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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания
для изучения устных тем по специальностям
270109 «Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция»,
270112 «Водоснабжение и водоотведение»
(II этап обучения)
Воронеж 2010
УДК 802.0 (07): 697
Составитель Е.Н. Топоркова
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК: метод. указания для студ. спец. 270109 «Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция», 270112 «Водоснабжение и водоотведение» / Воронеж. гос. арх.-строит. ун-т; сост.: Е.Н. Топоркова. – Воронеж, 2010. – 33 с.
Методические указания содержат материал для развития устной речи
по темам: «Энергия и еѐ источник», «Ядерная энергия», «Панельное отопление», «Водоснабжение», «Из истории водоотведения», а также предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания для повторения ранее изученного.
Предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 270109
«Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция», 270112 «Водоснабжение и водоотведение».
Печатается по рекомендации редакционно-издательского совета
Воронежского государственного архитектурно-строительного
университета
Рецензент – М.Г. Кочнева, к. п. н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Воронежского архитектурно-строительного университета
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Тема 1. Water Supply
I. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские: water, part, nature, natural, condition, constant, intensive, flora,
mineral, resources, steppe, taiga, cycle, interesting, atmosphere, to vary, proportion, temperature, gas, phenomenon, reservoir, to classify, to form, gravel, sanitary,
system, industry, prime, to protect, results, adequate, standard, unlimited, problem,
geographical, location, satisfactory, factor, progress, civilization, method.
II. Выучите следующие слова к теме:
water supply – водоснабжение
to surround – окружать
saturated – насыщенный
through the medium of = by means of – при помощи, посредством
body of water – водный массив
inland lake – материковое озеро
undersoil – подпочва
stratum = layer = bed – слой, пласт
sewage disposal system – система удаления сточных вод
to foul – загрязняться
water treatment – водоподготовка, обработка воды
depression – впадина.
III. Прочитайте и переведите тему
Water Supply
1. Water is an important part of nature which surrounds us and of those natural conditions we are changing constantly and intensively: the flora, the soil, the
mountains, mineral resources, the deserts, the marshes, the steppes and the taiga.
2. Water passes through a very interesting natural cycle. The atmosphere
which surrounds the earth’s surface contains water which varies in amount in direct proportion to the temperature of its gases. Water is also evaporated into the
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atmosphere. Atmosphere which has become saturated with water precipitates its
moisture when the temperature lowers. This phenomenon is termed rainfall. The
moisture falls to the earth and finds its way into reservoirs provided by nature.
3. Vast depressions in the earth are filled with water through the medium of
natural water sources such as rivers, lakes, etc. These bodies of water are classified
as inland lakes and are excellent sources of water.
4. Sometimes the rainfall finds its way into the soil and forms water bodies
at various levels. Often a water body deep in the soil consists of a sand or gravel
stratum which connects or empties into the basin of an inland lake and provides
water supply through the medium of a drilled well.
5. Man uses water for domestic and sanitary purposes and returns it to the
source through sewage disposal systems. Industry replaces water diverted to its
use. Hence the cycle is completed but it is of prime importance that the supply be
protected against pollution, for no one can predict how disastrous may be the results of it.
6. An adequate supply of pure and palatable water is essential to the modern
society demands. In some localities water is available in unlimited quantities and
converting it to use is not a difficult problem. This is especially true of towns situated on large inland lakes or rivers. On the other hand, there are cities where
geographical location requires systems of water supply, and to provide a supply of
water in these localities becomes a large engineering task.
7. The importance of a supply of water for domestic and industrial purpose
has long been a deciding factor in the location of cities. The earliest settlers realized this need by establishing colonies close to them.
8. Water may be taken from any sources for human consumption after it has
undergone a preliminary treatment to assure its purity. As man’s communities
grew the demand for water increased and the need for protection of the water
supply against contamination became evident. Progress and civilization have called
for elaborate and various systems and methods of water treatment.
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IV. a) Образуйте от следующих существительных прилагательные с
помощью суффикса -al, -ical, переведите их.
Образец: community – communal – общество – общественный,
colony – colonial – место – местный.
Nature, industry, geography, atmosphere, class, commune, history, mechanic, biology, physics.
b) Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные, используя суффиксы -tion, -ion, переведите их.
Образец: to locate – location – расположение
To distribute, to saturate, to classify, to connect, to evaporate, to divert, to predict,
to pollute, to state, to populate, to situate, to consume, to create, to contaminate.
V. Выберите из следующих слов пары антонимов, то есть слов противоположного значения:
Образец: small – big, domestic – industrial.
Supply, high, wet, saturated, liquid, natural, wastes, low, dry, deep, unsaturated,
solid, purity, artificial, contamination, shallow, consumption, production, evaporation, precipitation.
VI. Замените подчеркнутые в предложениях слова синонимами, данными ниже:
1. Water is an important part of nature.
2. The atmosphere contains water.
3. Water varies in amounts in different localities.
4. Atmosphere precipitates its moisture.
5. A number of reservoirs is provided by nature.
6. Vast depressions are filled with water through the medium of natural water sources.
7. Man uses water for domestic and sanitary purposes.
8. Water supply must be protected against pollution.
9. Water is essential to the health.
Слова синонимы: essential, portion, has, differs, quantities, various, places, settles,
water, many, are produced, large, by means of, applies, home, provision, aims,
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contamination, important.
VII. Расположите следующие предложения согласно последовательности изложения в тексте:
1. An adequate supply of water is one of the main requirements for maintaining
high standards of health.
2. Vast depressions in the earth are filled with water.
3. They are known as inland lakes and are excellent sources of water.
4. The rivers and lakes contain a great amount of chemical and biological pollution.
5. Nowadays the problem of water treatment has become very urgent.
6. On the earth water passes through a very interesting natural cycle.
7. Water bodies deep in the soil are sources of water.
8. After using water man returns it to the source by means of sewerage systems.
9. Water is an important part of nature.
10. Man’s earliest settlements were always close to natural water sources.
VIII. Закончите следующие предложения:
1. Water is an…
a) the location of cities
2. Water passes through…
b) essential to the health
3. Water is evaporated into…
c) domestic and sanitary purposes
4. Atmosphere precipitates…
d) inland lakes
5. Vast depressions in the earth with
water are known as…
e) its moisture
6. Man uses water for…
f) the atmosphere
7. An adequate water supply is…
g) important part of nature
8. Water supply is a deciding factor for…
h) a very interesting natural cycle
IX. Ответьте на вопросы по теме Water Supply:
1. What is the text about?
2. What is water in nature?
3. What cycle does water pass through?
4. Does the atmosphere contain water?
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5. Where is water evaporated into?
6. What does atmosphere precipitate?
7. What is an excellent source of water?
8. What does man use water for?
9. What must water supply be protected against?
10. What is a deciding factor in the location of the cities?
11. Where may water be taken from?
12. What has called for systems and methods of water treatment?
X. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Вода – важная часть природы. 2. Вода проходит интересный природный цикл. 3. Атмосфера содержит воду. 4. Вода испаряется в атмосферу. 5. Реки и озера – отличные источники воды. 6. Человек использует воду для домашних и санитарных целей. 7. Водоснабжение должно быть защищено от загрязнения. 8. Правильное водоснабжение важно для здоровья людей. 9. Достаточное водоснабжение – решающий фактор в размещении городов. 10. Воду
можно брать из любых источников после ее обработки.
XI. Расскажите о водоснабжении, используя слова:
Water supply, natural cycle, to pass, to evaporate, sources of water, domestic,
sanitary purposes, a deciding factor, treatment, to contain, to protect, adequate,
health.
Тема 2. From the History of Sewerage in Europe
I. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские:
History, practice, popular, dating, era, information, basis, typical, systematic,
limit, metropolis, plan, engineer, commission, Parliament, local, continent, portion,
ruin, idea, design, committee, expert, protecting, storm, dual, utilize, ground-water,
region, technology.
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II. Выучите следующие слова к теме:
drains – стоки
sanitation – улучшение санитарных условий
lack – нехватка, отсутствие
execution – выполнение
junction – соединение
cellar – подвал
cesspool – сточный колодец
to inquire = to investigate – исследовать
management – благоустройство
recipient – приемный резервуар
community – населенный пункт
effluent – вытекающий поток
contamination – заражение
alley – переулок
comprehensive – всесторонний
III. Прочитайте и переведите тему
From the History of Sewerage in Europe
1. Man’s sewerage practice has been known from ancient times. Explorations revealed sewers in Babylon dating from the 7th century before our era. Considerable information is available about the sewers in ancient Greek cities and the
great underground drains of Rome have repeatedly been described.
2. The history of the progress of sanitation in London probably affords a typical picture of what took place quite generally about the middle of the 19th century
in the largest cities of Great Britain and the United States.
3. The lack of central authority rendered systematic study and execution of sewerage work impossible. As late as 1845 there was no survey of the metropolis as a
basis for planning sewers. The sewers in adjoining streets were of different elevation.
4. The first engineer who made a comprehensive study of metropolitan se8
werage needs thus described the conditions of London basements and cellars in
1847: ―There are hundreds, I may say thousands of houses in this metropolis
which have no drainage whatever and the greater part of them have overflowing
cesspools. And there are also hundreds of streets, courts and alleys that have no
sewers.‖ After 2 outbreaks of cholera a royal commission was appointed to inquire
into sanitary improvements of London. In 1855 the Parliament passed an act for
the better local management of the metropolis as the basis for the sanitation of
London.
5. In the continent a marked progress in sewerage began in 1842 when a severe fire destroyed the old part of the city of Hamburg. The portion ruined was the
oldest and it was decided to rebuild it according to modern ideas of convenience.
As a result Hamburg was the first city to have a complete sewerage system, built
according to modern ideas. The system proved so well designed and maintained
that twenty-five years after the sewers were completed they were found by a committee of experts to be clean and almost without odour.
6. At the present time the problem of good sanitation is closely connected
with protecting the purity of natural water reservoirs, since the same body of water
serves both as a source of water and as a recipient of sewage and storm drainage.
And it is this dual use of water in nature and within communities that establishes
reasons for water sanitation.
7. The source of pollution lies largely in the effluents of industry, urban life,
agricultural production and transport, the worst pollution being caused by the
chemical industry. Modern agriculture utilizes huge quantities of chemical fertilizers and pollutes the ground-waters and rivers.
8. Despite the growing improvement in water treatment methods many regions of the world cannot cope with the rapid rate of water contamination. The
highly industrialized countries naturally suffer more than others. Certainly the
condition which existed a century ago cannot be restored in large cities. But we
badly need to find new ways of using the water in industry and agriculture and of
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radically improving the technology of drainage purification.
IV. а) Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные с помощью
суффикса -ment, переведите полученные существительные.
Образец: to develop – development – развивать – развитие.
То access, to state, to inquire, to acquire, to manage, to employ, to base, to
appoint, to agree, to disagree, to improve, to treat.
b) Образуйте наречия от прилагательных с помощью суффи кса -ly, переведите их:
Образец: natural – naturally – естественный – естественно.
Fair, repeated, probable, general, great, severe, complete, convenient, close,
large, rapid, high, certain, bad, efficient.
V. Выберите из следующих слов пары антонимов.
Образец: small – big.
Bad, ancient, available, great, new, little, small, slow, possible, early, practicable, late, good, clean, rapid, big, unavailable, impossible, impracticable, dirty.
VI. Замените подчеркнутые в предложении слова синонимами, которые
приведены ниже:
1. Considerable information is available about the sewers.
2. Great underground drains have been described.
3. The progress of sanitation took place in the 19th century.
4. A systematic study and execution of sewerage was impossible.
5. The engineer made a comprehensive study of metropolitan sewerage needs.
6. In the continent a marked progress in sewerage began in 1842.
7. The problem of good sanitation is closely connected with the purity of natural
water reservoirs.
8. The source of pollution lies in the effluents of industry, agricultural production
and transport.
9. Many regions of the world have the rapid rate of water contamination.
10. We need new ways of using water in industry and agriculture.
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Слова синонимы: great, knowledge, present, large, sewers, development,
cleaning, occurred, examination, operation, complete, capital, demands,
question, considerable, related, cleanliness, contamination is, areas, quick,
pollution, means, applying.
VII. Расположите следующие предложения согласно последовательности изложения в тексте:
1. The progress of sanitation in London looks place in the 19th century.
2. Man built sewers in ancient times.
3. The problem of good sanitation is connected with the purity of natural water reservoirs.
4. Progress in sanitation in the continent started in 1842.
5. Hundreds of streets in London had no sewers.
6. Hamburg had a sewerage system.
7. Great underground drains were built in ancient Rome.
VIII. Восстановите по памяти в каком контексте упоминаются следующие английские словосочетания:
1. …the source of pollution lies in…
2. …in 1842…
3. …thousands of houses have no drainage…
IX. Переведите следующие предложения с эмфатическим оборотом
it is…that – именно.
Образец: It is this place that was chosen to build a new town – Именно это
место было выбрано для строительства нового города.
1. It is the dual use of water in nature and industrial building that establishes most
impelling reasons for water sanitation.
2. It was in 1935 when the first Metro station was built in Moscow.
3. It is he who always comes first to the Institute.
4. It was in 1961 when Jury Gagarin flew into outer space.
5. It will be the text that we are to translate at home.
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6. It is the problem of energy sources that the world is facing at the present day.
7. It was my brother who helped me at that time.
8. It is this problem that is to be solved.
X. Расположите следующие предложения согласно последовательности
изложения в тексте:
1. The progress of sanitation in London did not keep pace with the growth
and development of the city. 2. Man built sewers in ancient times. 3. The first steps
to study sanitary condition in London were made in the first half of the 19th century. 4. Public health depends to a large extent on good sanitary condition in a
community. 5. Rapid industrialization calls for new, more elaborate water treatment methods. 6. The problem of good sanitation and that of protecting the purity
of natural water reservoirs are mutually dependent. 7. Progress in sanitation in the
European continent started only as late as the second half of the 19th century. 8.
Industry causes the worst water pollution. 9. Today rivers, lakes and ground-waters
contain considerable amounts of the products of mechanical, chemical and biological pollution. 10. Both sewage and refuse must be removed promptly. 11. The lack
of an adequate survey of the capital made planning and execution of sewerage
work impossible.
XI. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. When has man’s sewerage practice been known from?
2. What drains have been described?
3. When did the progress of sanitation in London take place?
4. What elevation were the sewers in adjoining streets?
5. Who made a comprehensive study of metropolitan sewerage needs?
6. Where did a marked progress in sewerage begin in 1842?
7. What is the problem of good sanitation closely connected with?
8. Where is the source of pollution?
9. What do we need?
XII. Расскажите об истории канализации, используя следующие слова и выражения:
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Sewerage practice, underground drains, progress of sanitation, of different
elevation, a marked progress, is connected, the source of pollution, new ways of.
Тема 3. Energy and Its Sources
I. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские:
Serious, problem, potential, energy, transportation, technological, industrialization, to classify, material, million, to associate, natural, gas. result, resources,
reserves, popular, form, generator, logical, alternative, electricity, efficiency, finally, reaction, reservoir, turbine, standard, total, period, to utilize, solar.
II. Переведите следующие словосочетания:
To meet the needs (demands), standard of living, according to, raw materials, natural resources, long-range (long-term), demands, so-called, of plant and
animal origin, at such a rate, nuclear energy, nuclear reaction.
III. Выучите слова к теме Energy and Its Sources:
to face – стоять перед
deposited – отложенный
shortage = lack – недостаток
fossil fuel – ископаемое топливо
to consume – потреблять
generation – выработка, производство, поколение
amount = quantity – количество
extraction – извлечение, добыча
to relate – иметь отношение, связывать
solution – решение, раствор
origin – происхождение
IV. Прочитайте и переведите тему
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Energy and Its Sources
1. The world is facing a serious problem of potential shortage of energy,
which is extremely important to meeting all man's physical needs-clothing, shelter,
transportation, convenience, recreation, etc.
2. The consumption of energy is expected to grow. The amount of energy consumed by a country is closely connected with its degree of technological development
and industrialization, which are in turn related to the people's standard of living.
3. Energy can be classified according to its sources. The principal materials
for obtaining energy are of plant and animal origin: coal, oil, and natural gas.
These "fossil fuels" are extremely useful raw materials because of the conveniently
stored chemical energy. But when they are burned for fuel, harmful pollution may
result and there is a great waste of natural resources.
4. Wood was the main source a hundred years ago. The growth of coal usage
in the early 1900s is associated with rapidly increasing industrial development.
There followed a great expansion in the consumption of natural gas and fuel oil for
heating, electrical generation and especially transportation.
5. The reserves of popular energy sources as natural gas and oil are not expected to meet the long-term demands. Natural gas is a popular source of energy
because of its convenience for use and cleanliness in burning. It is generally believed that gas will be the first fossil fuel to be in short supply, and the cost of oil
extraction is high.
6. To these sources we can add the energy obtained from water motion and
the sun. Hydroelectric power is available when a stream can be dammed to form a
large reservoir, permitting falling water to turn a hydraulic turbine connected to an
electric generator. This source cannot meet the total need in power.
Solar power is often mentioned as the logical alternative. The amount of radiant energy that reaches the earth’s surface is more than what is needed. For the
generation of electricity, there are serious problems to be solved. To collect and
concentrate the energy by reflectors and converters of present efficiency is the ma14
jor difficulty. There remain many technological problems in this area.
7. Man is consuming the remaining resources at a rate that they may last only a few centuries. This may seem to be a long time in the life of a single generation, but in man's history it is only a short period. If the world is to solve the longrange energy problem, it must look for and use all available practical sources economically. Efforts to eliminate the extravagant waste of energy are needed at the
same time.
8. Several conclusions can be made: research and development work to find
new sources of energy and ways of increasing efficiency are needed; the new
sources of fuels must be fully developed and utilized. And we must give a serious
consideration to nuclear energy, i.e. the energy from nuclear reactions, the burning
of nuclear fuel.
V. Определите значение данных слов, употребленных в тексте:
1. to face (1) – смотреть в лицо, облицовывать, стоять перед; 2. in turn
(2) – пo очереди, в свою очередь, со своей стороны; 3. generation (4) – поколение, производство, образование, добыча; 4. development (8) – развитие, застройка, расширение, рост; 5. oil (3) – масло, нефть; 6. power (6) – мощь, сила,
энергия, власть, держава; 7. plant – установка, завод, растение; 8. wood (4) –
дерево, лес, дрова; 9. waste (3) – отбросы, бесполезная трата, растрачивание;
10. origin (3) – источник, происхождение, начало.
VI. Найдите слово, от которого были образованы следующие слова:
a) Образец: consumption – to consume.
Connection, industrialization, classification, pollution, expansion, generation, extraction, elimination, conclusion, consideration, transportation, collection.
b) Образец: development – to develop.
Agreement, disagreement, payment, basement, requirement, treatment, improvement, statement, employment, management, replacement, government.
VII. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующим английским словам :
1) problem, 2) to meet, 3) clothing, 4) consumption, 5) to grow, 6) closely,
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7) source, 8) convenience, 9) motion, 10) solar;
а) солнечный, б) движение, в) удобство, г) источник, д) тесно, е) расти,
ж) потребление, з) одежда, и) удовлетворять, к) проблема.
VIII. Дополните незаконченные предложения одним из вариантов а), b), с):
То solve the problem of energy shortage...
а)the consumption of energy should grow;
b)there should be no extravagant waste of energy;
c)man uses energy to meet the needs of life.
2. In future the consumption of energy will grow
a) because natural resources will last forever;
b) and the products of burning pollute the atmosphere;
c) energy supply is based on fossil fuels.
3. So-called ―fossil fuels‖...
a) have been formed in the earth;
b) can last for ever;
c) are a result of chemical reactions in a reactor.
4. Man must discover and use sources other than fossil fuels...
a) because solar energy provides electricity for desalination of sea water;
b) nuclear energy can meet the world’s demands in fuel;
c) for they are extremely useful natural resources.
IX. Вставьте пропущенное слово:
1. The world is facing a problem of ... of energy.
2. The … of energy is growing.
3. Energy can be … according to its sources.
4. The materials for obtaining energy are of … origin.
5. Wood was the … source a hundred years ago.
6. … gas is a popular source of energy.
7. We can add the energy from water …
8. We must give a serious … to nuclear energy.
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Consideration, motion, natural, main, plant, classified, consumption, shortage.
X. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива:
1. The consumption of energy is expected to grow. 2. Coal, natural gas and
oil supplies are said to be limited. 3. Nuclear energy is believed to be the solution
of the energy problem. 4. Fossil fuels are not expected to meet the long-term demands in fuel. 5. Fossil fuels are known to have become limited. 6. Solar energy is
thought to be a solution to the energy problem. 7. There are serious problems to be
solved in the near future. 8. We have nuclear energy to be given serious consideration to. 9. The pollution is a factor not to be ignored. 10. The reflectors to be designed to collect solar energy have been quite a difficulty.
XI. Составьте группы однокоренных слов и переведите их:
Needs, convenience, consumption, development, to need, convenient,
growth, natural, to consume, useless, electrical, generation, nature, to use, to develop, to grow, electricity, to generate, useful, conveniently, uselessly, consumed,
use, growing, developing, naturally, needless, consumer, electric, useful.
XII. Ответьте на вопросы по теме Energy and Its Sources:
1. What serious problem is the world facing?
2. Is the consumption of energy growing?
3. How can energy be classified?
4. What are the materials for obtaining energy?
5. What was the main source of energy a hundred years ago?
6. What cost is high?
7. What other sources of energy can we add?
8. Are new sources of energy needed?
9. What must we give a serious consideration to?
10. What is a popular source of energy?
XIII. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Мир стоит перед серьезной проблемой нехватки энергии. 2. Потреб17
ление энергии непрерывно растет. 3. Энергию можно классифицировать по
ее источникам. 4. Материалы для получения энергии бывают растительного и
животного происхождения.5. Это уголь, нефть и природный газ. 6. Дрова были основным источником энергии 100 лет тому назад. 7. Природный газ – это
очень популярный источник энергии. 8. Стоимость добычи нефти высока. 9.
К источникам энергии можно добавить энергию движения воды и солнца.
10.Нужно искать новые источники энергии. 11. Мы должны уделить серьезное внимание атомной энергии.
XIV. Расскажите об энергии и ее источниках, используя следующие
выражения: to face a problem, consumption of energy, according to, sources, of
plant and animal origin, a popular source, oil extraction, water motion, to find, to
give a serious consideration to.
Тема 4. Nuclear Energy
I. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские слова:
energy, problem, based, limited, natural gas, hydroelectric, technological,
practical, technology, nature, thermal, radioactive, electrical, factors, construction,
confusion, public, opponent, reason, reactions, types, operate, principle, fact, safe,
transportation, potentially, satisfaction, material.
II. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:
energy consumption, energy supply, fossil fuel, solar power, source of energy, nuclear energy, energy needs (demands), power plant, to take place, reactor
core, technological development, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear plant (reactor, reactions), nuclear power plant, steam power plant.
III. Выучите слова к теме Nuclear Energy:
rapid = quick – быстрый
tide – прилив, отлив
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benefit – польза
existence – существование
demand = need = requirement – спрос, требование, потребность
conventional = usual = standard = general – обычный
device = mechanism – механизм
various = different – различный
processing = treatment –переработка
disposal = removal – удаление
to force – заставлять
to cause – вызывать
to consist in – заключаться в...
IV. Прочтите и переведите тему
Nuclear Energy:
1. A very rapid growth of energy consumption occurred in the twentieth century. A major problem is that the world's energy supply is based on fossil fuels.
Fossil fuels are limited and their supply is running out. From this it follows that the
future of our energy supply must be based on sources other than fossil fuels like
coal, oil and natural gas.
2. Hydroelectric, wind, tidal and solar power require much technological development. New and different sources of energy have to be found and brought into
practical use. The problem consists in developing technology to extract energy
from nature without causing air, water, thermal or radioactive pollution. The wise
use of nuclear energy is based on an understanding of dangers and benefits to our
existence.
3. In the near future about half of electrical supply is expected to come from
nuclear sources. There are many factors that will determine the accuracy of this
prediction. It is noted that the cost of construction of a nuclear plant is high but the
fuel cost is low.
4. Yet there is considerable confusion in the public mind when it comes to
19
nuclear power plants. There are those who consider it to be a major solution to the
world's energy needs. There are opponents with good reason to be critical. In either
case we are faced with the rapidly increasing energy demands of the future.
5. A nuclear power plant is very much like a conventional steam power
plant. The only difference is that the heat used to run the electric generator is not
obtained by burning coal, gas, or oil but from controlled nuclear reactions. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear reactions take place.
6. There are various types of nuclear reactors. All of them operate on the
same principle. Yet we always face the fact that the use of nuclear energy requires
safe transportation, processing, storage, and disposal of potentially dangerous materials. However the dream of limitless power will force mankind to find solutions
to all these problems for the satisfaction of man's needs.
V. Укажите правильное лексическое значение слова:
major (1) – майор; мажор; важный; старший, главный;
to run out (1) – выбегать; работать; управлять; истощаться;
to extract (2) – удалять; выжимать; извлекать корень; добывать;
nature (2) – характер; нрав; натура; природа;
confusion (4) – беспорядок; смущение; путаница;
reason (4) – разум; причина; довод; основание;
case (4) – ящик; футляр; случай;
good (4) – добрый; хороший; обоснованный;
mind (4) – мысль; ум; мнение; память;
plant (5) – установка; завод; растение;
problem (1) – вопрос; проблема; задача;
like (1) – любить; похожий; как;
factor (3) – коэффициент; фактор;
construction (3) – конструкция; строительство.
VI. Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных и переведите их:
Образец: rapid — rapidly – быстрый – быстро.
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Quick, like, new, different, practical, natural, wide, near, close, accurate,
high, relative, general, usual, safe, dangerous.
VII Выберите из английских слов соответствующие данным русским словам:
Рост, потребление, снабжение, разработка, понимание, существование,
точность, решение, установка, считать, хранение.
Storage, consider, plant, solution, supply, accuracy, existence, understanding, growth, development, consumption.
VIII. Подберите заголовки абзацам текста из следующих английских
фраз. Расположите их согласно последовательности изложения.
1. The power plant operating on a nuclear fuel.
2. The present sources of energy.
3. Nuclear energy and the problems it causes.
4. The necessity of new energy sources.
5. The present sources of fuel.
6. The factors determining the use of nuclear energy.
IX. Закончите следующие предложения, с учетом содержания текста:
1. New sources of energy must be found because …
2. Energy consumption grew…
3. The world's energy supply is …
4. Solar power requires…
5. A nuclear power plant is…
6. The heat is used …
7. The heat is obtained by…
8. A nuclear reactor is a device in which...
9. There are various...
10. All the reactors…
in the twentieth century, technological development, fossil fuels are limited, based
on fossil fuels, very much like a steam power plant, to run the electric generator, burning
coal or oil, nuclear reactions take place, work on the same principle, types of reactors.
21
X. Подберите из следующих слов пары антонимов:
rapid, consumption, major, slow, generation, secondary, safe, danger, future, new, theoretical, near, increase, practical, past, old, benefit, far, decrease.
XI. Замените подчеркнутые слова в следующих предложениях синонимами, приведенными ниже:
1. A rapid growth of energy consumption occurred in the twentieth century.
2. A major problem is energy supply.
3. The world’s energy supply is based on fossil fuels.
4. Fossil fuels are limited.
5. Power requires technological development.
6. Different sources of energy have to be found.
7. The wise use of nuclear energy is based on dangers and benefits.
8. Many factors determine the accuracy of the prediction.
9. The cost of a nuclear plant is high.
10. There arc various types of reactors.
11. They operate on the same principle.
Work, different, kinds, unit, price, define, advantages, founded, power, application, must,
various, demands, running out, generation, task, main, has taken place, utilization, increase, quick.
XII. Ответьте на вопросы по теме Nuclear Energy:
1. What is this text about?
2. What occurred in the twentieth century?
3. What is the world's energy supply based on?
4. Are fossil fuels limited?
5. What power requires technological development?
6. What has to be found?
7. What is the wise use of nuclear energy based on?
8. What cost is high?
9. There are various types of nuclear reactors, aren't there?
10. What does the use of nuclear energy require?
22
XIII. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. В XX-м веке произошел быстрый рост потребления энергии. 2. Основная проблема – мировые запасы энергии – основаны на ископаемом топливе. 3. Запасы ископаемого топлива истощаются. 4. Солнечная и ветровая
энергии требуют технологической разработки. 5. Должны быть найдены новые источники энергии. 6. Разумное использование ядерной энергии должно
основываться на понимании всех опасностей и преимуществ. 7. Стоимость
строительства атомной станции высока. 8. Цена ядерного топлива низка. 9.
Атомная энергостанция похожа на паровую станцию. 10. Ядерные реакции
происходят в ядерном реакторе. 11. Существуют различные типы реакторов.
12. Все реакторы работают по одному принципу.
XIV. Расскажите об атомной энергии, используя слова и выражения из текста.
Тема 5. Panel Heating
I. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские:
Atmospheric, ventilation, panel, comfort, temperature, occupants, control,
concept, engineer, radiation, transmission, energy, form, convection, components,
system, central, specially, radiator, steel, convector, condensate, method, natural.
II. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:
Тo maintain comfort, heat supply, air conditioning, to pay attention to, human being, heating system, central heating, hot-water system, heating equipment,
panel heating, loss of heat, emitting surfaces.
Ш. Запишите и выучите слова к теме Panel Heating:
Environment = surroundings – окружающая среда
contamination = pollution – загрязнение
loss – потеря
with respect to = with regard to – относительно
to surround – окружать
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emphasis on = attention to – внимание к...
to connect to – соединять с
as for – что касается
to be concerned with = to be related to – касаться, быть связанным с…
former – предыдущий, первый из…
latter = the last – последний
IV. Найдите русский эквивалент следующим английским словам:
Сooling, space, removal, precise, contamination, equal, determination, ceiling, loss, a building.
Потолок, здание, помещение, загрязнение, определение, потеря, равный, точный, удаление, охлаждение.
V. Найдите английский эквивалент следующим русским словам:
Отопление, отрасль, тесно, предмет, предотвращать, внимание, понятие, распространенный, медь, отдавать.
Тo give up, copper, common, concept, attention, to prevent, subject, closely,
branch, heating.
VI. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык тему Panel Heating.
1. Heating and ventilation are two branches of engineering which are very
closely connected, they are therefore treated as a dual subject. Both are concerned
with providing a required atmospheric environment within a space, the former with
respect to heat supply for maintaining comfort of the occupants, the latter with regard to supply and removal of air with emphasis on contamination of the air. Air
conditioning is closely related to both heating and ventilation.
2. Heating prevents the too rapid loss of heat from the body. By heating the
ambient air of walls, ceiling or floor the rate of heat loss from the body is controlled. Some old concepts of heating were gradually changed since engineers obtained more precise knowledge about how the body loses heat. It may be by radiation or conduction. The determination of the various components of the heating
system is based on the fundamental concept that heat supplied to a space equals
24
heat lost from the space. The most widely used system of heating is the central
heating, where the fuel is burned in one place.
3. There are two most common systems of heating - hot water and steam.
Both systems are widely used nowadays. A hot-water system consists of the boilers and a system of pipes connected to radiators located in rooms to be heated.
The pipes, of steel or copper, feed hot water to radiators or convectors.
4. As for steam systems, steam is generated usually in the boiler and the
steam is led to the radiators by pipes. The steam gives up its heat to the radiators
and the radiators to the room. The condensate is returned to the boiler by gravity or
by a pump.
5. Recent efforts to conceal heating equipment have resulted in an arrangement whereby the fluid, hot water, steam, air, or electricity, is circulated through
distribution units. Panel heating is a method of introducing heat to rooms, in which
the emitting surfaces are usually concealed in the floor, walls, or ceiling. As for fuels used for heating buildings they include coal, oil, gases and wood. There are two
other sources: electricity and steam. Nowadays gas fuel is being used on an increasing level.
VII. Образуйте от следующих глаголов, с помощью суффикса -able
(способный к чему-либо), прилагательные и переведите их на русский язык:
Образец: to comfort – утешать, создавать удобство.
comfortable – удобный.
to adjust, to move, to use, to suit, to work, to depend, to prefer, to imagine, to enjoy, to settle, to compare, to desire, to accept, to allow, to check, to foresee, to
measure, to drink, to eat.
VIII. Дополните предложения по смыслу:
1. Heating and ventilation are two branches of...
2. Heating prevents the loss...
3. Some old concepts of heating were gradually changed since ...
4. Insufficient attention was paid to...
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5. Radiation is the transmission of energy...
6. The most widely used system of heating is...
7. There are two most common systems of heating...
8. A hot-water system consists of...
9. The steam gives up its heat...
10. Fuels for heating buildings include...
IX. Расположите следующие предложения в логической последовательности:
1. Heating prevents the loss of heat from the body. 2. There are two other
sources: electricity and steam. 3. Fuels include coal, oil, gases and wood. 4. Steam,
hot water, air or electricity is circulated through distribution units. Steam is generated in the boiler. 6. Heating and ventilation are closely connected. 7. There are 2
systems of heating: hot-water and steam. 8. The most widely used system of heating is the central heating. 9. The pipes are usually of steel or copper. 10. The condensate is returned to the boiler by gravity or by a pump.
X. Укажите, какое из данных предложений отражает основное содержание текста.
1. The human being loses heat by conduction and convection. 2. Heating is a
branch of engineering which is concerned with providing heat supply within a
space. 3. A hot water system consists of the boilers and a system of pipes.
XI. Прочитайте тему еще раз и составьте как можно больше сочетаний
со словами heating, ventilation.
XII. Ответьте на вопросы по теме Panel Heating:
1. What branches are heating and ventilation?
2. Are heating and ventilation connected?
3. What are they concerned with?
4. What prevents loss of heat from the body?
5. Why were old concepts of heating changed?
6. What is the most widely used system of heating?
7. How many most common systems of heating are there?
8. What does a hot-water system consist of?
26
9. Where are radiators located?
10. How is the condensate returned to the boiler?
11. What is circulated through distribution units?
12. What method is panel heating?
13. What fuels are used for heating buildings?
14. Are there two other sources?
XIII. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Отопление и вентиляция связаны друг с другом. 2. Они создают необходимую окружающую среду внутри помещения. 3. Отопление препятствует быстрой потере тепла телом. 4. Старые представления об отоплении постепенно менялись. 5. Организм может терять тепло путем излучения или теплопроводности. 6. Самая широко используемая отопительная система – центральное отопление. 7. Существуют две системы отопления – паровая и горячеводяная. 8. Обе системы используются в наше время. 9. Пар вырабатывается в котле и подается в радиаторы. 10. Радиаторы отдают тепло помещению.
11. Панельное отопление является методом введения тепла в помещения, при
котором излучающие поверхности спрятаны в пол, потолок или стены. 12.
Топливо, используемое для обогрева зданий, включает уголь, мазут, газ и дрова.
XIV. Расскажите о панельном отоплении, используя слова:
Тwo branches of engineering, provide, heat supply, to be related to, old concepts of heating, central heating, hot-water and steam systems, to consist of, to
generate, to return to, to circulate, fuels.
Тема 6. Sewerage
I. Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские слова:
рroblem, press, civilization, result, composition, ground, contain, products,
mechanical, chemical, biological, activity, general, type, institution, residence, in27
dustrial, storm, class, sanitary, combination, material, production, system, method,
local, disinfection, bacteria, chemicals.
II. Запишите и выучите слова к теме Sewerage:
No designate – обозначать, называть
sewerage – канализация
waste products – продукты отхода
liquid – жидкость
sewage – сточные воды
street flushing operations – поливка улиц
domestic sewage – бытовые сточные воды
industrial waste – промышленные сточные воды
sewer – канализационная труба
treatment plant – очистная станция
discharge – сток, сброс сточных вод
raw sewage – необработанные сточные воды
primary treatment – первичная обработка
paste – тесто
sludge – отстой, ил, осадок
decomposable – способный к разложению
Ш. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:
natural water resources, human society, social and technical progress,
ground water, liquid wastes, industrial plants, surface run-off, according to, sanitary (house) sewage, storm sewage, combined sewage, in order to, of animal or vegetable origin, by means of, sewage treatment plant, local conditions, a body of water, secondary treatment, auxiliary treatment, both ... and.
IV. Найдите русский эквивалент следующим английским словам:
Рressing, beginning, development, changing, sinks, residence, following,
community, decomposition, odour, preliminary
запах, разложение, общество, следующий, жилье, раковины, изменение,
28
развитие, начало, жгучий, предварительный.
V. Найдите английский эквивалент следующим русским словам:
Массив, частица, оседать, очищенный, обработка, уничтожение, помещать, осуществлять, здоровье, здание, туалет
Вuilding, health, to accomplish, to place, killing, treatment, clarified, to settle out, particle, body, lavatory.
VI. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык тему
Sewerage
1. The problem of protecting natural water resources has grown very pressing for many countries since the beginning of the second half of the 20th century.
The development of human society, the growth of civilization and social and technical progress have resulted in the changing of the composition of natural water
resources. The rivers, lakes and ground-waters contain today the products of mechanical, chemical and biological pollution.
2. The waste products that result from the daily activities in a community are
of two general types: the liquid waste, known as sewage and the solid wastes,
known as refuse. The different wastes are the following: the wastes from lavatories, baths, sinks, and laundry tanks in residences, institutions, and business buildings; wastes from various types of manufacturing or industrial plants, and the surface run-off from storms or street-flushing operations.
3. Sewage may also be divided according to its source into the following
three classes. The sewage from residences, institutions and business buildings is
called domestic sewage, sanitary sewage or house sewage, that resulting from
manufacturing or industrial processes is known as industrial waste; and that from
run-off during storms is called storm sewage. A combination of domestic sewage,
industrial waste and storm water is called combined sewage.
4. Both sewage and refuse must be removed in order to avoid endangering
the health of the community and present decomposition of the materials of animal
or vegetable origin and the subsequent nuisances and odours.
29
5. The removal of all kinds of sewage is usually accomplished by means of
sewers. The sewers are placed in the streets below the ground surface. The general
process of removing sewage is designated as sewerage and the entire system of
sewers including a sewage treatment plant is known as a sewerage system.
6. The method of sewage treatment in a particular case will depend on local
conditions. It may consist only of the discharge of the raw sewage into a stream or
a large body of water. The usual methods of sewage treatment consist of preliminary treatment or of primary treatment followed by secondary treatment.
7. During primary treatment the larger and heavier solid particles settle out
from the liquid. These solid particles form a paste which is known as sludge.
8. The partly clarified sewage that has been given primary treatment generally contains much decomposable materials. Therefore, further treatment which is
known as secondary treatment, is usually required.
9. An auxiliary treatment which may be used with primary or secondary
treatment is disinfection or the killing of the bacteria in the sewage by means of
chemicals.
VII. Образуйте от глаголов существительные с помощью суффиксов -ment и -tion.
Образец: а) - ment to develop – development
развивать – развитие
b) - tion to produce – production
производить – производство
a) to state, to agree, to disagree, to treat, to move, to replace, to settle, to require.
b) to pollute, to protect, to compose, to operate, to combine, to designate, to decompose.
VIII. Дополните следующие предложения по смыслу:
1. Ground waters contain the products of ... 2. The waste products are of two
general types: ... 3. The different wastes are from lavatories... 4. Sewage may be
divided according to its ... 5. The sewage from buildings is called ... 6. The sewage
30
from industrial processes is known as ... 7. A combination of domestic sewage, industrial waste and storm water is called ... 8. Sewage and refuse must be removed
to avoid ... 9. The removal is accomplished by... 10. The method of sewage treatment will depend ... 11. During primary treatment solid particles ... 12. An
auxiliary treatment is ...
IX. Расположите следующие предложения согласно последовательности изложения:
1. An auxiliary treatment is the killing of the bacteria in the sewage by chemicals.
2. These solid particles form sludge.
3. The removal of sewage is accomplished by sewers.
4. Protecting natural water resources has grown very pressing in the second
half of the 20th century.
5. Rivers and ground waters contain products of pollution.
6. Sewage may be divided into 3 classes.
7. During primary treatment solid particles settle out from the liquid.
8. Sewage and refuse must be removed to avoid endangering the health of
the community.
9. Sewage may be domestic, industrial, storm or combined.
10. The waste products are of two types: liquid and refuse.
X. Прочитайте текст темы еще раз и укажите, какие проблемы освещаются в нем.
XI. Составьте план к тексту.
XII. Ответьте на вопросы по теме:
1. What problem has grown very pressing in the 20th century?
2. What do ground waters contain today?
3. What are the types of the waste products?
4. What do they come from?
5. How may sewage be divided?
6. What are these 3 classes of sewage?
7. What is called combined sewage?
31
8. Why must sewage and refuse be removed?
9. How is the removal accomplished?
10. Where are the sewers placed?
11. What is a sewerage system?
12. What will the method of treatment depend upon?
13. What are the methods of treatment?
14. When do solid particles settle out?
15. What is an auxiliary treatment?
XIII. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Несколько слов о канализации. 2. Проблема охраны природных источников воды стала острой во 2-й половине 20-го века. 3. Технический прогресс привел к изменению состава природных вод. 4. Сегодня они содержат
продукты механического, химического и биологического загрязнения. 5. Отходы бывают жидкими и твердыми. 6. Сточные воды можно разделить па 3
класса: домашние, промышленные и ливневые.7. Удаление сточных вод
осуществляется канализационными трубами. 8. Такие трубы помещаются в
грунте. 9. Метод удаления сточных вод зависит от местных условий. 10. Методы удаления включают предварительную, первичную, вторичную и вспомогательную (дополнительную) обработку сточных вод.
XIV. Перескажите тему Sewerage, используя составленный план и новые слова.
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Contents
Тема 1. Water Supply..................................................................................
3
Тема 2. From the History of Sewerage in Europe .....................................
7
Тема 3. Energy and Its Sources ..................................................................
13
Тема 4. Nuclear Energy...............................................................................
18
Тема 5. Panel Heating ................................................................................
23
Тема 6. Sewerage .......................................................................................
27
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания
для изучения устных тем по специальностям
270109 «Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция»,
270112 «Водоснабжение и водоотведение»
Составитель: Топоркова Елена Николаевна
Подписано в печать 16. 09. 2010. Формат 60х84 1/16. Уч.-изд. л. 2,0
Усл.-печ. л. 2,1. Бумага писчая. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ №
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Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии Воронежского государственного
архитектурно-строительного университета
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
33
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