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53. Категория прошедшего времени в английском языке

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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования
Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет
Кафедра русского языка
123
КАТЕГОРИЯ ПРОШЕДШЕГО ВРЕМЕНИ
В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
методические указания для студентов
международного факультета
Воронеж 2005
2-го курса
2
Составитель Т. М. Крючкова
УДК 802. 0 (07)
Категория прошедшего времени в английском языке [Текст]: метод,
указания для проведения практич. занятий для студ. 2-го курса международного
факультета по дисциплине «Английский язык» / Воронеж, гос. арх.-строит,
ун-т; Сост.: Т. М. Крючкова. - Воронеж, 2005.-ЗЗс.
Указания состоят из пяти разделов. Первые четыре раздела содержат
теоретический материал на русском языке, касающийся прошедших времен в
английском языке, и грамматические и коммуникативные упражнения. В пятом
разделе - упражнения, проверяющие степень усвоения данного в указаниях
материала.
Предназначены для студентов второго курса международного факультета.
Табл. 8. Библиогр.: 6 назв.
Печатается по решению редакпиошю-издательского совета Воронежского
государственного архитектурно-строительного университета
Рецензент - Н.В. Петько, ассистент кафедры русского языка ВГАСУ
з
Введение
Методические указания предназначены для ознакомления студентов с
категорией прошедшего времени в английском языке при помощи комплекса
грамматических и коммуникативных заданий и упражнений.
Содержание указаний соответствует программе курса и является
дополнительным материалом к основному учебно-методическому комплексу.
Главная цель методических указаний - сформировать у студентов умения
распознавать формы прошедшего времени и правильно употреблять их в речи.
Учебный материал содержит пять разделов. Первые четыре раздела лмеют
единую структуру: теоретический материал на русском языке, касающийся
прошедшего времени, и грамматические задания на закрепление навыков
употребления прошедших времен. Пятый раздел содержит упражнения,
позволяющие проверить степень усвоения данного в указаниях материала.
I. Past Simple
The Past Simple Tense образуется путем прибавления окончания -ed или -d
(если глагол оканчивается на гласный е) к основе правильных глаголов или
путем различных изменений глагольной основы (для неправильных глаголов).
Вопросительная и о трицательная формы образуются при помощи
вспомогательного глагола to do в Past Simple (did) и инфинитива смыслового
глагола без частицы to (табл. 1).
Positive
I, you he,
she, it, we, they
Таблица 1
studied
saw etc.
didn't
Question
Did I, you, he, she,
it, we, they
Negative
study see I, you he,
etc.
she, it, we, they
study?
See?
Глагол to be в прошедшем времени имеет форму was для единственного числа и
were для множественного числа, а также для 2-го лица множественного числа
(табл. 2)
Таблица 2
Positive
I, he, she, it
Was
we, you, they
Were
Negative
I, he, she, it
was not
(wasn't)
we, you, they were not
(weren't)
Question
Was
1, he, she, it?
Were
We, you, they?
The Past Simple употребляется для выражения:
1- Действий, которые происходили или произошли в прошлом.
They went to the seaside last summer.
2. Последовательность действий в прошлом.
Не took a bath, shaved carefully, put on a fresh shirt and left.
3. Повторяющихся действий в прошлом, характеризующих привычки
или
чувства, свойственные кому-то в прошлом.
Every afternoon he smoked a thick black cigar after dinner. Время действия
может быть обозначено такими обстоятельствами, как yesterday, the day before
yesterday, last week, last month, last year, last night, last time, two days (three days)
ago, in 1990 etc.
Exercises
1. Put in was/were or wasn't/ weren't.
1. You... at home last night. Where... you?
2. Yesterday... a public holiday so the shops... closed.
3.'... Sue and Jack at the party?' 'Sue... there but Jack....'
4. George... at work last week because he „. ill. He's better now.
5. We... hungry after the journey but we... tired.
2. Write the questions. Use the words in brackets in the correct order + was/
were.
1. (late/you/this morning/why?)
The traffic was bad. No,
2. (difficult/your exam?)
it was easy. They were
3. (last week/where/Ann and Jack?)
on holiday. Sixty
4. (your new camera/how much?)
pounds. Yes, it was
5. (nice/the weather/last week?)
nice.
3. Write the past simple of the verbs in the list in the correct box.
stay, bake, fry, complete, try, hire, rub, travel, ply, cry, destroy, promise (табл. 3).
Таблица 3
-e + d
double consonant + ed
consonant + у - ied
vowel + у + ed
baked
stopped
fried
stayed
4. Write the past simple and the past participle of these verbs. Then choose five
verbs and make sentences using the past simple.
Example: become -became -become; begin, blow, creep, dig, drive, eat, fall, feel,
hang, hear, hurt, know, leave, lead, lose, meet, see, sold, sleep, stand, tell, understand,
wake, win, write.
7
6
5. Write sentences about the past
1. He writes a letter to Jane every week. Last week ...
2. She meets her friends every evening. She... yesterday evening.
3. They buy a new car every year. Last year...
4. We usually do our shopping on Monday. ... last Monday.
5. Bill always loses his keys. He... last Saturday.
6. Ann often takes photographs. Last ...
7. We usually go to the cinema on Sunday. ... last Sunday.
8. We leave home at 8.30 every morning.
... this morning.
9. He always goes to work by car. Yesterday ...
10. They always get up early. This morning they...
6. Supply the past forms of the irregular verbs in italics.
1. I often see Jack. I saw him again only yesterday.
2. As teenagers, we always... each other very well. We still understand each other.
3. We always meet on Sunday. We... last Sunday as usual.
4.1 often find things on the beach. I... this very old bottle yesterday. 5. She
is very good at figures, you know. She... first in maths at school. 6.1 have
the same car now that I... five years ago. 7.1 don't keep pets now, but I...
a dog when I was a boy. 8. Where did you eat last night? - We... at a
restaurant. 9.1... a lot of letters when I was young. I hardly ever write letters
now. 10.1 hardly... Ray's wife. Did you know her at all?
7. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or
negative.
1. It was warm, so I (take) off my coat.
2.1 was angry because they (be) late.
3. We (go) to Kate's house but she (be) at home.
4. She wasn't hungry, so she (eat) anything.
5. Ann (spend) a lot of money. She (buy) a new dress which (cost) $ 100.
6. We (invite) them to our party but they (decide) to come.
7. It (be) a funny situation but nobody (laugh).
8. The hotel wasn't very expensive. It (cost) a lot of money.
9.1 was very tired, so I (go) to bed early.
10. The film wasn't very good. I (enjoy) it very much.
8. Write an appropriate questions for each answer.
A...
A...
B. I went to the Black Coast in summer.
B. I spent there a fortnight.
A...
A...
A...
A...
A...
A...
B. I got up early, went to the sea, bathed and lay in the sun.
B. The weather was sunny and hot.
B. My friend and I rented a nice room in a private house.
B. No, it was not far from the sea.
B. We cooked our meals at home.
B. Vegetables and fruit were not very expensive.
9. Give complete answers to these questions using the time references in
brackets.
1. When did you work as a civil servant? (five years ago). I worked as a civil servant
five years ago.
2. When did you last play football? (when I was 14)
3. What time did John arrive? (at 4 o' clock)
4. When did you last see «Gone with the wind»? (2 days ago)
5. How long did you wait at the airport? (till they arrived)
10. Write 5-10 sentences about yourself. What did you do yesterday or what
happened yesterday?
11. Complete the text Use the correct form of the past simple.
I (visit) Istambul in 1997. I (go) there with my friend. We (not understand) Turkish
unfortunately. Sometimes people (not understand) us, but it (not matter). They (be)
very friendly. We (see) many beautiful buildings. We (not have) much money, so we
(try) to live cheaply. We (eat) a lot of bread and cheese. We (have) a wonderful time
in Turkey and I'm sure we'll go back there some day.
11. Put in the correct forms of the past simple tense of the verbs in brackets.
Lizardman
Christopher Davis, a young driver from South Carolina, (claim)... a monster (attack)
... him while he was driving along a lonely road. The monster (be)... seven feet tall
and (have)... red eyes and green skin. It (chase)... Christopher's car and (jump)... on
the roof. Many people (believe)... the story and the newspapers (call)... the monster
«Lizardman». Seventy hunters recently (set out)... to trap Lizardman and a local radio
(offer) ... $1 million to anyone who (capture)... him dead or alive. Lizardman had so
much publicity that thousands of people (visit) ... South Carolina to find him. No one
has found him yet. As everyone knows, monsters may or may not exist, but they are
very good for the tourist industry!
8
Past Simple versus Present Perfect
9
Сравните времена по таблице 4:
Таблица 4
Прошедшее время Past
Simple
всегда связано с
прошедшим
периодом времени (который может
быть указан в предложении или
ясен из контекста.
Kate Steele wrote her first novel in
1990. (When? In 1990. The time is
stated.)
Мы используем Past Simple, если
говорим о людях, которых нет уже
в живых.
William Shakespeare wrote 'Romeo
and Juliet.' (Shakespeare is no longer
alive. We do not mention when he
wrote
the play, время
but we use
the past
Прошедшее
Past
simple.)
simple
При употреблении настоящего
времени Present Perfect внимание
особо привлекается к результату
действия, к приобретенному
опыту.
Kate Steele has written a lot of
successful novels. (When? We do not
know. The exact time is neither
mentioned nor implied.)
Настоящее время Present Perfect
служит для выражения действия,
служит для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом и
которое началось и закончилось в продолжается до настоящего
прошлом.
момента.
Jim was a teacher for five years.
Jim has worked as a teacher for five
(He is no longer a teacher.)
years. (He began working as a
teacher five years ago and he is still a
teacher today.
Exercises 1. What's the
difference between the following sentences?
1. a). She worked for this company for two years.
b). She has worked for this company for two years.
2. a). I've seen Tom Hanks,
b). I saw Elvis Presley.
3. a). She has typed ten letters this morning,
b). She typed ten letters this morning.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the present perfect.
1. A: Do you know that man?
B: Oh, yes. He's a very good friend of mine. I... (know) him for about ten years. A: I
think I... (meet) him at a business meeting last month.
2. A: Mum... (lose) her purse.
B: Where... (she/lose) it?
A: At the supermarket while she was shopping.
3. A: Who was on the telephone?
B: It... (be) Jane.
A: Who is Jane?
B: Someone who... (work) in my office for a few years. She's got a new job now.
4. A: Who is your favourite singer?
B: Freddie Mercury. He... (have) a wonderful voice. A:
Yes, I agree. He... (enjoy) r>erforming live, too
3. Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. How many plays has Shakespeare written?...
2. My parents have got married in London....
3. Have you read any of Shakespeare's plays?...
4. Where have you been born?...
5. My sister is a writer. She wrote many books...
6. Beethoven has been a great composer....
7. They have arrived ten minutes ago....
8.1 have never played golf....
9. Ow! I have cut my finger. It's bleeding....
10. The Chinese have invented printing....
4. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the present perfect or past
simple.
1. (she/ not/ earn/ so much/ last year.)...
2. (1/notfread/ a book/today)...
3. (I/not/read/a book/yesterday)...
4. (it/warm/ last week)...
5. 5. (it/ not/ rain / this week)...
5. Read the short dialogue, then working in pairs, act out similar dialogues using
the notes below.
A: Have you ever been to a zoo?
1. theatre/two weeks ago/ entertaining
B: Yes, I have.
2. funfair/yesterday/thrilling
A: When was that?
3. opera/last winter/boring
B: Last year.
4. circus/three weeks ago/fascinating
11
10
A:\Vhatwasitlike?
В: It was exiting.
5. fashion show/last Sunday/fun
II. Past Continuous
The Past Continuous Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to
be в Past Simple и причастия I основного глагола (табл. 5):
Таблица 5
Positive
I/he/she/it
was Doing
We/you/they were playing
working etc.
Negative
Mie/she/it
was not (wasn't)
doing
We/you/they
were not (weren't) playing
working
Question
Was
J7he/she/it Doing?
Were we/you/they playing?
working?
The Past Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения:
1. Длительного действия, происходящего в определенный момент в прошлом.
Этот момент может быть ясен из контекста или обозначен:
а) точным указанием времени (часа): I was waiting for you at ten o'clock yesterday;
б) другим действием, выраженным глаголом в Past Simple: I was reading when
the telephone rang.
2.Несколышх длительных действий, происходивших одновременно:
While she was cooking dinner, Ann was laying the table.
3. Обычных повторяющихся действий с определенной эмоциональной окраской:
They were always quarreling.
Глаголы, выражающие чувства (like, dislike, hate, love), ощущения (hear, see, feel,
smell), умственную деятельность (remember, know, think), а также некоторые
другие глаголы не имеют форм Continuous.
Прошедшее время Past Continuous переводится на русский язык глаголом
несовершенного вида
Exercises 1.
Write questions. Use was/ were -ing.
1. (what / Tim / do / when you saw him?) ...
2. (what / she / wear/ yesterday?)...
3. (where / you / live / in 1990?)...
4. (it / rain / when you went out?)...
5. (what/ you / do / at 5 o'clock this morning?) ...
2. Put these sentences into the negative and question form.
1.1 was having dinner when you rang me up.
2. Your friends were smoking in the corridor when we saw them.
3.1 was walking home when I met Dave.
4. Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.
5. They were sitting in the garden when it started to rain.
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.
I. Why you (walk)... along Oxford Street late yesterday evening?
2.1 (read)... in bed when I heard a scream.
3. What you (do)... at this time yesterday?
4. You (wait)... for your friend when I saw you.
5. It (get)... colder when the sun set.
6.1 (not listen)..., so I missed what he said.
7. We stayed because we (enjoy)... ourselves.
8. (you watch)... television all evening?
9. It (rain)... hard all day?
10. (you read)... when I rang you?
II. Just as I (get)... to an interesting part of the story, the doorbell rang.
12. He (garden)... all weekend.
4. Write sentences. Use the past continuous in a positive, negative or question
form.
1. / you /use / the hair-drier / when the lights went out?
2. / John / not talk / to Barbara Barbara was not even in the room.
3. The last time I saw him,/ Dick / drink / orange juice in the kitchen.
4. / you /drive / slowly / when you saw the man in the road?
5. / It / snow / as I left home for the last time.
5. A.
Neil and Sarah are married and they also work together. This is
they were doing yesterday:
8.00-8.30
having breakfast
8.30-9.15
driving to work
9.15-1.00
working
1.00-2.00
having lunch
2.00-5.00
working
5.00-5.45
driving home
6.30-7.00
having dinner
12
B. Make questions and answer them using the examples below.
Neil/8.15
What was he doing at 8.15?
He was having breakfast
1 Sarah/8.40
2 They/10.30
3Neil/1.15
4Sarah/3.00
5 They/5.30
6 They/6.45
C.
Then ask a partner what he / she was doing at the following
yesterday.
1. (at 7 o'clock yesterday evening) ...
2. (at 5 o'clock this morning) ...
3. (at 8.30 yesterday morning)...
4. (at 10 o'clock last Monday)...
5. (half an hour ago) ...
13
5. The ship ran against a rock and... (sink) quickly.
6.1 was cold and a strong wind... ( blow from the North).
7. The patient was very ill and people.... (talk in a low voices).
times
6. Choose the correct explanation, A or B.
1. When the singer walked onto the stage, the band was playing her latest hit.
A The band was in the middle of the song.
В The band started the song.
2. When the singer walked onto the stage, the band played her latest hit.
A
The band was in the middle of the song.
В The band started the song.
7. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. Which
was the longer action in each sentence?
1. They ..were cleaning., (clean) the windows when it ..started., (start) to rain
Cleaning the windows was the longer action.
2. As he... (drive) to work, he... (remember) that his briefcase was still at home.
3. Melanie... (cook) dinner when her husband .„ (come) home.
4.1... (hear) a loud crash as I... (sit) in the garden.
5. She... (type) a letter when her boss... (arrive).
6. While the dog... (dig) in the garden, it... (find) a bone.
7. Mary... (ride) her bicycle when she... (notice) the tiny kitten.
8. While I... (do) my homework, the phone... (ring).
8. Make the sentences complete using either the past continuous or the past
simple of the verbs in brackets.
1. He heard a strange noise when he... (come up to the house).
2. Nobody was listening to what he... (say).
3. When I entered the shop the shop-girl... (show a nice dress to an elderly lady).
4. It was already late and the people... (leave the party).
9. Put the verb into the correct form, the past simple or the past continuous.
1.1 (walk)... slowly down the street when somebody (call)... me.
2. The woman (put)... some perfume into her bag when the shop-girl (see)... her.
3. The woman (not see)... that the girl (look)... at her.
4. We (not stop)... to look at a shop window.
5. She (try on)... a sweater while I (talk) ... to the manager.
6. ... you still (work)... when I left?
7.1 (break)... a plate last night. I (do) ... the washing-up when it (slip)... out of my
hand.
8. Fred (not/ drive)... very fast when the accident (happen) ...
9. He (live)... in Paris during his last years.
10. Jane... (wait) for me when I .„ (arrived).
11. How fast... (you/drive) when the accident... (happen)?
12. We were in the difficult position. We... (not/ know) what to do. 13.1
was late but my friends ... (wait) for me when I... (arrive).
14. The postman... (come) while I... (have) dinner.
15. We... (meet) Joan at the party. She... (wear) a red dress.
16. The boys... (break) a window when they ... (play) football.
17. Mary... (not/go) to work yesterday. She was Ш. 18.1
wasn't hungry last night. I... (not/eat) anything.
10. Correct the mistakes.
1. Philip was washing the car while the fire started.
2. Neil was studying when his sister was listening to music.
3. Harriet was opening the door and walked into the house.
4. We were having lunch at a lovely restaurant every day when we were on holiday.
5. Brian drank tea at five o'clock yesterday afternoon.
6. Dad was repairing the TV while Mum cooked dinner.
7.1 was going to the cinema last Saturday.
8.1 was buying a new dress for my party yesterday.
9. While Jeff built the garden shed, he hurt himself.
11. Rewrite the sentences. Use the past continuous and past simple with when or
while.
1. As Jane wrote the last sentence of her homework, her friend asked her to do bis as
well. Jane was...
15
14
2. During dinner at Harry's Anna lost her necklace.
While Anna ...
3. John brought the sweet in but I still had some chips on my plate to eat. I
was still ...
4. Did Emily wear that dress when she got married?
Was Emily... ?
12. Join the sentences using as, just, while, when and ago. Put the verbs into the
past continuous or the past simple.
1.1 (eat) my dinner. There (be) a knock at the door.
2. Camilla (get) into the car. Henry (shout) a warning.
3. You (dance) at the disco. I (paint) the kitchen at home.
4.1 (know) her ten years. She (work) for Star Electronics at the same time as I was.
5. Kim (look) out of the window. She (see) Mike.
6. Cathy (wash) the dishes. She (drop) a glass.
7. The children (play). Their father (come) home.
8. Robert (drive) home. He (get) a flat tyre.
9. Mick and Charlie (leave) the bank. The police (surround) them.
13. Join the sentences below using when, while, and, so or as/ because
1. The sun was shining.
A. His wife was getting dressed
2. Bill was watching TV.
B. He was very tired.
3.1 was having a bath.
C. The birds were singing.
4. I heard a noise in the garden.
D. 1 went to see what it was.
5. He went to bed early last night.
E. My doorbell rang.
14. Look at the sentences in exercise 13. Which tenses are used for:
a) actions which happened one after the other?
b) a past action in progress interrupted by another past action?
c) past actions of a certain duration which happened at the same time?
d) an action which happened at a definite past time?
e) giving a background description to events in a story?
15. Adam had a terrible day yesterday.
A. Use the prompts and linking words given to tell the story.
When, while, as
1. he get out of bed / trip over the rug / fall and hurt leg
2. he make breakfast / spill coffee and burn fingers
3. he wait for bus / it start to rain
4. he watch TV / cat knock over expensive antique vase / it smash on floor
e.g. As he was getting out of bed, he tripped over the rug and hurt his leg.
B. Adam is writing a letter to his friend. He is describing what happened
yesterday. Look at exercise A and complete his letter.
Dear Alan,
I hope you're well. Sorry for not writing to you sooner, but I've been very
busy lately. You can't imagine what a terrible day I had yesterday. It all started early in
the morning when the telephone rang. As I was getting out of bed, I tripped over the
rug, fell and hurt my leg ...........
1 hope I won't have such a terrible day again.
Best wishes,
Adam
16. A
Look at the notes below and say what Rick did yesterday, using
the
linking words from the list:
first, then, next, after that, finally
7 am
get up
7:15 - 8:15
have breakfast
8:30 - 9 am
drive to work
11 am -1 pm
talk to some clients
1:30-2 pm
have a lunch break
4 - 5 pm
prepare a speech
5:30-6:30
drive home
В
Now, in pairs, ask and answer questions about what Rkk
was doing at the times in the list below
7:30 am
11:30 am
4:30 pm
8:45 am
1:45 pm
6 pm
17. Imagine that you were present when these things happened, then, in pairs,
ask and answer questions, as in the example.
SA: What were you doing when the burglar broke in?
SB: I was watching TV. SA: What did you do? SB:
I called for help.
1. The burglar broke in.
2. The lights went out.
3. The boat overturned.
4. The earthquake hit.
5. The building caught fire.
17
16
18. Read these lists.
А
В
wash the car;
sit ш an armchair,
work in the garden;
listen to the radio;
paint the kitchen;
watch television;
do the washing up;
read the newspaper;
clean the windows.
look at some magazines.
Now practise these conversations with a partner, using phrases from the lists.
a) A: John came round to see me yesterday.
B: Did he? What were you doing?
A: I was ... (listA)
B: Did he help you?
b) A: Did Peter... (list A) yesterday?
B: I don't know. He certainly wasn't (list A) when I went round to see him.
A: What was he doing?
B: He wasn't doing anything really. He was just (list B).
19. A policeman is asking Mrs. Hutchinson about a car accident she happened to
see yesterday. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or past
continuous.
P: What „were you doing., (you/do) when you... (see) the accident madam?
H: 1... (walk) down the street
P: What exactly... (you/ see)?
H: Well, the driver of the car... (drive) down the road when suddenly th old man just
... (step) in front of him! It... (be) terrible!
P: ... (the driver/ speed)?
H: No, not really, but the old man... (not/ look) both ways before he... (try) to cross
the road.
P: ... (anyone else/see) the accident?
H: Yes; the lady in the post office.
P: Thank you very much.
20. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous.
Dear Rick,
I'm writing to you from my hotel in Switzerland.
I'm having a lovely time here but you can't imagine what... (happen) to me
yesterday. I... (be) on the mountain with my friends and we ... (have) a lovely time
because the snow ... (be) perfect for skiing. Unfortunately the sun ... (shine) on the
snow, so it... (be) difficult to see. Suddenly, I... (hit) a rock and I -. (fall) over.
Luckily I... (not/be) seriously hurt -1 just... (get) a few bruises. Now I'm trying to be
more careful!
I'll see you when I get back.
Best wishes,
Kevin.
21. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous
She 1) was lying., (lie) in bed when she 2) ... (hear) a sudden noise. She 3)... (open)
her eyes in horror. Someone 4)... (open) a downstairs window; they 5)... (try) to get
into her house. She 6)... (climb) slowly out of bed and 7)... (creep) to the door. She
8) ... (stand) very still and listening carefully when she 9) ... (see) a light downstairs. It
10) ... (move) about as if someone 11)... (hold) a torch and searching for something.
She 12) „. (know) that they 13)... (look) for her
\
22. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. Then
say which uses of these tenses are shown in each extract.
A. Charlie Chaplin ..became., (become) one of the best-known personalities in
America within two years of his first appearance in motion pictures. He ... (be) so
famous that no studio could afford to pay him, so he ... (appear) only in films which
he... (produce) himself.
B.
It „. (happen) at ten o'clock last night. John ... (sit) in his cosy living room
with his wife and children. They ... (watch) the evening news on TV when suddenly,
the lights... (go out) and everything in the house... (become) quiet.
C.
The boys ... (play) football on the river bank while the girls... (talk). Everyone
... (enjoy) the picnic when suddenly they... (hear) a loud cry from further up the river.
They all... (rush) to see what was wrong.
D. In prehistoric times, people ... (live) in caves. They ... (hunt) animals which they
then ... (use) for food and clothing. They... (make) everything by themselves and
they... (have) very simple lives.
E.
Steve ... (have) an accident yesterday. He ... (drive) his car when a bird ... (fly)
into the windscreen. He ... (try) to stop quickly but he ...(crash) into a wall. Luckily,
he... (not/be) hurt.
F. Julie... (tidy) her bedroom last weekend. While she... (tidy) it, she... (find) some
of the toys she... (have) when she was a child. She... (not/want) to throw them away,
so she... (put) them in a box and... (store) them in the attic.
23. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous or the past simple.
It 1) ... (be) a beautiful spring morning when Emma and her father 2)... (decide) to
visit Seaton Castle. The sun 3) ... (shine) and the birds 4)... (sing). Emma 5)... (feel)
very excited. The castle 6)... (be) very old and made of stone. They 7)... (climb) the
steps to the top of the tower. While they 8)... (admire) the view, they 9)... (hear)
18
some noises. They 10) ... (look) around but they 11) ... (not/ see) anybody. After a
while they 12) ... (decide) to visit the cellar of the castle. Emma 13) ... (examine) an
old barrel when she 14) ... (hear) the door of the ceDar close behind them. 'Dad,'she
IS)... (say),'don't close the door!' 'But, 116)... (not/ close) it, dear,' her father said
Emma 17)... (turn) around and 18)... (see) a shadow on the wall. She 19)... (know)
then that the ghost of Seaton Castle 20)... (watch) them!
24. Put in the past simple or past continuous. Note where both forms are
possible.
Tug-of-war with a hedgehog
Mrs. May, our District Nurse, (drive)... home at 3 am. one night after an urgent visit to
a sick patient. She (drive)... along a deserted country lane, when she (see)... a new
kind of animal. She (stop)... her car and (get out)... The animal (be)... clearly visible
in the blaze of her headlights. It (look)... like a hedgehog with a tall white hat. It
(cross)... the road without paying any attention to Mrs. May. When Mrs. May (go)...
close to it, she (notice)... that there was a plastic yoghurt pot on the hedgehog's head.
The poor creature had got its head stuck in the plastic head! Her instincts as a nurse
(tell)... her she would have to rescue it, so she (pull)... at the pot, but the hedgehog
(pull)... to. After a struggle, she (pull)... the pot off the hedgehog's head. May
(think)... the hedgehog (look)... rather sad, when she (notice)... that the pot was half
full of strawberry yoghurt. She (give)... it back to the hedgehog. The creature (seize)
... it, (put)... it on its head again, and triumphantly (continue)... its journey across the
road.
III. Past perfect
The Past Perfect Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have
в Past Simple и причастия П (Participle II) смыслового глагола (табл. 6).
Таблица 6
Positive
I, you, he, she, had studied
it, we, they
Negative
I, you, he, she, had not studied
it, we, they
(hadn't)
Question
Had I, you, he, she, studied?
it, we, they
19
Употребляется для выражения:
1. Действия, которое произошло раньше другого действия в
прошлом,
выраженного формой Past Simple.
When Mary arrived at the party, Paul had gone home.
2. Действия, которое закончилось к определенному моменту в прошлом.
Данный момент в прошлом может быть выражен точным указанием времени
(года, числа, часа и т.д.) с предлогом времени by (к) или другим прошедшим
действием, событием, ситуацией.
They had finished the experiment by Saturday. Время действия может быть
обозначено такими обстоятельствами, как by the time, after, before, by six o'
clock/ midnight, etc.
Exercises
1. Answer the following questions using the past perfect tense.
1 .Why couldn't you get into the flat? (lose the key)
2. Why did you come so soon from your holiday? (spend all the money)
3. Why didn't you ring Tom up? (quarrel with him)
4. Why didn't Mike bring the photos to the party? (not develop mem)
5. Why were you late for classes yesterday? (miss the 8 o'clock train)
6. Why didn't you cook salad? (not buy vegetables)
7. Why did he feel so upset? (lose his job)
2. Jane arrived late at different places yesterday. What had happened when she
arrived at each place?
Example: When she arrived at the station her train had already left.
1. the station
her train / already / leave
2. the theatre
the play / already / start
3. the post-office
it / already / close
4. the dress-shop
they / sell / the dress she wanted to buy
5. Jack's house
he / go out
6. the cafe
her friend / just / leave
7. the tennis court
the game / nearly / finish
3. First, say which action happened first, then join the sentences using the words
in brackets, as in the example.
1. He saved a lot of money. Then, he bought a car. (when)
saved a lot of money: happened first
When he had saved a lot of money, he bought a car.
2. She hung out the washing. Then, it began to rain, (after) ...
3. Fiona tidied the house. Then,, the children arrived home, (by the time) ...
4. The guests left. Then, she started cleaning, (when)...
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20
5. The girls put on their uniforms. Then, they went to school, (before) ...
6. The meeting started. Then, the lights went out. (already.... when) .„
4. Make up a complex sentence combining two simple sentences.
Example: The children went to bed. They did Iheir lessons. The children went to
bed after they had done their lessons.
1. She wrote a very good article. She studied the problem thoroughly.
2. She learned the poem by heart. She listened to the record many times.
3. She fell ill. They moved to Siberia.
4. We packed our things. The taxi arrived.
5. Read the situation and write sentences from the words in brackets.
1. You went to Jill's house, but she wasn't there, (she / go / out)
2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before, (it
/ change / a lot)
3.1 invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come, (she /arrange / to do something
else)
4. You went to the cinema last night You arrived at the cinema late, (the film /
already / start)
5.1 was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for
five years)
6.1 offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry, (she /just / have / breakfast)
6. Choose the correct words.
11 didn't see him. When I got there he (went / had gone) home.
2 When I (had done / did) my work I went to bed.
3 After I had finished breakfast, I (went / had gone) for a walk.
4 When I switched on the computer, nothing (had happened / happened) so I called an
engineer.
7. Supply the past simple or the past perfect Show when both are possible
1. They... the gates before I... there, (lock, get)
2. By the time we... the party... (arrive, finish)
3. After we... it on the phone, I... him a letter about it (discuss, write)
4. Before we... Tim to the theatre, he... a stage play before, (take, never see)
5. We... a good rest when our guests... . (have, all leave)
8. Complete the following sentences using the past perfect or the past continuous
1. When I turned round she...
2. Everybody believed that they ...
3. We walk...
4. They thought that she...
5. When they arrived in London it...
6. When he reached the house his wife...
9. Supply the past simple, the past continuous or the past perfect.
1. When... the ceremony (take place)?
2. Two cars... (stand by) for an hour ready to start.
3.1 could read from his face that he... (hesitate) to tell the truth.
4. She... (lead) him to the cab that ... (wait) at the door.
5. My father ... (be) forty and... (be) a widower for fifteen years.
6. He... (stand up) quickly and... (clasp) his hands which — (tremble).
7.1... (meet) him for the first time the day before yesterday.
8. He asked her where she... (stay) because he... (want) to see her again.
10. Read the following sets of sentences and say how the meaning changes.
1. a). Paul had left when Sheila arrived, b).
Paul left when Sheila arrived.
2. a). She was locking the door when she heard a strange noise outside, b).
She locked the door when she heard a strange noise outside.
3. a). He read the book last night.
b). He was reading the book last night.
11. Look at Pam's day. Combine these sentences in the correct order. Begin
your sentences with when.
Example: Mr Barnett dictated three letters. Pam typed them.
When Mr Barnett had dictated three letters, Pam typed them
(9.00) Mr Barnett dictated diree letters.
(15.10) Pam rang Jeff.
(12.30) Pam had a cup of tea.
(17.00) Pam went home.
(15.00) Pam spoke to the sales manager.
(14.00) Pam had lunch.
(16.45) Pam tidied the office.
(13.45) Pam typed a report.
(10.15) Pam made two telephone calls.
(15.30) Pam sent two telexes.
(11.00) Mr Barnett dictated a report
(16.00) Pam spoke to the Publicity Manager.
(10.00) Pam made coffee.
(9.30) Pam typed three letters.
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12. Look at these phrases.
sweep the drive;
dig the garden;
paint the garage;
cut the grass;
empty the dust bins;
repair the roof;
plant the flowers.
burn the leaves;
wash the car;
Now practise this conversation with your partner, using the phrases in the list.
A. Did you see my father yesterday?
B. Yes. Why?
A. Well, had he dug the garden?
B. He'd started, but he hadn't finished. He didn't look very pleased.
A. I know. I'd already dug it myself, but he wanted to do it again.
B. Had you?
A. Yes, I had.
IV. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
The Past Perfect Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to
be в Past Perfect и причастия 1 основного глагола (табл. 7).
Таблица 7
Positive
I, you, he, she, had been
Studying
it, we, they
Negative
I, you, he, she, had not been
studying
it, we, they
hadn't been
Question
Had I, you, he, she, been
studying?
it, we, they
Употребляется для выражения:
1. Длительного действия, которое началось в прошлом и закончилось к
определенному моменту в прошлом: Не was out of breath. He had been running
fast.
2. Длительного действия, которое началось раньше момента в прошлом и
продолжалось в определенный момент в прошлом: Не had been teaching English
for ten years when we met.
При этом может быть обозначен как весь период (предлог for), в течение
которого длилось действие, так и начальный момент (since):
We had been smoking in silence for a few minutes before he spoke again. He had
been studying foreign languages since he became a student. Время действия может
быть обозначено такими обстоятельствами, как for, since.
23
Exercises
1. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets using the
past perfect continuous.
1.1 was tired when I arrived home. (I /
work / hard all day)...
2. There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of sigarettes.
(somebody / smoke / in the room)...
3. Jim came into the house. He had a football and he was very tired, (he /
play / football) ...
4. Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened, (she
/ dream)...
5. When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it
off. (he/watch/TV)...
2. Supply the past perfect continuous tense of the vert» in brackets.
1.1 was tired. I... (work) all day long.
2. The room was empty but there was a smell of cigarettes. Somebody ... (smoke) in
the
room.
3. He turned to the girl who ... (listen) to the conversation with breathless interest.
4. It was very hot in the house and she... (lie) awake for hours.
5. It... (snow) heavily and the telephone was cut down.
6. It... (rain) for weeks and the only bridge across the river was destroyed.
7. He... (study) the problem for a few years before he could solve it
3. Fill in the gaps with one of the verbs from the list in the past perfect
continuous:
read, scream, argue, try, eat, watch
1. Emily was angry. She ..had been arguing., with her parents for an hour.
2. Mary felt sick. She... chocolates all afternoon.
3. Allan had a headache. His baby sister... for half an hour.
4. Emily was frightened. She... a horror film for half an hour.
5. Simon was confused. He... to win the game for hours.
6. John was very tired. He... all night
4. Complete the questions.
Example: How long had you been learning English before... (take up German)?
How long had you been learning English before you took up German?
1. How long had they been saving up money before.» (buy a car)?
2. How long had he been writing poems before... (publish a book)?
3. How long had you been listening to mis record before... (understand ever word)?
25
24
4. How long had you been taking this medicine before... (get well)?
5. How long had you been reading English books in adaptation before... (read
them in the original)?
6. How long had the studio been making mis film before... (release it)?
7. How long had they been meeting before... (get married)?
5. Make up sentences with the past perfect continuous tense.
Example: Mother / teach literature for 20 years / retire.
Mother had been teaching literature for 20 years before she retired.
1. Your friend / live in London for 5 years / move to the Far East.
2. She / take this medicine for a week / recover.
3. He / write books for a few years / rise to fame.
4. He / work as an engineer for ten years / become a good specialist.
5. He / compose music for two years / become popular.
6. Mr. Brown / travel in India for three years / settle down in his native town.
6. Make up sentences complete the suitable parts from the right and left-hand
columns. __________________
1 They had been experimenting for a y when I came upon his name in a
newspaper.
year
Before the palace was open for the
2 He had been writing poetry for some public.
years
they achieved
3 They had been repairing the palace for before
some
promising
results.
a few years
before
his
first
collection
of poems
4 He had been working very hard for a
came
out
few years
51 had been living in London for a year before she became a pensioner.
6 She had been working at school for 20
years ________________________ before he could keep bis family.
7. Give reasons for each situation below using past perfect continuous as in the
example.
Example: Tina was wet. She had been walking in the rain without an umbrella.
1. Fiona's eyes were red.
4. Ann felt sleepy.
2. Tim felt exhausted.
5. Tom was hot and sticky.
3. John was dirty.
6. Liz had a headache.
8. Identify the tenses in bold then match them to the correct tense description.
How is each tense formed? When do we use each tense?
1. She had finished her homework by the time her mother got home.
2. He was tired because he had been working hard all day.
3. He had been studying for two years before he got his degree.
a. past action continuing over a period up to a certain time in the past.
b. past action which happened before another in the past.
с past action if a certain duration with visible results in the past.
9. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past perfect continuous.
1. A: Did you do anything last night?
B: I went to the gym and I ...had just arrived... (just / arrive) home when
Michael called me. He said he... (try) to call me for ten minutes before I
finally answered the phone.
2. A: Did you catch any fish on your fishing trip today?
B: Yes.... (sit) in the boat for two hours when I caught a huge fish.
3. A: Did you enjoy the open-air conceit today?
B: The concert... (just / start) when suddenly, it began to rain.
The musicians... (only / play) for ten minutes. A:
What a shame!
4. A: Was the house tidy when you got home?
B: Yes, the children... (dust) the furniture and they... (put away) all of their toys.
5. A: Why were you so upset this morning?
B: Well, I... (clean) the house for hours when the children came in with muddy
shoes.
6. A: Why are you so late for work this morning?
B: I'm sorry. I... (wait) for the train for over an hour before it eventually arrived.
10. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verb in the correct form,
past perfect or past perfect continuous.
1. We were all surprised when Jenny and Andy got married last year,
(they/only/know/each other/a few weeks)...
2. Suddenly I woke up. I was confused and didn't know where I was.
(I/dream)...
3.1 wasn't hungry at lunchtime so I didn't have anything to eat.
(I/have/a big breakfast)...
Past Perfect Continuous и Past Continuous
Past Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, совершавшегося в
определенный момент в прошлом, а время Past Perfect Continuous
употребляется для выражения продолженного действия, которое началось и
закончилось до другого действия в прошлом и длилось в течение определенного
периода времени.
26
Сравните по табл. 8:
_____________________________________________ Таблица 8
When I looked out of the window the When I looked out of the window it
sun was shining but the ground was was raining. (Когда я выглянул в
wet. It had been raining, (в тот
окно, дождь шел (именно в этот
момент, когда я выглянул в окно,
момент)).
дождя не было, он шел до этого в
течение какого-то периода. ___________________________________
Exercises
1. Answer the questions negatively and complete the statement with But... had
been + the -ing form
Example: What were you doing when John came to see you? I
wasn't doing anything but I had been writing letters before.
1. What were you doing while it rained yesterday? (walk in the park).
2. What were you doing when the vacation ended? (have a nice time)
3. What were you doing when I saw you last night? (watch TV)
4. What were you doing when the concert began? (get ready for the concert)
5. What was he doing when they called him up on the telephone? Do his Homework
2. Supply either the past perfect continuous or the past continuous of the verb in
brackets.
1. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor, he (look)... for his pen.
2.When I arrived she (wait)... for me. But she looked angry as she (wait)... for a
very long time.
3. They still (walk)... when it started snowing.
4. The children looked tired. They (walk)... since early morning.
5. The magnificent car (wait)... at the door. It (wait)... for two hours.
6. The sun (shine)... all day long yesterday.
7. She (cry)... for a few minutes more before she could stop.
8. John (drive)... me car when the accident happened.
9. The sky (clear)... though it (rain)... stul.
10. The telephone (ring)... for a few minutes before somebody picked up
the receiver.
3. Put the verb into the most suitable form, past continuous, past perfect or past
perfect continuous.
1. We were good friends. We... (know) each other for a long time.
2. Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She... (run).
3. When I arrived, everybody... (sit) round the table with their mouths full.
27
They... (eat). 4. When I arrived, everybody... (sit) round the table and talking.
Their mouths
were empty but their stomachs were full. They... (eat). 5.1 was sad
when I sold my car. I... (have) it for a very long time.
6. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He... (look) for his contact lens.
7. John gave up smoking two years ago. He... (smoke) for 30 years.
8. When I arrived, Kate... (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me
because I was late and she... (wait) for a very long time.
9. We were tired at the end of the journey. We... (travel) for more than 24 hours.
10. It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours... (have) a party.
4. Put the verbs into the correct tense, past perfect, past perfect continuous or
past simple.
1. By the time we... (get) home, Sally... (prepare) a delicious meal.
2. The fanner... (take) a break because he ... (work) in the fields for hours and he was
exhausted.
3. It... (be) the most beautiful dress she ... (ever/seen).
4. When I... (enter) the room, I... (notice) that someone... (draw) the curtains.
5. After he... (finish) packing his suitcases, he... (call) a taxi.
6. By the time Susan... (arrive) at the station, the train... (leave).
7. She ... (travel) through Europe for a year before she... (decide) to settle in Spain.
8. The room... (be) much cooler after she... (turn on) the air conditioning.
5. Work in two teams. Continue the story that your teacher starts. If you fail to
continue the story your team loses.
Teacher: It was midnight Tim was walking along the street.
Team 1 S1: Sudden he saw a beggar.
Team 2 S2: He was wearing an old dirty coat, etc.
V. Revision
1. Look at the sentences. Are they past simple (write PS), past continuous (PC),
past perfect (PP), or past perfect continuous (PPC)?
1.1 had a dream last night....
2. It was about an old house....
3. ш the dream, I was walking along a corridor.... 4.1
had been there before, many years ago.
5. There was an open window and the floor was wet. ...
6. It had been raining earlier....
7. But it wasn't raining any more....
8. In the dream, I closed the window. ...
9. Then I woke up....
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28
2. Supply the Past Simple, the Past Continnous, the Past Perfect, the Past Perfect
Continuous of the verbs in brackets.
1. We (talk)... for some time when the bell (ring)... .
2. That day the sun (shine)... since morning and the sky (be)... blue.
3. I (tell) him what I (do) ... and he (tell) ... me what he (do) ... in the last three
months.
4. They (walk)... along the street for half an hour before they (see)... a cafe.
5.1 (have)... breakfast when the telephone (ring)...
6. How long you (know)... Mike before you (get married)...
7. She (cook)... dinner when her husband (return)... home.
8. She (cook)... dinner for half an hour when she (remember)... that she (run out)... of
bread.
9. She (thank)... me for what I (do)... .
10. The family (watch)... TV when I (come)... home.
3. Choose the correct answer.
1. 'Are you going shopping tonight?'
'No, I... yesterday.'
A went
В had gone
С had been going
2. 'Did you see Nathan?'
'No, he... by the time I arrived at his house.'
A was leaving
В had been leaving С had left
3. The Chinese... printing.
A invented В have invented
С had invented
4. The man sitting next to me was nervous because he... before. A
hasn't flown В didn't fly С hadn't flown D wasn't flying
5. ... a car when they were living in London?
A Had they В Did they have С were they having D Have they had
6. Ian ... in Scotland for ten years. Now he lives in London. A
lived В was living С had lived
7. Tom ... his hand when he was cooking the dinner.
A burnt В was burning
С has burnt
8. It was a boring weekend. ... anything.
AI didn't
ВI don't
СI didn't do
9. 'Where is Scott?'
'He... on the phone when I saw him.' A was
talking
В talked
С had talked
10. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?'
'Yes, we ... in a fabulous hotel.'
A have stayed
В had stayed
С stayed
4. Underline the correct tense.
1.1 saw Jim this morning. He ran / was running for the bus.
2. Keri was angry. She had been waiting / was waiting for Sarah for two hours.
3.1 was walking / had walked home when I saw Paul.
4.1 watched / was watching television when the telephone rang.
5. Jason had been thinking / had thought about his new car all day.
6. The little boy was crying because he had lost / was losing his mother.
7. Pam opened / had opened the present and read the card.
8. Graham had been working / was working for the company for twenty years before
he retired.
9. Lucy wrote / had written a letter to her sister last night.
10. Sue was smiling / had smiled as she was reading Mary's letter.
5. Put the verb into the correct past tense.
1. Who... (invent) the bicycle?
2.1 was the last to leave the office. Everybody else... (go) home.
3. What... (you/do) last weekend? ... (you/go) away?
4.We decided not to go out because... (it/rain) quite hard.
5. A few days ago... (I/see) a man at a party whose face... (be) very familiar. At
first I couldn't think where... (Usee) him before. Then suddenly ...
(I/remember) who... (it/be).
6. A:... (you/arrive) at the theatre in time for the play last night?
B: No, we were late. By the time we got there,... (it/already/start). 7.1 went
to John's room and... (knock) on the door but there... (be) no answer.
Either... (he/go) out or... (he/not/want) to see anyone.
8. Angela asked me how to use the photocopier. ... (she/never/use) it before, so ...
(she/not/know) what to do.
9. Mary... (go) for a swim after work yesterday. ... (she/need) some exercise because
... (she/sit) in an office all day in front of a computer.
6. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
1. A: Why was Tim so tired last night?
B: Oh, he... (work) hard last night.
2. A: I... (go) to the cinema last night. B:
Really? What... (you/see)?
3. A: Did you have enough to eat at the party? B:
Yes. Sarah... (make) a lot of food.
4. A: What... (you / do) at eight o'clock last night? B:
I... (watch) television.
5. A: Colin! Look at yourself! You are filthy!
B: I know. I... (repair) my motorbike.
30
6. A: I... (do) something really silly yesterday.
B: Really, what?
A: I... (get) up and ... (set off) for work as usual.
I... (drive) for an hour before I... (realize) it
was Sunday.
7. Put the verb in the correct form, past simple, past continuous, past perfect
past perfect continuous.
1. Yesterday afternoon Mary... (go) to the station to meet Paul. When she...
(get) there, Paul... (already/ wait) for her. His train... (arrive) early.
2.1... (meet) George and Linda yesterday as I... (walk) through the park.
They... (be) to the Sports Centre where they... (play) tennis. They... (go) a
cafe for a drink and... (invite) me to join them but I... (arrange) to meet a
friend and... (not/ have) time.
3. Mary had to go to New York last week, but she almost... (miss) the plane.
She... (stand) in the queue at the check-in desk when she suddenly...
(realize) that she... (leave) her passport at home. Fortunately, she doesn't live
very far from the airport, so she... (have) time to take a taxi home to get it.
She... (get) back to the airport just in time for her flight
31
Библиографический список
1 Alexander L.G. Longman English Grammar. Practice for Intermediate Students
-England: Longman Group UK Limited. 1999. - 296 с
2. Dooley, J. Grammarway 3 - England: Express Publising, 1999. - 224 с
3. Evans, V Round-Up 4 English Grammar Practice- England: Pearson Education
Limited, 2002, -166 с
4. Evans, V, Dooley, J Enterprise 3. - Express Publishing, 1997, 150 с
5. Murphy, R English Grammar in Use - Cambridge: University Press, 1994. -350 с
6. Базанова E. M. Английский язык: учебник для студентов неязыковых вузов
М.: Дрофа, 2002 -400 с.
32
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение----------------------------------------------------------------------------3
I. Past Simple..............................................................................................................4
Past Simple versus Present Perfect-------------------------------------------------8
П. Past Continuous ...................................................................................................10
Ш. Past Perfect ......................................................................................................... 18
IV. Past Perfect Continuous...................................................................................... 22
Past Perfect Continuous and Past Continuous ................................................... 25
V. Revision ...............................................................................................................27
Библиографический список................................................................................ 31
КАТЕГОРИЯ ПРОШЕДШЕГО ВРЕМЕНИ В АНГЛИЙСКОМ
ЯЗЫКЕ
Методические указания для проведения практических занятий для студентов
2-го курса международного факультета
Составитель: Татьяна Михайловна Крючкова
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