2. England went out to Germany in the semi-finals.
3. Our team won the game and so they went forward to the next round.
Exercise 7. Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence
1. The team spent some time ________ in preparation for the match.
a) running away; b) warming up; c) doing in; d) winning through.
2. The champion had a crowd of supporters to ______.
a) bring her round; b) cheer her on; c) do her down; d) give her up.
3. The pond _____ and the villagers were able to skate on it.
a) caved in; b) stretched out; c) snowed off; d) froze over.
4. Some supporters were _____ at the entrance because the ground was full.
a) sent off; b) turned away; c) set out; d) played off.
5. It was such a bad foul that the referee _____.
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a) cut him up; b) sent him off; c) did him up; d) used him up.
6. Maggie’s been _____ her game and you can see a definite improvement.
a) sitting for; b) working on; c) checking in; d) trying on.
7. The match was ______ and will be played next Wednesday.
a) pelted down; b) poured out; c) rained off; d) seen through.
23 Final test
Exercise 1. Add the missing words in the idioms and translate them
into Russian:
1) the ball’s in your …
2) keep moving the ….
3) throw in the …
4) a … new ball game
5) … for the course
6) touch …
7) neck and …
8) … for courses
9) … your punches
10) saved by the …
Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer(s). Both answers may be
correct.
1. It’s a long race\medal.
2. It was a hard race\competition.
3. How many people took place\took part?
4. Anyone can take part\participate.
5. He broke the record\competition.
6. The race takes place\takes part on Tuesday.
7. Did she win a race\medal?
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8. Does she hold\carry the record?
Exercise 3. Complete the chart with suitable words.
SPORT
PEOPLE
AREA
Football
Cycling
Golf
Athletics
Water sports
Motor sports
Winter sports
Tennis
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Appendix A
(obligatory)
What’s your game?
111
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
SHUTTLECOCK
RUNNING SHOES
SLOPES
OPPONENT
STUMPS
HURDLE
COURT
REFEREE
CAP
POLE
PITCH
UMPIRE
TEE
BOOTS
GOLF COURSE
GAME
HOCKEY STICK
STICKS
TRACK
MATCH
BAT
RACQUET
RINK
ROUND
BALL
GOLF CLUB
TEAM
TOURNAMENT
SKATES
NET
PLAYERS
CHAMPIONSHIP
SKIS
GOAL
COMPETITORS
CUP
112
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
113
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