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242.В мире строительства

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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет
Л. В. Карпова, Е.В. Терехова, Ю.С. Назарьева
В МИРЕ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВА
Учебное пособие
3-е издание,
переработанное и дополненное
Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским советом
Воронежского государственного архитектурно-строительного
университета для студентов, обучающихся по направлению подготовки
дипломированных специалистов 270100 «Строительство»
Воронеж 2010
УДК 802.0:69 (07)
ББК 81.2 Англ: 38я7
К 265
К 265
Карпова, Л. В. В мире строительства : учеб. пособие /
Л.В. Карпова, Е.В. Терехова, Ю.С. Назарьева; Воронеж. гос. арх.строит. ун-т. – 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Воронеж, 2010. – 145 с.
ISBN 978-5-89040-293-6
Рассчитано на 140 часов аудиторной работы и включает следующие
темы: «Цемент», «Гидравлический цемент», «Кирпич», «Заполнители», «Бетон»,
«Растворы», «Камень», «Стекло», «Древесина», «Пластмассы», «Железобетон»,
«Будущее железобетона и преднапряженного бетона» и «Части здания: стены,
перекрытия и крыша».
Ориентировано на развитие практических навыков чтения и перевода
литературы на английском языке для извлечения информации из учебных текстов,
воспроизведение её в устной или письменной форме, а также на формирование
навыков иноязычного общения по темам, предусмотренных программой вуза.
Предложенная система лексико-грамматических упражнений и коммуникативно-творческих заданий обеспечивает студентам эффективное овладение
языком специальности.
Пособие снабжено текстами для внеаудиторного чтения, глоссарием
и другим справочным материалом.
Предназначено для студентов первого курса строительных специальностей
технических вузов, обучающихся по направлению подготовки дипломированных
специалистов 270100 «Строительство».
Ил. 5. Библиогр.: 23 назв.
УДК 802.0:69 (07)
ББК 81.2 Англ: 38я7
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков Воронежской государственной
лесотехнической академии;
В.П. Фролова, к.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков
Воронежской государственной технологической академии
© Карпова Л. В.,
Терехова Е.В.,
Назарьева Ю.С., 2010
© Воронежский государственный
ISBN 978-5-89040-293-6
архитектурно-строительный
университет, 2010
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие по английскому языку создано для студентов первого курса технических вузов, обучающихся по специальности «промышленное и гражданское строительство»
Пособие состоит из 17 уроков-тем, предназначенных для активного усвоения студентами под руководством преподавателя. Учебный материал каждого урока рассчитан на 4-5 аудиторных занятий в зависимости от языковой
подготовки студентов.
Грамматический материал вводится моделями и сопровождается языковыми и условно-речевыми упражнениями, направленными на усвоение соответствующих грамматических правил. Словообразование представлено рядом
упражнений. Поурочный словарь-минимум поможет накоплению и расширению терминологического и общеязыкового словаря студентов.
Каждый урок включает:
1) фонетические упражнения для закрепления произносительных навыков;
2) упражнения, направленные на введение и закрепление лексического
материала;
3) упражнения для усвоения грамматического материала;
4) учебный текст объемом 1000 печатных знаков (некоторые тексты
снабжены рисунками, которые служат основой для мотивированного высказывания);
5) упражнения, направленные на активизацию языкового и речевого материала;
6) задания коммуникативной направленности, позволяющие студентам
участвовать в иноязычном общении.
Пособие содержит большой объем дополнительного текстового материала, который направлен на стимулирование устного и письменного связного высказывания и может быть использован для обучения различным видам чтения –
ознакомительного, обучающего, просмотрового, поискового.
Обширный глоссарий основных терминологических понятий на английском языке служит расширению учебно-познавательной деятельности студентов.
Авторы выражают глубокую благодарность профессору кафедры
технологии строительных изделий и конструкций В.Т. Перцеву, доценту кафедры железобетонных и каменных конструкций В.П. Васильеву,
доценту кафедры русского языка и межкультурной коммуникации
Т.Ф. Ухиной и старшему преподавателю кафедры иностранных языков А.С. Пащенко ВГАСУ за участие в обсуждении рукописи учебного
пособия, ценные рекомендации и критические замечания.
3
LESSON 1
Phonetics: [ai], [au], [о:], [t∫]
Grammar: To be. There to be
Text: Cement (1). Цемент (1)
I. Read and translate the following words:
finе, find, bind, grind, kind, mind, high, light, right, child, mild, side, site, size, white,
wide, final, private, type, prior, design, wire, fire;
house, how, now, down, town, round, about, layout, out, amount, powder, foundation,
brown, ground, allow, without;
also, always, chalk, small, tall, talk, more, short, all, mortar, wall, door, floor, coarse,
course, restore, former, cause, draw, proportion, warm;
lecture, mixture, texture, admixture, temperature, manufacture, architecture, structure,
nature, culture, picture, moisture, signature, future, departure.
II. Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
cement [si`ment] – цемент, цементировать
fine powder [`paudƏ] – мелкий порошок
binding properties [`baindiŋ 'propetiz] – вяжущиe свойства
raw materials [ro:] – сырьевые материалы
limestone [`laimstoun] – известняк
chalk [`t∫o:k] – мел
clay [`klei] – глина
marl – мергель
to produce [prƏ`dju:s] – производить
kiln – печь
mixing [`miksiŋ] – перемешивание
burning of clinkers [`bƏ:niŋ] – обжиг клинкера
grinding [`graindiŋ] – измельчение
to rotate [rou`teit] – вращаться
slurry [`sl٨ri] – шлам
to slide down – скользить вниз
to take place – происходить
constituent [kƏn`stitjuƏnt] – составная часть = ingredient
mortar [`m o:tƏ] – раствор
concrete [`kOnkri:t] – бетон
housing [`hauziŋ] – жилищное строительство
bridge – мост
foundation – фундамент
infrastructure – инфраструктура (промышленная, городская);
сети обслуживания населения
4
III. Study the models and put the verbs into the Past and Future Simple.
Make the sentences interrogative and negative.
Model 1:
a) Cement is usually of grey colour.
Cement was white.
Cement will be coloured.
b) There are kilns for burning clinkers.
There were only two kilns for burning clinkers at the plant.
There will be new kilns there in three months.
Model 2:
a)
is
cement
was
will
of different colours?
be
b)
is not
cement was not
won't be
of different colours.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Cement is a popular binding material.
Its usual colour is grey.
But there are white and coloured cements.
Cement is made of different materials.
The raw materials for cement are limestone, chalk, marl and clay.
There are three stages in producing cements.
The temperature of the kilns is high.
The colour of white cement depends on the raw materials and the manufacturing
process.
9. Cement invention is connected with the names of Egor Cheliev from Russia and
Joseph Aspdin from England.
10. Cements are very important in construction.
11. Cement is the key ingredient of concrete.
IV. Form nouns adding the suffixes and translate them into Russian.
Model:
stem + suffix = noun
to build – builder ; строить – строитель
- er: do, mix, compute, work, design, produce, plan, receive, restore.
- or: construct, elevate, invent, decorate, coordinate, instruct, imitate, create.
5
- ion/ation: combine, construct, prepare, classify, decorate, create, organize.
- ing: burn, build, mix, produce, grind, set, house, place, train, plan.
- ity: dense, porous, durable, available, total, active, real, popular, regular, secure.
- ment: base, develop, achieve, employ, govern, treat, require, reinforce, settle.
V. Point out the suffixes of the following words and the parts of speech they form.
Make sentences with the words.
Binder, coloured, producer, mixing, combination, chemical, slowly, lower, layout,
architecture, without, foundation.
VI. Read and translate the text
CEMENT (1)
Cement is a fine powder. It has good binding properties. Cement is usually of
grey colour. There are also white and coloured cements. Cement is made of different
materials. The materials for cement are: limestone, chalk, marl and clay. Those are
raw materials.
There are three stages in producing cement. They are: 1) grinding and mixing
the raw materials, 2) burning of clinkers, 3) grinding of clinkers. There are special
kilns for burning clinkers. The temperature of the kilns is high. The kiln rotates
slowly as the slurry slides down to its lower end. During the burning chemical combination takes place between the constituents, and cement clinkers come out of the
kiln. A special machine makes powder from them.
Clinker composition depends on the nature of the raw materials, the proportioning, the process (wet or dry), the plant equipment and laboratory control.
The main Russian cement types used in construction are:
Alumina Cement – глиноземистый цемент
Fire Cement – огнеупорный цемент
Hydraulic Cement – гидравлический цемент
Normal Portland Cement – обычный портландцемент
Special Cement – быстротвердеющий цемент
White and Coloured Portland Cement - белый и цветной портландцемент
Cement is widely used in all types of construction: industrial, housing, agricultural 1) for binding panels, stones, bricks and 2) for producing mortars and concretes.
Cement is the key ingredient of concrete which in turn is a key ingredient of
the world’s infrastructure – as well as your home, your office and your kid’s playgrounds.
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Cement is usually ...... grey colour.
2. It is made ...... different materials.
3. The raw materials ...... cement are limestone, chalk, marl and clay.
6
4. There are special kilns ...... burning clinkers.
5. There are three stages ...... producing cement.
6. Chemical combination takes place ...... the constituents.
7. Cement clinkers come out ...... the kiln.
8. A special machine makes powder ...... them.
9. Portland cement is widely used … all types … construction.
VIII. Translate the sentences into English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Цемент – вяжущий материал.
Сырье для цемента – мел, глина, известняк и мергель.
Цемент обычно серый, белый или цветной.
В производстве цемента три стадии: 1) перемешивание, 2) обжиг клинкера,
3) измельчение клинкера.
Обжиг клинкера происходит в печах с высокой температурой.
Вяжущие свойства цемента очень важны для строительства.
Цемент широко используют в промышленном и сельскохозяйственном
строительстве.
Название «портландцемент» связано с полуостровом на юге Великобритании – Портланд, где в 1824 году началось промышленное производство цемента.
IX.
Learn the dialogues.
1.
A – What do you know about cement?
B – It's a popular binding material in construction world.
A – What's its usual colour?
B – As far as I know grey but there are also white and coloured cements.
2.
A – What are the raw materials for cement?
B – Usually limestone, chalk and marl.
A – There is one more clay.
B – I see, thanks.
3.
A – What is the purpose of using cement in construction?
B – First of all for binding different materials: bricks, stones, blocks.
A – And secondly?
B – Secondly it gives strength to the structures.
A – But what was used when there was no cement?
B – First clay and later gypsum and lime.
7
X.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is cement?
3. What properties does cement have?
4. What are the raw materials for сеment?
5. What stages are there in producing cement?
6. Speak about special kilns for burning clinkers.
7. What takes place during the burning?
8. Where is cement used?
9. Why is cement widely used in construction?
XI. Make up a plan of the text.
XII. Sum up what the text said about cement.
XIII. Speak about cement as one of the popular binding materials in construction.
Make use of the following expressions:
1. I'm going to speak about – я собираюсь рассказать о ...
2. Now a few words about – теперь несколько слов о ...
3. In conclusion I'd like to say that – в заключении мне бы хотелось сказать что ...
LESSON 2
Phonetics: [ou], [n], [w]
Grammar: Simple Active
Text: Cement (2). Цемент (2)
I. Read and translate the following words:
process, cold, slowly, exposed, both, don't, won't, load, exothermal, known, most,
mould, composed, over, stone, local, disposal, component;
know, knit, knife, knock, knew, knot, knowledge, know-how, knick-knack, knob,
known, knobble, knock out, knocker;
why, when, while, where, white, wheel, what, which, whisper, whitening, whitewash,
whisky, whet, whinstone, whiff.
II. Learn the words and word combinations to the text:
cement strength [streŋθ] – марка цемента
to improve [im`pru:v] – улучшать
8
strength gain [`gein] – нарастание прочности
in the case of [`keis] – в случае
rate of setting [`reit] – скорость схватывания
design strength [di`zain] – расчетная прочность
to continue [kƏn`tinju:] – продолжать
figure [figƏ] – цифра
to connect [kƏ`nekt] – связывать, соединять
to affect [Ə`fekt] – влиять, воздействовать
to be exposed [iks`pouzd] – подвергаться воздействию внешних условий
desirable [di`zaiƏrƏbl] – желательный
to liberate [`libƏreit] – выделять
a good deal of [di:l] – большое количество
exothermal [eksou`θƏ:mƏl] – экзотермический
highly exothermal [haili] – высокоэкзотермический
to shrink [`∫riŋk] – подвергаться усадке
difference [`difƏrƏns] – различие
to crack [`kræk] – трескаться
crushed stone [`kr٨∫t] – щебень
amount [Ə`maunt] – количество
water-cement ratio [`rei∫iou] – водоцементное отношение
III. Study the models and put the verbs into the Present and Future Simple.
Make the sentences interrogative and negative.
Model 1:
Cement gained 250 % of its design strength.
Cement gains 250 % of its design strength.
Cement will gain 250 % of its design strength.
Model 2:
Did cement gain 250 % of its design strength?
Cement didn't gain 250 % of its design strength.
Does cement gain 250 % of its design strength?
Cement doesn't gain 250 % of its design strength.
Will cement gain 250 % of its design strength?
Cement won't gain 250 % of its design strength.
1. Cement improved its strength during setting.
2. This process continued for years.
3. In the case of ordinary setting cement gained 45 % of its design strength.
4. Seven days ago cement gained 75 %.
5. Cold temperatures affected the process of strength gain.
6. Exothermal cement liberated a good deal of heat during setting.
9
7. Shrinkage led to much cracking in buildings.
8. It depended on water-cement ratio in the mix.
IV. Form adjectives adding the suffixes and translate them into Russian.
Model:
stem + suffix – adjective
use - useless ; польза – бесполезный
- able: adapt, avail, comfort, construct, favour, desire, work, prefer;
- al: logic, nature, origin, practice, form, function, structure, profession, industry;
- ic: base, period, monolith, system, climate, energy, academy, specify, geometry,
characterize, metre, cube, metal, dynamics, atmosphere;
- ed: colour, use, produce, burn, mix, train, experience, reinforce, prefabricate;
- less: weight, aim, fire, base, joy, water, plan, time, form, wind, harm;
- ful: skill, beauty, respect, thank, care, colour, fruit, use, meaning.
V. Point out the suffixes of the following words and the parts of speech they form.
Make sentences with the words.
Affected, setting, different, connected, desirable, greatly, shrinkage, resistance, addition, crushed, smaller, temperature, practical, functional.
VI. Read and translate the text
CEMENT (2)
It is a well-known fact that cement improves its strength during setting. This
process is named "strength gain" and may be continued for years. The standard time
of the strength gain is 28 days. During the first three days in the case of ordinary setting cement usually gains 40-45 % of its design strength. In 7 days it gains 75 % of its
design strength, this process continues then rather slowly. And in two or three years
the figure becomes 200-250 %. The strength gain is closely connected with the rate of
setting. The rate of setting and thus the strength gain are affected greatly by the temperature. Cold temperatures are not desirable in the period of setting and cement mixtures should not be exposed during setting to temperatures below 36 F. But there are
cements, the strength gain of which is not affected by cold temperatures so much.
Such cements themselves liberate a good deal of heat during setting and are therefore
called exothermal. Highly exothermal cements should be used in winter time. The
main differences between cements are in setting time, mineralogical composition,
rate of strength gain, resistance to chemical attack and colour.
All cements shrink during setting. So shrinkage is one of the main characteristics of cements. It leads to much cracking in buildings and depends on water-cement
ratio in the mix. Such additions as sand, gravel, crushed stone lessen the shrinkage.
The smaller the amount of water the less shrinkage will be.
10
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Cement improves its strength ... setting.
2. This process may be continued ... years.
3. The standard time ... the strength gain is 28 days.
4. The strength gain is closely connected ... the rate ... setting.
5. Both are greatly affected ... the temperature.
6. Cold temperatures are not desirable ... the period ... setting.
7. There are cements which are not affected ... cold temperatures.
8. Highly exothermal cements are used ... winter time.
9. All cements shrink ... setting.
10. Shrinkage depends ... water-cement ratio ... the mix.
VIII. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Что называется увеличением прочности цементного камня?
2. Цементный камень наращивает почти половину расчетной прочности за первые три дня.
3. Через 7 дней его расчетная прочность достигает 60 – 75 %.
4. Низкие температуры нежелательны в период затвердения цементного камня.
5. Какие цементы называют экзотермическими?
6. Существуют высокоэкзотермические цементы, которые используют для зимнего бетонирования.
7. Цементый камень подвергается усадке во время затвердения.
8. Чем меньше количество воды, тем меньше усадка и выше прочность цементного камня.
IX.
Put all possible questions to the sentences.
1. Exothermal cements liberate a good deal of heat during setting.
2. Shrinkage depends on water-cement ratio in the mix.
X.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What does cement improve during setting?
3. What process is named "strength gain"?
4. How long may this process continue?
5. What is the standard time of the strength gain?
6. Why are cold temperatures undesirable during setting?
7. What are the main differences between cements?
8. Why is shrinkage one of the main characteristics of cements?
9. What does shrinkage depend on?
11
10. What additions does the shrinkage lessen?
XI. Sum up what the text said about the strength gain of cements.
XII. Match the following phrases with their definitions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It’s a well known fact that...
It is necessary to note that...
As far as I remember...
It goes without saying...
There’s no doubt that...
a) само собой разумеется
b) необходимо отметить, что
c) нет сомнения в том, что
d) общеизвестный факт, что
e) насколько я помню
XIII. Speak about the most important characteristics of cements using the expressions
in XII.
LESSON 3
Phonetics: [а:], [i:], [٨], [æ], [ŋ]
Grammar: To have
Text: Brick. Кирпич
I.
Read and translate the following words:
article, particle, fast, past, pass, task, dark, bar, tar, far, partition, hard, glass, arch, after, mark, larch, vast, branch, answer, demand, cast, example;
cheap, heat, beam, steel, reason, keep, speed, treat, chief, need, ceiling, receive, field,
engineering, appearance, deal, increase, piece, brief, we, meter;
but, cut, up, number, some, come, done, colour, result, under, touch, double, must,
substance, publish, much, structure, cover, wonder, company;
where, there, their, rare, spare, square, chair, share, wear, bear, care, various;
strong, along, wrong, prolong, bring, pink, link, bank, mixing, sink, setting, blank,
young, facing, among, according, morning, thing.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
brick [`brik] – кирпич
artificial [a:ti`fi∫Əl] – искусственный
reason [`ri:zn] – причина, основание
to survive [sƏ`vaiv] – выжить
to influence [`influƏns] – влиять на ...
availability [aveilƏ`biliti] – наличие
to obtain [Əb`tein] – добывать
to revive [ri`vaiv] – возрождать, возобновлять
12
to deliver [di`livƏ] – доставлять
to change [t∫eindჳ] – менять 
forming [`fo:miŋ] – формовка
kind [`kaind] – вид, тип
facing [feisiŋ] – облицовочный
common [`kOmƏn] – обычный
engineering [endჳi`niƏriŋ] – кирпич повышенной прочности
hollow [`holou] – пустотелый
porous [`po:rƏs] – пористый
lime-sand – силикатный
reinforced – армированный
refractory – огнеупорный
appearance [Ə`piƏrƏns] – внешний вид
resistance to impact [`impækt] – устойчивость удару
wear [`wεƏ] – износ
to require [ri`kwaiƏ] – требовать
maintenance [`meintinƏns] – техническое обслуживание
III. Study the models and put the verbs into the Past and Future Simple.
Make the sentences interrogative and negative.
Model 1:
Brick-making has a long history.
Bricks have many properties.
Brick(s) had different size.
Bricks will have various thickness.
Model 2:
Have bricks many properties?
Bricks have no advantages.
Will bricks have various thickness?
These bricks won't have various thickness.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Brick has reasonable price and durability.
Bricks have different size, colour and texture.
Engineering bricks have excellent resistance to wear.
This brick building has a modern design.
Hollow bricks have many advantages.
Brick-making has four stages: 1) mixing the material, 2) forming, 3) drying and
4) burning.
7. Porous bricks have more economical efficiency than ordinary bricks.
8. Usually bricks have length more than twice width.
9. All bricks have wide application in modern construction.
10. Bricks have been used in many countries for centuries.
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IV.
What is the function of the verb "to have" in the following word-combinations?
1. has survived
2. have never changed
3. have a pleasant appearance
4. has been influenced by
5. have some examples
6. there has been
V.
7. have you ever
8. will have
9. has to make
10. had finished
11. didn’t have
12. have introduced
Put all possible questions to the sentences.
1. Historically the use of brick has been influenced by the availability of raw materials.
2. In England the art of brick-making came and went with the Romans.
3. Engineering bricks must have excellent resistance to impact, corrosion and wear.
VI.
Read and translate the text
BRICK
Brick was the first artificial building material made by man of clay and sand.
There are practical and economic reasons why the use of brick has survived. Brick is
reasonably priced, standardized product, durable, with good insulating properties,
satisfactory porosity and weather-resistant.
Historically the use of brick has been influenced by the availability of raw materials. The main material clay can be obtained practically everywhere. Egypt and
Mesopotamia have some of the earliest examples of brick -making. The Romans were
quick to see its potential and organized production where they found the raw materials. In England the art of brick-making came and went with the Romans. But it revived in the Middle Ages and since then there has been the development of massproduction techniques and transport systems to deliver the products. In Russia bricks
have been used in construction for centuries.
The basic principles of brick-making have never changed. This process was
rather simple. Nowadays there are also four stages in the manufacture of bricks: 1)
mixing the raw material, 2) forming 3) drying and 4) burning.
There are different kinds of bricks: facing, common, engineering, hollow and
porous: reinforced and refractory. Facing bricks have a pleasant appearance. Common bricks are cheap. Engineering bricks have excellent resistance to impact, corrosion and wear. Hollow and porous bricks are lightweight and more economical than
common ones.
Bricks are of different size, colour and texture. The principal structural defect
of brick is its porosity.
Bricks are widely used in construction:
1) for bearing elements, for example, walls and foundations
14
2) for producing aggregates
3) for decoration.
4) reinforced and refractory bricks are used in the metallurgy and glass industries for
lining furnaces.
Brick structures require almost no maintenance. They are characterized by high
durability and can last for hundreds of years.
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Brick was the first artificial building material made ... man.
2. The use ... brick has been influenced ... the availability ... raw materials.
3. Egypt has the earliest examples ... brick-making.
4. There are different kinds ... bricks.
5. The raw materials ... bricks are cheap.
6. The process ... manufacture is rather simple.
7. All bricks are ... different size, colour and texture.
8. Bricks are widely used ... construction ... build walls, facades and foundations.
9. Brick structures can last ... hundreds ... years.
10. Bricks have been used … construction … centuries … many countries.
VIII. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Глиняный кирпич – первый строительный материал, созданный человеком.
2. Существуют различные виды кирпичей.
3. Кирпич должен обладать прочностью, морозостойкостью, малым водонасыщением, малой теплопроводностью и устойчивостью к коррозии.
4. Основной материал для кирпичей – глина.
5. В производстве кирпича четыре стадии: 1) перемешивание сырья, 2) формовка, 3) сушка и 4) обжиг.
6. Кирпич используют для возведения конструкционных и конструкционнотеплоизоляционных зданий и сооружений.
7. Кирпичные здания отличаются высокой долговечностью.
8. Кирпич используют в строительстве сотни лет во многих странах.
9. Кирпич – ценный строительный материал.
IX.
Learn the dialogues.
1.
A – Do you know what a brick is?
B – Well, it's a hard piece of baked clay used for building.
A – What is its usual size? Bricks vary in size.
B – For all I know, the American standard is 6,3 x 9,4 x 20 cm, the English
brick is 7,5x11x22,3 cm. And what about the Russian standard?
A – The Russian clay brick is 25x12x6,5 cm in size.
15
2.
A – How are bricks manufactured?
B – There are four stages in their manufacture: 1) mixing the material,
2) forming, 3) drying and 4) burning.
A – And where are bricks manufactured in our region?
B – At the Semiluksky brick-making factory, for all I know.
X. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is brick?
3. What is the history of brick-making?
4. Have the basic principles of brick-making ever changed?
5. Is the process of brick-making simple or complicated?
6. What are the stages in the manufacture of bricks?
7. What properties do bricks have?
8. What kinds of brick are there?
9. Brick structures require almost no maintenance, don't they?
10. Why is brick so popular in modern construction?
XI. Make up a plan of the text.
XII. Sum up what the text said about bricks.
XIII. Speak about brick as the first artificial building material made by man. Make
use of the key word combinations and expressions.
The main material clay, can be obtained, practically everywhere, Mesopotamia,
Egypt and England, the basic principles of brickmaking, the Romans saw its potential, rapid development, due to, properties, equal to those of stone, transport system,
mass-production techniques, practical and economic reasons, the availability of raw
materials, kinds of brick, for bearing elements, brick structures, can last…
1. There is no doubt that… – нет сомнения в том, что…
2. I`m quite sure that… – я совершенно уверен, что…
3. It is necessary to stress… – важно подчеркнуть…
4. It has been the result of… – это явилось результатом…
5. Apart from… – в отличие от…
6. Characterize brick structures – охарактеризуйте кирпичные сооружения
LESSON 4
Phonetics: [æ], [ei], [Ə:], [ju:]
Grammar: Simple Passive. Adverbs
Text: Aggregates. Заполнители
16
I.
Read and translate the following words:
aspect, gravel, sand, fact, impact, factory, plan, panel, rapid, standard, attractive,
practical, aggregate, expand, exam, gas;
name, aim, say, take, place, stage, day, grey, they, rate, clay, obtain, basic, eight,
weight, able, again, wait, date;
serve, term, certain, person, purpose, inert, firm, burn, first, third, perfect, urgent;
new, few, student, duty, super, produce, view, unit, using, news.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
aggregate [`ægrigit] – заполнитель
inert substances [i`nƏ:t `s٨bstƏnsiz] – инертные вещества
fine [`fain] – мелкий
coarse [`ko:s] – крупный
to pass [`pa:s] – проходить
mesh [`me∫] – сетка
variety [vƏ`raiƏti] – разнообразие
various [`vεƏriƏs] – различный
crushed stone [`kr٨∫t `stoun] – дробленый камень = щебень
crushed brick – кирпичный щебень
heavy [`hƏvi] – тяжелый
lightweight [`laitweit] – легковесный
dense [`dƏns] - плотный, густой
cohesion [kou`hi: ჳn] – сцепление
expanded clay [iks`pændid] – вспученная глина
foamed slag [`foumd] – вспененный шлак = термозит
ash [`æ∫] – зола
bulk density [b٨lk] – объемный вес
ceramzite – керамзит
vermiculite – вермикулит
mica [`maikƏ] – слюда
perlite – перлит
agloporite – аглопорит
penoceralite – пенокералит
III. Study the models and put the verbs into the Past and Future Simple.
Make the sentences interrogative and negative.
Model 1:
Model 2:
Aggregates are used for various purposes.
Aggregates were used in the past.
Aggregates will be used to produce concretes.
Are aggregates divided into two classes?
17
Aggregates are not divided into two classes.
Were aggregated divided into 5 classes?
Aggregates were not divided into 5 classes?
Will aggregates be divided into 3 classes?
Aggregates won't be divided into 3 classes.
1. The term "aggregate" is used to describe inert substances, which are mixed with
cement to produce concretes.
2. Cements are not used alone but they are always mixed with inert substances.
3. Aggregates are graded in size from fine to coarse.
4. Inert substances are called fine if they pass a 3/16 inch mesh.
5. Others are called coarse aggregates.
6. Aggregates are divided into heavy and lightweight
7. Expanded clay, perlite and ash are used to produce lightweight concretes.
8. Crushed rock, sand and gravel are used to produce dense concretes.
9. Aggregates are very important for producing concretes.
IV.
Give synonyms to the following words and translate them into Russian.
Model: chief – main; главный, основной
To divide, usual, substance, common, to use, various, to prepare, purpose, to build,
artificial, important, to call, rapid, to obtain.
V.
Form adverbs adding the suffix «ly» and translate them into Russian.
Model: stem + ly = adverb
broad – broadly; широкий – широко
- ly: slow, wide, usual, normal, special, practical, high, hard, formal, main, essential,
natural, close, certain, bad, efficient, general, complete.
VI.
Read and translate the text
AGGREGATES
Aggregates are inert substances which are mixed with cement to produce concrete. There are fine and coarse aggregates. Fine aggregates are those which pass a
3/16 inch mesh. Others are called coarse aggregates. A wide variety of aggregates is
used for various purposes. Aggregates are divided into two broad classes: natural
heavy aggregates and artificial lightweight ones. The most usual heavy aggregates are
sand, gravel, crushed stone. Crushed brick also comes into heavy class. Builders today say that crushed stone provides better cohesion in the mix and gives greater
strength to concrete than gravel.
18
Heavy aggregates are used to produce dense concretes. Lightweight aggregates
are used to produce lightweight concretes. They are: expanded clay, foamed slag, ash.
In recent years new porous aggregates with low bulk density appeared.
Ceramzite is a light gravel made of clay through special processing. Its one cubic metre varies between 400-700 kg. Vermiculite is also a porous light mineral of
the mica family. Perlite is a glass-like substance of volcanic origin found in great
quantities in Siberia and the Far East At the temperature of about 1200 С it is transformed into a light gravel, a cubic metre of which weighs 200-400 kg. Agloporite,
termozite and penoceralite are also widely used both for lightweight concretes and
insulating materials.
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Aggregates are mixed ... cement ... produce concrete.
2. Inert substances are used ... various purposes.
3. They can be divided ... two broad classes.
4. ... special purposes crushed stone is generally used.
5. Crushed rock and crushed brick come ... heavy class.
6. Ash, expanded clay, foamed slag come ... lightweight group.
7. The application ... aggregates reduces the cost ... the resulting material.
8. Lightweight aggregates are used ... produce lightweight concretes.
9. Porous aggregates ... low bulk density are used today.
10. All aggregates are important ... construction.
VIII. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Для приготовления бетона используют различные заполнители.
2. Cуществует множество видов этих инертных веществ.
3. Заполнители, которые проходят сквозь сито с ячейками 3/16 дюйма, называются мелкими.
4. Остальные входят в группу крупных заполнителей.
5. Дробленый камень используется как тяжелый заполнитель.
6. Тяжелые заполнители используют для производства плотных бетонов.
7. Для производства легких бетонов используют различные вспененные материалы.
8. Сейчас существуют новые легкие пористые заполнители – вермикулит, перлит, термозит и другие.
9. Заполнители влияют на качество растворов и бетонов.
10. Пористые заполнители имеют малый объемный вес.
IX.
Put all possible questions to the sentences.
1. Aggregates can be divided into two broad classes: heavy and lightweight.
19
2. Crushed brick comes into heavy class.
3. Lightweight aggregates are used to produce lightweight concretes.
X.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What are aggregates?
3. What are aggregates used for?
4. What types do fine aggregates refer to?
5. What types do coarse aggregates refer to?
6. How are aggregates classified?
7. What heavy aggregates do you know?
8. Speak about lightweight aggregates.
9. What aggregates are used to produce dense concretes?
10. What aggregates are used to produce lightweight concretes?
XI. Make up a plan of the text.
XII. Sum up the information of the text.
XIII. Speak about aggregates as common admixtures to a concrete mix.
LESSON 5
Phonetics: [i], [θ], [ð]
Grammar: Simple Active and Passive
Text: Concrete. Бетон
I.
Read and translate the following words:
system, brick, mix, which, give, gypsum, is, timber, will, little, fill, build, simple, figure, million, width, symbol, carry, plenty, since;
method, monolithic, month, strength, width, think, thermal, thank, fifth, thick, synthetic, bath, south, depth, thought, length, theory;
they, that, with, there, then, those, within, thus, therefore, their, themselves, without,
another, mother, further, bathe, other.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
concrete [`kOnkri:t] – бетон, бетонировать
dense [dens] – плотный
heat-insulating – теплоизоляционный
heat-resistant – жаростойкий
fast-hardening – быстротвердеющий
20
high-strength – высокопрочный
lime concrete – силикатный
setting [`setiŋ] – схватывание
hardening [`ha:dniŋ] – твердение
cellular [`seljula] – ячеистый
acid-resistant [`Æsid] – кислотостойкий
fire-resistant [faiƏ] – огнестойкий
building site [`sait] – строительная площадка
monolithic = in-situ [in-'saitju:] – монолитный
precast [pri`kast] – сборный
to influence [`influens] – влиять на, воздействовать
water-cement ratio [`rei∫iou] – водоцементное отношение
quality [`kwOliti] – качество
supporting elements [sƏ`po:tiŋ] – опорные элементы
slab [slæb] – плита
hydraulic engineering structures [hai`dro:lik] – гидротехнические сооружения
channel [t∫ænl] – канал
road surfaces [`sƏ:fisiz] – дорожные покрытия
base – основание
marine concrete [mƏ`r i:n] – гидротехнический бетон для морских сооружений
III.
Study the model and use Passive instead of Active Voice.
Model: Builders use concrete practically everywhere.
Concrete is used practically everywhere by builders.
1. The Egyptians did not know cement in old times.
2. They used clay for producing concrete.
3. The Romans and Greeks made concrete of gypsum and lime.
4. For what structures did the Egyptians, Romans and Greeks use concrete?
5. Builders today produce concrete by mixing water, cement and aggregates.
6. We know different kinds of concrete today.
7. Many factors influence the strength of any concrete.
8. Students prepare concrete during their practice.
9. We use different methods in producing concrete.
10. Builders consider concrete very important in modern construction.
IV.
Compare the sentences and translate them into Russian.
Model: I invite my friends on Sundays.
Я приглашаю друзей по воскресеньям.
I am invited by my friends on Sundays.
Меня приглашают друзья по выходным.
21
1. He told them the latest news.
He was told the latest news.
2. I shall buy a new dictionary.
I shall be bought a new dictionary.
3. My friend helps me with the calculations.
My friend is helped by me with the calculations.
4. The Dean will receive you on Monday.
You will be received by the Dean on Monday.
5. She asks many questions before the exam.
She is asked many questions before the exam.
6. They recommend to attend the lectures in maths.
They are recommended to attend the lectures in maths.
V. Translate into English.
1. Обычно студентов экзаменуют (to examine) в аудитории 344.
2. Дорогу построили (to build) в прошлом году.
3. Его доклад слушали (to listen to) с большим интересом.
4. Вас всегда ждут (to wait for).
5. Телеграмму отправят (to send) завтра.
6. Новую библиотеку откроют (to open) в нашем районе.
7. Ей не обещали (not to promise) новую книгу.
8. За инженером послали (to send for).
9. Им покажут (to show) новый фильм завтра.
10. Каждую неделю нас информируют (to inform) о строительстве моста.
VI.
Give synonyms to the following words and translate them into Russian.
Model: to use = to utilize - использовать
To construct, to vary, different, aim, material, ordinary, man-made, to classify, to apply, general, to make, rapid, to resist, to speak, special.
VII. Read and translate the text
CONCRETE
Concrete is one of the constructive building materials which led to great innovations: reinforced concrete and prestresssed concrete.
It was used by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans in the construction of roads,
tunnels, bridges, aqueducts, town walls and even underwater structures. Some of
them have survived, for example, the Pantheon. This famous concrete building was
22
conctructed by Roman hands. Today it stands in the business district of Rome – much
as it was built some 18 centuries ago.
As cement was not known in those times, concrete was made of clay and later
of gypsum and lime.
At present concrete is made by mixing water, cement and aggregates usually
sand, gravel and crushed stone.
There are four stages in producing concrete: 1) preparing the raw materials 2)
their mixing, 3) forming and 4) hardening. The resulting material is strong, durable,
hard, heavyweight or lightweight, acid-, air-, water-, gas-, heat-, fire-, and corrosionresistant.
There are different kinds of concrete: dense, lightweight, super-heavy, extralightweight, cellular, heat-resistant, high-strength. For special purposes acid and heatresistant superheavy concrete is used.
The kind of concrete depends on the aggregates used.
There are different methods in producing concrete. It may be prepared right at
the building site and is called monolithic or in-situ concrete. It may be prepared at a
factory and is called precast.
The strength of any concrete is influenced by the following factors:
 the activity of cement;
 the water-cement ratio;
 the quality of aggregates;
 the hardening conditions.
Concrete today is widely used in construction:
1) for supporting elements of buildings: beams, floors, slabs, panels, columns;
2) for hydraulic engineering structures dams, facing of channels;
3) for road surfaces and bases.
Concrete is one of the main constructive building materials in the world.
VIII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Concrete is one … the constructive building materials.
Concrete is a mixture ... water, cement and aggregates.
There are four stages ... producing concrete.
Concrete may be prepared right ... a building site.
It may also be prepared ... a factory.
The kind of concrete depends ... the aggregates used.
Concrete has many advantages ... other building materials.
The strength of any concrete is influenced ... many factors.
Concrete is widely used ... construction ... supporting elements.
IX.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Бетон – особый конструктивный материал.
23
2. Его издавна использовали египтяне, греки и римляне.
3. Бетон – композиционный материал, полученный в результате твердения рационально подобранной смеси из вяжущего материала, заполнителя и воды.
4. В производстве бетона четыре стадии: 1) приготовление сырья, 2) его перемешивание, 3) формование и 4) твердение.
5. Плотность бетона зависит от плотности цементного камня, плотности заполнителей и степени уплотнения.
6. Конструкции из монолитного бетона изготавливают непосредственно на
строительной площадке, а сборные конструкции – на заводе.
7. Бетон является главным строительным материалом, который применяют во
всех областях строительства.
X.
Learn the dialogues.
1.
A – What is concrete?
B – Concrete is one of the constructive building materials.
A – And who was the first to use concrete?
B – It was used by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.
2.
A – Why have some ancient structures made of concrete survived?
B – Due to the valuable properties of concrete.
3.
A – And how was concrete made when there was no cement?
B – In old times concrete was made of clay and later of gypsum and lime.
XI.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is concrete?
3. What stages are there in producing concrete?
4. What properties does concrete have?
5. What kinds of concrete do you know?
6. What does the kind of concrete depend on?
7. Speak about cellular concrete.
8. What factors influence the strength of any concrete?
9. Where is concrete widely used today?
10. Why is concrete one of the main building materials in construction world?
XII. Speak about concrete as one of the main building materials today. Make use of
the key words and expressions.
Constructive material, its composition, stages in producing, the resulting material, the
kind of concrete, depends on, methods in producing, the strength of any concrete, is
24
influenced by, wide application, will be required in future, concrete structures, economic, safe and sound = strong.
1. I`ll speak about… – я расскажу о…
2. If I`m not mistaken… – если я не ошибаюсь…
3. Now just a few words about… – сейчас несколько слов о…
4. Technical characteristics of…are… – техническими характеристиками являются…
5. It is no doubt that… – нет сомнения в том, что…
6. In conclusion I`d like to say that… – в заключение мне бы хотелось сказать,
что…
XIII. Read and translate the text about common admixtures to the concrete mix.
Write the annotation of the text.
COMMON ADMIXTURES TO THE CONCRETE MIX
Admixtures are additions to the mix used to achieve certain goals. Here are the
main admixtures and what they aim to achieve.
Accelerating admixture accelerators are added to concrete to reduce setting
time of the concrete and to accelerate early strength. The amount of reduction in setting time varies depending on the amount of accelerator used (see your ready mix
supplier and describe your application). Calcium chloride is a low cost accelerator,
but specifications often call for a nonchloride accelerator to prevent corrosion of reinforcing steel.
Retarding admixtures – are often used in hot weather conditions to delay setting time. They are also used to delay set of more difficult jobs or for special finishing operations like exposing aggregate. Many retarders also act as a water reducer.
Fly Ash – is a by product of coal burning plants. Fly ash can replace 15%-30%
of the cement in the mix. Cement and fly ash together in the same mix make up the
total cementious material.
 Fly ash improves workability;
 Fly ash is easier to finish;
 Fly ash reduces the heat generated by the concrete;
 Fly ash costs ¼ to ½ the amount of the cement it replaces.
Air Entraining Admixtures – must be used whenever concrete is exposed to
freezing and thawing, and to deicing salts. Air entraining agents entrain microscopic
air bubbles in the concrete: when the hardened concrete freezes, the frozen water inside the concrete expands into these air bubbles instead of damaging the concrete.
 Air entrainment improves concrete workability;
 Air entrainment improves durability;
 Air entrainment produces a more workable mix.
25
Water reducing admixtures – reduce the amount of water needed in the concrete mix. The water cement ratio will be lower and the strength will be greater. Most
low range water reducers reduce the water needed in the mix by 5%-10%. High range
water reducers reduce the mix water needed by 12% to 30% but are very expensive
and rarely used in residential work.
XIII. Fill in the spider-gram:
Concrete mix
LESSON 6
Phonetics: Compare the words and their meanings
Grammar: Modal Verbs
Text: Mortars. Растворы
I.
Read the following words and compare the difference in their meanings.
Building ≠ binding; form ≠ firm ≠ from; four ≠ for, modal ≠ model; mortar ≠ motor,
past ≠ paste ≠ part ≠ pass; poor ≠ powder ≠ power, product ≠ project; strength ≠
strange; time ≠ term; there ≠ their; walk ≠ work ≠ week; where ≠ wear.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
mortar [`mo:tƏ] – раствор
mixture [`mikst∫Ə] – смесь
to compose [kƏm`pouz] – составлять
according to – согласно
to apply [Ə`plai] – применять
jointing of panels – соединение панелей
26
brickwork [`brikwƏ:k] – кирпичная кладка
plastering [pla:stƏriŋ] – штукатурка
lime [laim] – известь
gypsum [`dჳipsƏm] – гипс
to prepare [pri`pεƏ] – приготавливать
reduction [ri`d٨k∫n] – уменьшение
volume [`volju:m] – объем
while [`wail] – пока, в то время как, при
to take place – происходить
to calculate [`kælkjuleit] – рассчитывать
to require – требовать
to gain strength [`gein] – наращивать прочность
necessary [`nesisƏri] – необходимый
ingredient [in`gri:diƏnt] – составная часть
masonry [`meisƏnri] – каменная кладка
to bond = to tie – связывать, соединять
to seal – уплотнять
to аnchor – закреплять
building codes – строительные нормы и правила
to specify – устанавливать, определять
III.
Study the information about Modal Verbs and their meanings.
Модальные глаголы can, may, must не обозначают действие, а выражают отношение к нему говорящего, т.е. возможность, вероятность или необходимость
совершения действия. Само действие выражается инфинитивом смыслового
глагола без частицы to, следующим за модальным глаголом.
Модальный
глагол
Модальное
значение
can
(могу, может)
could
(мог, могли)
to be able
(смогут,
сможет)
способность,
возможность,
сомнение
Примеры
We can meet at 5 o’clock.
Мы можем встретиться в 5 часов.
She couldn’t help Nick.
Она не смогла помочь Коле.
They will be able to do the work themselves.
Они смогут сделать эту работу сами.
27
may
(можно,
можете)
might
(мог, могли)
возможность,
разрешение,
предположение
May I use your mobile phone?
Можно воспользоваться вашим телефоном?
You might visit Ann on Sunday.
Вы могли навестить Анну в воскресенье.
He’ll be allowed to continue the experiment.
Ему разрешат продолжить этот эксперимент.
обязанность,
необходимость
по обстоятельствам,
необходимость
в связи с договоренностью
Students must study well.
Студенты должны хорошо учиться.
He had to do his duty.
Он должен был выполнить свой долг.
You’ll have to pass the session well to get a
scholarship.
Вам придется сдать сессию на «хорошо»,
чтобы получать стипендию.
to be allowed
(разрешат,
позволят )
must
(должен, обязан)
to have to
(приходится)
to be to
(должен был)
IV. Translate the sentences into Russian. Explain the modal verbs’ meaning.
1. Every engineer must know at least one foreign language.
2. Who can prepare cement mortars?
3. Are students allowed to use this device for calculations?
4. You may not go away now.
5. They can't understand the essence of this phenomenon.
6. Who must review all the lectures before the exam in maths?
7. You may keep this book as long as you need it.
8. The experiment needn't be finished today.
9. Who had to work over this project?
10. She might have heard about it.
V.
Express obligation, possibility or permission.
1. Building mortars (могут состоять) of a binding material, fine aggregates and water.
2. They (можно классифицировать) according to their applications and kind of a
binding material.
3. Any student of our group (может приготовить) cement mortar.
4. To prepare mortars you (можете взять) lime or gypsum.
5. You (разрешат) to mix the raw materials yourselves?
6. While mortars are being prepared (должно произойти) reduction in volume.
28
7. The calculation of this reduction (должны уметь сделать) all students.
8. Cement mortars (можно применять) for jointing of panels, for brickwork or for
plastering.
9. Who (мог разрешить проводить) you this experiment?
10. She (не должна столько работать) making the report.
VI.
Give derivatives of the following verbs and translate them into Russian.
Model: to use - user, useful, useless, useness, misuse, usage.
To form, to build, to differ, to crack, to place, to make, to create.
VII. Read and translate the text
MORTARS
Building mortars are mixtures composed of a binding material, fine aggregates
and water. Building mortars are classified according to their applications and kind of
a binding material, which is used to produce them. Mortars may be applied for jointing of panels, for brickwork or for plastering. To prepare mortars different binding
materials are used. They are: lime, gypsum, cement.
While mortars are being prepared reduction in volume takes place. The calculation of this reduction is very important for builders. They must and can calculate how
much of each material is required to produce a given volume of mortar. For most
mortars the reduction in volume on mixing is 1-2 mm per 1 m of the final product.
The most important mortars for industrial building are those which gain necessary
strength in short time. It is especially important in producing brick blocks and panels.
While mortar represents only a small proportion of the total wall area in
concrete masonry construction (approximately 7%), its influence on the performance
of a wall is significant. Mortar serves many important functions: it bonds units
together into an intergral structural assembly, seals joints against penetration by air
and moisture, prevents small movements within a wall, removes slight differences
between unit sizes, and bonds steel reinforcement, ties and anchors so that all
elements perform as a unified whole.
Building codes generally specify mortar types as referenced in Standard
Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. Four mortar types, M, S, N, and O are
included in this standard.
VIII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Building mortars are mixtures composed ... a binding material, fine aggregates and
water.
2. They are classified … their applications and kind ... a binding material.
3. Mortars may be applied ... brickwork and ... plastering.
29
4. ... prepare mortars different binding materials are used.
5. Reduction ... volume takes place ... mixing.
6. The calculation ... this reduction is very important ... builders.
7. They must calculate the amount ... materials ... produce a given volume ... mortar.
8. The reduction ... volume ... mixing is 1/2mm per 1 m.
IX.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Строительные растворы – это смеси из вяжущего материала, мелких заполнителей и воды.
2. Они широко используются в строительстве для соединения панелей, кирпичной кладки и штукатурки.
3. В качестве вяжущих материалов используют известь, гипс и цемент.
4. При приготовлении раствор уменьшается в объеме.
5. Строители должны знать пропорции каждого составляющего для получения
заданного количества раствора.
6. Для большинства растворов уменьшение в объеме составляет 1/2мм на 1м.
7. Растворы придают прочность каменным и кирпичным кладкам.
8. Для приготовления растворов в качестве вяжущих материалов используют
известь, гипс и цемент.
X.
Put all possible questions to the sentences:
1. The calculation of this reduction is very important for builders.
2. Mortars may be applied for jointing of panels, for brickwork or for plastering.
3. Mortar serves many important functions.
XI. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the text about?
2. What are building mortars?
3. How are mortars classified?
4. What binding materials are used to prepare mortars?
5. What takes place while mortars are being prepared?
6. Why do builders calculate the reduction in volume?
7. What is the reduction in volume on mixing for most mortars?
8. Where are building mortars applied?
9. What mortars are the most important in industrial building?
10. Can you prepare a cement mortar yourself? What do you need for it?
XII. Sum up the information about mortars.
XIII. Speak about mortars.
30
LESSON 7
Grammar: Past tenses. Articles
Text: Hydraulic Cement. Гидравлический цемент
I. Open the brackets. Identify the tenses, and then match them with the correct description.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
He (to go) on a safari holiday last month.
He (to travel) in Europe when he (to have) an accident.
He (to be) to Russia twice before he took me there.
He (to fly) to Paris while I (to head for) Rome.
This time last year he (to enjoy) himself on a beach in Riviera.
The rain (to fall) heavily and the wind (to blow). A few people (to walk) hurriedly down the street.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
past action in progress interrupted by another past action
past action which happened before another past action
complete action which happened at a stated past time
simultaneous past actions of certain duration
simultaneous past actions which describe a scene
action in the middle of happening at a stated past time
II. Open the brackets.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Paul (to leave) when Mary (to arrive).
Doctors say that smoking (to destroy) vitamin C in the body.
As we (to surf) the Internet we (to find) a website about horoscopes.
A: How was your first day in your new job?
B: Oh, quite good really, although it (to start) badly because my car (to break
down) on the way.
A: (to have) any problems?
B: Not really. Everyone was really nice. I (to have) a problem with the coffee
machine, though.
A: Don’t tell me you (to break) it!
B: Yes! How did you guess? I (to put) my money in when it (to make) a
strange noise. Then, the coffee (to pour) out all over the floor! It (to break) the
day before and they (to forget) to tell me!
I (to finish) the book next week.
I (to lie) on the beach at this time tomorrow.
That’s the man whose son (to win) a gold medal in the Olympics.
31
III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form.
A. When Sheila 1) arrived home she 2) ………(to take off) her wet shoes and
3) ………(to hang up) her coat. Outside, the wind 4)……… (to blow) wildly and the
windows 5) ………(to rattle). She 6)………(to walk) into the kitchen, 7) ………(to
feed) the cat and 8) ………(to be) just about to make herself a sandwich when she 9)
………(to hear) someone whisper her name.
B. We 1) ………(to have) dinner when the doorbell 2)………(to ring). My father
3) ………(to get up) and 4) ………(to open) the door. A man 5) ………(to come)
rushing in. “I’m sorry to bother you,” he said “but my wife and I 6) ………(to drive)
along the road when we 7) ……….(to have) an accident. There 8) ………(to be) no
one to help us so I 9)……….(to come) here.”
IV. Study the meanings of the word “bear” and say what meaning it has in the text
below.
• Bear responsibility – нести ответственность;
• Bear losses – нести потери;
• Bear one’s name – носить имя;
• Bear the news – передавать новости;
• Bear the upper storey – поддерживать верхний этаж;
• Bear on the columns – опираться на колонны;
• Bear – медведь; грубый, невоспитанный человек;
• Bear in mind – помнить, иметь в виду.
V. Put in articles if necessary.
Once upon a time there were Three Bears who lived together in … house of
their own, in … wood. One of them was … Little Wee Bear, and one was … Middlesized Bear, and … other was … Great Big Bear. They had each … bowl for their porridge; … little bowl for … Little Wee Bear; and … middle-sized bowl for … Middlesized Bear; and … great bowl for … Great Big Bear. And they had each … chair to
sit in; … little chair for the Little Wee Bear; and … middle-sized chair for … Middlesized Bear; and … great chair for … Great Big Bear. And they had each … bed to
sleep in; … little bed for … Little Wee Bear; and … middle-sized bed for … Middlesized Bear; and … great bed for … Great Big Bear. One day, after they had made …
porridge for their breakfast, and poured it into their porridge-bowls, they walked out
into … wood while … porridge was cooling, that they might not burn their …mouths
by beginning too soon, for they were polite, well-brought-up Bears. And while they
were away … little girl called Goldilocks, who lived at … other side of … wood and
had been sent on … errand by her mother, passed by … house, and looked in at …
window. And then she peeped in at … keyhole, for she was not at all … wellbrought-up little girl. Then seeing nobody in … house she lifted … latch. … door was
32
not fastened, because … Bears were good Bears, who did nobody any harm, and
never suspected that anybody would harm them.
VI. Learn the following words to the text:
binding medium – вяжущий элемент
paste [peist] – паста
admixture [Əd'mikst∫Ə] – примесь
chemical reaction – химическая реакция
to be capable of ['keipƏbl] – быть способным на что-либо
hydration - гидратация (присоединение гидроксигруппы и водорода по кратной
связи или по концам разорвавшейся связи в цикле)
solid – твердый, плотный
to blend – смешивать
blast-furnace slag – доменный шлак
pozzolan – пуццолан
fly ash – зольная пыль
silica fume ['silikƏ fju:m] – кварцевая пыль
to adhere [Əd'hiƏ] – прилипать, приставать (to), приклеиваться, хвататься
calcium-silicate hydrate ['kælsiƏm silikit `haidreit] – гидрат силиката кальция
strength of the concrete – марка бетона
increase – увеличивать
moisture – влага, влажный
hardened concrete – затвердевший бетон
VII. Read and translate the text
HYDRAULIC CEMENT
Concrete is a composite material that consists of a binding medium embedded
with fine aggregate (typically sand) and coarse aggregate (typically gravel). In hydraulic cement concrete, the binder is cement paste, a mixture of hydraulic cement
and water, and possibly one or more admixtures.
Hydraulic cement is cement that sets and hardens by chemical reaction with
water (hydration) and is capable of doing so under water. The hydration reactions result in the formation of a hard solid mass. The most widely used hydraulic cement is
portland cement. Other kinds of hydraulic cement include blended cements and
ground granulated blast-furnace slag. Pozzolans, both natural and artificial (fly ash,
and silica fume) are often used as a cementitious ingredient of concrete.
When hydraulic cement is mixed with water to form a paste, the phases of the
cement react with the water (hydration) to form a slowly developing cementitious
structure that adheres to and binds together the fine-and coarse-aggregate particles to
form hardened concrete. The most abundant hydration product is calcium-silicate hy33
drate. As long as moisture and unhydrated cement particles are present, the hydration
products continue to form, increasing the strength of the concrete.
VIII. Put in the correct prepositions or conjunctions.
1. Concrete is a composite material that consists … a binding medium embedded …
fine aggregate.
2. Hydraulic cement is cement that sets and hardens … chemical reaction … water
(hydration) and is capable … doing so under water.
3. The hydration reactions result … the formation of a hard solid mass.
4. Pozzolans, both natural and artificial (fly ash, and silica fume) are often used … a
cementitious ingredient of concrete.
5. Slowly developing cementitious structure adheres … and binds … the fine-and
coarse-aggregate particles to form hardened concrete.
6. As long as moisture and unhydrated cement particles are present, the hydration
products continue to form.
IX. Translate the sentences into English.
1. В гидравлическом бетоне в качестве связующего вещества применяют цементную пасту – смесь гидравлического цемента и воды.
2. Гидравлический цемент – цемент, который схватывается и твердеет в результате химической реакции с водой (гидратации) и сохраняет это свойство под
водой и на воздухе.
3. Наиболее широко применяют портландцемент.
4. Пуццоланы, как природные, так и искусственные (зольная пыль, кварцевая
пыль), часто используют в качестве добавки к цементу.
5. Когда гидравлический цемент смешивают с водой до консистенции пасты,
минералы цемента реагируют с водой, образуя цементный камень, который связывает частицы мелкого и крупного заполнителя, формируя структуру бетона.
X. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is hydraulic cement?
3. What binding materials are used to prepare hydraulic cement?
5. What takes place while hydraulic concrete is being prepared?
6. What kinds of hydraulic cement are there?
8. What hydraulic cement is the most popular?
10. Where is hydraulic cement applied?
XI. Put all possible questions to the sentences.
1. The hydration reactions result in the formation of a hard solid mass.
34
2. Other kinds of hydraulic cement include blended cements and ground granulated
blast-furnace slag.
3. Hydraulic cement sets and hardens by chemical reaction with water.
XII. Give the annotation of the text.
XIII. Speak about hydraulic cement.
LESSON 8
Phonetics: Compare the words and their meanings
Grammar: Adjectives and adverbs. Degrees of Comparison
Text: Stone. Камень
I.
Read the following words and compare the difference in their meanings:
also ≠ although; bath ≠ bathe; bearing ≠ burning ≠ building; famous ≠ favourite; has
≠ his; since ≠ science; than ≠ then; world ≠ word.
II.
Learn the following words to the text:
known [`noun] – известный
variety [vƏ`raiƏti] – множество
rock deposits [`rok di'pozits] – горные отложения
availability [ƏveilƏ`biliti] – наличие
fire-resistance – огнестойкость
weather-resistance [`weðƏ] – устойчивость к атмосферным влияниям
column and beam system – стоечно-балочная система
to remain [ri`mein] – оставаться
engineering [endჳi`niƏriŋ] – строительство
то cover – охватывать
to reflect – отражать, отображать
pattern of life – образ жизни
semicircle [`semisƏkl] – полукруг
half-sphere [`ha:f sfiƏ] – полусфера
geometric figures [dჳio`metrik figƏz] – геометрические фигуры
architecture [`a:kitekt∫Ə] – архитектура, зодчество
natural stones [`næt∫rƏl] – природные камни
building purposes [`bildiŋ pƏ:pƏsiz] – строительные цели
steps – ступеньки
marble [`ma:bl] – мрамор
attractive appearance [Ə`træktiv Ə`piƏrƏns] – привлекательный внешний вид
III. Study the information about the degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs.
35
Model:
long – longer – the longest
easy – easier – the easiest
early – earlier – earliest
1. Oдно- и двухсложные
прилагательные и наречия
2. Многосложные
прилагательные и наречия
more – более – the most
interesting – less – менее – the least
interesting – interesting
З. Исключения прилагательных
и наречий
good, well – better – (the) best
bad(ly), – worse – (the) worst
much, many – more – (the) most
little
– less – (the) least
far
– farther – (the) farthest
4. Прилагательные места
и направления
inner – внутренний – the innermost
eastern –- восточный – the easternmost
northern – северный – the northernmost
IV. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives and
adverbs. Translate them into Russian.
broad
famous
early
important
high
rich
different
deep
old
decorative
durable
good
hard
attractive
western
comfortable
far
wide
difficult
fine
Economic, necessary, effective, available, experienced, essential, ambitious,
practical, unforgettable, respectful, successful, significant,
hard-working, badly-done, well-educated, little-known, highly developed, highquality, long-suffering, deeply-respected.
V.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Practice and remember. What do we call the people who live in
China?
America?
Egypt?
England?
a) the Englishmen
b) the Frenchmen
c) the Greeks
d) the Chinese
36
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
France?
Germany?
Greece?
Rome?
Holland?
VI.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
e) the Romans
f) the Egyptians
g) the Dutch
h) the Germans
i) the Americans
Match the Russian equivalents to the English terms:
external walls;
high mechanical strength;
the pattern of life;
natural stones;
artificial stones;
attractive appearance;
geometric figures;
the column and beam system;
the Roman architecture;
fire-resistance.
a) природные камни;
b) Римская архитектура;
c) геометрические фигуры;
d) внешние стены;
e) стоечно-балочная система;
f) образ жизни;
g) искусственные камни;
h) огнестойкость;
i) привлекательный внешний вид;
к) высокая механическая прочность.
VII. Read and translate the text
STONE
Stone is the oldest building material known to a man. As most continents had a
wide variety of rock deposits stone has been used in construction since the earliest days.
The main characteristics of stone are its availability, mechanical strength, high
compressive strength, durability, weather- and fire-resistance. Almost all famous buildings of classic times, of the Medieval and Renaissance periods were erected of stone.
The Egyptians used stones in two ways: 1) for external walls of houses and 2)
for Temples and Palaces - the first buildings to use the column and beam system. The
famous Pyramids built of stone were the highest structures in the world for 5000
years. But they still remain monuments to engineering rather than architecture.
The Roman stone-building covered a wider range of uses than those of the
Greeks. Baths, triumphal arches, open forums all reflecting the broader Roman pattern of life. The Romans also gave their buildings a richer mix of detail. The circle,
semicircle and half-sphere became the principal geometric figures upon which the
Roman architecture was based.
Nowadays natural stones are also widely used for building purposes:
1) for bearing elements of buildings, for example - walls, foundations, columns, steps;
2) for producing different kinds of aggregates;
3) for decoration, for example, granites and marbles are often used, for the reason of
their durability and attractive appearance.
37
VIII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Stone is the oldest building material known ... a man.
2. A wide variety ... rock deposits has been used ... construction ... the earliest days.
3. Stones are characterized ... their availability, high compressive strength and
weather - and fire-resistance.
4. The famous Pyramids remain monuments ... engineering ... ... architecture.
5. In some places stone was used ... ... the scarcity ... timber.
6. In other places stone was preferred ... its durability.
7. Granite is used particularly ... basements, columns, steps and ... the entire facades.
8. Granite possesses a wide range ... colours: grey, yellow, pink and deep red.
9. White and black marbles are used ... ornamental decoration.
10. Where would you recommend ... use stones in construction?
IX.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Одним из наиболее древних строительных материалов является природный
камень.
2. Каменные конструкции просты в изготовлении и обладают долговечностью
и огнестойкостью.
3. Природные и искусственные камни применяют для возведения каменных
зданий и сооружений.
4. В качестве природных каменных материалов применяют известняки, песчаники, граниты из которых возводят фундаменты и стены.
5. Песчаник используют для бетонного заполнителя.
6. Когда и где камень стали использовать в строительстве?
7. Знаменитые египетские пирамиды - памятники строительному искусству.
8. Римское каменное строительство превзошло постройки греков.
X.
Put all possible questions to the sentences.
1. The famous Egyptian Pyramids built 5000 years ago remain monuments to engineering rather than architecture.
2. The Roman stone - building covered a wider range of uses than those of the
Greeks.
3. The Egyptians used stones in two ways: 1) for external walls of houses and 2) for
Temples and Palaces.
XI.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is stone?
3. What are the main characteristics of stone?
38
4. Why were stone structures erected in classic times?
5. What did the Egyptians use stones for?
6. What method of construction was developed in Egypt?
7. What reflected the Roman stone - building?
8. What geometric figures was the Roman architecture based on?
9. Where and why are natural stones widely used nowadays?
10. What natural stones are used for decoration?
XII. Give the annotation of the text.
XIII. Speak about stone as the oldest building material known to a man.
LESSON 9
Phonetics: [ju], [ju:], [٨]
Grammar: Infinitive
Text: Glass. Стекло
I.
Read and translate the following words:
secure, insulation, corrugated, ensure, durable, fuse, use;
fusible, unit, include, unite, future, duty, cubic, music;
much, function, product, public, industry, constructive, conductivity.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
glass [`gla:s] – стекло
to glaze [`gleiz] – остеклять
to fuse [fju:z] – плавить, сплавлять
to cast – отливать
to blow – дуть
flat = sheet glass – листовое стекло
to roll out – прокатывать
molten glass – расплавленное стекло
steel frame – стальная конструкция
high-rise buildings [hai-raiz] – высотные здания
indispensable [indis`pensibl] – совершенно необходимый
hard – твердый
fragile [`frædჳail] – хрупкий
transparent [træns`pεƏrƏnt] – прозрачный
poor electro-conductivity [`puƏ kƏnd٨k`tiviti] – низкая электропроводимость
39
ribbed = prism glass – рифленое стекло
corrugated glass [`kOrugeitid] – волнистое стекло
wire glass [`waiƏ] – армированное стекло
tiling [`tailiŋ] – облицовочная плитка
mirror glass [`mirƏ] – зеркальное стекло
figured glass [`figƏd] – узорчатое стекло
to ensure natural lighting [in`∫uƏ] – обеспечивать естественное освещение
external walls [eks`tƏ:nl] – внешние стены
roofs – крыши
double glazing – двойное застекление
III.
Study the following information about the Infinitive.
Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели может стоять в начале или в середине предложения, на русский язык он переводится:
1) придаточным предложением с союзами "чтобы", "для того, чтобы"
2) существительным с предлогом.
Model:
To master a foreign language one must work much.
Чтобы изучать иностранный язык надо много работать.
или
Для изучения иностранного языка надо много работать.
IV.
Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive.
1. To build different structures you must be a civil engineer.
2. This problem is too complex to be solved by students only.
3. Students meet to discuss common problems.
4. Engineers must create new building materials to meet needs in construction.
5. The Romans did much to make flat glass and to use it in buildings.
6. Engineers developed the principles of the steel frame to construct high-rise buildings.
7. Different kinds of glass are used to ensure natural lighting.
8. To provide better insulation in buildings double glazing was recommended.
9. In order to break wire glass a great amount of force must be applied.
10. To reinforce materials specialists use artificial fibres.
V.
Read and translate the text
GLASS
One of the widely used building materials is glass. The discovery that the three
common materials - sand, soda and lime could be fused together has originated in the
Middle East before 1500 ВС.
40
Glass was first used only for decoration. But later when it was realized that
glass could be cast or blown into shapes, the Romans did much to make a flat glass to
use in buildings.
They made it by rolling out molten glass onto a hard flat table. Modern sheet
glass was made in the 19th century in the United States.
At the turn of the century engineers were developing the principles of the steel
frame for construction which made high-rise buildings possible. Since that time glass
has become indispensable in all types of construction.
In 1919 Mies van der Rore suggested that glass to be used over the entire facades. But it took several decades for architects to realize this type of design.
At normal temperature glass is a hard, fragile, transparent substance, waterand air-resistant with poor electro-conductivity. There are different kinds of glass:
constructive and architectural-decorative glass. The first group includes sheet glass
used for doors, windows and also glass products: glass plates and glass bricks.
Ribbed or prism glass is used on the roofs of public buildings. Corrugated glass is
preferable for industrial structures. Where strength is required wire glass is employed.
Architectural-decorative glass includes tiling, coloured-decorative glass, mirror
and figured glass.
The function of glass is to ensure natural lighting.
Glass is widely used in construction, practically in every building:
1) for structural elements: external walls, doors, windows, roofs;
2) for better insulation of buildings by means of double glazing;
3) for solar collector devices and the green house effect;
4) for decoration.
Glass is one of the most valuable materials of our day and of the future.
Glass is a unique and ecologically clean building material in contemporary world.
VI.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Match the Russian equivalents to the English terms:
structural elements;
modern sheet glass;
poor electro-conductivity;
steel frame;
architectural-decorative glass;
6) public buildings;
7) wire glass;
8) to ensure natural lighting;
a) стальная конструкция;
b) двойное oстекление;
c) при нормальной температуре;
d) армированное стекло;
e) обеспечивать естественное
освещение;
f) современное листовое стекло;
g) строительные элементы;
h) общественные здания;
41
9) double glazing;
10) at normal temperature.
i) архитектурно-декоративное стекло;
к) низкая электропроводимость.
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. One ... the widely used building materials is glass.
2. The discovery that sand, soda and lime could be fused together... heat has originated ... the Middle East ... 1500 ВС.
3. The Romans did much ... make a flat glass ... buildings.
4. ... the turn ... the century engineers were developing the principles ... the steel
frame ... construction.
5. It took several decades ... architects ... realize this type of design.
6. ... normal temperature glass is a hard, fragile, transparent substance, air- and waterresistant ... poor electro-conductivity.
7. The function ... glass is ... ensure natural lighting.
8. Glass is used practically ... every building ... structural elements.
9. Ribbed or prism glass is used ... the roofs ... public buildings.
10. There are different kinds ... glass.
VIII. Translate the sentences into English.
1. В 1919 году архитекторы предложили использовать стекло по всему фасаду
зданий
2. Оно появилось на Среднем Востоке за 1500 лет до РХ.
3. Одним из широко используемых строительных материалов является стекло.
4. Стекло – уникальный строительный материал.
5. Функция стекла – обеспечивать естественное освещение.
6. Стекло является водо- и воздухонепроницаемым материалом.
7. Какими еще свойствами обладает стекло?
8. На рубеже 19-20 столетий инженеры разрабатывали стальные конструкции
для возведения высотных зданий из стали и стекла.
9. При нормальной температуре стекло – твердое, хрупкое, прозрачное вещество, водо- и воздухонепроницаемое с низкой электропроводимостью.
10. С 19-го века стекло стало незаменимым материалом во всех видах строительства.
11. Там, где нужна прочность, используют специальное армированное стекло.
12. Современное листовое стекло было изготовлено в 19-том веке в США.
13. В каких видах строительства используют стекло?
14. Почему стекло является уникальным строительным материалом во многих
странах?
12. В сочетании с какими материалами используют стекло?
42
IX.
Learn the dialogue.
A – Do you agree that glass is no longer a fragile material of limited utility?
B – Certainly, our scientists have created "wonder glasses" heat-resistant glass,
for example, or a lead-oxide glass which is almost as heavy as steel.
A – What is the strongest and toughest form of glass?
B – For all I know fibre glass is.
A – Where is fibre glass used?
B – Well, fibre glass is now used in various products for electrical and building
insulation, for car-bodies.
X.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is glass?
3. What properties does glass have?
4. Where was glass first made?
5. When was glass used for high-rise buildings?
6. What kinds of glass do you know?
7. What is constructive glass?
8. What does architectural-decorative glass include?
9. What is the function of glass?
10. Why is glass one of the valuable building materials?
11. What makes glass a unique material?
XI.
Make up a plan of the text.
XII. Sum up the information about glass.
XIII. Speak about glass as a unique building material. Make use of the key word
combinations and expressions.
Artificial building material, widely used, important properties, constructive glass, architectural-decorative glass, their examples, to ensure natural lighting, external walls,
doors, windows, one of the most valuable materials.
1. The information is about… – информация о…
2. As everybody knows… – как известно…
3. As for me, I think… – что касается меня, я полагаю…
4. It would be interesting to note… – было бы интересно отметить…
5. The key feature of…is… – отличительной чертой… является…
6. We must conclude that… –подводя итог, отметим…
43
LESSON 10
Phonetics: Compare the words and their meanings
Grammar: Participle II
Text: Timber. Древесина
I.
Read and translate the following words:
cheap, easier, treat, decrease, seasoning, treatment, beech, beam, clean.
Compare the words and their meanings:
cold ≠ called; rich ≠ reach; price ≠ prize; shall ≠ shell; very ≠ vary; wide ≠ white;
worse ≠ worth; us ≠ use, pain ≠ paint, march ≠ match, wing ≠ wink.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
timber [`timbƏ] – строевой лес, древесина
self-renewing [ri`nju:iŋ] – самообновление
to exert [ig`zƏ:t] – оказывать влияние
environment [in`vaiƏrƏment] – окружающая среда
to derive from [di`raiv] – происходить от
comparison [kOm`pærisn] – сравнение
low volume weight – малый объемный вес
thermal conductivity – теплопроводность
easiness of treatment [`i:zines] – легкость обработки
simplicity [sim'plisiti] – простота
jointing [`dჳOintiŋ] – соединение
frost resistance – морозостойкость
absorption [Əb`so:p∫n] – поглощение
moisture [`moist∫Ə] – влага
swelling – разбухание
liability [laiƏ`biliti] – подверженность
rot – гниение
to decrease [di`kri:z] – уменьшать
seasoning [`si:zniŋ] – сушка
pine [`pain] – сосна
fir-tree [`fƏ:tri:] – ель
oak [`ouk] – дуб
beech [bi:t∫] – бук
larch [`la:t∫] – лиственница
cedar [`si:dƏ] – кедр
walnut [`wOlnƏt] – ореховое дерево
hardwoods [`ha:dwudz] – твердая древесина
broad-leaved trees – деревья лиственной породы
44
softwoods - мягкая древесина
conifers [`kounifƏ:z] – деревья хвойной породы
girder [`gƏ:dƏ] – балка, ферма
veneering [vi`niƏriŋ] – облицовка шпоном
unique [ju:`ni:k] – уникальный
III.
Study the information about Participle II.
Причастие прошедшего времени (3-я форма глагола) в функции определения
может стоять:
1) перед определяемый существительным. На русский язык переводится причастием прошедшего времени.
Model 1: Glued timber products are widely used in construction.
Склеенные деревянные изделия широко используются в строительстве;
2) после определяемого существительного. Переводится на русский язык:
a) причастием, b) придаточным определительным предложением.
Model 2: Fine beams used in house construction are of high quality.
Сосновые балки, использованные в строительстве дома, – высокого
качества.
Или:
Сосновые балки, которые использованы в строительстве дома, высокого качества.
IV.
Translate into Russian the following word-combinations.
Model 1
1) dried
2) classified
3) converted
4) used
5) treated
6) laminated
7) seasoned
8) resulted
9) marked
10) dressed
Model 2
timber
l) used in construction
2) treated by chemicals
3) called the best for flooring
4) dried in the Sun
5) exerted positive effect on
people
6) heated in kiln
7) sawed into logs
8) decreased in size
9) classified into hardwoods
and softwoods
timber
45
V.
Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Participle II.
1. Wood is the most ancient structural material known to a man.
2. Timber is a name given to the cut material derived from trees.
3. There are different kinds of timber used in construction.
4. Timber treated by chemicals becomes rot- and fire-resistant.
5. Houses built of timber are good for human health.
6. The purlin made of timber rests on the bearing construction.
7. Timber valued for positive properties has also disadvantages.
8. Results recently published on timber finishes confirm the picture in general.
9. English elm is an excellent flooring timber used for floors in factories and buildings.
10. Practical timber protection is a serious unsolved problem.
VI.
Read and translate the text.
TIMBER
Timber is one of the most important natural building materials. It is selfrenewing and trees have always exerted significant effects on people and the environment. Timber is a name given to the cut material derived from trees. In comparison with metal timber is lighter, cheaper and easier to work. Timber has many valuable properties for construction. Its positive properties are: 1) strength in combination
with low volume weight, 2) poor thermal conductivity, 3) the easiness of treatment,
4) the simplicity of jointing, 5) high frost resistance. Its negative properties are: 1)
absorption of moisture from the air and rapid swelling, 2) liability to rot and fire, 3)
inner defects. To decrease moisture timber is dried. This process is called seasoning.
There are: 1) natural seasoning when timber is dried under natural atmospheric conditions, 2) kiln seasoning when timber is artificially heated, 3) chemical seasoning
when timber is treated by special chemicals. There are different kinds of timber. But
the most preferable for construction are pine, fir-tree, oak, beech, larch, cedar, walnut.
Timber construction is traditional in many countries: Great Britain, Canada,
Korea, Brazil, China, Japan. Wooden structures were also favoured in ancient Russia.
Timber is usually classified into hardwoods -broad-leaved trees, and softwoods- conifers. Timber is widely used in all types of construction:
1) for structural elements: beams, floors, girders, doors, windows, roofs;
2) for glued timber products: panelling and veneering in furniture;
3) for decoration.
Timber is a unique and ecologically clean building material in modern construction.
46
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Timber is one ... the most important natural building materials.
2. Trees have always exerted significant effects... people and the environment
3. ... comparison ... metal timber is lighter, cheaper and easier ... work.
4. Its positive properties are strength ... combination ... low volume weight, the easiness... treatment, the simplicity ... jointing.
5. Its negative properties lower the constructive value ... timber.
6. Special chemical treatment makes timber resistant... rot and fire.
7. There are different methods ... seasoning timber.
8. Seasoning naturally ... the open air or ... kilns presents no special problems.
9. Timber ... different districts varies ... hardness and this peculiarity is reflected ...
the working qualities.
10. Laminated timber beams offer high resistance ... fire.
VIII. Memorize the following synonyms:
unit = element = member;
aim = purpose;
bearing = supporting;
trained = skillful;
to fulfil = to carry out.
to place in position = to put in place;
artificial = man-made;
to get = to obtain;
timber = wood;
different = various.
IХ. Translate the sentences into English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Древесина – природный строительный материал.
Древесина легко обрабатывается.
Древесина – удобный материал для изготовления сборных конструкций.
Дуб – одна из старейших пород, использующихся для изготовления мебели.
Деревья всегда оказывали положительный эффект на людей и окружающую
среду.
6. У древесины много свойств, ценных для строительства.
7. Специальная химическая обработка практически устраняет недостатки древесины.
8. Имеются три вида сушки древесины: 1) природная, 2) искусственная и 3) химическая обработка.
9. Какие виды древесины наиболее востребованы в строительстве?
10. Как классифицируют древесину?
X.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is timber?
47
3. What positive properties does timber have?
4. What negative properties does timber have?
5. Speak about seasoning.
6. What kinds of timber do you know?
7. Why is timber construction traditional in many countries?
8. How is timber usually classified?
9. What is timber used in construction for?
10. Why is timber a unique building material?
XI.
Make up a plan of the text.
XII. Sum up the information about timber.
XIII. Speak about timber as an important natural and self-renewing building material.
Make use of the key word combinations and expressions.
Natural building material, valuable properties, seasoning of timber, preferable kinds,
traditional timber construction, hardwoods and softwoods, bearing elements, unique
and ecologically clean building material.
1. I`m going to speak about… - Я собираюсь рассказать о…
2. I`ll start by saying that… - Начну с того, что…
3. It is generally agreed that… - Общепринято, что…
4. It is important to stress… - Важно подчеркнуть…
LESSON 11
Phonetics: Compare the words and their meanings
Grammar: Participle I
Text: Plastics. Пластмасса
I.
Read the following words and translate them into Russian:
plastics ≠ plastic ≠ plastering;
wall ≠ well ≠will;
plan ≠ plane ≠ plain;
resin ≠ rubber;
hotel ≠ hostel;
II.
offer ≠ off;
colour ≠ column;
synthetic ≠ scientific;
date ≠ data;
theme ≠ them;
retain ≠ restore;
property ≠ produce;
modify ≠ mould;
by ≠ buy;
form ≠ from.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
plastics [`plæstiks] – пластмасса, синтетические материалы
48
discovery [dis`k٨vƏri] – открытие
to retain [ri'tein] – сохранять
to contain [kƏn`tein] – содержать
synthetic resin [sin`θetik`rezin] – искусственная смола
celluloid [selju:`loid] – целлулоид
to mould [`mould] – формовать
rigid [`ridჳid] – жесткий
impenetrable [im`penitrƏbl] – непроницаемый
flexible [`fleksƏbl] – гибкий
to derive from [di`raiv] – происходить от
thermosetting [θƏ:mou`setiŋ] – термореактивный
thermoplastic [θƏ:mou`plæstik] – термопластичный
to distinguish [dis`tingwi∫] – различать
behaviour [bi`heivjƏ] – поведение
fibrous material [`faibrƏs] – волокнистый материал
to replace [ri`pleis] – заменять
covering [`k٨veriŋ] – покрытие
wallpaper [`wO:lpeipƏ] – обои
opportunity [ƏpqƏtju:niti] – возможность
to offer [`OfƏ] – предлагать
to create [kri:`eit] – создавать
III.
Study the information about Participle I.
Model: Verb + ing = Participle I
To speak – speaking; говорить – говорящий
Причастие настоящего времени в функции определения может находиться:
a) перед определяемый словом: a moving object – движущийся предмет;
the boiling water changes into steam – кипящая вода превращается в пар;
b) после определяемого слова:
the workers building a new house – рабочие, строящие новый дом;
the water boiling in the vessel changes into steam – вода, кипящая в сосуде,
превращается в пар.
На русский язык переводится причастием действительного залога с суффиксами -ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -вш, -ш, -щий.
IV.
Form Participle I from the following verbs and translate them into Russian.
Model: to work – working – while working; работать – работающий – работая
49
to build, to involve, to use, to take part, to design, to decrease, to develop, to mix, to
distinguish, to prove, to make, to replace.
V.
Translate the following word combinations into Russian:
Model 1:
using new methods of construction;
receiving important information;
graduating from the University;
discovering new lands;
achieving good results.
Model 2:
the student carrying out the research;
the engineer using a new method;
the company building houses;
the workers mixing the raw materials;
the man achieving good results.
VI.
Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Participle I.
1. Plastics are artificial materials resulting from scientific discoveries.
2. They contain synthetic resin forming high molecular substances.
3. We use the word plastic meaning "capable of being moulded".
4. Plastics combine all the fine characteristics of a building material having good insulating properties.
5. Vinyl floor tiles requiring no polishing have remarkable hard wearing properties.
6. Paxtiles are fire-proof and have a high efficiency being heat insulators.
7. Plastic pipes withstanding normal industrial and domestic waste do not suffer from
corrosion.
8. Plastics having advantages over natural materials are of great importance today.
9. Using new methods scientists developed hard wearing plastics.
10. Decorating houses with plastics people create comfort.
VII. Read and translate the text.
PLASTICS
Plastics are the most important materials resulting from scientific discoveries.
They retain the plastic properties at definite stages of their production and contain
synthetic resin, forming high molecular substances. The word plastic is a general
50
name for a group of materials meaning "capable of being moulded". The plastics industry dates perhaps from 1870 with the initial production of celluloid.
There are now hundreds of different plastics, each with its own particular properties. Some plastics are hard, rigid and quite impenetrable by light even when they
are very thin. Others are flexible as celluloid even more transparent and yet extremely
hard. But all of them were developed by scientists from chemicals derived from coal,
petroleum, water and air.
By alloying, modifying and changing the structure of polymers technologists
produce different kinds of plastics. There are two basic groups of plastics: "thermosetting" and "thermoplastic" distinguished by their behaviour when heated.
Today plastics are of great importance because they offer a unique combination
of properties valuable for construction. They are: small unit weight, great mechanical
strength, durability, good insulating properties, variety of colours, resistance to corrosion and chemicals.
Plastics can be reinforced by fibrous materials such as glass fibre, nylon. Plastics are suitable for many purposes. In some cases they replace metal and glass. Plastics have wide application in construction as films, resins, tiles, tubes for cold water.
They are good as coverings for walls and ceilings instead of usual wallpaper in
schools, hotels and offices and decoration of kitchens and bathrooms.
Plastics give people the opportunity to create warmth, colour and variety. A
great future is open for plastics.
VIII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Plastics are the most important materials resulting ... scientific discoveries.
2. They retain the plastic properties ... definite stages ... their production.
3. The plastics industry dates ... 1870 ... the initial production ... celluloid.
4. ... alloying, modifying and changing the structure ... polymers technologists produce different kinds ... plastics.
5. Scientists developed plastics ... chemicals derived ... coal, water, air and petroleum.
6. There are two basic groups ... plastics.
7. Plastics are ... great importance ... they offer a unique combination ... properties
valuable ... construction.
8. Vinyl floor tiles are easy ... lay ... any surface.
9. Plastics have many advantages ... natural materials.
10. Coverings ... walls and ceilings are made ... plastics......usual wallpaper.
IX.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Пластмасса обладает уникальным сочетанием свойств, ценных для строительства.
2. Синтетические материалы используют не только как отделочные, но и как
строительные материалы.
51
3. Производство пластмассы не зависит от природных сырьевых материалов.
4. Пластики пригодны для массового производства.
5. Некоторые пластики прозрачны и легко склеиваются, прессуются и штампуются.
6. Благодаря цветовой гамме, пластики помогают людям создавать уют.
7. Пластмасса имеет много преимуществ над природными материалами.
8. Термопластик – это материал, который при нагревании размягчается и становится тягучим.
9. Термореактивный пластик при нагревании превращается в твердый, неплавкий материал.
10. В сочетании с какими материалами используют пластмассу в строительстве?
X.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What are plastics?
3. What properties do plastics retain?
4. What was the earliest form of plastics?
5. What kinds of plastics do you know?
6. What are the basic groups of plastics?
7. Why are plastics of great importance today?
8. What properties have plastics?
9. What are the advantages of plastics?
10. Where would you like to use plastics in construction?
XI.
Make up a plan of the text.
XII. Sum up the information about plastics.
XIII. Speak about plastics as decorative materials in construction. Make use of the
key word combinations and expressions.
Artificial material, scientific discoveries, synthetic resin, a unique combination of
properties, can be reinforced, replace metal and glass, coverings for walls, the opportunity to create warmth and variety, decorative materials.
The text is about… – В тексте идет речь о…
I think that… – Я думаю, что…
I`m quite sure… – Я совершенно уверен…
It should be mentioned that… – Следует упомянуть, что…
The key feature of…is… – Отличительной чертой…является…
Finally it can be observed… – В заключении можно отметить…
52
LESSON 12
Phonetics: [w], [θ], [ð]
Grammar: Perfect Active
Text: Reinforced Concrete. Железобетон
I.
Read and translatе the following words into Russian:
will, weight, water, wire, which, wall, widely, but whole, when, were, way;
method, strength, earthquake, thinner, north, south, nothing, birth;
together, others, further, there, weather, their, either, neither, those.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
reinforced concrete [ri:in`fo:st] – железобетон
compressive strength – прочность на сжатие
elastic properties [i`læstik] – упругие свойства
to introduce [intrƏ`dju:s] – вводить
reinforcement [ri:in`fo:smƏnt] – арматура
to consist – состоять, заключаться
wire mesh – проволочная сетка
system of rods – система стержней
performance – характеристика
то transform [træns`fo:m] – преобразовывать
continuity [kƏnti`nju:iti] – непрерывность
homogeneous [homƏ`dჳi:njƏs] – однородный
to distribute loads [dis`tribju:t] – распределять нагрузки
framework – каркас, конструкция
post-and-beam construction – каркасная конструкция
steel-framed structure – рамная стальная конструкция
consideration [kƏnsidƏ`rei∫n] – рассмотрение
assembly method – метод сборки
speed of construction – скорость строительства
to determine – определять
earthquake [`Ə:θkweik] – землетрясение
mould = shuttering [`∫٨tƏriŋ] – опалубка
productivity of labour [prOd٨k`tiviti] – производительность труда
II.
Study the model and compare the following sentences in their meanings.
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Model: to have + Participle II
He has just finished his experiment. – Он только что закончил опыт.
He had finished his experiment by 5 o'clock.
Он закончил опыт к 5 часам.
He will have finished his experiment by the end of this week.
Он закончит свой опыт к концу этой недели.
1. Не entered the University last year.
He has entered the University this year and is proud of being a student now.
2. I did not see him in May.
I have not seen him since May.
3. The workers will build this new house.
The workers will have built this new house by the beginning of the new year.
4. They applied new methods in their research.
They had already applied new methods in their research and got surprising results.
5. Did you pass your exams in winter? Have you passed your exam? With what
results?
IV.
Change Simple into Perfect Active and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The reinforcement in concrete will completely transform the performance of the
material.
2. Separate elements of a building acted together.
3. A frame from columns and beams distributed the loads and stresses of one part to
all the others.
4. The entire framework will become a unified whole.
5. Specialists will calculate the quantity and the distribution of reinforcement in concrete mix.
6. Reinforced concrete appeared in construction in the 19th century.
7. It offered technical advance over traditional post-and-beam construction.
8. Reinforced concrete constructions will economize many building materials.
9. Thanks to the continuity of the steel reinforcement separate elements of the building become homogenious and monolithic.
V.
Explain the word-building of the following words:
1) heavyweight;
2) reinforcement;
3) homogeneous;
4) upward;
5) consideration;
VI.
6) structurally;
7) framework;
8) fireproofing;
9) earthquake;
10) preferable.
Read and translate the text.
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REINFORCED CONCRETE
Reinforced concrete is a combination of two materials: steel and concrete. It is
strong, durable, heavyweight with high compressive strength and good elastic properties, air-, water-, gas-, heat-, fire-, and corrosion-resistant.
To introduce steel into concrete the method of reinforcement is generally used.
It consists in putting a wire mesh or a system of rods into the concrete in definite proportions. Specialists have to calculate the quantity and the distribution of reinforcement in concrete mix.
The reinforcement in concrete completely transforms the performance of the
material. Thanks to the continuity of the steel reinforcement, separate elements of a
building become homogeneous and monolithic. All elements act together and a reinforced concrete beam-and-slab system is structurally more efficient than a wooden
floor composed of separate joints. When a series of beams and columns are rigidly
connected together they form a frame which distributes the loads and stresses of one
part to all the others. And the entire framework becomes a unified whole.
Reinforced concrete offers technical advance over traditional post-and-beam
construction. Supports are smaller, spans are wider and there is no limit to height. Besides reinforced concrete walls can also be thinner.
In comparison with a steel-framed structure considerations of weight, assembly
method, speed of erection and other factors will help to determine which is more
preferable.
In such buildings as office blocks reinforced concrete has two potential advantages – it will not need further fireproofing and is earthquake-resistant where necessary. Reinforced concrete constructions are concreted in special forms called moulds
or shuttering. There are monolithic and precast reinforced concrete constructions.
They economize metal and timber, lower the cost of building and rise the productivity of labour. Reinforced concrete has been widely used in construction since the 19th
century throughout, as bearing elements: beams, floors, spans, columns, panels, etc.
Today reinforced concrete is one of the main building materials in construction.
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Reinforced concrete is a combination ... two materials: steel and concrete.
2. It's strong, durable, heavyweight ... high compressive strength and good elastic
properties.
3. ... introduce steel ... concrete the method ... reinforcement is generally used.
4. It consists ... putting a wire mesh or a system ... rods ... the concrete ... definite
proportions.
5. ... ... the continuity ... the steel reinforcement separate elements ... a building become homogeneous and monolithic.
6. Reinforced concrete offers technical advance ... traditional pоst-and-beam construction.
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7. Reinforced concrete constructions are concreted … special forms.
8. They lower the cost ... building and rise the productivity ... labour.
9. Reinforced concrete has been used ... construction ... the 19th century.
10. It is one ... the main building materials ... modern construction.
VIII. Match the English and Russian definitions, using Fig. 1:
1) outlet;
2) concrete backing;
3) placing the reinforcement
in foundations;
4) stirrup;
5) reinforcing mesh;
6) scheme.
a) арматурная сетка;
b) хомут;
c) схема;
d) бетонная подкладка;
e) выпуск;
f) установка арматуры в
фундаментах.
Fig. 1. Scheme of placing the reinforcement in foundations:
1 - reinforcing mesh of foundation – арматурная сетка фундамента;
2 - outlets – выпуски; 3 - stirrup – хомут; 4 - concrete backing – бетонная подкладка
IX. Study the scheme in Fig. 1 and describe placing the reinforcement in foundations.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is shown in Fig. 1?
What is required to place the reinforcement in foundations?
Where is the reinforcing mesh put on?
How are outlets fixed?
Characterize the resulting reinforced concrete foundation.
X.
Learn the dialogue.
A – Let's discuss placing the reinforcement in foundations.
B – With pleasure.
A – Do you think the process of placing the reinforcement in foundations is simple?
B – No, I don't. It can't be simple. It requires much knowledge about the behaviour
of the material under loads.
A – That's why specialists have to calculate the quantity and the distribution of reinforcement in concrete mix accurately.
B – And what is the essence of reinforcing concrete?
A – When concrete hardens the resulting material gains great strength.
B – I see, thank you.
XI.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Железобетон – основной конструктивный строительный материал.
2. Он появился на рубеже 19-20 веков и с тех пор используется в различных
видах строительства.
3. Арматуру укладывают в специальную форму (опалубку) и заливают бетоном.
4. Специалисты рассчитывают не только количество арматуры, но и ее распределение в бетоне.
5. Железобетон имеет преимущества стали и бетона: прочность стали на растяжение и высокую прочность на сжатие бетона.
6. Изготавливают два вида железобетонных конструкций: монолитные и сборные.
7. Железобетонные конструкции экономят металл, древесину и снижают стоимость строительства.
8. Железобетонные сооружения безопасны, экономичны и выдерживают большие нагрузки.
9. Текст о железобетоне, его свойствах, методе армирования, видах железобетонных конструкций, их преимуществах и широком применении в современном строительстве.
XII. Answer the following questions.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the text about?
What is reinforced concrete?
What properties does reinforced concrete have?
What is the method of reinforcement?
How does the reinforcement in concrete transform the performance of the material?
6. Why does reinforced concrete offer technical advance over traditional post-andbeam construction?
7. What potential advantages does reinforced concrete have in such buildings as office blocks?
8. What reinforced concrete constructions do you know?
9. What are their advantages?
10. What is reinforced concrete used in construction for?
XIII. Give the annotation of the text.
XIV. Speak about reinforced concrete – one of the main building materials in
modern construction. Make use of the key word combinations and expressions.
A combination of two materials, valuable properties, high compressive strength,
good elastic properties, the method of reinforcement, advance over…, reinforced
concrete constructions, monolithic and precast, their advantages, bearing elements
1. I`m going to speak about… – я собираюсь рассказать о…
2. First of all it is necessary to say that… – прежде всего необходимо сказать,
что…
3. Technical characteristics of…are… – техническими характеристиками…
являются…
4. The entire reinforced concrete framework acts as a unified whole… – вся железобетонная конструкция действует как единое целое…
LESSON 13
Grammar: Active VS Passive
Text: Cellular Concrete Blocks. Газобетонные блоки
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
A. The challenge of determining stresses within various sections of the Pantheon has
always excited both architects and engineers who (to interest) in the building. Technical design people (to recognize) that the long 143 foot span of the ancient dome (can
have) critical stress concentrations leading to a catastrophic failure of the structure,
but this (to happen).
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Nothing in life (to seem) perfect, and this is the case with the Pantheon. The dome
and walls (to crack). Concrete (to crack) under excessive tensile stress as viewed in a
hoop condition. A. Terenzio, an Italian superintendent of monuments, (to document)
cracking in the walls and dome during his inspection of the Pantheon in 1930.
B. The principles of producing concrete and understanding the laws of concrete behavior are well enough established through long experience and extensive research to
make it possible to design and erect structures that meet the recognized requirements
of engineering use and safety. There is still a need for continued research, however.
New questions constantly (to arise), and new methods and machines for construction
operations (to develop). If concrete is to meet increasingly higher expectations with
regard to durability and structural efficiency, and continue in the forefront as a building material, the new requirements need (to meet) by ever-increasing knowledge obtained from research and experience.
II. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Вчера я попросил преподавателя помочь мне.
2. Вчера меня попросили помочь его брату.
3. Прошлым летом я научил приятеля кататься на роликах.
4. Я посоветовал коллеге поискать эту информацию в Интернете.
5. Мне посоветовали обратиться к вам.
6. Я сдал отчет вовремя.
7. Они сдали вещи на хранение.
8. Руководство проектом поручено мне.
9. Ее не будет до вечера.
10. Результаты исследования обрабатываются на компьютере.
III. Learn the following words to the text:
evolve toxins [i`volv] – выделять токсины
air moisture – влажность воздуха
interstice [in`tƏ:stis] – промежуток
ensure [in`∫uƏ] – обеспечивать
promote – продвигать, способствовать
temperature lag – термическое сопротивление
geometrical adjectives – геометрические характеристики
porophore – порообразователь
power input – потребляемая мощность
exceed [ik`si:d] – превышать
saturation ["sætju:`rei∫Ən] – насыщение, насыщенность
IV.
Read and translate the text.
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CELLULAR CONCRETE BLOCKS (FOAMED CONCRETE,
GAS CONCRETE, FOAMED SILICATE)
Fig. 2. Cellular concrete blocks
A foamed silicate block is precast stone with interstice distributed evenly. Porous
structure provides the material with a variety of physical and mechanical properties
which make it an effective building material (see Fig. 2). Foamed silicate is fireresistant and durable. It does not rot, deteriorate, evolve toxins. Cellular gas concrete
maintains constant air moisture inside the structure due tomoisture absorption and
evolving. Air bubbles, occupying about 80 % of the material, ensure it high heatinsulating capacity which promotes reduction of heating costs up to 25-30 % and any
extra thermo-insulating building materials abandoned use. Foamed concrete temperature lag is three times greater than that of clay brick and 5 times greater than heavyweight concrete. External block wall of the blocks 375 mm wide ensures the required
standard temperature lag of Rt. = 2,5.
Accurate geometrical adjectives of the items allow adhesive solution-based
blocklaying. Sand, cement and porophore are used in foamed concrete and foamed
silicate production. Foamed silicate manufacturing methods require complicated and
expensive equipment. Cellular concrete blocks make the warmest walls. Thanks to
the embedded air cellular concrete (foamed concrete) walls heat-insulating characteristics are 3-5 times greater than those of bricks and 5 times greater than heavy-weight
concrete under the equal temperature conditions. Foamed silicate blocks applied instead of ceramic bricks for low structure walls allow heating power inputs saving to
35 %. Their frost-resistance is justified on the basis of fine porosity, ensuring reserve
volume which is filled up with expanding frozen ice and water without deterioration
of the material. Material is considered frost-resistant when its water saturation does
not exceed the critical value – 60 % of the mass. Though in practice, with proper
maintenance this value does not exceed 35 %.
V. Put in the correct prepositions.
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1. A foamed silicate block is precast stone … interstice distributed evenly.
2. Porous structure provides the material … a variety of physical and mechanical
properties which make it an effective building material.
3.Cellular gas concrete maintains constant air moisture … the structure due to moisture absorption and evolving.
4. Air bubbles, occupying about 80 % … the material, ensure it high heat-insulating
capacity which promotes reduction … heating costs up to 25-30 % and any extra
thermo-insulating building materials abandoned use.
5. Accurate geometrical adjectives … the items allow adhesive solution-based blocklaying.
6. Foamed silicate blocks applied instead of ceramic bricks … low structure walls allow heating power inputs saving to 35 %.
7. Their frost-resistance is justified … the basis of fine porosity.
8. Material is considered frost-resistant when its water saturation does not exceed the
critical value – 60 % … the mass.
VI. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Газосиликат представляет собой искусственный камень с равномерно распределенными порами – ячейками.
2. Газосиликат огнестоек, прочен, он не гниет, не стареет, не выделяет токсичных веществ.
3. За счет поглощения и отдачи влаги ячеистый газобетон поддерживает постоянную влажность воздуха внутри помещения.
4. Точные геометрические характеристики изделий позволяют вести кладку с
использованием клеевого раствора.
5. При изготовлении газосиликата используются песок, цемент и порообразователь.
6. Благодаря заключенному в порах воздуху теплоизоляционные свойства стен
из ячеистого бетона (газобетона) в 3 и более раз выше, чем у кирпича и в 5
раз выше, чем у тяжелого бетона при одинаковых температурных условиях.
7. Считается, что материал морозостоек, если его водонасыщение не превышает критической величины — 60 % от массы. На практике же, при правильной эксплуатации, эта величина не превышает 35 %.
8. Из газосиликата изготавливают блоки для кладки стен.
VII. Learn the following dialog.
A – Do you happen to know what is built of cellular concrete blocks?
B – Well, cottages are easily built of blocks. 5 workers build a 250m² country-house
in 40 days.
A – That’s something! Cellular concrete is easily treated, isn’t it?
B – Right. It’s easily drilled, sawed, nailed without creaking. You can groove it for
wiring without much effort.
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A – And what’s about mortar input?
B – It reduces by 5-7 times.
VIII. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is gas concrete?
3. What materials are used in foamed concrete and foamed silicate production?
4. What properties do gas concrete blocks have?
5. What is the performance of the material?
6. Why do gas concrete blocks offer technical advance over traditional bricks?
7. What potential advantages does gas concrete have in such buildings as countryhouses?
8. Characterize the cellular concrete blocks.
IX.
Make up a plan of the text.
Х. Give the annotation of the text and say what new information about cellular concrete blocks you have got.
LESSON 14
Grammar: Sequence of Tenses. Reported Speech
Text: The Future of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete. Будущее железобетона и преднапряженного бетона
I.Recall sequence of tenses in the English sentence
he works (is working) работает
(одновременное действие)
He says (that)
he worked (was working) работал
(предшествующее действие)
he will work (will be working) будет работать
(будущее время)
he worked (was working) работает
(одновременное действие)
He said (that)
he had worked работал
(предшествующее действие)
he would work (would be working) будет работать
(будущее действие)
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II Translate the following sentences into Russsin.
1. Tom says they were friends at school.
2. I was told that you had been good at Maths.
3. He added that he would take a correspondence course next year.
4. My cousin says Ann has just come back from the Caucuses.
5. I didn`t know that she had been to the Caucuses.
6. They say she had a lot of sightseeing there.
7. Ann says she has taken many photographs while travelling to the Caucuses.
8. I say it did her a lot of good.
9. She says she will come to see us next Sunday.
10. She said she would bring and show us the photographs.
11. Victor said he was very busy in Moscow.
12. Olga says she was staying at the Ritz Hotel on her holiday.
13. They said they were no longer interested in the discussion of that problem.
III.
Compare the following examples.
DIRECT SPEECH
Present Simple
`I like apples.`
Present Continuous
`It is raining.`
Present Perfect
`John has given up smoking.`
Shall/will
`I’ll come home late.`
Can/may
`She can sing well.`
INDIRECT SPEECH
Past Simple
He said (that) he liked apples.
Past Continuous
He said (that) it was raining.
Past Perfect
He said (that) John had given up smoking.
Should/would
He said (that) he would come home late.
Could/might
He said (that) she could sing well.
IV. Read the following extract taken from “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D.
Salinger and then act it out.
“Have a seat there, boy,” old Spencer said. He meant the bed. I sat down on it.
“How's your grippe, sir?” “Mmm…boy, if I felt any better I'd have to send for
the doctor,” old Spencer said. He started chuckling like a madman. Then he finally straightened himself out and said, “Why aren't you down at the game? I
thought this was the day of the big game.” “It is. I was. Only, I just got back
from New York with the fencing team,” I said. “So you're leaving us, eh?” he
said. “Yes, sir. I guess I am.” He started going into this nodding routine. “What
did Dr. Turner say to you, boy? I understand you had quite a little chat.” “Yes,
we did. We really did. I was in his office for around two hours, I guess.” “What'd
63
he say to you?” “Oh... well, about Life being a game and all. And how you
should play it according to the rules. “Has Dr. Turner written to your parents
yet?” old Spencer asked me. “He said he was going to write them Monday.”
“Have you yourself communicated with them?” “No, sir, I haven't communicated
with them, because I'll probably see them Wednesday night when I get home.”
“And how do you think they'll take the news?” “Well... they'll be pretty irritated
about it,” I said. “They really will. This is about the fourth school I've gone to.” I
shook my head. I shake my head quite a lot. “Boy!” I said. I also say “Boy!”
quite a lot. Partly because I have a lousy vocabulary and partly because I act
quite young for my age sometimes.
V. Render the dialogue between old Spenser and Holden in reported speech.
VI. Rewrite the following narration in dialog.
In the present instance, we all talked as if we were going to have a long
swim every morning. George said it was so pleasant to wake up in the boat in the
fresh morning, and plunge into the limpid river. Harris said there was nothing
like a swim before breakfast to give you an appetite. He said it always gave him
an appetite. George said that if it was going to make Harris eat more than Harris
ordinarily ate, then he should protest against Harris having a bath at all. He said
there would be quite enough hard work in towing sufficient food for Harris up
against stream, as it was. I urged upon George, however, how much pleasanter it
would be to have Harris clean and fresh about the boat, even if we did have to
take a few more hundredweight of provisions; and he got to see it in my light,
and withdrew his opposition to Harris's bath. Agreed, finally, that we should take
THREE bath towels, so as not to keep each other waiting. For clothes, George
said two suits of flannel would be sufficient, as we could wash them ourselves, in
the river, when they got dirty (By Jerome K. Jerome “Three Men in a Boat”).
VII. Scheme-read the text. Write out all the unknown words and translate them into
Russian using a good dictionary.
THE FUTURE OF REINFORCED
AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
One may ask what will be the future of reinforced concrete and on which
factors progress will depend. Ordinary reinforced concrete has stood the trial of
time for more than half a century and a great many remarkable structures have
been built of the material. Prestressed and partially-prestressed concrete have, for
their part, technical and sometimes economical advantages which are incontestable,
but the period during which the structures built by these methods have been ob64
served is relatively short. The small margin sometimes allowed between the usual
working stress and the elastic limits and stress at failure of high-tensile steel bars
sometimes caused doubt about the behaviour of such structures with time, particularly structures submitted to intense vibrations or exposed to indefinite repetitions
of loads. The possibility of the rusting of the steel should also be considered, particularly if it is protected by grout of doubtful efficiency. It may also be noted that
the application of imposed loads does not always have a negligible effect on the
stresses in the steel, for example in railway sleepers, and this depends on the care
with which the work is done. All these factors have an effect on the long-term
behaviour of prestressed concrete.
Self-stressing, which has the practical advantage of not needing mechanical
means of application, is limited in its application by the relatively small force exerted by the expansive cements, the first tests of which date from about fifteen years
ago. Research is now going on to obtain much greater expansive forces.
In other ways progress is certainly possible in improving the quality of steel
for reinforced and prestressed concrete, as well as in deformed bars and anchors.
But above all it is the quality of cements to which attention must be devoted. Concrete of low tensile strength is an incomplete material that it is necessary to reinforce or prestress. When we have binders which have some of the qualities now
lacking, the use of reinforcement will diminish. Concrete which is more adherent,
more ductile, with greater resistance to strain, possessing an expansion greater than
its shrinkage may be much more desirable than any improvements in reinforcement. Methods now in use mark but a step, however undeniably glorious, in the
art of construction.
VIII. Translate the text orally.
IX. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Technical and economical advantages of prestressed and partially-prestressed
concrete have been discovered not so long ago. /_________________T/F
2. Prestressed and partially-prestressed structures are not durable due to the limited
elastic properties of the material. /_________________T/F
3. Prestressed and partially-prestressed structures mustn’t be exposed to intense vibrations because of the steel rusting. /_________________T/F
4. So that to improve the quality of prestressed concrete much attention must be devoted to the quality of cements and steel. /_________________T/F
X. Match the following terms with their definitions.
high-tensile
stress at failure
расчетное напряжение
железобетон
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reinforced concrete
elastic limits
working stress
предел упругости
высокопрочный
напряжение разрушения
XI. Translate the text in writing.
XII. Make up a plan of the text.
XIII. Give the summary of the text.
XIV. Speak on the future of reinforced and prestressed concrete.
LESSON 15
Phonetics: [٨], [a:], [o:]
Grammar: Perfect Passive
Text: Parts of a Building. Части здания
I.
Read and translate the following words and word combinations:
some, public, covered, does, other, multistoreyed, industrial, structure, constructive,
function, come, number, study, confront, subject, result;
vast, after, past, architect, rafter, last, part, are, arch, task, plant, dark, ask;
more, order, all, form, boarding, wall, floor, also, for, always.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations:
to devote [di`vout] – посвящать
creative energies [`enƏdჳiz] – творческие усилия
to reflect – отражать
society [sƏ`saiƏti] – общество
art-form – образец искусстваe
to surround [sƏ`raund] – окружать
part of a building – часть здания
vast majority – громадное большинство
to provide shelter– обеспечить кров
choice – выбор
excavation [ekskƏvei∫n] – котлован
to dig (dug, dug) – копать
foundation [faundei∫n] – фундамент
to keep (from) – предохранять
soil – грунт
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framework [`freimwƏ:k] – каркас
stability [stƏ`biliti] – устойчивость
to carry the loads – нести нагрузку
to clothe [`klouð] – заполнять
to divide into stories – делить на этажи
to support – поддерживать
to protect – защищать
wall – стена
floor – перекрытие
roof – крыша
to tie – связывать
firmness [`fƏ:mnis] – устойчивость
bitumen felt [`bitjumin felt] – битумный войлок
wood = timber – древесина
tiling [`tailiŋ] – черепица
III.
Study the model and compare the following sentences in their meanings.
Model: to have + been + Participle II
I have just been asked some questions.
Мне только что задали несколько вопросов.
She had been asked some questions before the lecture began.
Ей задали несколько вопросов до начала лекции.
She will have been asked some questions before the lecture begins.
Eй будет задано несколько вопросов перед началом лекции.
1. In order to build a house first an excavation was dug.
In order to build a house first an excavation had already been dug.
2. Plans for building a house are drawn by an architect.
Plans for building the house have already been drawn by an architect
3. Then a framework will be raised.
The framework will have been raised by Friday.
4. Floors were made of timber ecologically clean building material.
Floors had been made of timber after the test's results.
5. Every detail of a house is carefully planned.
Every detail of the house has just been carefully examined.
IV.
Change Simple into Perfect Passive and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Modern projects were paid much attention to.
2. The construction of a residential house for one family was completed.
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3. Many building materials will be used to decorate the facades of old structures.
4. What was done first when building a house?
5. Buildings were designed either to live in or to work at.
6. The foundation will be constructed to keep the walls and floors from the contact
with soil.
7. New building materials were not divided into three groups.
8. Wood, metal, tiling will be recommended for roofs.
V.
Read and translate the text.
PARTS OF A BUILDING
Since the beginning of civilization man has always been a builder, devoting
creative energies to the construction of buildings to live in and to work at. A building
reflects the society of its time more than any other art-form.
The meaning of any building depends on the materials used and the function it
is designed to perform. The vast majority of buildings consist of external walls, surrounding an interior space and covered by a roof to provide shelter.
Three basic factors - availability, physical properties and cost determine the
initial choice of a building. The main parts of a building are a foundation, a framework, floors and a roof.
In order to build a house first an excavation must be dug. After that the foundation is constructed to keep the walls and floors from the contact with soil. It may be
of stone, bricks, concrete. Then a framework is raised.
A framework is the part of a building on which the stability of the structure depends. This part of a building carries the loads from the roof and floors. The framework is clothed with various materials in the form of panels. Floors divide the building into stories. They may be of timber, reinforced concrete or other materials. The
floors are supported on beams. A roof is the topmost part of a building. Its function is
to cover the building and protect it from rain and wind. Roofs also tie the walls and
give strength and firmness to the structure. Wood, metal, tiling, bitumen felt and
other materials are used for roofs.
VI.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Memorize the following antonyms:
to begin – to stop;
7) expensive – inexpensive = cheap;
the first – the last;
8) favourable – unfavourable;
to fulfil – to fail;
9) positive – negative;
complete – incomplete;
10) useful – useless;
ancient – modern;
11) valuable – invaluable;
strong – weak;
12) flexible – inflexible.
VII. Put in the correct prepositions.
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1. Man has always been a builder, devoting creative energies ... the construction ...
buildings ... live in and ... work at.
2. The meaning ... any building depends ... the materials used and the function it is
designed ... perform.
3. The main parts ... a building are a foundation, a framework, floors and a roof.
4. ... ... ... build a house first an excavation is dug.
5. The foundation is constructed ... keep the walls and floors ... the contact ... soil.
6. A framework is the part ... a building ... which the stability ... the structure depends.
7. Floors divide the building ... stories.
8. A roof is the topmost part ... a building.
9. Its function is ... cover the building and protect it ... rain and wind.
10. Wood, metal, tiling are used ... roofs.
VIII. Match the English and Russian definitions using Fig. 3:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
IХ.
a multistoreyed house;
plinth floor;
cornice;
roof boarding;
strip foundation;
constructive scheme;
intermediate floor;
landing;
external wall;
attic floor;
internal wall;
flight;
rafter.
a) наружная стена;
b) чердачное перекрытие;
c) карниз;
d) обрешетка кровельного покрытия;
e) цокольное перекрытие;
f) ленточный фундамент;
g) лестничный марш;
h) стропило;
i) внутренняя стена;
j) конструктивная схема;
k) лестничная площадка;
l) многоэтажный дом;
m) междуэтажное перекрытие.
Learn the dialogue.
A – Can you say a few words about the main constructive elements of a building?
B – Certainly. The main constructive elements are a foundation, walls, floors, a roof.
A – And what part of a building is the most important?
B – Well, all parts of a building are equally important. Do you agree?
A – Surely. What building materials would you prefer for a house?
B – I think that concrete blocks are better for the foundation and bricks are good for
bearing walls.
A – And what about floors and a roof?
B – Well, reinforced concrete is the most suitable material for floors and slate is the
proper material for a slanting roof.
69
X.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Фундамент – опорная (bearing = supporting) часть здания, которая передает (to
transmit) нагрузки от здания на грунт.
2. Наружные стены служат для ограждения помещений (to enclose rooms) от
внешней среды и для защиты (to protect from) от атмосферных воздействий.
3. Внутренние стены служат для отделения (to serve as partitions) одних помещений от других.
4. Стены бывают несущими и самонесущими.
5. Перекрытия бывают цокольными, междуэтажными и чердачными.
6. Перекрытия делят (to divide into) здание на этажи.
7. Перегородки делят (to divide into) внутреннее пространство здания на отдельные помещения на одном этаже.
8. Лестницы служат для сообщения (communication) между этажами.
9. Часть лестницы между площадками называется (to call)лестничным маршем.
XI.
Speaking practice. What can you say about:
– the constructive scheme of a multistoreyed house;
– the main constructive elements of residential, public and industrial buildings;
– the construction process of a multistoreyed house.
XII. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What are the constructive elements of a building?
3. What is a foundation?
4. What is the function of the foundation?
5. What materials are used for foundation?
6. What is a framework?
7. What is the function of the framework?
8. What is the framework clothed with?
9. What is the function of a floor?
10. What materials are floors made of?
11. What is the topmost part of a building?
12. What is the function of a roof?
13. What is the most important part of a building?
XIII. Sum up the information of the text.
XIV. Speak about the main parts of a building and their functions.
70
Fig. 3. Constructive scheme of a multistoreyed house:
1 – strip foundation – ленточный фундамент; 2 – external wall – наружная стена;
3 – internal wall – внутренняя стена; 4 - plinth floor – цокольное перекрытие;
5 - intermediate floor – междуэтажное перекрытие; 6 – attic floor – чердачное перекрытие;
7 – rafter – стропило; 8 – roof boarding – обрешетка кровельного покрытия,
9 – landing – лестничная площадка; 10 – flight – лестничный марш; 11 – eave = cornice – карниз
LESSON 16
Phonetics: [kw], [ks], [gz], [ai]
Grammar: Word Order
71
Text: Walls. Стены
I.
Read and translate the following words.
square, quickly, quality, question, quantity, require, liquid, equal, request;
text, next, box, six, fix, mixing, extra, complex, expect, explain;
exam, exist, example, exact, exceed, excellent, examinant, except;
high, right, light, mild, might, flight, kind, find, minus, mine.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
wall [`wo:l] – стена, обносить стеной
to enclose areas [in`klouz] -– ограждать пространства
to resist loads – воспринимать нагрузки
upper floor – верхнее перекрытие
to serve [`sƏ:v] – служить
partition [pa:`ti∫n] – перегородка
according to – согласно, в соответствии с
loadbearing [`loudbεƏriŋ] – несущий
non-loadbearing – ненесущий
то rest – опираться
unit – элемент, конструкция
entire construction [in`taiƏ] – все сооружение, целое здание
inside wall – внутренняя стена
outside wall – наружная стена
dwelling – дом, жилище
solid – сплошной
cavity = hollow – пустотелый
introduction – введение
because of – из-за
insulating value ['insjuleitiŋ`vælju:] – изоляционные свойства
precast unit – сборный элемент
building site – строительная площадка
quantity [`kwOntiti] – количество
simple erection – простой монтаж
III.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. A revolutionary technique has made possible the manufacture of quality wood
flooring at extremely economical price.
2. The strength of brickwork construction depends both upon that of the brick and
that of the mortar.
3. Easy of cleaning, attractive colourful patterns make new plastics ideal for shelves,
table tops and other surfaces.
4. The gypsum concrete sets approximately 15 min after pouring.
72
5. One of the particular advantages of gypsum concrete is its fire-resistance.
6. Paints based on natural materials are showing very high promise.
7. Research in Germany has led to the development of a composite building material
called "aluminium plywood".
8. New methods of construction bring their own specific difficulties.
9. When a building is finished, the work is praised - its design, its quality and its
price.
10. An early example in England of the glass screen wall is in the Factory of Boots at
Beeston in Nottinghamshire, built in 1932 to the design of Sir Owen Williams.
IV.
Study the structure of an English sentence.
4. Определение
The attribute
1. Подлежащее
The subject
3. Дополнение
The object
2. Сказуемое
The predicate
0, 5. Обстоятельство
The adverbial modifier
Model:
1
2
3
1. Builders construct houses.
2. Now the future builders enthusiastically construct attractive multistorey houses.
3. This academic year the future builders of our faculty enthusiastically construct
very attractive multistorey houses with all modern amenities.
V.
Explain the word-building of the following words:
firmness, framework, loadbearing, inside, wall-slab, outside, introduction, precast,
sometimes, topmost, traditional, fifteenth, enlarge, successfully.
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VI. Form the verbs from the following nouns and translate them:
application, increase, compression, difference, weight, requirement, decoration,
economy, builder, appearance, reinforcement, designer, engineer, mortar.
VII. Memorize the following antonyms:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
artificial – natural;
to construct – to destroy;
compound – simple;
to give – to take;
internal – external;
6) possible – impossible;
7) fine – coarse;
8) light – heavy;
9) advantage – disadvantage;
10) initial – final.
VIII. Read and translate the text.
WALLS
The function of the walls is to enclose areas, to resist loads from the floors and
roofs or to serve as partitions inside the building. Walls may be classified according
to their functions or type of construction and materials used. As to the functions there
are loadbearing and non-loadbearing walls, or partitions.
An outside wall rests directly on the foundation wall forming a bearing unit for
the upper floors and the roof and an enclosure for entire construction.
Inside walls may or may not support other parts of the structure. They serve as
partitions for several rooms inside the dwelling. Walls may be constructed as solid
elements or they may be of hollow or cavity type. Solid walls are made of brickwork,
sometimes reinforced by the introduction of steel in the form of rods or wires. Cavity
walls are the type of construction generally preferred to solid because of their high
heat insulating value and economy. There are also whole precast units in the form of
wall-slabs mostly used for partitions but loadbearing precast units with windows and
doors are produced and brought to the building site.
Low weight, good heat insulation, small quantities of mortar required and simple erection have made these wall units very popular among builders.
Different types of houses are given in Fig. 4. and Fig. 5.
IX. Match the English and Russian definitions using Fig. 4.:
a) наружная стеновая панель;
1) internal wall;
b) конструктивная схема;
2) a large-panel house;
c) крупнопанельный дом;
3) floor slab;
d) панель перекрытия;
4) longitudinal loadbearing wall;
e) внутренняя стена;
5) external wall;
f) продольная несущая стена.
6) constructive scheme.
g) Сделанный из сборных бетонных
7) made of precast concrete ele74
ments.
элементов
X.
Read the information given below and answer the following questions.
One can see different types of houses in our city: frameless houses and those
with frames. This is a frameless large-panel house with three longitudinal loadbearing
walls: two external walls and one internal wall. External walls of the house are made
of precast concrete elements.
Partitions are made of gypsum-slag concrete. Reinforced concrete panels one
storey height are used for internal longitudinal loadbearing walls of the house.
Intermediate floors rest on external and internal walls. Such constructive
scheme is used for public and industrial multistorey buildings.
1. What kind of house is shown in Fig. 4?
2. What structures may have the constructive scheme with three longitudinal loadbearing walls?
3. What materials are used for external walls?
4. What are partitions made of?
5. What materials are used for internal walls?
6. What is the information about?
Fig. 4. Constructive scheme of a large-panel house with longitudinal loadbearing walls:
1 – external wall slab – наружная стеновая панель; 2 – floor slab – панель перекрытия;
3 – internal wall – внутренняя стена; 4 – a large-panel house – крупнопанельный дом;
75
5 – with longitudinal loadbearing wall – с продольной несущей стеной
XI.
Study the constructive scheme shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Constructive scheme of a large-panel house with transverse loadbearing walls:
1 – floor slab – панель перекрытия; 2 – external wall slab – наружная стена;
3 – partition slab – перегородочная панель;
4 – with transverse loadbearing wall – с поперечной несущей стеной
XII. Match the English and Russian equivalents using Fig. 5:
1)
2)
3)
4)
transverse loadbearing wall;
external wall;
partition slab;
floor slab.
a)
b)
c)
d)
панель перекрытия;
перегородочная панель;
поперечная несущая стена;
наружная стеновая панель.
XIII. Study the information and answer the questions.
This is a frameless large-panel house with transverse loadbearing walls.
All main elements of the house - transverse partitions, internal longitudinal walls and
external walls - are loadbearing.
Floor slabs have supports from four sides.
Partitions and floor slabs are made of heavy concrete.
76
1. What kind of house is shown in Fig. 5?
2. What structures may have the constructive scheme with transverse loadbearing
walls?
3. What materials are used for partitions and floor slabs?
4. Are all main elements in the house loadbearing or non-loadbearing?
5. What is the information about?
XIV. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What are walls?
3. What are the functions of the walls?
4. How are walls classified?
5. What is a loadbearing wall?
6. What is a non-loadbearing wall?
7. What materials are solid walls made of?
8. What are the advantages of cavity walls?
9. What frameless large-panel structures do you know?
10. What constructive scheme has the house you live in?
XV. Speak about walls.
LESSON 17
How to work with the text. Как работать с текстом
Text: Structural Steel. Строительная сталь
I.Study the information about the summary and scheme-reading of the text.
Summary is a short account giving the main points of the original in your own words.
Аннотация – это краткое изложение основных пунктов оригинала своими словами.
HOW TO WORK WITH THE TEXT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Look through the text to understand the information.
Divide the text into logical parts.
Read the first paragraph of the text very attentively.
Write out all the unknown words.
Translate them into Russian using a dictionary or dictionaries.
Choose the key words and word combinations from the first paragraph.
Make up a plan.
77
8. Say what this paragraph is about.
II.
Read and translate the text in writing
STRUCTURAL STEEL
Steel has come into general use with the development of industry. Its manufacture requires special equipment and skilled labour. Structural Steel is used exclusively in the framing of many buildings because of its versatility, its tremendous
loadbearing capacity, and its economy of qualities that make it ideal for all types of
construction. Small wonder that today’s architects and engineers are specifying Structural Steel frameworks for more and more schools, churches, and small buildings.
Just look at these advantages:
1. Structural Steel is the strongest, yet most economical of load bearing materials.
2. Structural Steel will withstand more abuse than other structural materials,
effectively resisting torsion, tension, compression, and shear.
3. Once enclosed in buildings, it lasts indefinitely – requiring no maintenance.
4. Structural Steel may be riveted, bolted or welded … can be erected in any
weather in which men can work.
5. Steel members are fabricated indoors; therefore, weather can have no effect
on the quality of workmanship.
III.
Ask as many questions to the text as you can.
IV.
Write down the summary of the text.
LESSON 18
Control work
Variant 1
I.
Translate the text in writing, using the following words and word combinations:
floor – перекрытие
dead load – постоянная нагрузка
live load – переменная нагрузка
to superimpose – прикладывать нагрузку
basement – подвал
upper – верхний
attic – чердак
to satisfy = to meet requirements – удовлетворять требованиям
sufficient – достаточный
78
rigidity – жесткость
sound insulation – звукоизоляция
obvious – очевидный
to lay along – лежать вдоль
to allow – позволять
high speed – высокоскоростной
rib – ребро
steel beam – стальная балка
to erect – монтировать, сооружать
design – назначение, конструкция
cladding – заполнитель каркаса
FLOORS
Floors are the structural elements which divide a building into stories and carry
the dead load or the weight of the floor itself and the superimposed or live load. According to the design they are classified as basement floors, upper floors, and attic
floors. But all of them must satisfy some common requirements: sufficient strength
and rigidity, good sound insulation, fire resistance. It is obvious that basement and
attic floors must be warmed while the floors in sanitary units must be water and gas
resistant. As to the materials used floors are divided into three groups: timber, reinforced concrete floors and floors laid along steel beams.
Timber floors are simple to erect but they are liable to fire, to rot and are not so
durable as others. Therefore they are generally used in dwellings and service buildings.
Reinforced concrete floors have many advantages which allow to use them especially in big constructions of industrial design. Reinforced concrete floors are not
liable to fire, they are strong, durable and economical. Precast reinforced concrete
floors developed by Russian designers meet the requirements of high speed industrial
construction. Most widely used monolithic floors are ribbed and beamless. Floors laid
along steel beams are usually made with fireproof cladding of precast or monolithic
reinforced concrete slabs. There are also combined precast-monolithic floors and
many other kinds besides the three main groups mentioned.
II.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Какие конструктивные элементы делят здание на этажи?
2. Перекрытия делятся на подвальные, верхние и чердачные.
3. Деревянные перекрытия имеют следующие недостатки: они подвержены
гниению и горению.
4. Скоростное строительство требует применения сборных и железобетонных
перекрытий.
5. Какие материалы используют для перекрытий?
79
6. Перекрытия могут быть комбинированными – из сборных и монолитных
элементов.
7. Общие требования к перекрытиям следующие: достаточная прочность и жесткость, хорошая звукоизоляция и огнестойкость.
8. Перекрытия классифицируют согласно конструкциям и используемым материалам.
III.
Write down the summary of the text.
IV.
Give synonyms to the following words:
1) element; 2) to classify; 3) timber; 4) monolithic; 5) generally; 6) to meet requirements; 7) profession; 8) basic; 9) speed; 10) method; 11) material; 12)dwelling; 13)
various; 14) a lot of; 15) to define; 16) for example; 17) to apply; 18) thank to.
V.
Put 10-15 questions to the text.
Variant 2
I.
Translate the text in writing, using the following words and word combinations:
roof = roofing – крыша, кровля
covering – покрытие
to keep out – предохранять
to tie the walls – связывать стены
wind load – ветровая нагрузка
to sustain – выдерживать
to arrange – располагать
intermediate – промежуточный
purlin – обрешетина крыши
fabricated elements – готовые изделия серийного производства
slate – шифер
felt – войлок
lower layer – нижний слой
beneath – под, ниже
to impregnate – пропитывать
surface – поверхность
tar – смола
inclination – уклон
steep – крутой
pitch – уклон ската крыши
80
to govern – определять
ROOFS
A roof is the topmost part of a building. It is a covering constructed over the
building to keep out rain and wind. Roofs also tie the walls and give strength and
firmness to the structure.
The constructive design of a roof is to resist wind loads and to sustain snow
loads. A roof consists of bearing members resisting dead and live loads and of waterproof covering (roofing). Since the main bearing elements are arranged at a relatively
large distance and are themselves unable to carry the covering, some intermediate
members are introduced for this purpose. They are called purlins. The purlins are
usually made of timber and they rest on the bearing construction.
Roofing is the covering placed on the top of the structural part of the roof. It may
be of wood, metal, tiling or fabricated units. Slates and tiles are largely used as coverings being fire and water resistant, non-conductors of heat, durable and economical.
Different kinds of felts are used for the lower layers of multiple layer roofs beneath tiles or slates. There are different kinds of felts:
Impregnated bitumen felts, sanded bitumen felts, which are surfaced with
sands, tar felts and others. Roofs are built varying in inclination from nearly horizontal to the steeply pitched. The flat roofs are often used in buildings of cities not only
as coverings but also for play-grounds, cafe and the like. The inclination of the roof is
made as flat as possible for the purpose of economizing the timber and covering material. The pitch of the roof is governed first by climatic conditions, secondly by the
covering material used and by architectural requirements. For any given covering the
milder the climate the flatter the pitch that may be given to the roof.
II.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Крыша – самая верхняя часть здания.
2. Она предохраняет здание от внешних воздействий: дождя, ветра и снега.
3. Несущие элементы крыши воспринимают постоянную и переменную нагрузку.
4. На каком расстоянии расположены основные несущие элементы?
5. По расчету конструкции крыша должна воспринимать ветровые нагрузки и
выдерживать нагрузку от снега.
6. Какой материал обычно используют для обрешетки?
7. Для экономии кровельных материалов уклон ската крыши делают как можно
более плоским.
8. Для кровли используют древесину, металл, черепицу и другие материалы.
III.
Write down the summary of the text.
IV.
Give antonyms to the following words:
81
1) strong; 2) light; 3) coarse; 4) precast; 5) construct; 6) part; 7) bearing; 8) problematic; 9) profit; 10) often; 11) unable; 12) form; 13) past; 14) inner; 15)possible; 16)
rapidly; 17) monolithic; 18) rare.
V.
Put 10-15 questions to the text.
LIST OF NON-STANDARD VERBS
Таблица нестандартных глаголов
Base Form
arise
be
bear
become
begin
bend
bind
break
bring
build
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
deal
dig
do
draw
feel
find
fit
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
grind
grow
have
hear
Past Simple
arose
was/were
bore
became
began
bent
bound
broke
brought
built
burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
felt
found
fit
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
ground
grew
had
heard
Past Participle
arisen
been
borne
become
begun
bent
bound
broken
brought
built
burnt (burned)
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
felt
found
fit
forgot(ten)
forgiven
frozen
got
given
gone
ground
grown
had
heard
82
Translation
возникать; происходить
быть
нести; выдерживать груз
становиться
начинать
сгибаться
связывать
ломать(ся); разрушать(ся)
привозить
строить
жечь; обжигать
покупать
ловить
выбирать
приходить; приезжать
стоить
резать
иметь дело; рассказывать
копать
делать; исполнять
чертить; рисовать
чувствовать
находить; обнаруживать
устанавливать
забывать
прощать
замораживать; застывать
достигать; получать
давать; предоставлять
ходить; двигаться
измельчать; дробить
расти; увеличиваться
иметь
слышать
hide
hold
hid
held
hidden
held
keep
know
lay
lead
light
learn
lose
make
mean
meet
kept
knew
laid
led
lit
learnt
lost
made
meant
met
kept
known
laid
led
lit
learnt
lost
made
meant
met
pay
put
read
ring
rise
run
say
see
seek
send
set
shake
show
shrink
shut
slide
speak
spend
paid
put
read
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sent
set
shook
showed
shrank
shut
slid
spoke
spent
paid
put
read
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sent
set
shaken
shown
shrunk
shut
slid
spoken
spent
spread
stand
take
teach
tell
spread
stood
took
taught
told
spread
stood
taken
taught
told
think
understand
undertake
wear
thought
understood
undertook
wore
thought
understood
undertaken
worn
83
прятать; скрывать
держать; удерживать;
проводить (конференцию)
хранить
знать
класть; закладывать
вести; приводить
зажигать; освещать
узнавать; учить
терять
делать; заставлять
означать
удовлетворять (требованиям)
платить
устанавливать
читать
звонить
вставать; возникать
бегать
говорить; сказать
видеть; понимать
искать; стремиться
посылать
помещать; устанавливать
трясти; вибрировать
показывать
давать усадку
закрывать
скользить
говорить; разговаривать
тратить; проводить (время)
распространять(ся)
стоять; держаться
брать; принимать
учить; преподавать
сказать; сообщать; рассказывать
думать; полагать
понимать; заключать
предпринимать
изнашивать(ся); истирать(ся)
win
write
won
wrote
won
written
добывать; приобретать
сочинять; писать
TOPICS FOR SPEECH PRACTICE
Темы для речевой практики
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Speak about students’ life at Cambridge.
Tell your partner about your first session and winter holidays.
Speak about cements, Portland cement, being the most important of them.
Brick was the first artificial building material made by man, wasn`t it?
Why are aggregates necessary for construction?
Concrete is one of the constructive building materials. What innovations has
concrete led to?
- reinforced concrete (a combination of steel and concrete);
- prestressed concrete (an entirely new application of old materials).
Tell your group-mates
-how to mix concrete by hand;
-how to prepare a foundation for a brick wall.
Prove that stone is the oldest building material known to a man and successfully
used by him.
Speak about cement and concrete as
- the basis of modern engineering practice;
- the great industrial importance of concrete;
- the interrelation of the cement and concrete production.
Why is glass one of the valuable building materials today? What makes glass
unique?
Speak about timber as one of the most important natural building materials.
Compare glass and timber considering their similarity, their difference
and future application.
Compare glass and plastics using the previous plan.
Do you agree that a great future is open for plastics? Why do / don`t you think so?
Read the information about glass and prove that glass is no longer a fragile substance.
Reinforced concrete is one of the main building materials in modern construction, isn`t it?
What are the main parts of a building? What part is the most important?
Structural steel is widely used in modern construction. Give your pros and cons.
Why do the future engineers study different building materials at the University?
Characterize building materials used in the world`s infrastructure.
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
Сегодня знание иностранного языка – необходимое условие для успешной карьеры специалиста любого профиля.
84
Поэтому важно развивать навыки чтения, адекватного перевода и обсуждения англоязычных публикаций для извлечения полезной информации и использование ее в профессионально-практической деятельности.
Учебный материал пособия связан с будущей профессией студентов и является источником специализированных знаний, которые помогут обучающимся самостоятельно изучать литературу по специальности, заниматься научно-исследовательской деятельностью, расширят общий кругозор, позволят
участвовать в совместных проектах с зарубежными партнерами и откроют
новые горизонты для дальнейшего карьерного роста.
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК
1. Английский язык для инженеров: учеб. для вузов/ Т.Ю. Полякова,
Е.В. Синявская, О.И. Тынкова и др. – 7-е издание. – М.: Высш. шк., 2009. – 463 с.
2. Восковская, А.С. Английский язык для вузов: учеб. пособие / А.С.
Восковская, Т.А. Карпова – 2-е изд. – Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2007. – 349 с.
3. Голицынский, Ю.Б. Грамматика: сборник упражнений / Ю.Б. Голицынский,
Н.А. Голицынская – 6-е изд., - Каро, 2008 – 544 с.
4. Карпова, Л.В. В мире строительства: учеб. пособие по английскому
языку для студентов-строителей / Л.В. Карпова, Е.В Терехова. – 2-е изд. –
Воронеж, 2007. – 138 с.
5.Английский язык для строительных вузов: учеб. пособие / под общей ред.
З.Е. Фоминой; Воронеж. гос. арх.-строит. ун-т. – Воронеж, 2006 – ч.1. Unit 1. – 147 с.
6. Рубцова, М.Г. Чтение и перевод английской научной и технической
литературы: лексико-грамматический справочник / М.Г. Рубцова – М.: Астрель:
АСТ, 2006. – 382 с.
7. Bonamy David. Technical English. 1 [Текст]: Course Book / Bonamy
David. – Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education Limited, 2008. – 127 p.
8. Bonamy David. Technical English. 2 [Текст]: Course Book / Bonamy
David. – Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education Limited, 2008. – 127 p.
9. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. – 300 p.
10. MacMillan Exam Skills for Russia: Reading and Writing Teacher`s Guide.
MacMillan Publishers Limited 2008. – 223 p.
11. MacMillan Exam Skills for Russia: Speaking and Listening Teacher`s
Guide. MacMillan Publishers Limited 2008. – 167 p.
85
DICTIONARIES
1. Поздняков, А.А. Англо-русский словарь по строительным и новым
строительным технологиям / А.А. Поздняков, В.В. Быков – М.: Русский
язык: Медиа, 2008. – 867 с.
2. Мюллер В.К. Новый англо-русский словарь / В.К. Мюллер – 15-е изд.: –
М.: Русский язык: Медиа, 2008. – 945 с.
3. Macmillan English Dictionary – Second Edition B2-C2 Advanced. Michael
Rundell, Gwyneth Fox. England: Macmillan, 2007. – 1674 pp.
4. Webster's New World College Dictionary. Fourth edition. – Webster's New
World, the United States of America, 2004. – 1728 pp.
SPECIAL MAGAZINES
1. House Beautiful. USA, New York.
2. Engineering News-Record. USA, New York.
3. The Architectural Review. Great Britain, London.
4. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. Canada, Vancouver.
5. Building Materials, Great Britain, London.
6. New Civil International Magazine of the Institution of Civil Engineering, London.
7. Journal of Composites for Construction. American Society of Civil engineers.
The Pennsylvania State University.
8. News Week. The International News Magazine, New York.
86
Appendix 1
Приложение 1
SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Внеаудиторное чтение
TEXT 1
BASIC CEMENTING MATERIALS
A basic cementing material is classified as one that, without special additives for
weight control or setting properties, when mixed with the proper amount of water,
will have cementitious properties. This may be a single ingredient or a combination
of two or more ingredients, but they are always used in this combination even when
special additives are used with them. The following are of this class: Portland
Cement, Pozmix Cement, High Early Cement Pozmix 140, Retarded Cement.
THE MANUFACTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CEMENT
Manufacture. Cements are made of limestone (or other materials high in calcium
carbonate content), clay or shale, some iron and aluminum oxides if they are not present in sufficient quantity in the clay or shale. These dry materials are finely ground
and mixed thoroughly in the correct proportions either in the dry condition (dry process) or mixed with water (wet process). This raw mixture is then fed into the upper
end of a sloping, rotary kiln, at a uniform rate, and slowly travels to the lower end.
The kiln is fired with powdered coal, fuel oil, or gas to temperatures of 2,600 to
°
°
2,800 F. (1427 C. to 1530°C) These temperatures cause certain chemical reactions to
occur between the ingredients of the raw mixture with the resulting material called
clinker. The clinker is ground with a controlled amount of gypsum to form the product we know as Portland cement.
Composition. The following are the principal compounds formed in the burning
process and their functions:
Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) is the compound that promotes rapid hydration and is
the constituent which controls the initial set and thickening time of the cement. It is
also responsible for the susceptibility of cement to sulfate attack and to be classified
as a high-sulfate resistant cement, it must have three percent or less C3A.
Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (C4AF) is the low-heat-of-hydration compound in
cement. The addition of an excess of iron oxide will increase the amount of C4AF and
decrease the amount of C3A in the cement.
Tri-Calcium Silicate (C3S) is the prevalent compound in most cement and the principal strength producing material. It is responsible for the early strength (1 to 28
days). High early cements generally have higher percentages of this compound than
do Portland or Retarded cements.
Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) is the slow hydrating compound and accounts for the small,
gradual gain in strength which occurs over an extended period of time.
87
All cements are manufactured in essentially the same way and are composed of the
same ingredients, only in different proportions. The water requirement of each type
of cement varies with the fineness of grind or surface area. High early strength cements have a high surface area (fine grind), the retarded cements have a low surface
area, and the Portland cements have a surface area slightly higher than the retarded
cements. The chemical retarder used in retarded cements may be added to the clinker
during the secondary grinding stage to provide uniform distribution, or to the finished
product.
Common Portland Cement
This cement is intended for use in oil wells from surface to 6,000 ft. depth (1830 m)
when no special properties are required. The recommended water-cement ratio, according to API, is 0.46 by weight (5.2 gals./sk.) (19.7 L/sk.). It is more economical
than premiumcements and should be used when no special properties are desired and
well conditions permit.
High Early Cement
This cement is intended for use in oil wells from surface to 6,000 ft. depth (1830 m).
It is ground finer than Portland and has a high C3S content, both of which contribute
to the higher strength. The API water requirement for this cement is 0.56 (6.3
gals./sk.) (24 L/sk.)
The compressive strength of this cement is greater than Portland cement at curing
times up to 30 hours; and the pumping time slightly less under the same test conditions. This cement is more expensive than Portland and, unless its special properties
are needed, should not be used. Generally, Portland with calcium chloride will give
better strengths than this type of cement without accelerators.
Basic Cement
This cement is intended for use as manufactured from surface to 8,000 ft (2440 m) or
can be modified with accelerators or retarders to meet a wide range of temperature
conditions. It is chemically similar to API Class B cement but is manufactured to
more rigorous chemical and physical specifications which result in a more uniform
product. As manufactured it contains no accelerators, retarders or viscosity control
agents other than gypsum normally ground with cement clinker. All necessary additives are blended by the service Company. The API water requirement for Class G is
0.44 (5.0 gals/sk.) (18.9 L/ sk.) and for Class H is 0.38 (4.3 gals/sk.) (16.3 L/sk.).
Retarded Cement
Most of these cements are retarded with an organic compound while some are retarded by chemical composition and grind. The most common retarders are of the
lignin type, the most widely used being calcium lignosulfonates similar to HR-5.
These cements are more expensive than Portland cement and, unless their special
properties are needed, should not be used.
88
This basic cementing composition consists of portland cement, a pozzolanic material
(Pozmix), and 2 per cent bentonite based on the total weight of cement and Pozmix.
By definition a pozzolan is a siliceous material which reacts with lime and water to
form calcium silicates having cementitious properties. Advantages of this reaction are
utilized with Pozmix Cement since portland cements release approximately 15 per
cent free lime when they react with water, and the lime will subsequently react with
the Pozmix to yield a more durable mass of calcium silicates. Because this type of
composition is less expensive than the other basic materials and performs well with
most additives, it has almost universal application in well cementing.
TEXT 2
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL CONCRETE STRUCTURE
In the words of the first Concrete Primer: “The concrete
must have sufficient strength to carry the loads imposed.
The concrete must be able to endure under the conditions
of exposure to which it will be subjected. The concrete
must be economically produced in comparison with other
materials equally strong and durable, which might be
used. Thus the requirements may be briefly stated as
strength, resistance to degradation, and economy.” These
words are equally applicable today.
Assuming that concrete is made from the correct
ingredients and in the correct proportions, what other
requirements must be met to ensure a durable structure, that is, a structure with long
life?
The important overall requirements are related to measuring, mixing, transporting,
placing, curing, and inspection:
(1) All materials should comply with specifications.
(2) The methods of storing, handling, and measuring all ingredients should be such
that the selected mixture can be accurately obtained at all times.
(3) The concrete should be adequately mixed, and it should be transported and placed
by methods that will avoid segregation and loss of ingredients. The consolidated mass
should be uniform without rock pockets or honeycombed areas.
(4) The arrangement of joints and methods for bonding successive lifts of concrete
are important details that can vitally affect the performance of the structure even
though the concrete itself is durable. Provisions should be made in the structural
plans for drainage to avoid areas of constant saturation that would be more susceptible to damage by freezing than other portions of the structure.
(5) Curing of the concrete should not be neglected. This includes protection against
extremes of temperature as well as provision for ensuring availability of moisture
during the critical early period. No detail of concrete construction offers such possi89
bilities for increased strength and durability at so low a cost as is offered by the possibilities of better curing.
(6) Careful inspection should be enforced in all of the above operations (ACI Manual
of Concrete Inspection, SP-2). After a dissertation on correct practices in the maintenance of the Roman aqueduct in AD 97, Julius Frontinius noted that “all these the
workmen know but few observe.”
TEXT 3
POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE
Designers use post-tensioning as a way to
reinforce concrete by prestressing it. In
prestressed
members,
compressive
stresses are introduced into the concrete
to reduce tensile stresses resulting from
applied loads including the self weight of
the member (dead load). Prestressing
steel, such as strands, bars or wires, is
used to impart compressive stresses to the
concrete. Pre-tensioning is a method
of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is placed and the
prestressing force is primarily transferred to the concrete through bond. Posttensioning is a method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after the
concrete has hardened and the prestressing force is primarily transferred to the concrete through the end anchorages.
POST-TENSIONING
Unlike pre-tensioning, which can only be done at a precast manufacturing facility,
post-tensioning is performed on the jobsite in cast-in-place applications. The concrete
component is cast with steel reinforcing strands installed in a way that protects them
from bonding with the concrete. This practice gives designers the flexibility to further
optimize material use by creating thinner concrete members.
The materials used to post-tension concrete members are ultra-high-strength steel
strands and bars. Horizontal applications (like beams, slabs, bridges, and foundations)
typically employ strands. Walls, columns, and other vertical applications usually utilize bars. Steel strands used for post-tensioning typically have a tensile strength of
270,000 psi, are about a half-inch in diameter, and are stressed to a force of 33,000
pounds.
BENEFITS
While concrete is strong in compression, it is weak in tension. Steel is strong under
forces of tension, so combining the two elements results in the creation of very strong
concrete components. Post-tensioning can help create innovative concrete components that are thinner, longer, and stronger than ever before.
90
Many of today’s “high-performance” concrete structures, including many landmark
bridges and buildings, employ some type of prestressing. Parking garages, high-rise
residential towers, and many other kinds of structures also employ post-tensioning
techniques.
TEXT 4
ROOF MATERIALS: NATURAL TILE
Tile is one of the oldest roof materials in the world used by people more than 4000
years. The beauty of the shape and colour has served a model of architectural image
of a roof for thousands years. Even ancient Greeks and later Romans used marble and
potter's tile. The recipe of tile was created by nature itself. Mixing limestone, sand
and water, people got a particularly stable material.
Modern technology is also based on the usage of raw materials. Quartz sand and water are mixed with cement, which has substituted limestone and clay. The received
mass is pressed under pressure and dries without the usage of firing and becomes
firm due to the hydration of cement, which is present in the mixture. It's much
cheaper than ceramic tile. To get a desirable shade of colour pigments are used
which are received from oxides of the metal, the oldest due known to the mankind
since the old times.
We must notice that clay (ceramic) and cement-and-sand rolled tile may be called
"natural" as clay (to be more exact clay-carbonate marls) serves as a raw basis of cement.
Englishmen began to produce analogical roof covering in 1820. But cement-and-sand
tile became widely spread in Europe in the middle of the XXth century when its appearance was polished so much that it was impossible to differ it from clay one.
Cement-and-sand tile has been in great demand during the last decades. Though natural ceramic (clay) tile has been preserved
on the market, new types of false tile
made of other materials: metal (metal tile)
and on the basis of bitumen (soft tile)
have appeared.
Today in the west in a new building and
repairing natural tile occupies 86 %, metal
tile – 3 %, other roof materials – 11 %.
Tile may be used for stone, brick and
wooden buildings as in new construction and while being reconstructed. Modern tile
(both ceramic and cement-and-sand) affords to fulfill pitched roofs of any difficulty
from simple two-pitched roofs to the most complicatedly shaped roofs: hipped roofs
with attics and attic windows - round-shaped towers with conic forms and many other
roofs. It is possible to build angles or arched forms, eaves, gutters on the roof.
There is an opinion that the main limitation in the usage of tile is its big weight what
requires the construction of high-capacity rafters. However, it is not really so. The
share of the own weight of tile concerning the calculated load on the construction of
91
the roof is not so great in comparison with the load of snow for instance. A simple
comparison shows that the calculated load for roofing made of cement-and-sand tile
is 25-30% higher than for simple metal coverings. When using tile it is not necessary
to increase a section of rafters, it will be enough to install the same rafters with a
lesser step. For example, for metal roofing you need rafters 150 x 50 mm with a step
90 cm; for tile roofing - 150 x 50 mm with a step 70 cm.
As for "excessive", according to some mistaken viewpoint, weight of tile it may be
considered as its advantage, realized necessity. Technologically the weight of tile can
be lighter but it is not done for the sake of wind-steadiness. Thanks to its weight it
protects the roof and the whole building from wind and outer forces. When the other
kinds of roofing are carried away from roofs by the wind, a tile roof is always untouched by different strong winds. When engineers of the German concern "Braas"
proudly demonstrated the models of rather thin and light cement-and-sand tile to
German federal building committee, it turned out that they violated the norm of windsteadiness. They had to write off the expenses and readjust the equipment for the production of articles with normal thickness, weighing about 45 kg per 1m2, as it is required by the norm.
Technical Characteristics
Both ceramic and cement-and-sand tile are one of the most durable roofing, the exploitation period of which is more than 100 years. Tile is not sensitive to any influence: heat and frost, hail and hurricanes, oxygen of the air, acid rains, the activity of
bacteria and the plants of the lowest development, ultra-violet radiation and infra-red
radiation of the sun etc. In comparison with metal roofing, there is less possibility of
a lightning getting into the roof, as the roofing does not collect static electricity,
which is dangerous for a man and possible to cause fire.
Tile roofing easily adapts to inevitable deformations at a seasonal subsidence of
buildings and fluctuation in temperature - the role of temperature joints is performed
by tile joints. By the way, the joints of such type provide effective airing of under
roof space from excess of vapor of every-day moisture, which is very active during a
cold season and at a day overfall of temperatures. As we know, the condensate is a
main enemy of wooden and metal constructions of a roof. It is rather cool under such
roofing in summer and warm in winter because of low thermal conductivity. Low
thermal conductivity combined with massive material provides the minimal formation of a condensate on the internal surface of a tile covering.
TEXT 5
DOES BENDABLE CONCRETE EXIST?
Since we use "concrete" colloquially to mean fixed, well defined, or inflexible, it may
seem unbelievable that bendable concrete exists. However, in 2005, some civil engineers at the University of Michigan developed this innovative material, that will
doubtless change the face of construction. Bendable concrete, with the help of interlocking fibers, actually flexes to absorb pressure, changes in temperature, and movement.
92
Ordinary concrete is made from a slurry of large aggregate rocks, smaller aggregate,
and the inflexible mortar that bonds them together. Once it sets and dries, though, it
becomes a stiff slab that will crack and buckle in cycles of freezing and thawing,
earthquakes, or when a heavy truck drives over it. Therefore, it was a goal of civil
engineers to figure out how to extend the life of roads, as well as make them better
able to withstand environmental factors. Constantly replacing roads, bridges, and
parking lots is very expensive, time-consuming, and inconvenient for commuters.
Amazingly, researchers have developed a versatile product called bendable concrete.
The concrete is technically a composite because it mixes special fibers with regular
concrete. The fibers account for some of the flexibility and strength because they distribute weight evenly throughout the slab. They also flex when met with a lot of pressure. The fibers move their position slightly to accommodate the added weight.
Not only is bendable concrete ductile, but recent tests have shown that it is much
lighter. This is important for applications like bridges, where more weight means
more expense in materials and construction. Furthermore, bendable concrete takes
less energy and releases less carbon dioxide in its manufacturing.
Even before this new kind of concrete gets widely implemented, it is compatible with
today's roads. Bendable concrete can be used as patching material for existing potholes or cracks. Since it is a relatively recent development, there is still much research and further improvement necessary before it is accepted as a feasible alternative to traditional pavement.
TEXT 6
DECORATIVE CONCRETE: EXPLORING THE OPTIONS
Want to permanently cover up surface imperfections in existing concrete? Or turn a
plain-jane slab from drab to fab? With today’s decorative overlays, it’s easy to give
almost any concrete surface, indoors or out, a complete face-lift – and at a much
lower cost than removal and replacement. The real challenge is choosing from among
the many resurfacing products available – and the diverse array of decorative finishes
possible.
Although cement-based overlays have
been around for decades, many of
today’s systems blend polymer resins
with cement, sand, and other additives to
improve performance, wear resistance,
and aesthetic qualities. Polymermodified overlays can be applied in
layers as thin as a credit card or up to
several
inches
thick
without
delamination or failure. They adhere well to existing concrete and resist damage from
salt, chemicals, UV exposure, freeze-thaw conditions, and abrasion.
93
While most types of polymer-modified
overlays offer similar performance
benefits, each system has its own unique
characteristics. Overlay manufacturers use
different types of polymer resins, often
blending them to produce proprietary
products with distinct physical attributes.
Many of today’s decorative overlays use
acrylics or acrylic blends because these
resins provide excellent bond strength and
UV resistance.
Here’s a primer of the various overlay types available and the decorative options with
each. We also give you pointers on how to choose the best system for a particular application. With the many options available, you’re sure to find at least one system
that meets your requirements for durability, appearance, maintenance, and cost.
Types of Overlays
 Stampable overlays
 Microtoppings and skim coats
 Spray-down systems
 Self-leveling overlays
WHEN TO USE A POLYMER OVERLAY
Breaking out and replacing an existing concrete slab can be expensive, messy, disruptive, and time-consuming. With an overlay, you can give worn, lackluster concrete a
decorative makeover or restore it to like-new condition in as little as a day and at a
fraction of the cost (from about $1 to $3 per square foot, depending on the type of
system installed).
Polymer-modified overlays are ideal for:
 Adding pattern, texture, and color to exterior concrete slabs, including patios, pool
decks, driveways, and sidewalks. Using special techniques and tools, skilled installers can precisely replicate the look and feel of natural stone, brick, tile, or marl.
 Resurfacing interior floors, including those previously covered with linoleum tile or
carpeting (after removal of all residual mastic). With the use of stains or dyes, it’s
possible to create colorful graphic designs, logos, or stenciled patterns. (Another
highly versatile decorative topping for interior floors is epoxy terrazzo.)
 Smoothing and leveling of concrete surfaces.
 Restoring surfaces quickly with minimal downtime. Polymer overlays cure fast and
some systems can support foot traffic within a few hours.
Not all existing concrete is a suitable candidate for an overlay. The concrete must be
structurally sound, without gapping cracks, severe delamination, or an unstable sub94
base. Proper surface preparation of the concrete is also imperative to ensure good
bonding of the overlay. Any non-structural cracks wider than hairline should also be
repaired.
TEXT 7
SEALERS
Despite its durability, concrete is a porous material, which means it can absorb
water, chlorides, stains, and other water- or oil-based materials that it comes in contact with. By treating the concrete with a sealer, you can inhibit the penetration of
these intruders while allowing the surface to breathe, so moisture within the concrete
doesn’t become trapped.
Generally, there are two broad categories of sealers:
 film formers block penetration of water and contaminants by forming a barrier on
the concrete surface. Many also impart a gloss or sheen, so they often are used to
enhance colored or exposed-aggregate concrete.
 penetrants actually penetrate into the concrete surface to a depth of about 1 to 4
mils to increase water repellency and resist stains on absorbent concrete. Usually
they provide invisible protection without changing the surface appearance.
For the ultimate in stain and water resistance without changing surface appearance,
White Mountain’s Ultrapel and Invisoseal can be used.
Ultrapel is an invisible sealer that locks out oil, grease, and other organic stains from
colored and stamped concrete, interlocking pavers, masonry, and other porous surfaces. Ultrapel is oleophobic, so it excels at blocking oil and grease stains, says
Glessner. Commercial applications include heavy-use food preparation and serving
areas, parking facilities, factory and warehouse floors, aircraft hangars, vehicle bays,
and loading areas. Residential applications include driveways, garage floors, pool
decks and patios, and entryways.
Invisoseal is a non-gloss, penetrating sealer that gives porous concrete and masonry
surfaces up to 10 years of water-repellent protection. This hydrophobic dynamo is
particularly effective at controlling efflorescence and mildew and algae stains.
Seal-Lock is a water-based acrylic sealer ideal for use on interlocking concrete
pavers. It penetrates the concrete to protect against solvent-based stains, repel water,
and retard the growth of mold and mildew. Another benefit: it also bonds and locks
down the sand in the paving joints to seal the space between pavers and reduces weed
growth. Seal-Lock’s low-gloss finish enhances the natural beauty and color of the
pavers. It also makes the surface easier to clean and maintain, which is a big plus for
large installations.
Recently, Seal-Lock was used by Earth Shelter Inc. to coat the largest installation of
concrete pavers in North America, the Port of Oakland in Oakland, Calif. The project
required the use of 20,000 gallons of Seal-Lock to protect 5 million square feet of
pavers.
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Seal-Lock was also used to enhance a concrete paver mural at Oakland’s Jack London
Square. Depicting ocean waves splashing on a beach, the waterfront plaza covers
about 31,000 square feet and features nine different colors of pavers.
White Mountain offers two barrier coatings that seal and protect while enhancing the
natural beauty of concrete and masonry surfaces.
Wet Look Lacquer is a film-forming solvent-based acrylic and the only 20%-solids
VOC-compliant sealer available in the U.S., says general manager Jim Glessner Jr.,
general manager of White Mountain Products.
It leaves a clear, high-gloss finish that deepens and enriches the color of exposedaggregate and stamped concrete surfaces while repelling oil, grease, water, and stains.
When used on newly placed concrete, the sealer can help protect against spalling,
dusting, efflorescence, freeze-thaw damage, and alkali degradation. In addition to enhancing decorative concrete, Wet Look can also protect floors in food-preparation areas from food and beverage stains and slabs in garages and parking facilities from
grease and oil penetration.
Crystal Seal is a water-based acrylic barrier coating using a unique microemulsion
technology. "Our water-based sealers are the only ones on the market using microemulsion technology, which gives them a much denser, finer-textured matrix so they
penetrate better and last longer," says Glessner. Crystal Seal also deepens and enriches the color of decorative concrete but leaves a subtle satin finish. Applications
include exposed aggregate, concrete pavers, and stamped or embossed concrete.
Crystal Seal resists most stains for up to 72 hours and provides good protection
against oil and solvents.
TEXT 8
BUILDING SYSTEMS
Today, home buyers expect to get more from their new home. They want beauty
that’s more than skin deep. A home that fits their lifestyle – of course. But also a
home with solid, high quality construction. Greater comfort and security. Lower energy bills. Lower maintenance. A home that’s healthier to live in, and easier on the
environment.
It’s becoming harder and harder to meet their new expectations with the same old
building technology – wood framing. So more and more builders and home buyers
are turning to something new. A modern adaptation of a centuries-old technology using the most proven building material on earth.
There's more than one way to build your home with concrete.
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Concrete Masonry Units
Today, new types of concrete block, advances in rigid foam insulation,
and advances in construction methods have combined to provide concrete block building systems that cost-effectively outperform traditional frame building methods in every way.
Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF)
ICFs give you all the benefits that have made concrete the material of
choice for home building worldwide: Solid, lasting construction that
resists the ravages of fire, wind, and Father Time. But ICFs do plain
concrete one better – or rather, two better – by giving you two built-in
layers of foam insulation.
Removable Forms (Cast-in-Place)
This traditional concrete forming technique uses temporary forms,
typically made of aluminum. Rigid foam insulation is placed inside the
forms or between the forms and held in place with a system of nonconductive ties. Concrete is then poured on either side of or between
the foam.
Panel Systems (Precast & Tilt-Up)
There are two main types of panel systems used for concrete walls:
precast concrete and tilt-up concrete.
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC)
Technically, autoclaved aerated concrete systems consist of blocks
held together by mortar. But that's where the similarity to conventional
mortared block construction ends. AAC uses new, technologically advanced concrete and mortar to give builders and buyers a new range of
advantages.
Shotcrete
Shotcrete is a process where concrete is projected or "shot" under pressure using a feeder or "gun" onto a surface to form structural shapes
including walls, floors, and roofs.
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TEXT 9
A NEW GENERATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE OFFICES
IN NEW YORK CITY
505 5th is a modern reinforced concrete
office building which conveys elegance in the
form of a 30 story tower. Located at the corner
of 42nd Street and 5th Avenue in Manhattan,
the building gross square footage is 550,000
square feet which includes retail space in the
lower floors and typical office space above the
7th floor.
Designed by Kohn Pederson Fox of
New York City, the building architectural features offer stunning views across the street to
the New York Public Library and Bryant Park.
Early on in the design it was decided that the
views from the building were the focus of the
layout. The building columns were kept away
from the perimeter and the main façade was
angled to offer spectacular unobstructed views
of 5th Avenue.
Stringent architectural requirements posed structural challenges and required
innovative solutions by the structural engineering firm of Rosenwasser/Grossman of
New York City. The floor layout required columns to be spaced at 30' on center. After many design iterations that the design team elected an 11" deep conventionally
reinforced concrete flat-slab with 22" deep capitals as the most economical floor
framing system. This floor system also provided an elegant solution for the large interior spans and eliminated the floor beams otherwise needed to support the slab. Beam
supported slabs typically increase the floor to floor height, adds cost and complicates
formwork.
A thickened 15” flat-slab was used to frame the 15’ cantilevers at the spandrel
to meet the curtain wall design requirements while still allowing an impressive 15’
dual cantilevers at the south-west corner of the building. As is common with cantilevered structures, deflection at the building perimeter is of paramount concern. A
maximum ¾” vertical displacement of the cantilever slab after the installation of the
curtain wall was estimated. As a result, a ¾” upward camber will be included in the
formwork so that after installation of the curtain wall system this camber is eliminated. The perimeter columns supported the cantilevers as well as a portion of the interior span. This structural design solution offered unrivaled architectural flexibility
with spans reaching almost 45 feet from the curtain to the core.
A key advantage of conventional flat slab systems is the reduction of floor to
floor heights which significantly reduced the cost of formwork and building frame.
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The flat-slab lends itself to the use of conventional plywood construction while the
lower floor to floor heights allows for the use of conventional stick shoring. Building
each floor on a two-day cycle, is facilitated by of selecting this floor system with the
simplified formwork it offers. While an aggressive construction schedule, the twoday cycle is the preferred method of construction in New York City. A trend set in
the late sixties and made possible by the moderate spans and lower floor to floor
heights common in residential hi-rise flat-plate construction. Unprecedented in office
building construction, the two-day cycle will reduce the floor completion schedule by
50% compared to an equivalent structural steel floor system.
The lateral force resisting system efficiently incorporated the 11” flat-slab with
a 12" thick concrete shear wall which completely encases the fire stair above the
mezzanine floor. Located at the rear of the property, the shear wall maximizes the
rentable space with views on 42nd St and 5th Ave. Along with gravity load support,
the flat-slab serves as the horizontal diaphragm component of the lateral force resisting system. Managing the eccentricity created by the location of the shear wall elements was easily accommodated without the need for additional structural elements.
Higher strength concrete was
implemented by the design team to
reduce the size of the tower
columns and increase rentable
space. 12000-psi concrete is used
up to the 7th floor for the 36-in.
round columns that reduce to 28-in.
above the 15th floor.
To further enhance the
buildings safety, an 8-in. reinforced
concrete curb used at the first floor
and serves as a barrier against
vehicular intrusion. The perimeter
columns are encased in a steel shell
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to maximize their robustness when subject to blast loads. In the event of local overloading and failure of a slab-column connection, sufficient steel is provided to arrest
progressive collapse.
Cast-in-place concrete construction provided this building better acoustic properties, fireproofing at no additional cost and enhanced robustness in the event of terrorist attacks. The 12-in. concrete shear wall completely encasing the fire stairs is a
significant safety feature of this structure. The design required two independent fire
stairs separated by 12” concrete wall. Floor slab steel reinforcing detailing was modified in some instances and increased in certain areas to provide the added structural
integrity mitigating the potential for progressive collapse. With minor additional engineering effort and cost to the owner, concrete structures have always been considered the natural solution to anti-terrorism, force protection and fire resistance.
TEXT 10
THE PANTHEON
This famous building
stands in the business district
of Rome – much as it was
built some 18 centuries ago.
Amazingly, it has withstood
the ravages of both the elements and war permitting a
firsthand view of a unique
product
constructed
by
Roman hands. Now, it is
exposed to acid rain and
fumes
from
passing
automobiles, overshadowed
by buildings of inferior taste;
but, with trust in the future,
the Pantheon will survive.
Unrecognized, the design of this ancient concrete building reveals unparalleled
features not encountered in modern design standards. Recent studies reveal several
major cracks in the dome, but it still functions unimpaired. This condition will surely
excite the curiosity of our structural engineers. The building was built entirely without steel reinforcing rods to resist tensile cracking, so necessary in concrete members,
and for this concrete dome with a long span to last centuries is incredible. Today, no
engineer would dare build this structure without steel rods! Modern codes of engineering practice would not permit such mischief. No investor with knowledge of concrete design would provide the funding. We can learn from this activity. Workers can
build from a plan and can successfully use their proven practices only if construction
quality controls are maintained.
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History tells us that the Pantheon is a Greek word meaning to honor all Gods
(particularly the Olympian divinities). The first incarnation of this ancient temple was
built by Agrippa, the son-in-law of the Roman Emperor Augustus, about 27 B.C. As
with many cities, tragedy in the form of large fires seemed to strike Rome. Originally,
many Roman buildings contained travertine (limestone rock) which easily cracked in
fires. The first Pantheon was severely damaged and required replacement except for
some parts of the lower porch section and foundation. The Pantheon was rebuilt by
the Emperor Hadrian during the period 118 to 128 A.D.
Configuration
Michelangelo the great painter of the Sistine chapel once described the design
of the Pantheon as an "Angelic and not human design." Rightly so, for it is indeed
one of the most unusual structures ever built by human hands. The ancient Roman's
ability to draw the intricate plans and select only the most successful time-proven
construction techniques made this complex building possible. The following pictures
show the beautiful interior.
Inside the Pantheon
The building design is one of a large round shape very much like a large barrel
with a dome covering the top. There is a light-well in the center of the dome. Layers
of beautiful thin brickwork cover the outside, round walls. Small access holes appear
occasionally in the wall which were used during construction to frame interior voids.
The main entrance is thoroughly impressive: double bronze doors 21 feet high (6.4
meters), a lasting and fitting contribution from their metal smiths. These doors are
protected by a high, broad porch, made with 16 well arranged granite columns supporting a gable styled roof. The beams in the roof structure of the porch are wooden.
They were substituted for bronze members stripped-out by those in later years needing metal for their canons.
The rotunda has a rather awesome inner diameter of 142.4 feet (43.4 m), made
mostly of concrete.
Foundation
The Pantheon was built on marshy, unstable earth which gave a serious supporting problem to its builders. The Jutland Archaeological Society described in detail various aspects of the ring foundation; they found it rested on a bed of bluish colored river clay. This condition invited disaster, and in the final construction phase,
the foundation cracked at the two ends of the North-South axis.
As you can imagine, if one section of a building settles slightly faster and
lower than an adjacent section, very large bending stresses are initiated at a point between these two sections which can crack the concrete. And uneven settling was the
problem given to the builders. The present-day engineering solution to this type of
foundation problem is to drive piles through the clay to bedrock so the building will
be firmly supported all the way around. The Roman builders chose a different approach. They built a second ring to hold the first ring from cracking further and to
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give the clay more area to support the structure. It worked because the building has
lasted over 1800 years.
In addition to keeping the crack from extending, the builders placed buttress
walls on the south side opposite the massive porch. This acted as a clamping device;
and although the structural projection appears to be an additional room, it only serves
the purpose of being part of the clamp.
Initially, the width of this ring foundation was 23'-7" (7.2 m) wide, only about
3 feet (0.9 m) greater than the walls it supported. The second ring that binds the
original together is 10 feet (3.0 m) wide making the total width of the foundation
about 34 feet. From the floor level to the bottom of the foundation is 15'-4" (4.7 m).
These rings are made of pozzolan concrete consisting of travertine pieces in
layers held together by a mortar of lime and pozzolan. Interestingly enough, the Jutland Society's investigation showed the foundation material had become "rock hard,"
a case we might expect when we study the chemistry of pozzolanic reaction under
these conditions.
Wall
The round wall may best be described as one containing many cavities and
chambers on different levels. There is no evidence that a staircase system existed between these upper chambers, and we can assume their function along with other
niches was to reduce construction materials together with the weight. This wall can
be thought of structurally as a series of concrete piers separated at floor level by 8
very large niches equally spaced along the inner perimeter. The thick wall acts much
like a buttress in supporting a thrust from the dome.
Two granite columns help support the ceiling in the niches. It is interesting to
note that within these niches lie great kings of Italy, important popes, and at one time
the famous painter Raphael.
The niches, as well as all other wall openings, have an archway of bricks,
known as a relieving arch, to support the upper wall over the openings. The relieving
arch is a semicircle of thin bricks standing radially on end extending in the concrete
wall. This arch distributes upper loads to the piers during the long time the pozzolan
concrete is curing, but after curing, it becomes an integral part of the wall. This archway of bricks was only part of the wall and did not extend into the dome. This type of
arch is customary with Roman construction for that period. It is shown together with
the niches and their columns in the following figure:
To dimension the wall is not an easy task. First, the standard overall width at
the piers is about 20'-4" (6.2 m), but the curtain wall on the side of the large niches is
reduced to 7'- 4" (2.2 m) thick. Inside the piers there are small cavities which are
semi-circular in shape having a radius of 7'-8" (2.3 m). The logic behind this shape is
unknown, but curved surfaces reduce concentration of stresses that are objectionable
in structures. The entrance to the cavities is through a 3'-6" (1.1 m) passageway from
the outside.
The outside height of the circular wall is 104 feet (31.7 m) which seems awesome when viewed from the door step. It is the height of about a 7-story office build102
ing. The top cornice on the wall has an overhang of about 3'-8" (1.1 m) serving as an
effective rain shield for the brick facing. The cornice is made of marble and has
weathered well. This round wall is divided by two lower cornices. One is at 40'-4"
(12.8 m) above the floor, and the other is higher at 71'-6" (21.8 m) from the floor.
The latter serves as the spring line for the dome. The wall section becomes much
thicker above the second cornice as the dome departs from the wall line.
Characteristic of all Roman walls of that time, the wall was tied together with a
special horizontal layer of brickwork every 3'-11" (1.2 m). These bonding courses are
made of tile-like bricks called bipedales (about 2 feet/0.6 m square) which extended
completely through the wall. Brickwork on both sides of the wall was brought up
with the placement of the concrete. This will be explained in later sections.
The composition of the wall has been documented by the Jutland Archaeological Society and by Lugli; they agree quite reasonably. The lower section near floor
level consists of alternate layers of travertine fragments and fragments of tufa in a
mortar of lime and pozzolana. The middle placement of the wall was alternate layers
of pieces of tufa and broken tiles or bricks also in the same mortar. The uppermost
level of the wall consists of concrete predominantly of broken bricks in mortar. The
wall was made lighter as it was made higher, a remarkable example of gradation in
their engineering planning.
Dome
The dome is an interesting and difficult feature to describe because its configuration is so unusual on both sides. The radii of the dome is 71'-2" (21.7 m) which serves
as the basis for the original design. However, G. Cozzo (an Italian engineer) cast
doubts on this figure and claimed it to be more like 82 feet (25.0 m).15 This is pointed
out to show there are conflicts among the specialists who continue to study the Pantheon. In this case the former figure appears adequate. The relative thickness of the
dome is reduced from 19'-8" (5.9 m) at the base to nearly 5 feet (1.5 m) at the top.
On the outside surface, there is a series of seven step- rings half way up the
dome, and then the dome line changes into a circular line. On the inside surface the
dome contains a series of 5 bands made of waffle-like depressions called coffers.
There are 140 coffers which required special forming for the waffle shape. At midpoint the dome contour changes from these coffers to a circular line. In the center of
the dome is a large opening, the oculus.
The outside rings are not uniform, there are 7 rings, and the measurements
scaled from drawings of the dome are meant to be purely descriptive. The first ring
has its outside edge resting on the center of the main wall. It appears to be some 7.5
feet (2.3 m) thick with a horizontal distance to the next ring about this same distance.
The remaining 6 step-rings are stepped inward much like placing a series of machine
washers, one above the other with their diameters decreasing as they are stacked. The
height of these 6 rings vary, and they are estimated to be 2'- 6" (0.8 m) on the average. The horizontal distance to the next of these smaller rings is estimated to be 4 feet
(1.2 m). There is an exterior stairway leading through these rings to the oculus.
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Digressing for a moment, I can perceive the ancient construction practices applied to building this dome. It is known that the very old Mycenaean tombs in Greece
were made by corbeling stone slabs over one another. Following this example in history, it is likely that the Romans used this principle in placing one step-ring on another in building this section of the dome. This work took a long time. The cementing
materials properly cured and gained strength to support the next upper ring. The
smaller step-rings are faced with semilateres (bricks)16 which gives credibility to the
corbeling method. Each ring was built like a low Roman wall. The circular part of the
upper dome was likely placed by using wooden scaffolding.
The compression ring (oculus) at the center of the dome is 19'-3" (5.9 m) in diameter and 4'-7" (1.4 m) thick. The ring is made of 3 horizontal rings of tile, set upright, one above the other; the ring is 2 bricks thick.16/17 This ring is effective in
properly distributing the compression forces at this point. There is a bronze ring covering the lip dating back to the original construction, but other bronze plates on top of
the roof have been removed and later replaced with lead plates.
According to the Jutland Archaeological Society investigations, the lower section of the dome is made of concrete with alternating layers of bricks and tufa; both
have good affinity with the lime-pozzolan mortar which filled the voids. The upper
dome above the step-rings (the top 30 feet/9.1 m) is concrete comprising about 9 inch
lumps of light tufa and porous volcanic slag in alternating layers bonded with mortar.18 It was customary for the Romans to use larger stones in the dome concrete than
in the walls. Selecting light stones for the aggregate is another case of gradation to
get light-weight concrete, a process that seems to have been evolved about the middle
of the first century B.C.
GUIDE TO ENGLISH CULTURE
WINDSOR CASTLE
Windsor Castle is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the oldest in
continuous occupation. The enormous castle was begun by William the Conqueror on
a typical Norman motte and bailey plan. William chose a commanding spot for his
fortress, on a high (100ft) cliff overlooking the Thames River. He built up a mound of
earth and erected a wooden palisade.
Though the castle has been expanded and enlarged numerous times over the
subsequent centuries, the basic layout of William's plan can still be seen. Henry I replaced the wooden structure with a shell keep of stone, using stone quarried at Totternhoe in Bedfordshire. Henry II rebuilt the defenses and added a second bailey in
1175, and at the same time provided for more comfortable accommodation. Henry
was fond of Windsor, and planted an herb garden and a vineyard here. It was Henry
who built the first royal apartments, the foundations of which can still be seen in the
basement of the present apartments.
The castle withstood two sieges in the early medieval period. Prince John attempted to take the throne in 1194, when his brother Richard I was out of the country.
Nobles who remained loyal to the king tried and failed to wrest control of the castle
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from John. Later, when John was legitimately king, Windsor was unsuccessfully besieged again by the nobles as part of the hostilities which culminated in the signing of
the Magna Carta.
Though Henry III contributed some minor building, the next major builder was
Edward III. In the years following the Black Death in 1349 Edward lavished over
£50,000 on Windsor Castle, making it the single largest crown building project of the
Middle Ages. Edward was driven by a desire to match the French crown in architectural splendour. From that time on Windsor has stood as one of the principle residences of the monarch.
Later monarchs added to the complex of buildings we now know as Windsor
castle. Henry VIII built the great entry gate which bears his name. The last major
building took place under George IV when the tower was raised – at the cost of £1
million – to make it the highest of any castle tower in the country.
ST GEORGE'S CHAPEL
The grounds contain St. George's Chapel, one of the most beautiful examples of
medieval church architecture in England. The chapel is the official home of the Order
of the Garter. Every June an official gathering of the Order is held at Windsor Castle,
and at that time any vacancies are filled with new members. The monarch and royal
members of the order attend an official luncheon at the Waterloo Chamber, after which
they walk in procession to a service at the Chapel. More on the Order of the Garter. St
George's Chapel was begun in 1475 by Edward IV, and finished 50 years later.
Within the chapel are the tombs of 10 monarchs, including Edward IV, Charles
I, George V and Queen Mary, and George VI. Also buried here is Henry VIII, who
lies beside his favourite wife, Jane Seymour. Behind St George's Chapel is the entrance to the Albert Memorial, built by Queen Victoria in memory of her husband and
consort, Prince Albert. Albert himself is buried in the Frogmore Mausoleum in the
grounds of Windsor Great Park.
When the queen is in residence the Royal Standard flies atop the Round Tower.
At other times the Union Jack is flown.
Visible across the river from the castle is Eton, home to one of Britain's most
historic – and exclusive – public schools.
HALF-TIMBERED HOUSES
Half-timbered houses, their blackened oak beams showing the fissures and
cracks of great age, the floors tilting crazily askew, these images are a part of the
charm of medieval and Tudor England for visitors. But what was half-timbering, and
why were the buildings we marvel at today built this way?
Until the 17th century England was blessed with an abundant supply of oak,
which was the most common material used for timber framing.
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Oak is hard and durable, which in part explains why so many medieval halftimbered buildings have survived.
The term "half-timbering" refers to the fact that the logs were halved, or a least
cut down to a square inner section. In other areas of Europe, such as Romania and
Hungary, there was no comparable hard wood available, houses were more frequently
constructed using whole logs.
Unlike modern framed buildings where the walls are installed outside and inside the frame, in half-timbered buildings the walls are filled in between the structural
timbers.
Most commonly this infill was wattle-and-daub (upright branches interwoven by
smaller branches and covered by a thick coat of clay mud), laths and plaster, or bricks.
A permiter footing of an impervious material like stone or brick was built first,
then a sill beam laid on the footing. Upright beams were mortised into the sill beam.
Timber framed houses are essentially big boxes, with upper "boxes" (stories) set upon
lower ones.
Often the upper floors project out over the lower ones. There are several conjectures as to the reasons for this. One is that houses in cities were taxed on the width
of street frontage they used. So a high, narrow house saved the owner money, yet to
maximize interior space the non-taxed upper floors were lengthened. Also, the projecting upper floors helped protect the lower house from rain and snow in the days
before gutters and down-pipes.
The construction methods used in half-timbering allow buildings to be easily
dis-assembled and put up again elsewhere. This has helped salvage houses which
would otherwise have been destroyed to make way for new development. Many medieval timber-framed houses have been re-erected at open air museums such as the
Weald and Downland Museum at Singleton, West Sussex, and the Avoncroft Museum of Buildings at Bromsgrove, Worcestershire.
By the 15th and 16th century timber framing began to be exploited for its decorative qualities. Timbers which had minimal structural importance were added to the
frame, to enhance the decorative effect of dark wood set into whitewashed walls. The
Jacobean period saw this use carried to extremes, such as in the photo shown here.
By the Jacobean period wood for timber framing was in short supply in England. For too many years wood had been used for building, heating, and for making
charcoal.
Also, the great expansion of the British merchant fleet after the medieval period used up large quantities of wood. Finally, the introduction of cheap, easily available bricks after the Tudor period provided an attractive alternative to half-timbering.
By the way, the sloping, slanting, floors we see today in half-timbered buildings are not due to sloppy building practices, but a result of the natural warping of the
wood as it aged. Also, the blackening of timbers was a natural aging effect. They
were not treated or painted when built. It is only a desire of modern builders to provide a romanticised version of half-timbering that has produced imitation or black
painted timbers.
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Aside from the museums mentioned above, some of the best examples of halftimbered houses that visitors can see today are in the town of Lavenham, Suffolk, Little Moreton Hall in Cheshire, and Lower Brockhampton manor in Herefordshire. A
personal favorite is Baddesley Clinton, near Solihull, West Midlands.
LONDON ANTIQUE MARKETS
As a result of conducting annual tours for collectors to Great Britain and based
on our own collecting hobbies, we have discovered that Britain is a grand hunting
ground for collectibles of every type, from early antique items right on up to modern
day collectibles.
High on our list of places to check out are the weekly antique street markets in
and around London. There you can find literally everything, from choice early antiques to not-so-old Beanie Babies!
A word of caution - watch for fakes and reproductions, typically found anywhere antiques and collectibles are sold.
PORTOBELLO ROAD
Probably the most popular of the street markets for tourists is the famous Portobello Road antiques market, located in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
While a few of the shops are open during the week, the majority of activity
takes place every Saturday with an estimated 1500 dealers filling the streets and
buildings for several city blocks.
On the negative side, the market is very crowded and noted for pick-pockets,
so guard your purses and wallets. On the bright side, many of the best antiques found
in Britain eventually make their way to Portobello Road.
Do you collect dolls, toys, teddy bears and juvenilia? Some of Britain's finest
dealers have stalls at this market. Antique jewelry, fine china, silver, you name it, it's
here. Because the market appeals highly to travelers, antique furniture is not commonly found.
Hours: While some dealers are ready by 7 or 8 AM, primary activity begins
around 8:30 or 9 and runs until 4 or 5 in the afternoon, although you will see some
dealers packing by mid day.
How to get there: Taxis are a great way to get around London, and typically inexpensive. You can also reach the market by Underground on the tube, exiting at
Notting Hill Gate and follow the crowds or signs.
CAMDEN PASSAGE
A market that is less well known but equally fun to shop is Camden Passage,
held every Wednesday and Saturday. Here also are dealers lining the narrow street
and filling the adjacent buildings for a few blocks. It is not as large as Portobello
107
Road market, but your chances of finding "a sleeper" are probably better at Camden
Passage.
Their selection runs the gamut from Art Deco, Victorian treasures, watercolours
and much, much more. Activity starts mainly after 8 AM and runs until 4, with some
dealers packing up by mid day. Take the Underground Northern line to Angel station.
BERMONDSEY MARKET
For this market, held every Friday, you have to get up early and be there when
the dealers are unpacking before dawn! Known as the market where the dealers shop,
it is at the corner of Long Lane and Bermondsey street, and a torch (flashlight) might
be handy if you arrive early enough.
It's a fun market to shop and chances of finding a bargain are best here, but it is
not easy to get to by underground. Take the tube to London Bridge station, and from
there it is a fair walk to the market. At this hour of the morning you might be better
served to take a tax!
Other markets worth exploring include Camden Lock (Sundays), Covent Garden (Mondays), Alfies (daily, but primarily weekends) plus a host of others for those
who have the time. Information is readily available at any tourist information centre
or at your hotel.
HELPFUL HINT
Most hotels in London do not offer washcloths, so a package of hand wipes cut
in half and discarded after use are a valuable item to carry. Take extra caution crossing streets, as the traffic is coming at you from the right, not the left! Many a tourist
has ended up in the casualty ward as a result of looking left and stepping into the path
of a fast moving car. For more traveler's tips see the free booklet offer below.
Britain for Collectors is written by Terry & Doris Michaud, internationally
known in the world of teddy bear collectors. They have authored 5 books on collecting and regularly write features for magazines in the U.S. and abroad. In a partnership
with Bill & Rosemary Hayes they conduct annual collector's tours to Great Britain.
TEA IN BRITAIN
Tea, that most quintessential of English drinks, is a relative latecomer to British
shores. Although the custom of drinking tea dates back to the third millennium BC in
China, it was not until the mid 17th century that the beverage first appeared in England.
The use of tea spread slowly from its Asian homeland, reaching Europe by way
of Venice around 1560, although Portuguese trading ships may have made contact
with the Chinese as early as 1515.
It was the Portuguese and Dutch traders who first imported tea to Europe, with
regular shipments by 1610. England was a latecomer to the tea trade, as the East India
Company did not capitalize on tea's popularity until the mid-18th century.
Coffee Houses. Curiously, it was the London coffee houses that were responsible for introducing tea to England. One of the first coffee house merchants to offer
tea was Thomas Garway, who owned an establishment in Exchange Alley. He sold
108
both liquid and dry tea to the public as early as 1657. Three years later he issued a
broadsheet advertising tea at £6 and £10 per pound (ouch!), touting its virtues at
"making the body active and lusty", and "preserving perfect health until extreme old
age".
Tea gained popularity quickly in the coffee houses, and by 1700 over 500 coffee houses sold it. This distressed the tavern owners, as tea cut their sales of ale and
gin, and it was bad news for the government, who depended upon a steady stream of
revenue from taxes on liquor sales. By 1750 tea had become the favoured drink of
Britain's lower classes.
Taxation on Tea. Charles II did his bit to counter the growth of tea, with several acts forbidding its sale in private houses. This measure was designed to counter
sedition, but it was so unpopular that it was impossible to enforce. A 1676 act taxed
tea and required coffee house operators to apply for a license.
This was just the start of government attempts to control, or at least, to profit
from the popularity of tea in Britain. By the mid 18th century the duty on tea had
reached an absurd 119%. This heavy taxation had the effect of creating a whole new
industry - tea smuggling.
Want to know where to get a really good "cuppa"? You could do worse than
to start with The Parlour, South Molton, Devon, which was named winner of the
1999 Britain's Top Tea Place of the Year by the Tea Council.
Smuggling Tea. Ships from Holland and Scandinavia brought tea to the British
coast, then stood offshore while smugglers met them and unloaded the precious cargo
in small vessels. The smugglers, often local fishermen, snuck the tea inland through
underground passages and hidden paths to special hiding places. One of the best hiding places was in the local parish church!
Even smuggled tea was expensive, however, and therefore extremely profitable, so many smugglers began to adulterate the tea with other substances, such as
willow, licorice, and sloe leaves. Used tea leaves were also redried and added to fresh
leaves.
Finally, in 1784 William Pitt the Younger introduced the Commutation Act,
which dropped the tax on tea from 119% to 12.5%, effectively ending smuggling.
Adulteration remained a problem, though, until the Food and Drug Act of 1875
brought in stiff penalties for the practice.
Tea Clippers. In the early 1800's ships carrying tea from the Far East to Britain
could take over a year to bring home their precious cargo. When the East India Company was given a monopoly on the tea trade in 1832, they realized the need to cut the
time of this journey. The Americans actually designed the first "clippers", or streamlined, tall-masted vessels, but the British were close behind. These clippers sped
along at nearly 18 knots by contemporary accounts - nearly as fast as a modern ocean
liner.
So great was the race for speed that an annual competition was begun for clippers to race from the Canton River to the London Docks. The first ship to unload its
cargo won the captain and crew a hefty bonus.
109
The most famous of the clipper ships was the Cutty Sark, built in 1868. It only
made the tea run eight times, but for its era it was a remarkable ship. The Cutty Sark
is now on exhibition at Greenwich.
Tea Customs. Afternoon tea is said to have originated with one person; Anna,
7th Duchess of Bedford. In the early 1800's she launched the idea of having tea in the
late afternoon to bridge the gap between luncheon and dinner, which in fashionable
circles might not be served until 8 o'clock at night. This fashionable custom soon
evolved into high tea among the working classes, where this late afternoon repast became the main meal of the day.
Tea Gardens. The popular pleasure gardens of Ranelagh and Vauxhall in London began serving tea around 1730. An evening of dancing and watching fireworks
would be capped by tea. The concept caught on, and soon Tea Gardens opened all
over Britain. Usually the gardens were opened on Saturday and Sunday, and an afternoon of entertainment and dancing would be highlighted by serving tea.
Tea Shops – that oh, so British establishment, can be traced to one person. In
1864 the woman manager of the Aerated Bread Company began the custom of serving food and drink to her customers. Her best customers were favoured with tea.
Soon everyone was asking for the same treatment. The concept of tea shops spread
throughout Britain like wildfire, not in the least because tea shops provided a place
where an unchaperoned woman could meet her friends and socialize without damage
to her reputation.
Tea and Pottery. What connection, you might be excused for asking, does tea
have with the growth of the British pottery industry? Simply this: tea in China was
traditionally drunk from cups without handles. When tea became popular in Britain,
there was a crying need for good cups with handles, to suit British habits. This made
for tremendous growth in the pottery and porcelain industry, and the prosperity of
such companies as Wedgwood, Spode, and Royal Doulton.
KING ARTHUR IN BRITAIN - THE REAL HERO BEHIND THE MYTH
The time...early 5th century. As the Roman hold on Britain got progressively
weaker and the Roman Empire tottered on into a creaky old age, England was subject
to a fresh influx of settlers from the area of modern Germany. These settlers, tribes of
Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians, may have first come to England as mercenaries
in the Roman army. In the wake of the Roman withdrawal British leaders, perhaps
under a powerful overking, Vortigern, hired these mercenaries for protection. Mercenaries can be helpful as long as they are paid, but when the money ran out the Germans rose in rebellion.
The Anglo-Saxons. These Germanic tribes are the "Anglo-Saxons" to whom
we owe much of our tradition, language, and physical heritage. They poured in upon
the Romanized Celts of Britain much as the Normans would do to them in later times,
pushing the inhabitants of the island back into the hills of Wales and Cornwall, creating pockets of Celtic culture and language.
110
At first the British inhabitants fell back to the heights of the old Iron Age hill
forts. There is evidence that many forts were reoccupied in the late 5th century.
Gradually, however, even this struggle proved in vain, and the Germanic invaders
settled throughout much of south, east, and northeast England.
The Roman warrior. It is during this push for settlement that the next and
greatest British hero was born, the legendary King Arthur. Was King Arthur real?
Not in the sense of the wonderful medieval romances popularized by Thomas
Malory. There were no knights in shining armour searching for the Holy Grail in Arthur's company. In all likelihood there was no Round Table or Sword in the Stone.
What there was instead was a very brave warrior, who may not even have been
named Arthur, leading the remnants of romanised British resistance against a steady
onslaught of foreign pagan invaders.
Conflicting claims. In researching this material I found definitively that Arthur
was Welsh, Celtic, or Breton. That he fought the Saxons in the north, in the south, or
in Wales, around the year 450, or 500, or 525. That he was and wasn't a king, who
was or wasn't named Arthur. That he was a figure of imagination and a real person.
The real Arthur (maybe). It seems that there was a war leader, whose name we
do not know, who defeated the Saxons, checking their advance temporarily. In later
years people remembered this leader with longing; "Oh, if we only had ... to lead us
now". Eventually the name Arthur adhered to this folk memory, and his list of accomplishments grew. Arthur is in many ways greater because we do not know the
truth; it can't get in the way of peoples' need to create a saviour who is waiting to
come to their aid when times get tough.
The real Arthur may have been a man named Ambrosius Aurelianus, or perhaps his war leader, who defeated the Saxons in a major battle we know as Mount
Badon, (which may possibly be South Cadbury, in Somerset) halting their advance
for as long as forty years. In the end, however, the superior might and numbers of the
Saxons and their allies were too much for the islanders, and Arthur's efforts became
little more than a historical footnote. A terrifically romantic and exciting footnote
though, for Arthur and his deeds were woven like a silk thread into the fabric of myth
and legend in which Celtic storytellers delight.
CHRISTMAS
From November onwards, it is impossible to forget that Christmas is coming.
Coloured lights decorate many town centres and shops, along with shiny decorations,
and artificial snow painted on shop windows.
In streets and shops, 'Christmas trees' (real or plastic evergreen 'conifer' trees)
will also be decorated with lights and Christmas ornaments.
Shopping centres become busier as December approaches and often stay open
till late. Shopping centre speaker systems will play Christmas 'carols' - the traditional
Christmas Christian songs, and groups of people will often sing carols on the streets
to raise money for charity. Most places of work will hold a short Christmas party
111
about a week before Christmas. Although traditional Christmas foods may be eaten,
drink (and plenty of it) means that little work will be done after the party!
By mid-December, most
homes will also be decorated
with Christmas trees, coloured
lights and paper or plastic
decorations around the rooms.
These days, many more people
also decorate garden trees or
house walls with coloured
electric lights, a habit which has
long been popular in USA.
In many countries, most
people post Christmas greeting
cards to their friends and family,
and these cards will be hung on
the walls of their homes. In UK this year, the British Post Office expects to handle
over 100 million cards EACH DAY, in the three weeks before Christmas.
CHRISTMAS CARDS
The custom of sending Christmas cards started in Britain in 1840 when the first
'Penny Post' public postal deliveries began. (Helped by the new railway system, the
public postal service was the 19th century's communication revolution, just as email
is for us today.) As printing methods improved, Christmas cards were produced in
large numbers from about 1860. They became even more popular in Britain when a
card could be posted in an unsealed envelope for one half-penny - half the price of an
ordinary letter.
Traditionally, Christmas cards showed religious pictures - Mary, Joseph and
baby Jesus, or other parts of the Christmas story. Today, pictures are often jokes,
winter pictures, Father Christmas, or romantic scenes of life in past times.
THE OLD MAN WITH THE SACK
'Father Christmas' (or 'Santa Claus') has become the human face of Christmas.
Pictures will be seen everywhere of the old man with long white beard, red coat, and
bag of toys. Children are taught that he brings them presents the night before Christmas (or in some countries on December 6th - St. Nicholas' Day), and many children
up to the age of 7 or 8 really believe this is true. In most countries, it is said that he
lives near the North Pole, and arrives through the sky on a sledge (snow-cart) pulled
by reindeer. He comes into houses down the chimney at midnight and places presents
for the children in socks or bags by their beds or in front of the family Christmas tree.
In shops or at children's parties, someone will dress up as Father Christmas and
give small presents to children, or ask them what gifts they want for Christmas.
Christmas can be a time of magic and excitement for children.
112
POEMS AND SONGS ABOUT CHRISTMAS
1.Read the poems and say what Christmas traditions are mentioned in them.
It`s Christmas
by Jack Prelutsky
It`s Christmas! Merry Christmas!
Yes, it`s merry, merry Christmas,
It`s time for hanging stockings,
It`s time for riding sledges,
It`s time for jolly greetings,
Snow and holly, overeating,
Oh, I love you merry Christmas,
You are the best of holidays.
Christmas is coming
Christmas is coming!
The goose is getting fat.
Please to put a penny
In the old`s man hat.
If you have no penny,
A ha`panny will do.
If you have no ha`penny,
Then God bless you.
113
Appendix 2
Приложение 2
Таблица 1
a
o
u
е
i/y
Алфавитное
чтение
Гласные
буквы
GRAMMAR REFERENCE
Грамматический справочник
Сводная таблица чтения английских гласных
Краткое
чтение
[ei]
[æ]
clay
ash
ratio
sand
stage
slag
date
began
table
has
[O]
[ou]
load
bond
motion
cost
stone
drop
cold
problem
follow
office
[ju:]
[٨]
use
crush pump
durable
bulk
unique
subject
unit
plus
future
[i:]
[e]
beam
dense
degree
setting
steel
test
clean
effect
easy
depth
[ai]
[i]
dry
inch
fine
system
type
gypsum
high
mix
vital
resist
Чтение в сочетании
с последующим r
Гласная + гласная
+ r; гласная + r +
гласная
[Ə]
bearing
repair
spare
air
stairs
[O:]
core
door
portion
before
porous
[ju]
pure
secure
during
fuel
surely
[iƏ]
near
here
engineer
period
career
[ai]
prior
tire = tyre
wire
supply
trial
114
В сочетаниях
au, aw, all; а + I
+ согласная;
Гласная + r;
гласная + r + wa + согласная;
ou, ow, en, ew
согласная
[а:]
tar
hard
mark
task
plant
[O:]
forming
mortar
corner
order
report
[Ə:]
burning
turn
fur
surface
further
[Ə:]
inert
observe
term
learn
person
[Ə:]
fir
dirty
third
birth
circle
[O:]
raw
always
install
water
pause
[au]
foundation
brown
ground
allow
thousand
[ O :]
august
autumn
author
audience
[ju:]
few
knew
view
crew
flew
Таблица 2
Порядок слов повествовательного предложения
(утвердительная форма)
Подлежащее
My brother
She
The students
The teacher
The young men
You
Сказуемое
is a student
reads
receive
returned
will take
must speak
Остальная часть предложения
French books in the original
consultations by e-mail.
the control paper in October.
examinations in two months.
English every day.
Таблица 3
Порядок слов повествовательного предложения
(отрицательная форма)
Подлежащее
The students
Не
The teacher
The students
YOU
My brother
He
She
Сказуемое
Остальная часть предложения
do not receive
does not receive
did not return
won’t take
mustn't speak
isn't a student
is not making
hasn’t read
consultations by mail.
the newspapers.
the control tests in October.
examinations in May.
English there.
the written review
this book yet.
Таблица 4
Повествовательное предложение в отрицательной форме
со словами no, nobody, nothing, nowhere, never
Подлежащее или
вводящее слово
These students
There
No meeting
Nobody
The travellers
The unemployed
We
Сказуемое
receive
are
will be held
missed
can see
could find
have never
written
Остальная часть предложения
или подлежащее при обороте there + be
no consultations by e-mail.
no old buildings in that street.
at the Committee tomorrow.
the lecture.
nothing in the darkness.
work nowhere.
a course before.
115
Таблица 5
Порядок слов вопросительного предложения
Вопросительные
слова
Специальный вопрос
Общий вопрос
-
Вспомогательный или
Подлежащее
модальный
глагол
Do
the students
-
Did
Will
must
is
was
the teacher
the young
men
you
your brother
he
she
the students
the teacher
the young
men
you
your brother?
he
Where
When
How many
exams
Why
What
What
review
What
Must
Is
Was
Has
do
did
will
has
she
Неизменяемая часть
сказуемого
receive
return
take
speak
a student?
reading
read
receive
return
take
speak
reading?
read?
Остальная часть
предложения
consultations by email?
the control papers?
examinations
soon?
English every day?
the written review?
the book?
consultations?
our tests?
in two months?
English every day?
Таблица 6
Вопросы, относящиеся к подлежащему или к его определению
Вопросительные
слова
к подлежащему
Who
Who
Who
Who
Who
Who
Сказуемое
receives
saw
will help
is discussing
was discussing
will be discussing
116
Остальная часть
предложения
Consultations?
Petrov yesterday?
you with calculations?
the plans for the next year?
our problems?
our plans for summer holidays?
Окончание табл. 7
Вопросительные
слова
к подлежащему
Who
has just come
Who
had tried to telephone
Who
will have received
Who
must speak
Whose brother
is a student?
How many
students
What
will go in
What building
is being erected
Сказуемое
was
Остальная часть
предложения
by car?
him several times?
a letter by the evening tomorrow?
English?
for sports?
on the table?
in the centre of Voronezh?
Таблица 7
Основные префиксы (приставки)
1. Префиксы с отрицательным значением
Un –
in ir im –
il –
non -
de-
небез
небез
небеснауч. термины
reliable – надежный
unreliable – ненадежный
limited – ограниченный
unlimited – безграничный
active – активный
inactive – неактивный
resistable - устойчивый
irresistable - неустойчивый
pure – чистый
impure – смешанный
logical – логичный
illogical – нелогичный
productive – продуктивный
non-productive –
непроизводительный
contact – контактный
noncontact – бесконтактный
compression - давление
decompression – снижение
давления
frost – замораживать
defrost – размораживать
dis -
неза-
mis – означает
«неверно»
comfort – комфорт
discomfort – неудобство
belief – доверие
disbelief – заблуждение
calculate – подсчитывать
discalculate – ошибиться в
расчете
117
Окончание таблицы 7
2. Префиксы с разными значениями
re – снова
еще раз
use – использовать
reuse – снова использовать
reread – перечитать
read – читать
load – нагрузка
super – сверхнад-
superload - дополнительная
нагрузка
pressure – давление
superpressure - избыточное
давление
design – проектирование overdesign - проектирование
с запасом прочности
heat – нагревать
overheat – перегревать
over – сверхперенадSemi – полу-
rigid – жесткий
skillеd – квалифицированный
semirigid – полужесткий
semiskillеd – малоопытный
Inter – междувзаимо-
action – действие
interaction - взаимодействий
interspace – промежуток,
интервал
space – пространство
En – для образования
глаголов
rich – богатый
danger – опасность
Pre - до
заранее
design – расчет
tensioning – натяжение
enrich – обогащать, украшать
еndanger – подвергать опасности
predesign – предварительный расчет
pre-tensioning – предварительное натяжение
Таблица 8
Сводная таблица временных форм активного залога
Indefinite Tenses
I prepare mortar.
(He prepares mortar).
Do I prepare mortar?
(Does he prepare mortar?)
I do not prepare mortar.
(He does not prepare
mortar).
Continuous Tenses
Present
I am preparing mortar.
Am I preparing mortar?
I am not preparing
mortar.
118
Perfect Tenses
I have prepared mortar.
(He has prepared mortar).
Have I prepared mortar?
(Has he prepared mortar)?
I have not prepared mortar.
(He has not prepared mortar).
Окончание табл. 8
Indefinite Tenses
I prepared mortar.
Did I prepare mortar?
I did not prepare mortar.
I shall prepare mortar.
Shall I prepare mortar?
I shan’t prepare mortar.
Continuous Tenses
Past
I was preparing mortar.
Was I preparing mortar?
I was not preparing mortar.
Future
I shall be preparing mortar. Shall I be preparing
mortar? I shall not be
preparing mortar.
Perfect Tenses
I had prepared mortar.
Had I prepared mortar?
I had not prepared mortar.
I shall have prepared mortar.
Shall I have prepared mortar?
I shall not have prepared mortar.
Таблица 9
Сводная таблица временных форм пассивного залога
Indefinite Tenses
Continuous Tenses
Present
Mortar is prepared by
Mortar is being prepared
me.
by me.
Is mortar prepared by
Is mortar being prepared
me?
by me?
Mortar is not prepared Mortar is not being preby me.
pared by me.
Past
Mortar was prepared by Mortar was being preme.
pared by me.
Was mortar prepared by Was mortar being preme?
pared by me?
Mortar was not prepared Mortar was not being preby me.
pared by me.
Future
Mortar will be prepared
by me.
Will mortar prepared by
me?
Mortar will not be prepared by me.
119
Perfect Tenses
Mortar has been prepared by
me.
Has mortar been prepared by
me?
Mortar has not been prepared
by me.
Mortar had been prepared by
me.
Had mortar been prepared by
me?
Mortar had not been prepared
by me.
Mortar will have been prepared
by me.
Will mortar have been prepared
by me?
Mortar will not have been
prepared by me.
Appendix 3
Приложение 3
Существительное
Существительные могут быть исчисляемыми, то есть иметь форму множественного числа (a table - two tables) и неисчисляемыми, и они не имеют
множественного числа. Неисчисляемыми существительными являются, например: gold, music, blood, excitement, friendship, water, milk, health.
Неисчисляемые существительные нельзя сосчитать. У них нет формы
множественного числа. Например, такие слова как health, excitement не могут
употребляться во множественном числе. Вы не можете сказать healths или
excitements.
Неисчисляемое существительное может употребляться без всякого артикля. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными вы можете использовать слова
Например: her / his / some / any / much / this и т.д.:
her excitement, some water, much milk, this friendship.
Многие существительные могут употребляться и как исчисляемые, и как неисчисляемые. Обычно к таких слов несколько значений. Например, paper может
означать газету (исчисляемое), а может означать бумагу, на которой можно писать (неисчисляемое):
- Will you buy me a paper, please? (= газета)
- I bought some paper to write a letter. (= материал)
Некоторые существительные являются неисчисляемыми в английском языке,
но исчисляемыми в других языках:
behaviour
permission
scenery
work
bread
trouble
news
weather
chaos
accommodation
information
progress
travel
baggage
advice
furniture
luggage
traffic
–His furniture is new (а не furnitures).
–I want to buy some bread (или a loaf of bread) (а не a bread).
–Ask her and she will give you some good advice (а не advices).
The news is good today (а не are: существительное news не имеет формы множественного числа)
–They had a good journey (а не a good travel).
–What lovely scenery!– What a lovely view!
Исчисляемые существительные в единственном числе всегда используются с a,
an, the, my, his и т.д.
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– It was a good idea.
– Don't touch my book (а не Don't touch book).
– I'm looking for a tennis ball (а не for tennis ball).
– He made us a proposal (а не made us proposal).
– You shouldn't have broken this cup (а не have broken cup).
Мы также используем a/an , когда описательные слова (прилагательные или
наречия) относятся к существительному:
– She is a very nice girl.
– What a lovely house!
Не забывайте ставить a/an перед существительными, обозначающими профессии:
– My father is a doctor (а не My father is doctor).
– I always wanted to be an English teacher (а не English teacher).
Исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе употребляются без
артикля:
– Cats are animals.
– Sam has very nice friends.
Some иногда употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе.
Some = a number of / a few of (когда мы не знаем точно, сколько именно):
– Some pupils don't like to go to school.
– Some films are not worth seeing.
Также some употребляется, когда мы имеем в виду часть, но не все, немного:
– Some days in summer are very nasty but generally the weather is good.
Мы говорим a/an в случае, когда собеседник не знает, о каком предмете идет
речь. Когда собеседнику ясно, что мы имеем в виду, мы употребляем the:
– Tom sat down on a chair (мы не знаем, на какой стул).
– Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door (мы знаем, на какой стул).
The употребляется, когда из ситуации ясно, какой конкретно предмет или лицо
мы имеем в виду:
– Oh! Your house is so nice. Where is the living-room?
– Turn off the music, please (= музыка, которая сейчас включена).
– I went to the airport by car so as not to be late (= аэропорт этого города).
The также используется, когда речь идет о полиции, армии и т.д.: the police, the
fire-brigade, the army, и the bank, the post-office, the doctor, the dentist.
– When Margaret saw that the house was on fire she called the fire-brigade.
– Yesterday I went to the bank to take some money from my account and then to the
post-office to buy some envelopes.
– Last week Sam had a sore throat and went to the doctor (=к его доктору).
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Глагол
Модальные глаголы
Значение модальных глаголов часто зависит от контекста. Так, глагол must, который обычно считается «менее вежливым», чем may, может в некоторых контекстах стать «более вежливым». Например, хозяйка может сказать гостю:
1) You must have some of this cake;
2) You should have some of this cake;
3) You may have some of this cake.
Значение модального глагола may часто зависит от интонации предложения.
You may go then с неударнным may, произносимым в нижнем регистре, с логическим ударением на go и с максимальной высотой голоса в этом глаголе означает "Вам можно уходить". При переносе логического ударения на may и его
замедленном произнесении соответствующее предложение означает "Вы, возможно, уйдете".
В придаточных уступительных, наряду с упоминаемыми в грамматиках случаями употребления глаголов may и might (типа try as she might, her poor head
just wouldn't let her think what it was she should rightly remember, в том же значении используются глаголы will, would и could. Например:
Look where we would there was no rock or tree (H. Haggard) ("Куда
бы мы ни посмотрели...").
Would, should, как и will, могут употребляться для выражения предположения.
Например:
This Velma was an entertainer, a singer. You wouldn't know her? I don't
suppose you went there much.
Страдательный залог
Возможность употребления некоторых английских глаголов в форме страдательного залога зависит от их значения, формы и ближайшего окружения. Так,
have может употребляться:
a) в значении "иметь" только в Active,
б) в значении "обмануть, перехитрить" только в Passive,
в) в составе cоставного именного сказуемого и в Active, и в Passive,
г) в значениях "получать", "доставать" в Active в личной форме и в
Passive в форме пассивного инфинитива, в том числе с предшествующим модальным глаголом,
д) в разговорном сочетании с up в значении "отвести к судье", "отдать под суд "- чаще в Passive, чем в Active. Например:
1. They have a beautiful house, но не А beautiful house is
had by them;
2. Then, suddenly, we're a joke; then we've been had.
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Времена группы Simple
В разговорном стиле при употреблении одним из собеседников «настоящего
исторического» второй собеседник может употребить Past Simple или Present
Perfect. Например:
"I hear you are shortly to be married." - "You have heard correctly" .
Как известно, в разговорном Британском BE при образовании форм будущего
времени глагол will под влиянием АЕ заменяет глагол shall. При этом shall сохраняется в официальных документах, а также в просьбах, для того чтобы дать
указание, совет или разрешение. Например: Shall I read / translate?
P r e s e n t P e r f e c t . Сведения о маркерах форм Perfect (незаконченность отрезка времени, наличие наречия-обстоятельства неопределенного времени и
др.) нуждаются в следующих уточнениях и дополнениях:
1. Необходимо учитывать, что для носителей английского языка отрезок времени, обозначаемый как this morning, начинается после полуночи и длится примерно до 13 часов. Затем начинается отрезок this afternoon, который продолжается приблизительно до 17 часов. Поэтому, если разговор происходит, например, в 11 часов, уместно сказать: Не has rung up three times this morning
already, употребив Present Perfect. Если о том же факте сообщается в 14 часов,
следует употребить Past Simple: Не rang up three times this morning.
2. К маркерам Perfect следует добавить наличие в предложении сочетаний
типа подлежащее + именное сказуемое (связка be + предикатив; the+ порядковое числительное / only / превосходная степень прилагательного+ существительное). Например:
This is the first time (that) I've felt really relaxed for months.
Yet he was the most middle-class person I have know).
Маркеры Perfect типа This / That / It + be + the + порядковое числительное+ +
time необходимо отличать от сходных с ними словосочетаний типа for the+
+порядковое числительное + time, которые являются маркерами Simple. Ср.:
This is the first time I've been here и
I'm here for the first time.
3. Связь маркеров с соответствующими временами ослабевает. Ср. употребление маркера прошедшего времени с глаголом в Present Simple:
So they notice it when he doesn't come home the usual time last night.
Это справедливо и для Present Perfect. Его маркеры употребляются с глаголами в Past Simple, Present Simple, Present Continuous. Например:
Mike recently studied...;
В BE формы Present Perfect употребляются в основном в разговорном стиле (в
беседах, состоящих из вопросов и ответов, в газетах, радиопередачах, офици123
альных и неофициальных письмах). Разговор о действиях в прошлом обычно
начинается с вопроса и ответа в Present Perfect, а затем продолжается в Past
Simple. В газетах и радиопередачах Present Perfect используется в первом предложении для сообщения главной новости, а затем подробности описываются в
форме Past Simple. Например:
Thirty thousand pounds' worth of jewellery has been stolen from Jonathan Wilde and Company, the jewellers. The thieves broke into the flat
above sometime during Sunday night and entered the shop by cutting a
hole in the floor.
В письмах Present Perfect также используется в первом предложении, а
дальнейшее повествование продолжается в Past Simple. Например:
I am sorry I haven't written for such a long time, but I've been very busy
lately as my partner has been away and I have had to do his work as
well as my own. However he came back this morning, so things are a bit
easier now.
В научном стиле частотность употребления Present Perfect и Past Simple в
BE и АЕ примерно одинакова.
Тенденция использовать Past Indefinite вместо Present Perfect наблюдается
в АЕ (в меньшей степени - в BE) в разговорном стиле, где этому не мешает даже
наличие в предложении маркеров Present Perfect.
Например: I am going to be the happiest girl who ever lived!
В современном языке резко сокращается употребление Past Perfect. В СПП при
выражении предшествования одного действия другому сказуемое в придаточном времени может быть выражено глаголом в Past Perfect или в Past Simple. В
последнем случае средствами передачи предшествования служат союзы, наречия и контекст. При выборе между Past Simple и Past Perfect необходимо руководствоваться следующим:
1. Past Simple может употребляться для того, чтобы показать, что одно действие следует немедленно за другим. Ср.:
When the guest of honour had arrived, the speeches began "После того как
приехал почетный гость, начались выступления.
When the guest of honour arrived, the speeches began "Сразу же после приезда почетного гостя начались выступления".
2. Past Simple может употребляться для обозначения краткого действия, a Past
Perfect – для обозначения действия длительного. Ср.:
When I put the cat out (краткое действие), it ran off into the bushes in disgust.
When I had washed the cat (длительное действие), it ran off into the bushes
in disgust.
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3. Употребление Past Simple вместо Past Perfect характерно для глаголов know
и understand. Например:
When I knew the work of the department thoroughly, I was moved to the
next department. Ср.: When I had learned the work of one department
thoroughly, I was moved to the next department.
Continuous
Число сказуемых, выраженных глаголами в Continuous, неуклонно возрастает. В настоящее время в Continuous употребляются практически все глаголы, за
исключением contain, consist, possess, prefer, suppose и «недостаточных» модальных глаголов. Что же касается примеров типа "Harry, you must help us." Louise's
commands changed to pleading. "Must, must, must. Who's musting me?", то в них модальные глаголы употребляются не в своих обычных значениях, а в значении "говорить + значение модального глагола" (в данном случае musting = saying "must").
Широкому распространению форм Continuous способствует их многозначность. Помимо обозначения действия, ограниченного отрезком времени в
прошлом, в будущем или происходящего в момент речи, а также передачи эмоциональной окраски, эта форма используется для выражения:
1) интенсивности восприятия;
2) оттенка скромного, вежливого обращения;
3) извинения;
4) действия, произошедшего недавно;
5) подразумеваемого отрицания с иронической окраской;
6) многократно повторяющегося действия, мыслимого как временное;
7) неожиданного, случайного действия.
Например:
1) I thought I was seeing a ghost;
2) Were you wanting a room?;
3) Sorry, I was forgetting;
4) "I thought it was some damn poacher. We've had a hell of a lot of it
this winter." - "Knight was telling me";
5) ср.:
Не helps me every day "Он помогает мне каждый день".
Не is helping me every day "Как же, помогает он мне каждый день!";
6) ср.:
Не is smoking 20 cigarettes a day (он может прекратить это в любой
день).
Не smokes 20 cigarettes a day (это его постоянная привычка).
Но форма Continuous может употребляться и для выражения привычного действия, если оно носит временный характер. Например:
At that time, we were bathing every day.
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Appendix 4
Приложение 4
CONSTRUCTION GLOSSARY
Строительный глоссарий
A/C – An abbreviation for air conditioner or air conditioning.
Aggregate – A mixture of sand and stone and a major component of concrete.
Air space – The area between insulation facing and interior of exterior wall coverings. Normally a 1" air gap.
Anchor bolts – Bolts to secure a wooden sill plate to concrete, or masonry floor or
wall.
Appraisal – An expert valuation of property.
Architect – One who has completed a course of study in building and design, and is
licensed by the state as an architect. One who draws up plans.
Area wells – Corrugated metal or concrete barrier walls installed around a basement
window to hold back the earth
Astragal – A molding, attached to one of a pair of swinging double doors, against
which the other door strikes.
Attic access – An opening that is placed in the drywalled ceiling of a home providing
access to the attic.
Attic Ventilators – In houses, screened openings provided to ventilate an attic space
Backfill – The replacement of excavated earth into a trench around or against a
basement /crawl space foundation wall.
Backing – Frame lumber installed between the wall studs to give additional support
for drywall or an interior trim related item, such as handrail brackets, cabinets, and
towel bars. In this way, items are screwed and mounted into solid wood rather than
weak drywall that may allow the item to break loose from the wall. Carpet backing
holds the pile fabric in place.
Backout – Work the framing contractor does after the mechanical subcontractors
(Heating-Plumbing-Electrical) finish their phase of work at the Rough (before insulation) stage to get the home ready for a municipal frame inspection. Generally, the
framing contractor repairs anything disturbed by others and completes all framing
necessary to pass a Rough Frame Inspection.
Balloon framed wall – Framed walls (generally over 10' tall) that run the entire vertical length from the floor sill plate to the roof. This is done to eliminate the need for
a gable end truss.
Balusters – Vertical members in a railing used between a top rail and bottom rail or
the stair treads. Sometimes referred to as 'pickets' or 'spindles'.
Balustrade – The rail, posts and vertical balusters along the edge of a stairway or
elevated walkway.
Barge – Horizontal beam rafter that supports shorter rafters.
Base or baseboard – A trim board placed against the wall around the room next to
the floor.
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Basement window inserts – The window frame and glass unit that is installed in the
window buck.
Base shoe – Molding used next to the floor on interior base board. Sometimes called
a carpet strip.
Bat – A half-brick.
Batt – A section of fiber-glass or rock-wool insulation measuring 15 or 23 inches
wide by four to eight feet long and various thickness'. Sometimes "faced" (meaning
to have a paper covering on one side) or "unfaced" (without paper).
Beam – A structural member transversely supporting a load. A structural member
carrying building loads (weight) from one support to another. Sometimes called a
"girder".
Bearing partition – A partition that supports any vertical load in addition to its own
weight.
Bearing point – A point where a bearing or structural weight is concentrated and
transferred to the foundation
Bearing wall – A wall that supports any vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Bearing header – (a) A beam placed perpendicular to joists and to which joists are
nailed in framing for a chimney, stairway, or other opening. (b) A wood lintel. (c)
The horizontal structural member over an opening (for example over a door or window).
Bedrock – A subsurface layer of earth that is suitable to support a structure.
Bifold door – Doors that are hinged in the middle for opening in a smaller area than
standard swing doors. Often used for closet doors.
Bipass doors – Doors that slide by each other and commonly used as closet doors.
Blankets – Fiber-glass or rock-wool insulation that comes in long rolls 15 or 23
inches wide.
Blow insulation – Fiber insulation in loose form and used to insulate attics and existing walls where framing members are not exposed.
Brace – An inclined piece of framing lumber applied to wall or floor to strengthen
the structure. Often used on walls as temporary bracing until framing has been completed.
Brick ledge – Part of the foundation wall where brick (veneer) will rest.
Bridging – Small wood or metal members that are inserted in a diagonal position between the floor joists or rafters at mid-span for the purpose of bracing the
joists/rafters & spreading the load.
Building codes – Community ordinances governing the manner in which a home
may be constructed or modified.
Built-up roof – A roofing composed of three to five layers of asphalt felt laminated
with coal tar, pitch, or asphalt. The top is finished with crushed slag or gravel. Generally used on flat or low-pitched roofs.
Butt joint – The junction where the ends of two timbers meet, and also where sheets
of drywall meet on the 4 foot edge. To place materials end-to-end or end-to-edge
without overlapping.
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Cap – The upper member of a column, pilaster, door cornice, molding, or fireplace.
Casement – Frames of wood or metal enclosing part (or all) of a window sash. May
be opened by means of hinges affixed to the vertical edges.
Casing – Wood trim molding installed around a door or window opening.
Caulking – (1) A flexible material used to seal a gap between two surfaces e.g. between pieces of siding or the corners in tub walls. (2) To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt plastic cement to prevent leaks.
Ceiling joist – One of a series of parallel framing members used to support ceiling
loads and supported in turn by larger beams, girders or bearing walls. Also called
roof joists.
Cement – The gray powder that is the "glue" in concrete. Portland cement. Also, any
adhesive.
Ceramic tile – A man-made or machine-made clay tile used to finish a floor or wall.
Generally used in bathtub and shower enclosures and on counter tops.
CFM (cubic feet per minute) – A rating that expresses the amount of air a blower or
fan can move. The volume of air (measured in cubic feet) that can pass through an
opening in one minute.
Chair rail – Interior trim material installed about 3-4 feet up the wall, horizontally.
Chalk line – A line made by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used
for alignment purposes.
Chink – To install fiberglass insulation around all exterior door and window frames,
wall corners, and small gaps in the exterior wall.
Chip Board – A manufactured wood panel made out of 1"- 2" wood chips and glue.
Often used as a substitute for plywood in the exterior wall and roof sheathing. Also
called OSB (Oriented Strand Board) or wafer board.
Collar – Preformed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roofing above the vent
pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.
Column – A vertical structural compression member which supports loads.
Concrete – The mixture of Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water. Used to make
garage and basement floors, sidewalks, patios, foundation walls, etc. It is commonly
reinforced with steel rods (rebar) or wire screening (mesh).
Concrete block – A hollow concrete 'brick' often 8" x 8" x 16" in size.
Concrete board – A panel made out of concrete and fiberglass usually used as a tile
backing material.
Condensing unit – The outdoor component of a cooling system. It includes a compressor and condensing coil designed to give off heat.
Conditions, Covenants, and Restrictions (CC and Rs) – The standards that define
how a property may be used and the protections the developer makes for the benefit
of all owners in a subdivision.
Construction drywall – A type of construction in which the interior wall finish is
applied in a dry condition, generally in the form of sheet materials or wood paneling
as contrasted to plaster.
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Construction, frame – A type of construction in which the structural components are
wood or depend upon a wood frame for support.
Continuity tester – A device that tells whether a circuit is capable of carrying electricity.
Control joint – Tooled, straight grooves made on concrete floors to "control" where
the concrete should crack
Coped joint – Cutting and fitting woodwork to an irregular surface.
Counterfort – A foundation wall section that strengthens (and generally perpendicular to) a long section of foundation wall
Cove molding – A molding with a concave face used as trim or to finish interior corners.
Cricket – A second roof built on top of the primary roof to increase the slope of the
roof or valley. A saddle-shaped, peaked construction connecting a sloping roof with a
chimney. Designed to encourage water drainage away from the chimney joint.
Crown molding – A molding used on cornice or wherever an interior angle is to be
covered, especially at the roof and wall corner.
Damper – A metal "door" placed within the fireplace chimney. Normally closed
when the fireplace is not in use.
Dampproofing – The black, tar like waterproofing material applied to the exterior of
a foundation wall.
Dead bolt – An exterior security lock installed on exterior entry doors that can be activated only with a key or thumb-turn. Unlike a latch, which has a beveled tongue,
dead bolts have square ends.
Deck, decked – To install the plywood or wafer board sheeting on the floor joists,
rafters, or trusses
Door stop – The wooden style that the door slab will rest upon when it's in a closed
position.
Double glass – Window or door in which two panes of glass are used with a sealed
air space between. Also known as Insulating Glass.
Double hung window – A window with two vertically sliding sashes, both of which
can move up and down.
Down payment – The difference between the sales price and the mortgage amount.
A downpayment is usually paid at closing.
Downspout – A pipe, usually of metal, for carrying rainwater down from the roof's
horizontal gutters.
Drain tile – A perforated, corrugated plastic pipe laid at the bottom of the foundation
wall and used to drain excess water away from the foundation. It prevents ground water from seeping through the foundation wall. Sometimes called perimeter drain.
Drip cap – A molding or metal flashing placed on the exterior topside of a door or
window frame to cause water to drip beyond the outside of the frame.
Drywall (or Gypsum Wallboard (GWB), Sheet rock or Plasterboard) – Wall
board or gypsum- A manufactured panel made out of gypsum plaster and encased in
a thin cardboard. Usually 1/2" thick and 4' x 8' or 4' x 12' in size. The panels are
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nailed or screwed onto the framing and the joints are taped and covered with a 'joint
compound'. 'Green board' type drywall has a greater resistance to moisture than regular (white) plasterboard and is used in bathrooms and other "wet areas".
DWV (drain-waste-vent) – The section of a plumbing system that carries water and
sewer gases out of a home.
Earthquake Strap – A metal strap used to secure gas hot water heaters to the framing or foundation of a house. Intended to reduce the chances of having the water
heater fall over in an earthquake and causing a gas leak.
Elbow (ell) – A plumbing or electrical fitting that lets you change directions in runs
of pipe or conduit.
Evaporator coil- The part of a cooling system that absorbs heat from air in your
home. Also see condensing unit.
Expansion joint – Fibrous material installed in and around a concrete slab to permit
it to move up and down (seasonally) along the non-moving foundation wall.
Expansive soils- Earth that swells and contracts depending on the amount of water
that is present. ("Betonite" is an expansive soil).
Exposed aggregate finish – A method of finishing concrete which washes the cement/sand mixture off the top layer of the aggregate - usually gravel. Often used in
driveways, patios and other exterior surfaces.
Face nail – To install nails into the vertical face of a bearing header or beam.
Faced concrete – To finish the front and all vertical sides of a concrete porch,
step(s), or patio. Normally the "face" is broom finished.
Facing brick – The brick used and exposed on the outside of a wall. Usually these
have a finished texture.
Field measure – To take measurements (cabinets, countertops, stairs, shower doors,
etc.) in the home itself instead of using the blueprints.
Finger joint – A manufacturing process of interlocking two shorter pieces of wood
end to end to create a longer piece of dimensional lumber or molding. Often used in
jambs and casings and are normally painted (instead of stained).
Fire block – Short horizontal members sometimes nailed between studs, usually
about halfway up a wall. See also 'Fire stop'.
Fire brick – Brick made of refractory ceramic material which will resist high temperatures. Used in a fireplace and boiler.
Fire-resistive or Fire rated – Applies to materials that are not combustible in the
temperatures of ordinary fires and will withstand such fires for at least 1 hour. Drywall used in the garage and party walls are to be fire rated, 5/8", Type X.
Fire retardant chemical – A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce
the flammability of a material or to retard the spread of flame.
Fire stop – A solid, tight closure of a concealed space, placed to prevent the spread
of fire and smoke through such a space. In a frame wall, this will usually consist of 2
by 4 cross blocking between studs. Work performed to slow the spread of fire and
smoke in the walls and ceiling (behind the drywall). Includes stuffing wire holes in
the top and bottom plates with insulation, and installing blocks of wood between the
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wall studs at the drop soffit line. This is integral to passing a Rough Frame inspection. See also 'Fire block'.
Flagstone (flagging or flags) – Flat stones (1 to 4 inches thick) used for walks, steps,
floors, and vertical veneer (in lieu of brick).
Flakeboard – A manufactured wood panel made out of 1"- 2" wood chips and glue.
Often used as a substitute for plywood in the exterior wall and roof sheathing. Also
called OSB or wafer board.
Flashing – Sheet metal or other material used in roof and wall construction to protect
a building from water seepage.
Flatwork – Common word for concrete floors, driveways, basements, and sidewalks.
Floating – The next-to-last stage in concrete work, when you smooth off the job and
bring water to the surface by using a hand float or bull float.
Floating wall – A non-bearing wall built on a concrete floor. It is constructed so that
the bottom two horizontal plates can compress or pull apart if the concrete floor
moves up or down. Normally built on basements and garage slabs.
Form – Temporary structure erected to contain concrete during placing and initial
hardening.
Foundation – The supporting portion of a structure below the first floor construction,
or below grade, including the footings.
Foundation ties – Metal wires that hold the foundation wall panels and rebar in place
during the concrete pour.
Foundation waterproofing – High-quality below-grade moisture protection. Used
for below-grade exterior concrete and masonry wall damp-proofing to seal out moisture and prevent corrosion. Normally looks like black tar.
Furring strips – Strips of wood, often 1 X 2 and used to shim out and provide a level
fastening surface for a wall or ceiling.
Gable – The end, upper, triangular area of a home, beneath the roof.
General Contractor – A contractor who enters into a contract with the owner of a
project for the construction of the project and who takes full responsibility for its
completion, although the contractor may enter into subcontracts with others for the
performance of specific parts or phases of the project.
Girder – A large or principal beam of wood or steel used to support concentrated
loads at isolated points along its length.
Glazing – The process of installing glass, which commonly is secured with glazier's
points and glazing compound.
Gloss enamel – A finishing paint material. Forms a hard coating with maximum
smoothness of surface and dries to a sheen or luster (gloss)
Glued Laminated Beam (Glulam) – A structural beam composed of wood laminations or lams. The lams are pressure bonded with adhesives to attain a typical thickness of 1 ½" . (It looks like 5 or more 2 X 4's are glued together).
Grade – Ground level, or the elevation at any given point. Also the work of leveling
dirt. Also the designated quality of a manufactured piece of wood.
131
Grade beam – A foundation wall that is poured @ level with or just below the grade
of the earth. An example is the area where the 8' or 16' overhead garage door "block
out" is located, or a lower (walk out basement) foundation wall is poured
Grain – The direction, size, arrangement, appearance, or quality of the fibers in
wood.
Grid – The completed assembly of main and cross tees in a suspended ceiling system
before the ceiling panels are installed. Also the decorative slats (munton) installed between glass panels.
Groundwater – Water from an aquifer or subsurface water source.
Grout – A wet mixture of cement, sand and water that flows into masonry or ceramic
crevices to seal the cracks between the different pieces. Mortar made of such consistency (by adding water) that it will flow into the joints and cavities of the masonry
work and fill them solid.
Gusset – A flat wood, plywood, or similar type member used to provide a connection
at the intersection of wood members. Most commonly used at joints of wood trusses.
They are fastened by nails, screws, bolts, or adhesives.
Gutter – A shallow channel or conduit of metal or wood set below and along the
(fascia) eaves of a house to catch and carry off rainwater from the roof.
Gypsum plaster – Gypsum formulated to be used with the addition of sand and water for base-coat plaster.
Hardware – All of the "metal" fittings that go into the home when it is near completion. For example, door knobs, towel bars, handrail brackets, closet rods, house numbers, door closers, etc. The Interior Trim Carpenter installs the "hardware".
Header – (a) A beam placed perpendicular to joists and to which joists are nailed inframing for a chimney, stairway, or other opening. (b) A wood lintel. (c) The horizontal structural member over an opening (for example over a door or window).
Heating load – The amount of heating required to keep a building at a specified temperature during the winter, usually 65° F, regardless of outside temperature.
Hip roof – A roof that rises by inclined planes from all four sides of a building.
Honey combs – The appearance concrete makes when rocks in the concrete are visible and where there are void areas in the foundation wall, especially around concrete
foundation windows.
Hurricane clip – Metal straps that are nailed and secure the roof rafters and trusses
to the top horizontal wall plate. Sometimes called a Teco clip.
H V A C – An abbreviation for Heat, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
I-beam – A steel beam with a cross section resembling the letter I. It is used for long
spans as basement beams or over wide wall openings, such as a double garage door,
when wall and roof loads bear down on the opening.
Index – The interest rate or adjustment standard that determines the changes in
monthly payments for an adjustable rate loan.
Inside corner – The point at which two walls form an internal angle, as in the corner
of a room.
132
Insulating glass – Window or door in which two panes of glass are used with a
sealed air space between. Also known as Double glass.
Insulation board, rigid – A structural building board made of coarse wood or cane
fiber in ½- and 25/32-inch thickness. It can be obtained in various size sheets and
densities.
Insulation – Any material high in resistance to heat transmission that, when placed in
the walls, ceiling, or floors of a structure, and will reduce the rate of heat flow.
Interior finish – Material used to cover the interior framed areas of walls and ceilings
Joint – The location between the touching surfaces of two members or components
joined and held together by nails, glue, cement, mortar, or other means.
Joint cement or Joint compound – A powder that is usually mixed with water and
used for joint treatment in gypsum-wallboard finish. Often called "spackle" or drywall mud.
Keyless – A plastic or porcelain light fixture that operates by a pull string. Generally
found in the basement, crawl space , and attic areas.
Laminated shingles – Shingles that have added dimensionality because of extra layers or tabs, giving a shake-like appearance. May also be called "architectural shingles" or "three-dimensional shingles."
Laminating – Bonding together two or more layers of materials.
Landing – A platform between flights of stairs or at the termination of a flight of
stairs. Often used when stairs change direction. Normally no less than 3 ft. X 3 ft.
square.
Lath – A building material of narrow wood, metal, gypsum, or insulating board that
is fastened to the frame of a building to act as a base for plaster, shingles, or tiles.
Lattice – An open framework of criss-crossed wood or metal strips that form regular,
patterned spaces.
Lintel – A horizontal structural member that supports the load over an opening such
as a door or window.
Load bearing wall – Includes all exterior walls and any interior wall that is aligned
above a support beam or girder. Normally, any wall that has a double horizontal top
plate.
Manufactured wood – A wood product such as a truss, beam, gluelam, microlam or
joist which is manufactured out of smaller wood pieces and glued or mechanically
fastened to form a larger piece. Often used to create a stronger member which may
use less wood. See also Oriented Strand Board.
Masonry – Stone, brick, concrete, hollow-tile, concrete block, or other similar building units or materials. Normally bonded together with mortar to form a wall.
Mastic – A pasty material used as a cement (as for setting tile) or a protective coating
(as for thermal insulation or waterproofing)
Microlam – A manufactured structural wood beam. It is constructed of pressure and
adhesive bonded wood strands of wood. They have a higher strength rating than solid
sawn lumber. Normally comes in l ½" thickness' and 9 ½", 11 ½" and 14" widths
133
Molding – A wood strip having an engraved, decorative surface.
Monopost – Adjustable metal column used to support a beam or bearing point. Normally 11 gauge or Schedule 40 metal, and determined by the structural engineer
Mortar – A mixture of cement (or lime) with sand and water used in masonry work.
Mortise – A slot cut into a board, plank, or timber, usually edgewise, to receive the
tenon (or tongue) of another board, plank, or timber to form a joint.
Muntin- A small member which divides the glass or openings of sash or doors.
Nonbearing wall- A wall supporting no load other than its own weight.
Oriented Strand Board or OSB- A manufactured 4' X 8' wood panel made out of
1"- 2" wood chips and glue. Often used as a substitute for plywood.
Outrigger – An extension of a rafter beyond the wall line. Usually a smaller member
nailed to a larger rafter to form a cornice or roof overhang.
Outside corner – The point at which two walls form an external angle, one you usually can walk around.
Paint – A combination of pigments with suitable thinners or oils to provide decorative and protective coatings. Can be oil based or latex water based.
Panel – A thin flat piece of wood, plywood, or similar material, framed by stiles and
rails as in a door (or cabinet door), or fitted into grooves of thicker material with
molded edges for decorative wall treatment.
Parapet – A wall placed at the edge of a roof to prevent people from falling off.
Parting stop or strip – A small wood piece used in the side and head jambs of double hung windows to separate the upper sash from the lower sash.
Partition – A wall that subdivides spaces within any story of a building or room.
Paver, paving – Materials—commonly masonry—laid down to make a firm, even
surface.
Pier – A column of masonry, usually rectangular in horizontal cross section, used to
support other structural members. Also see Caisson.
Pigment – A powdered solid used in paint or enamel to give it a color.
Pitch – The incline slope of a roof or the ratio of the total rise to the total width of a
house, i.e., a 6-foot rise and 24-foot width is a one-fourth pitch roof. Roof slope is
expressed in the inches of rise, per foot of horizontal run.
Plate – Normally a 2 X 4 or 2 X 6 that lays horizontally within a framed structure,
such as:
 Sill plate- A horizontal member anchored to a concrete or masonry wall.
 Sole plate- Bottom horizontal member of a frame wall.
 Top plate- Top horizontal member of a frame wall supporting ceiling joists,
rafters, or other members.
Ply – A term to denote the number of layers of roofing felt, veneer in plywood, or
layers in built-up materials, in any finished piece of such material.
Plywood – A panel (normally 4' X 8') of wood made of three or more layers of veneer, compressed and joined with glue, and usually laid with the grain of adjoining
plies at right angles to give the sheet strength.
134
Point load – A point where a bearing/structural weight is concentrated and transferred to the foundation.
Portland cement – Cement made by heating clay and crushed limestone into a brick
and then grinding to a pulverized powder state.
Post – A vertical framing member usually designed to carry a beam. Often a 4" x 4",
a 6" x 6", or a metal pipe with a flat plate on top and bottom.
Post-and-beam – A basic building method that uses just a few hefty posts and beams
to support an entire structure. Contrasts with stud framing.
Pressure-treated wood – Lumber that has been saturated with a preservative.
Pump mix- Special concrete that will be used in a concrete pump. Generally, the mix
has smaller rock aggregate than regular mix.
Quarry tile- A man-made or machine-made clay tile used to finish a floor or wall.
Generally 6" X 6" X 1/4" thick .
Quarter round – A small trim molding that has the cross section of a quarter circle.
Rabbet – A rectangular longitudinal groove cut in the corner edge of a board or
plank.
Rafter – Lumber used to support the roof sheeting and roof loads. Generally, 2 X
10's and 2 X 12's are used. The rafters of a flat roof are sometimes called roof joists.
Railroad tie- Black tar and preservative impregnated, 6" X 8" and 6'-8' long wooden
timber that was used to hold railroad track in place. Normally used as a member of a
retaining wall.
Rake fascia – The vertical face of the sloping end of a roof eave.
Rake siding – The practice of installing lap siding diagonally
Ranch- A single story, one level home.
Ready mixed concrete – Concrete mixed at a plant or in trucks en route to a job and
delivered ready for placement.
Rebar, reinforcing bar–Ribbed steel bars installed in foundation concrete walls,
footers, and poured in place concrete structures designed to strengthen concrete.
Comes in various thickness' and strength grade.
Reflective insulation- Sheet material with one or both faces covered with aluminum
foil.
Ribbon (girt) – Normally a 1 X 4 board let into the studs horizontally to support the
ceiling or second-floor joists.
Ridge – The horizontal line at the junction of the top edges of two sloping roof surfaces.
Road base – An aggregate mixture of sand and stone.
Roll roofing – Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form. 36-inch wide
rolls with and 108 square feet of material. Weights are generally 45 to 90 pounds per
roll.
Roof sheathing or sheeting – The wood panels or sheet material fastened to the roof
rafters or trusses on which the shingle or other roof covering is laid.
135
Saddle – A small second roof built behind the back side of a fireplace chimney to divert water around the chimney. Also, the plate at the bottom of some - usually exterior - door openings. Sometimes called a threshold.
Sack mix – The amount of Portland cement in a cubic yard of concrete mix. Generally, 5 or 6 sack is required in a foundation wall.
Sash – A single light frame containing one or more lights of glass. The frame that
holds the glass in a window, often the movable part of the window.
Sash balance – A device, usually operated by a spring and designed to hold a single
hung window vent up and in place
Saturated felt – A felt which is impregnated with tar or asphalt.
Screed, concrete- To level off concrete to the correct elevation during a concrete
pour.
Screed, plaster – A small strip of wood, usually the thickness of the plaster coat,
used as a guide for plastering.
Scribing – Cutting and fitting woodwork to an irregular surface.
Scupper – (1) An opening for drainage in a wall, curb or parapet. (2) The drain in a
downspout or flat roof, usually connected to the downspout.
Sealer – A finishing material, either clear or pigmented, that is usually applied directly over raw wood for the purpose of sealing the wood surface.
Seasoning – Drying and removing moisture from green wood in order to improve its
usability.
Self-sealing shingles – Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of selfsealing adhesive.
Semigloss paint or enamel – A paint or enamel made so that its coating, when dry,
has some luster but is not very glossy. Bathrooms and kitchens are normally painted
semi-gloss
Shear block – Plywood that is face nailed to short (2 X 4's or 2 X 6's) wall studs
(above a door or window, for example). This is done to prevent the wall from sliding
and collapsing.
Sheathing, sheeting – The structural wood panel covering, usually OSB or plywood,
used over studs, floor joists or rafters/trusses of a structure.
Shed roof – A roof containing only one sloping plane.
Sheet metal work – All components of a house employing sheet metal, such as flashing, gutters, and downspouts.
Sheet rock- Drywall-Wall board or gypsum – A manufactured panel made out of
gypsum plaster and encased in a thin cardboard. Usually 1/2" thick and 4' x 8' or 4' x
12' in size. The 'joint compound'. 'Green board' type drywall has a greater resistance
to moisture than regular (white) plasterboard and is used in bathrooms and other "wet
areas".
Shingles, siding – Various kinds of shingles, used over sheathing for exterior wall
covering of a structure.
Siding – The finished exterior covering of the outside walls of a frame building.
Slab concrete – Concrete pavement, i.e. driveways, garages, and basement floors.
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Slab door – A rectangular door without hinges or frame.
Slab on grade – A type of foundation with a concrete floor which is placed directly
on the soil. The edge of the slab is usually thicker and acts as the footing for the
walls.
Slag – Concrete cement that sometimes covers the vertical face of the foundation
void material.
Sleeve(s) – Pipe installed under the concrete driveway or sidewalk, and that will be
used later to run sprinkler pipe or low voltage wire.
Slope – The incline angle of a roof surface, given as a ratio of the rise (in inches) to
the run (in feet). See also pitch.
Slump – The "wetness" of concrete. A 3 inch slump is dryer and stiffer than a 5 inch
slump.
Standard practices of the trade(s) – One of the more common basic and minimum
construction standards. This is another way of saying that the work should be done in
the way it is normally done by the average professional in the field.
Starter strip – Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling
in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
Stair carriage or stringer – Supporting member for stair treads. Usually a 2 X 12
inch plank notched to receive the treads; sometimes called a "rough horse."
Stair rise – The vertical distance from stair tread to stair tread (and not to exceed
7 ½").
Stops – Moldings along the inner edges of a door or window frame. Also valves used
to shut off water to a fixture.
Story – That part of a building between any floor or between the floor and roof.
Strike – The plate on a door frame that engages a latch or dead bolt.
Strip flooring – Wood flooring consisting of narrow, matched strips.
Structural floor – A framed lumber floor that is installed as a basement floor instead
of concrete. This is done on very expansive soils.
Stub, stubbed – To push through.
Stucco – Refers to an outside plaster finish made with Portland cement as its base.
Stud – A vertical wood framing member, also referred to as a wall stud, attached to
the horizontal sole plate below and the top plate above. Normally 2 X 4's or 2 X 6's,
8' long (sometimes 92 5/8"). One of a series of wood or metal vertical structural
members placed as supporting elements in walls and partitions.
Suspended ceiling – A ceiling system supported by hanging it from the overhead
structural framing.
T & G, tongue and groove – A joint made by a tongue (a rib on one edge of a board)
that fits into a corresponding groove in the edge of another board to make a tight
flush joint. Typically, the subfloor plywood is T & G.
Tempered – Strengthened. Tempered glass will not shatter nor create shards, but will
"pelletize" like an automobile window. Required in tub and shower enclosures and
locations, entry door glass and sidelight glass, and in a window when the window sill
is less than 16" to the floor.
137
Terra cotta – A ceramic material molded into masonry units.
Threshold- The bottom metal or wood plate of an exterior door frame. Generally
they are adjustable to keep a tight fit with the door slab.
Treated lumber – A wood product which has been impregnated with chemical pesticides such as CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) to reduce damage from wood rot or
insects. Often used for the portions of a structure which are likely to be in contact
with soil and water. Wood may also be treated with a fire retardant.
Trim (plumbing, heating, electrical) – The work that the "mechanical" contractors
perform to finish their respective aspects of work, and when the home is nearing
completion and occupancy.
Truss – An engineered and manufactured roof support member with "zig-zag" framing members. Does the same job as a rafter but is designed to have a longer span than
a rafter.
Undercoat – A coating applied prior to the finishing or top coats of a paint job. It
may be the first of two or the second of three coats. Sometimes called the Prime coat.
Underground plumbing – The plumbing drain and waste lines that are installed beneath a basement floor.
Underlayment – A ¼" material placed over the subfloor plywood sheeting and under
finish coverings, such as vinyl flooring, to provide a smooth, even surface. Also a
secondary roofing layer that is waterproof or water-resistant, installed on the roof
deck and beneath shingles or other roof-finishing layer.
Union – A plumbing fitting that joins pipes end-to-end so they can be dismantled.
Valley – The "V" shaped area of a roof where two sloping roofs meet. Water drains
off the roof at the valleys.
Veneer – Extremely thin sheets of wood. Also a thin slice of wood or brick or stone
covering a framed wall.
Vermiculite – A mineral used as bulk insulation and also as aggregate in insulating
and acoustical plaster and in insulating concrete floors.
Wafer board – A manufactured wood panel made out of 1"- 2" wood chips and glue.
Often used as a substitute for plywood in the exterior wall and roof sheathing.
Warping – Any distortion in a material.
W C – An abbreviation for water closet (toilet).
Weatherization – Work on a building exterior in order to reduce energy consumption for heating or cooling. Work involving adding insulation, installing storm windows and doors, caulking cracks and putting on weather-stripping.
Wonderboard ™ – A panel made out of concrete and fiberglass usually used as a
ceramic tile backing material. Commonly used on bathtub decks.
Yard of concrete – One cubic yard of concrete is 3' X 3' X 3' in volume, or 27 cubic
feet. One cubic yard of concrete will pour 80 square feet of 3 ½" sidewalk or basement/garage floor.
Zone – The section of a building that is served by one heating or cooling loop because it has noticeably distinct heating or cooling needs. Also, the section of property
that will be watered from a lawn sprinkler system.
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Zoning – A governmental process and specification which limits the use of a property e.g. single family use, high rise residential use, industrial use, etc. Zoning laws
may limit where you can locate a structure. Also see building codes.
CEMENT PLANT GLOSSARY
CEMENT – Any chemical binder, such as glue, paste, etc., used to make bodies adhere to each other. (see Portland Cement)
CLINKER – The fused product of a kiln which is ground to make cement. (see Portland Cement)
CLINKER CAPACITY – Daily capacity is the normal clinker capacity output a kiln
can produce per day given a realistic work pattern. Annual capacity is daily capacity
multiplied by 365 less normal downtime days. Normal downtime days are the number
of days of downtime required for maintenance, repair or clean-up. Clinker capacity is
reported in tons of clinker, not tons of cement.
DRY PROCESS – Process for cement manufacture in which the raw materials are
ground, conveyed, blended and stored in a dry form.
FINISH GRINDING – The grinding of clinker into finished cement usually with the
addition of 3 to 6 percent gypsum.
FINISH GRINDING CAPACITY – The normal cement output a finish mill can grind
per year given a realistic work pattern.
FINISH MILL – (1) Usually a tube or ball mill in which the final stages of clinker
grinding are accomplished.
(2) The entire finish grinding department.
GRINDING MILLS – Machines used for reducing coarse particles to fine particles
by application of impact and attrition. Includes: Ball Mills, Tube Mills, Compound
Mills, Ring Roll Mills, and Impact Mills.
HYDRAULIC CEMENT – An adhesive when mixed with water, will set and harden
due to chemical reactions between the water and the compounds in the cement.
KILN – Equipment in which properly ground and proportioned cement raw mix is
dried, calcined, and burned into clinker at a temperature of 2,600 to 3,000 degrees
Fahrenheit. Can be of rotary or shaft type; fuel may be coal, oil, gas or other combustibles.
PORTLAND CEMENT – A hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinker consisting of hydraulic silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium
sulfate as an interground addition. Gray in color unless special raw materials are
used. (see White Cement)
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PRECALCINER – Utilizes preheated combustion air from the clinker cooler and/or
kiln exit gases with separate burners to effect up to 95 % calcination of the raw material. Also known as flash furnace, calciner, calcining furnace.
PRECALCINER KILN SYSTEM – A rotary kiln system which includes an external
furnace in which cement raw meal is heated to calcination temperature. The system
generally includes a multi-stage cyclonic preheater.
PREHEATER – Installation for heating raw meal or slurry ahead of their entry into
rotary kiln proper to improve over-all fuel economy. Preheaters for raw meal can be
of the following types: (1) Suspension Parallel Flow Cyclonic, (2) Suspension
Counter Flow, (3) Fixed Bed, (4) Traveling Bed or Grate, (5) Fluidized Bed, and (6)
Sprouted Bed. Slurry preheaters can be: (1) Heated Tumbling Beds, (2) Chains, or (3)
Crosses.
ROTARY KILN – Cylindrical rotating kiln, inclined approximately 1/2 in. per foot
toward its discharge end, for burning cement raw meal into clinker. Lined with refractory bricks and often equipped with internal heat exchangers. The kiln is divided
into the following process zones: Drying Zone (for Wet Process), Preheating Zone,
Calcining Zone, Burning Zone, and Cooling Zone. When the rotary kiln is used in
conjunction with a preheater, and/ or precalciner, the first three kiln zones are virtually eliminated.
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Appendix 5
Приложение 5
Таблица 1
U.S. CEMENT TYPES
Portland Type
I
IA
II
IIA
III
IIIA
IV
V
Masonry Cement
Expansive Cement
Oil Well Cement
Plastic Cement
Blended - Type IP/P
Blended - Type IS
Blended - Type S
Blended - Type I(PM)
Blended - Type I(SM)
Colored Cement
Grouting Cement
Mortar Cement
White Cement
Hydraulic - Type GU
Hydraulic - Type HE
Hydraulic - Type MS
Hydraulic - Type HS
Hydraulic - Type MH
Hydraulic - Type LH
Normal
Normal, Air-Entraining
Moderate Sulfate Resistance
Moderate Sulfate Resistance, Air-Entraining
High Early Strength
High Early Strength, Air-Entraining
Low Heat of Hydration
High Sulfate Resistance
Hydraulic cement designed for use in mortar for masonry
construction
Hydraulic cement that expands slightly during the early
hardening period after setting
Slow-setting, high temperature, and high pressure resistant
cement used for sealing oil wells
Portland cement used in plaster or stucco (used primarily in
the West/Southewest)
Portland-pozzolan cement (15-40% pozzolan)
Portland blast-furnace slag cement (25-70% slag)
Slag cement (at least 70% slag)
Pozzolan-modified portland cement (less than 15% pozzolan)
Slag-modified portland cement (less than 25% slag)
Portland cement (usually white) with pigment
Hydraulic cement used in grouts which is capable of being
pumped
Hydraulic cement designed for use in mortar for masonry
construction
Hydraulic cement that is white, primarily used for architectural/decorative concrete
General Use
High Early Strength
Moderate Sulfate Resistance
High Sulfate Resistance
Moderate Heat of Hydration
Low Heat of Hydration
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Таблица 2
CANADIAN CEMENT TYPES
Portland Type
10
Normal
20
Moderate Sulfate Resistance
30
High Early Strength
40
Low Heat of Hydration
50
High Sulfate Resistance
Masonry Cement
Hydraulic cement designed for use in mortar for masonry construction
Expansive Cement
Hydraulic cement that expands slightly during the early hardening period after setting
Oil Well Cement
Slow-setting, high temperature, and high pressure resistant
cement used for sealing oil wells
Blended - Type S
Portland blast-furnace slag cement (0-7% slag)
Blended - Type F
Portland fly ash cement (0-40% fly ash)
Blended - Type SF
Portland silica fume cement (5-10% silica fume)
Blended - Ternary
Ternary blended cement
Colored Cement
Portland cement (usually white) with pigment
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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение ……………………….……………………….…………...……...…..
Lesson 1. Text: Cement (1).Цемент (1)……………………………….......……
Grammar: To be. There to be. Глагол быть. Оборот there + be
Lesson 2. Text: Cement (2). Цемент (2) ……………….........................………
Grammar: Simple Active. Времена группы Simple. Активный залог
Lesson 3. Text: Bricks. Кирпич ……………………………………...........……
Grammar: To have. Глагол иметь
Lesson 4. Text: Aggregates. Заполнители …………………………..........……
Grammar: Simple Passive. Adverbs. Времена группы Simple.
Пассивный залог. Наречия
Lesson 5. Text: Concrete. Бетон ………………………………..........…………
Grammar: Simple Active and Passive. Времена группы Simple.
Активный и пассивный залог.
Lesson 6. Text: Mortars. Растворы ………………………………….........……
Grammar: Modal Verbs. Модальные глаголы
Lesson 7. Text: Hydraulic Cement. Гидравлический цемент ………….......…
Grammar: Past Tenses. Articles. Времена группы Past. Артикли
Lesson 8. Text: Stone. Камень …………………………………………........…
Grammar: Adjectives and Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison.
Прилагательные и наречия. Степени сравнения
Lesson 9. Text: Glass. Стекло ……………………………………….............…
Grammar: Infinitive. Инфинитив
Lesson 10. Text: Timber. Древесина ………………………………..........……
Grammar: Participle II. Причастие 2
Lesson 11. Text: Plastics. Пластмасса ……………………………............……
Grammar: Participle I. Причастие 1
Lesson 12. Text: Reinforced Concrete. Железобетон …………….........………
Grammar: Perfect Active. Группа Perfect активного залога
Lesson 13. Text: Cellular Concrete Blocks. Газобетонные блоки …….........…
Grammar: Active VS Passive. Сравнение активного и пассивного залогов
Lesson 14. Text: The Future of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete……….…
Будущее железобетона и преднапряженного бетона.
Grammar: Sequence of tenses. Reported Speech. Согласование времен.
Косвенная речь
Lesson 15. Text: Parts of a Building. Части здания. ……………………..........
Grammar: Perfect Passive. Времена Perfect. Пассивный залог
Lesson 16. Text: Walls. Стены …………………………………………............
Grammar: Word Order. Порядок слов в английском предложении
Lesson 17. How to work with the text. Как работать с текстом. …...........……
Text: Structural Steel. Строительная сталь
143
3
4
8
12
16
20
26
31
35
39
44
48
53
58
62
66
71
77
Lesson 18. Сontrol Work Контрольная работа в двух вариантах. ……...........
List of Non-standard Verbs. Таблица нестандартных глаголов …........…...…
Topics for Speech Practice. Темы для речевой практики …………............…..
Заключение………………………………………………………….............…
Библиографический список...……………………………………….........……
Appendix 1. Приложение 1 ….…………………………………...........………
Supplementary reading. Внеаудиторное чтение
Appendix 2. Приложение 2 …………………………...........…………………
Grammar reference. Грамматический справочник.
CANADIAN CEMENT TYPES Марки цемента Канады
Appendix 3. Приложение 3 ………….………………...........…………………
Characteristics of the English nouns, modal verbs and Simple,
Perfect and Continuous Tenses. Характеристики английских
существительных, модальных глаголов и групп Simple, Perfect and
Continuous
Appendix 4. Приложение 4 …….……………………...........…………………
Construction glossary. Строительный глоссарий
Appendix 5. Приложение 5…………………………….............………………
U.S. CEMENT TYPES. Марки цемента США
CANADIAN CEMENT TYPES Марки цемента Канады
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78
82
84
84
85
87
114
120
126
141
Учебное издание
КАРПОВА ЛЮДМИЛА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА
ТЕРЕХОВА ЕЛЕНА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА
НАЗАРЬЕВА ЮЛИЯ СЕРГЕЕВНА
В МИРЕ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВА
Учебное пособие
для студентов, обучающихся по направлению 270100 «Строительство»
Редактор: Башлыкова О.И.
Подписано в печать 22.06.2010. Формат 60x84 1/16. Уч.-изд.л. 9.
Усл-печ.л. 9,1. Бумага писчая. Тираж 360 экз. Заказ №
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Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии Воронежского
государственного архитектурно-строительного университета
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
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