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84. Английский язык

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Министерство образования науки РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Английский язык
Методические указания
для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов,
обучающихся по специальностям 222000 «Инноватика»
и 220100 – «Системный анализ и управление»
Воронеж 2013
УДК 802.0:330:303.732(07)
ББК 81.2 Англ:65.2/9-5:22.172я7
Составитель М.Г. Кочнева
Английский язык: метод. указания для студ. 1-го и 2-го курсов, обуч. по
спец. 222000 и 220100/ Воронежский ГАСУ; сост.: М.Г. Кочнева. – Воронеж,
2013. - 33 с.
Содержат 15 уроков, рассчитанных для активного усвоения.
Основная цель – обеспечить обучающихся лексическим минимумом по
данным специальностям и привить им навыки и умения чтения, понимания
и реферирования прочитанных текстов. Речевая практика организуется с
помощью вопросно-ответных упражнений и запоминания фраз, которые
необходимы для логико-структурного оформления реферата.
Предназначена для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов дневного обучения
по специальностям 222000 и 220100.
УДК 802.0:330:303.732 (07)
ББК 81.2 Англ:65.2/9-5:22.172 Я7
Печатается по решению научно-методического совета Воронежского ГАСУ
Рецензент - Т.А. Воронова к.ф.н., доц. кафедры русского языка
и межкультурной коммуникации Воронежского ГАСУ
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Методические указания содержат 15 текстов по специальностям
«Инноватика» и «Системный анализ». Для каждого текста определен
грамматический материал с его кратким пояснением, на котором простроен
текст, и который студенты должны повторить и закрепить, используя учебник
Т.Ю.Поляковой, Е.В. Синявской и др. «Английский язык для инженеров». - 7-е
изд., испр. – М.: Высш. шк., 2009 - 463 c. Дан перечень слов с их транскрипцией
и переводом для активного усвоения, что облегчит студентам правильное
чтение и понимание прочитанного. Вопросно-ответные упражнения,
разработанные для каждого текста, помогут составить аннотацию. При условии
тщательного изучения и усвоения представленного в методической разработке
материала, студенты смогут овладеть определенным лексическим и
грамматическим минимумом, необходимым для
чтения и понимания
англоязычных текстов по их специальностям и научатся кратко составлять
аннотацию прочитанного.
3
LESSON I
Text: Innovation (part I)
Grammar: Simple Tenses (Active Voice) Простые времена (активный залог)
Tasks
I. Review Simple Tenses.
Present Simple
Past Simple
Future Simple
I define ( я определяю) I defined (я определил)
You define
You defined
He/she/it defines
He/she/it defined
We define
We defined
You define
You defined
They define
They defined
I will define (я определю)
You will define
He/she/it will define
We will define
You will define
They will define
II. Learn the following words.
1. Solution [sq`lHSn] n решение
2. Meet requirements [`mJtrq`kwaiqmqnts] отвечать требованиям
3. Inarticulate [,inR`tikjuleit] a не четко выраженный
4. Existing [ig`zistiN] a существующий
5. Accomplish [q`kOmpliS]v выполнять
6. Application [,xpli`keiSn] n употребление, применение
7. Associate [q`souSieit]v связываться, ассоциироваться
8. Phenomenon (- ena) [fq`nOminqn] n явление, феномен
9. In line with [in`lain wiD] соответственно с
10. Whatever [wOt`evq] любой, какой бы ни
11. Foothold [`futhould] n опора
12. Refer [ri`fW] v относиться
13. Whereas [wFq`rxz] prep. тогда как
14. Directly [di`rektli] adv непосредственно, прямо
15. Differ [`difq] v отличаться
16. Improvement [imp`rHvmqnt] n улучшение, усовершенствование
17. Notion [nouSn] n понятие, идея, представление
18. Rather than [`rRDq Dqn] а не
19.Available [q`veilqbl] a имеющийся в распоряжении
20. Invention [in`venSn] n изобретение
21. Define [di`fain] v определять
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22. Obtain [qb`tein] v получать
23. Following [`fOlquiN] a следующий
24. Creation [kri`eiSn] n создание, созидание
25. Field [fJld] n область
26. Term [tWm] n термин
27. Definition [,defq`niSn] n определение
III. Read and translate the following text.
Innovation (part 1)
Innovation is the application of new solutions that meet new requirements,
inarticulate needs, or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more
effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are readily
available to markets, governments and society. The term innovation can be defined as
something original and new that "breaks in to" the market or into society. One usually
associates it to new phenomena that are important in some way. A definition of the
term, in line with these aspects, would be the following: "An innovation is something
original, new, and important - in whatever field - that breaks in to (or obtains a
foothold in) a market or society."
Innovation differs from invention in that innovation refers to the use of a better
and, as a result, novel idea or method, whereas invention refers more directly to the
creation of the idea or method itself.
Innovation differs from improvement in that innovation refers to the notion of
doing something different rather than doing the same thing better.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using Simple Tenses. Define them.
V. Answer the following questions.
1.What is the text about?
2. What is innovation?
3. What are new solutions accomplished through?
4. Can the term innovation be defined as something original?
5. How can the term innovation be defined?
6. What does innovation differ from invention in?
7. What does innovation refer to?
8. What does innovation differ from improvement in?
9. What does improvement refer to?
10. What can you say in conclusion?
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VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
U se the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 2
Text: Innovation (part II)
Grammar: Simple Tenses (Passive Voice) Простые времена (страдательный
залог)
Tasks:
I. Review Passive Voice. The Simple Tenses.
Present Simple
I am asked
(меня спрашивают)
You are asked
He/she/it is asked
Past Simple
Future Simple
I was asked
(меня спросили)
You were asked
He/she/it was asked
I will be asked
(меня спросят)
You will be asked
He/she/it will be asked
II. Learn the following words.
1.Invention [ in`venSn] n изобретение
2. Good [gud] n польза, добро, благо
3. Service [`sWvis] n услуга, сфера деятельности
4.Create [kri`eit] v создавать
5. Value [`vxljH] n ценность
6. Customer [ `kAstqmq] n клиент, заказчик, покупатель
7.Call [kLl] v вызывать
8. Replicable [`replikqbl] a репродуцированный
9. Satisfy [ `sxtisfai] v удовлетворять, соответствовать
10. Specific [ spq`sifik] a определенный, конкретный
11.Involve [in`vLlv] v подразумевать, затрагивать
12. Deliberate [di`libqrqt] a преднамеренный
13. Apply [q`plai] v обращаться, применять
14. Imagination [I,mxGi`neiSn] n воображение
15. Derive [di`raiv] v получать, извлекать
16. Include [in`klHd] v включать
17. In order to [in`Ldq tq] для того чтобы
18. Further [fWDq] adv далее
19. Expectation [ekspek`teiSn] n ожидание, надежды
20. Alliance [q`laiqns] n объединение
21. Purchasing power [pq`CeisiN `pauq] покупательная способность
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22. Joint-venturing [`joint venCqriN] совместное предприятие
23. bring about (brought) v [briN q`baut] осуществлять
24. Incremental [ inkrq`mentl] a прибыльный
25. Advance [qd`vRs] n улучшение, продвижение
26. Disruptive [dis`rAptiv] a разрушительный
III. Read and translate the following text.
Innovation (part II)
Innovation is the process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service
that creates value or for which customers will pay.
To be called an innovation, an idea must be replicable at an economical cost and must
satisfy a specific need. Innovation involves deliberate application of information,
imagination and initiative in deriving greater or different values from resources, and
includes all processes by which new ideas are generated and converted into useful
products. In business, innovation often results when ideas are applied by the company
in order to further satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers. In a social
context, innovation helps create new methods for alliance creation, joint venturing,
flexible work hours, and creation of buyers' purchasing power. Innovations are
divided into two broad categories:
(1) Evolutionary innovations (continuous or dynamic evolutionary innovation) that
are brought about by many incremental advances in technology or processes and
(2) revolutionary innovations (also called discontinuous innovations) which are often
disruptive and new.
Innovation is synonymous with risk-taking and organizations that create
revolutionary products or technologies take on the greatest risk because they create
new markets.
Imitators take less risk because they will start with an innovator's product and
take a more effective approach. Examples are IBM with its PC against Apple
Computer, Compaq with its cheaper PC's, etc.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using the Passive Voice.
V. Answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What does the text deal with?
What process is innovation?
What can you say about the idea of innovation?
What does the innovation involve?
What processes does innovation include?
Into what categories are innovations divided?
What can you say about evolutionary innovations?
What can you say about revolutionary innovations?
What can you say in conclusion?
7
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 3
Text: Innovation (part III)
Grammar: The Imperative Mood. Повелительное наклонение.
The Gerund (Герундий)
Tasks:
I. Review the Gerund.
Example
Simple
Perfect
Active
choosing –выбор, выбирать
having chosen
Passive
being chosen
having been chosen
2. Pay attention to the translation of the Imperative Mood.
Example:
I do not use this method in my research.
Я не использую этот метод в своем исследовании.
Use this method in your research.
Используйте этот метод в своем исследовании.
II. Learn the following words.
[`inOuveit]v вводить новшества
2. Generally [`Genrqli]adv обычно
3. Implement [`implimqnt]v выполнять, осуществлять
4. Improve [im`prHv]v улучшать
5. Catalyst [`kxtqlist]n катализатор
6. Growth [grouT]n рост
7. Success [sqk`ses] n успех, удача
8. Successful [sqk`sesfl] а успешный, удачный
9. Adapt [q`dept]v приспосабливать
10. Environment [in`vaiqrqnmqnt]n окружающая среда, окружение
11. Deliver [di`livq]v доставлять, производить
12. Thinking [ `TinkiN]n мышление
13. Common [kOmqn] a общий
1.Innovate
8
14. Conduct [kqn`dAkt]v проводить, вести
15. Competitor [kqm`petitq]n конкурент, соперник
16. Entire [in`taiq]a весь, полный
17. Employee [,implOi`J] n служащий, рабочий по найму
18. Empower [im`pauq]v давать возможность, разрешать
19. Inspirational [,inspq`reiSnql]a вдохновляющий
20. Internally [in`tWnli]adv внутренне
21. Externally [iks`tWnli]adv внешне
22. Available [q veilqbl `]a имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
23. Adviser [qd`vaizq]n советник, консультант
24. Intellectual property protection охрана прав интеллектуальной
собственности
25. Competitive [kqm`petqtiv]a конкурентоспособный
26. Advantage [qd`vRntiG]n преимущество
27. Utilize [`jHtilaiz]v использовать
III. Read and translate the following text.
Innovation (part 3)
Everyone can innovate.
Innovation generally refers to renewing, changing or creating more effective
processes, products or ways of doing things.
For businesses, this could mean implementing new ideas, creating dynamic products
or improving your existing services. Innovation can be a catalyst for the growth and
success of your business, and help you adapt and grow in the marketplace.
Being innovative does not mean inventing; innovation can mean changing your
business model and adapting to changes in your environment to deliver better
products or services. Successful innovation should be an in-built part of your business
strategy and the strategic vision, where you create an environment and lead in
innovative thinking and creative problem solving.
Some common themes around innovation:
1. Conduct an analysis of the market environment, your customers wants and needs
and competitors. Be open to new ideas and adaptive to change.
2. Develop a strategic responsive plan which includes innovation as a key business
process across the entire business.
3. Leadership in innovation. Train and empower employees to think innovatively
from the top down. Inspirational leadership and motivation is what drives innovation
in business.
4. Connect with customers and employees to generate ideas for improving processes,
products and services both internally and externally.
9
5. Seek advice. Utilize available resources, business advisors, grants and assistance to
drive innovation in your business. This may include seeking Intellectual Property (IP)
protection for commercialisation of ideas.
Remember, innovation is the key to competitive advantage for your business.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using the Gerund and sentences with the
Imperative Mood.
V. Answer the following questions
1. What is this text about?
2. Can everyone innovate?
3. What does innovation generally refer to?
4. What could this mean for business?
5. Can innovation be a catalyst for the grow and success of business?
6. Can innovation help you adapt and grow in the market place?
7. What can innovation mean?
8. Can innovation deliver better products and services?
9. What are the common themes around innovation?
10. What can you say in conclusion?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that…
LESSON 4
Text: Innovation Management
Grammar: Progressive (Continuous) Tenses. Продолженные времена.
Tasks:
I. Review the Continuous Tenses.
Present
I am asking
Я отвечаю
You are asking
He/she/it is asking
We are asking
You are asking
They are asking
Past
I was asking
Я отвечал
You were asking
He/she/it was asking
We were asking
You were asking
They were asking
2. Remember the conjunctions:
both … and – как .. так и …; и… и…
either … or - или …или ..
10
Future
I will be asking
Я буду отвечать
You will be asking
He/she/it will be asking
We will be asking
You will be asking
They will be asking
neither … nor … -ни… ни…
II. Learn the following words.
1. Management [`mxniGmqnt]n управление, умение справляться
2. Manage [`mxniG] v руководить, управлять, справляться
3. Proper [`prOpq]a должный, подходящий
4. Goal [gOul] n цель
5. Focus [fOukqs]n цель; v - cосредотачивать (внимание)
6. Effort [`efLt]n усилие, попытка
7. Relegate [`religeit]v относить
8. Contribute [kqn`tribu:t]v способствовать
9. Tool [tHl]n средство, способ, механизм
10. Appropriate [q`prOupriqt]a подходящий, соответствующий
11. Trigger v [trigq] вызывать, приводить в движение
12. Deploy [di`plOi] v применять
13. Juice [GHs]n сущность, основа
14. Whole [hOul]a весь
15. Iterating [`itqreitiN]a повторяющийся
16. Capture [kxpCq] n захват, добыча
17. Access [`xkses]n подход, доступ
18. Profitable [`prqfitqbl] a выгодный, полезный
19. Succeed [sq`ksJd]v достигать цели, преуспевать
20. Dimension [dai`menSn] n объем, величина
21. Lifetime [`laiftaim] n продолжительность, срок службы
22. Therefore [DeqfL]adv поэтому, следовательно
23.Sacrifice [`sxkrifais]v жертвовать
24. Quality [`kwOliti] n качество
25.Brainstorm [`breinstLm]n плодотворная мысль, внезапная идея
26. Virtual [vWCuql]a фактический, действительный
III. Read and translate the following text.
Innovation Management
Innovation management is the discipline of managing processes in innovation. It
can be used to develop both product and organizational innovation. Without proper
processes, it is not possible for research and development (R&D) to be efficient;
innovation management includes a set of tools that allow managers and engineers to
cooperate with a common understanding of goals and processes. The focus of
innovation management is to allow the organization to respond to an external or
11
internal opportunity, and use its creative efforts to introduce new ideas, processes or
products. Importantly, innovation management is not relegated to R&D; it involves
workers at every level in contributing creatively to a company's development,
manufacturing, and marketing. By utilizing appropriate innovation management
tools, management can trigger and deploy the creative juices of the whole work force
towards the continuous development of a company. The process can be viewed as an
evolutionary integration of organization, technology and market by iterating series of
activities: search, select, implement and capture.
Innovation processes can either be pushed or pulled through development. A
pushed process is based on existing or newly invented technology, that the
organization has access to, and tries to find profitable applications to use this
technology. A pulled process tries to find areas where customers needs are not met,
and then focus development efforts to find solutions to those needs. To succeed with
either method, an understanding of both the market and the technical problems are
needed. By creating multi-functional development teams, containing both engineers
and marketers, both dimensions can be solved. The lifetime (or product lifecycle) of
new products is steadily getting shorter; increased competition therefore forces
companies reduce the time to market. Innovation managers must therefore decrease
development time, without sacrificing quality or meeting the needs of the market.
Common tools include brainstorming, virtual prototyping, product lifecycle
management, idea management, project management, product line planning and
portfolio, etc.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using the Continuous Tenses.
V. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the text deal with?
2. What is innovation management?
3. What can it be used for?
4. What is the focus of innovation management?
5. Whom does innovation management involve?
6. What can you say about innovation process?
7. What is pushed process based on?
8. What is pulled process based on?
9. What must innovation manages do?
10.What do common tools include?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
12
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 5
Text: Why is Business Innovation Important
Grammar: 1. The Modal Verbs (Модальные глаголы).
Tasks:
I. Review the Modal Verbs.
Present
Past
Can – мочь, уметь
could – мог
Future
to be able to do something быть способным что-то сделать
May – мочь, можно? Might – мог, можно? to be allowed toполучить разрешение …
Must – должен
To have to
had to – должен был will have to –должен буду
To be to
was/were to
will be to …
should do smth
should do
ought to do smth
II. Learn the following words.
1. Several [`sevrql]a несколько
2. Reason [`rJzn] n причина, основание
3. Critical [`kritikl] a решающий
4. Although [Ll`Dou] adv хотя
5. Issue [`iSH]n проблема
6. Sector [`sektq]n сфера, отрасль, участок
7. Balance [`bxlqns]v взвешивать, обдумывать
8. Lose (lost) [lHz] v терять
9. Ground [graund]n база, основание
10. Rival [raivql]n соперник, конкурент
11. Emerge [i`mWG]v появляться
12. Likely [`laikli] adv вероятно
13. Respond [ris`pOnd] v отвечать
14. Current [kArqnt] a современный
15. Anticipate [ xn`tisipeit]v предвосхищать, предвидеть
16. Trend [trend]n тенденция, направление
17. Demand [di`mRnd] n требование
18. Waste [weist]n излишняя трата, потери
19. Increase [in`krJs] v увеличивать
13
20. Decrease [dik`rJs] v уменьшать
21. Profit [`profit] n прибыль
22. Attract [q`trxkt]v привлекать (внимание и др.)
23. Retain [ri`tein]v сохранять, удерживать
24. Crucial [krHSl] a решающий
25. Saturated [`sxCqreited]a насыщенный
III. Read and translate the following text.
Why is Business Innovation Important
There are several reasons why the generation of new ideas can be critical to your
business's success. Although every organisation will have its own priorities and
sector-specific issues to balance, businesses that fail to innovate run the risk of losing
ground to competitors, losing key staff, or simply operating inefficiently. Innovation
can be a key differentiator between market leaders and their rivals.
Innovation can help you discover what opportunities exist now, or are likely to
emerge in the future. Successful businesses not only respond to their current customer
or organisational needs, but often anticipate future trends and develop an idea,
product or service that allows them to meet this future demand rapidly and
effectively. Innovation will help you stay ahead of your competition as markets,
technologies or trends shift.
You should include innovation as a key part of your overall business plan.
Innovation is not only about designing a new product or service to sell, but can
also focus on existing business processes and practices to improve efficiency, find
new customers, cut down on waste and increase profits.
Constantly innovating and improving business practices is also likely to help you
attract better staff members and retain more of your existing staff - something which
is crucial to the long-term health and performance of your business.
Consumers often see innovation as something that adds value to a company or to
its products. Used properly, innovation can give you a commercial advantage especially in saturated or rapidly shifting markets.
Your customers may even be willing to pay more for your well-designed, novel
and innovative product or service, rather than choosing a cheaper, but less exciting
rival.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using Degrees of Comparison.
14
V. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the text about?
2. What risk can business run?
3. What can innovation help to discover?
4. What do successful business anticipate?
5. What can innovation also focus on?
6. What can you help attract better staff members and retain more of your existing
staff?
7. How do consumers often see innovation?
8. What advantage can innovation give you?
9. What can you say in conclusion?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 6
Text: Society
Grammar: Modal verbs. Модальные глаголы. (Повторение).
Participle I. Причастие настоящего времени. (Повторение).
Tasks:
I. Learn the following words.
1. Due to [`dju tq] благодаря
2. Widespread [`waidspred]a широко распространенный
3. Entrepreneurship [,Ontrqprq`nWSip] n предпринимательство
4. Design [di`zain]n проектирование,план, цель
5. Pollution [pq`lHSn]n загрязнение
6. Exploitation [,eksplOi`teiSn]n использование
7.Benchmark [`benCmRk]n база, исходный пункт
8. Maintenance [`meintqnqns]n содержание, уход
9. Weight capacity [`weitkq`pxsqti] грузоподъемность
10.Wood [wud] n древесина
11. Stove-heated [`stOuvhJtid] обогреваемый от печки
12. Steam-heated [stJmhJtid] обогреваемый от конденсации
13. Diesel-powered [`dJzql`pauqd] работающий от дизеля
14. Locomotive [`lOukq,mOutiv]n локомотив, электровоз
15.Bulb [bAlb]n лампочка
15
16.Incandescent [,inkxn`desnt] n лампа накаливания
17. Fluorescent [flL`resnt]n дневной свет
18. Cellular [`seljulq]a ячеистый
II. Read and translate the following text.
Society
Due to its widespread effect, innovation is an important topic in the study of
economics, business, entrepreneurship, design, technology, sociology, and
engineering. In society, technological innovation aids in comfort, convenience, and
efficiency in everyday life cite . It can also lead to negative effects such as pollution
or exploitation. For instance, the benchmarks in railroad equipment and infrastructure
added to greater safety, maintenance, speed, and weight capacity for passenger
services. These innovations included wood to steel cars, iron to steel rails, stoveheated to steam-heated cars, gas lighting to electric lighting, diesel-powered to
electric-diesel locomotives. By the mid-20th century, trains were making longer,
faster, and more comfortable trips at lower costs for passengers. Other areas that add
to everyday quality of life include: the innovations to the light bulb from
incandescent to compact fluorescent then LED technologies which offer greater
efficiency, durability and brightness; adoption of modems to cellular phones, paving
the way to smart-phones which supply the public with internet access any time or
place; cathode-ray tube to flat-screen LCD televisions and others. Innovation is the
development of new value through solutions that meet new needs, or adding value to
old customers by providing new ways of maximizing their current level of
productivity. It is the catalyst to growth.
III. Having read text find all the cases of using the Modal Verbs.
IV. Answer the following questions.
1. What does the text deal with?
2. Why is innovation important for studying economics, business,
entrepreneurship, design, etc?
3. What is the role of innovation in society?
4. Can innovation lead to negative effects?
5. What examples can be given to demonstrate this?
6. What did these innovations include?
7. What do other areas that add to everyday quality of life include?
8. What can you say in conclusion?
V. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
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LESSON 7
Text: The Impact of a Technological Innovation
Grammar: Degrees of Comparison.
Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.
Tasks:
I. Review the Degrees of Comparison.
Положительная
Сравнительная
Wide –широкий
wider – шире
Efficient – эффективный more efficient
более эффективный
И с к л ю ч е н и я:
Good – хороший, хорошо better – лучше
Bad – плохой
worse -хуже
Little – маленький
less – меньше
Much/ many – много
more – больше
Far – далеко
farther/furtherдальше, далее
Превосходная
the widest - самый широкий
the most efficientсамый эффективный
the best – всех лучше
the worst – всех хуже
the least – всех меньше
the most – всех больше
the farthest/furthestвсех дальше
II. Learn the following words.
1. Impact [`impxkt]n влияние, воздействие
1. Eventual [i`venGuql] a возможный, фактический
2. Consider [kqn`sidq]v рассматривать, считать
3. So long [`sOulON] так долго
4. Power source [`pauqsLs] источник энергии
5. Primary [`praimqri] a основной, главный
6. Steam [stJm] n пар
7. Layout [`leiaut] n план, схема
8. Factory [`fxktqri] n производство завода
9. Determine [di`tWmin] n определять
10. Proximity [prOk`simqti] n близость
11. Steam engine [`stJm engine] паровой двигатель
12. In turn [in tWn] в свою очередь
13. Draw upon (drew, drawn) ]`drL qpOn] черпать, брать
14. Clumsy [`klAmzi] a неуклюжий, грубый
15. Wasteful [`weistfl]a расточительный
16. Leather belt [`leDq belt] кожаный ремень
17. Pulley [puli] n шкив, блок
18. Sequence [`sJkwqns] n последовательность
17
19. Flexible [`fleksqbl]a гибкий
20. Relevant [`relqvqnt]a уместный
21. Consensus n [kqn`sensqs] согласие, единодушие
22. Plausible [`plLzqbl]a правдоподобный, вероятный
23. Interface [`intqfeis] n взаимодействие
24. Measurable [`meZqrqbl] a измеримый
III. Read and translate the following text.
The impact of a technological innovation
The impact of a technological innovation will generally depend not only on its
inventors, but also on the creativity of the eventual users of the new technology.
Consider the electrification of factories. So long as factories depended on steam as
their primary power source, the organization and layout of activities on the factory
floor had to be determined by proximity to a single power source: the steam engine.
Each machine on the factory floor, in turn, drew upon this power source through a
clumsy and extremely wasteful transmission system of leather belts and pulleys. The
introduction of electricity, with separate electric motors attached to each machine,
allowed the layout of work to be organized in a far more flexible and efficient way,
depending on the sequence of activities required by the needs of the production
process rather than by the location of the steam engine. The parallels with the
introduction of the computer are obvious. But it is also relevant to point out that
economic historians have recently devoted a great deal of attention to the
electrification of American factories. The consensus of their studies is that it took
about 40 years – from the 1880s to the 1920s – before the application of electric
power produced a measurable increase in factory productivity. And one could also
make a plausible argument that the interface between people and computers is a far
more complex one than the interface between people and electric power.
Management and Economics of Innovation
In the modern knowledge economy, various forms of new knowledge, especially
in technology, are critical factors underlying industrial innovation, competitiveness,
and economic growth. This program focuses on how and why companies innovate to
compete and how companies can reap financial returns from their investments in
innovation. Through a combination of an advanced level of business management
and economics in relation to engineering knowledge, you will be trained to analyze,
understand and skillfully manage innovation processes in companies and other areas
of society.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using Degrees of Comparison.
V. Answer the following questions:
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1. What is the text about?
2. What will the impact of a technological innovation depend on?
3. What example is given to demonstrate this?
4. What power source of factories was before the electrification?
5. On what principle did each machine on the factory floor run?
6. What was done with the introduction of electricity? Were separate electric
motors attached to each machine?
7. What was the result of this?
8.What are critical factors underlying industrial innovation, competitiveness and
economic growth?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 8
Text: Business and Economics.
Grammar: Perfect Tenses. Совершенные времена
Tasks:
I. Review the Perfect Tenses.
Example:
Present Perfect
I have devoted
You have devoted
He/she/it has devoted
We have devoted
You have devoted
They have devoted
Past Perfect
I had devoted
You had devoted
He/she/it had devoted
We had devoted
You had devoted
They had devoted
Future Perfect
I will have devoted
You will have devoted
He/she/it will have devoted
We will have devoted
You will have devoted
They will have devoted
II. Learn the following words.
1.Advancement [qd`vRnsmqnt]n успех, прогресс, продвижение
2. Endowment [in`daumqnt]n вклад, дар
3. Entrepreneur [,Ontqprq`nW]n предприниматель
4. Input [`input]n представление сведений, исходные данные
5. Outmoded [,aut`mOudid]a устаревший
6. Argue [`RgjH]v доказывать, аргументировать
7. Incessantly [in`sesqntli] adv непрерывно
8. Shift [Sift] v переключать, перемещать
9. Famously [`feimqsli]adv зд. с уверенностью
19
10. Assert [q`sWt]v утверждать
11. Destruction [dist`rAkSn] n разрушение
12. Durability [,djuqrq`bilqti]n долговечность, прочность
13.Fruition [fru`iSn] n пользование благами, осуществление
14. Formidable [fL`midqbl]a внушительный, огромный
15. Presence [presqns]n присутствие, наличие
16. Eventually i`venCuqli] adv в конечном счете
17. Essentially [i`senSli] adv по существу
III. Read and translate the following text.
Business and economics
In business and economics, innovation is the catalyst to growth. With rapid
advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the
old world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused
on an area’s unique inputs are outmoded for today’s global economy. Economist
Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed greatly to the study of innovation, argued that
industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, that is
innovate with better or more effective processes and products, such as the shift from
the craft shop to factory. He famously asserted that “creative destruction is the
essential fact about capitalism.” In addition, entrepreneurs continuously look for
better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability, service,
and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and
organizational strategies.
One prime example is the explosive boom of Silicon Valley startups out of the
Stanford Industrial Park. In 1957, dissatisfied employees of Shockley Semiconductor,
the company of Nobel laureate and co-inventor of the transistor William Shockley,
left to form an independent firm, Fairchild Semiconductor. After several years,
Fairchild developed into a formidable presence in the sector. Eventually, these
founders left to start their own companies based on their own, unique, latest ideas,
and then leading employees started their own firms. Over the next 20 years, this
snowball process launched the momentous startup company explosion of information
technology firms. Essentially, Silicon Valley began as 65 new enterprises born out of
Shockley’s eight former employees.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using Perfect Tenses.
V. Answer the following questions.
1 What does this text deal with?
2. What is innovation mean in business and economics?
3. Who contributed greatly to the study of innovation?
4. What did he argue?
20
5. What did he famously assert?
6. What do entrepreneurs continuously look for?
7. What is one prime example?
8. How did Silicon Valley begin?
9. What can you say in conclusion?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 9
Text: Sources of Innovation (part I)
Grammar: Participle I and II. Причастие настоящего и прошедшего
времени.
Tasks:
I. Review the Participle I and II.
Example:
Active
Participle I
Simple Form
improving
улучшающий, улучшая
Perfect Form
having improved
улучшив
Participle II
-
Passive
being improved
улучшаемый
having been improved
после того как улучшили
improved
улучшенный
II. Learn the following words.
1.Perception [pq`sepSn]n восприятие, понимание
2. Mood [mHd]n настроение
3. Amount [q`maunt]n количество
4. Original [q`riGqnql] a исходный
5. Recognize [`rekqgnaiz]v признавать
6. Manufacturer [,mxnju`fakCqrq]n производитель, изготовитель
7. Iterative [`itqrqtiv]a повторяющийся
8. Feedback [`fJdbxk]n обратная связь
9. Loop [lHp] n цикл, петля
10. End-user [`endjHzq]n конечный потребитель продукции
III. Read and translate the following text.
Sources of Innovation (part 1)
21
There are several sources of innovation. According to Peter F. Drucker the
general sources of innovations are different changes in industry structure, in market
structure, in local and global demographics, in human perception, mood and meaning,
in the amount of already available scientific knowledge, etc.
Original model of three phases of the process of Technological Change
In the simplest linear model of innovation the traditionally recognized source is
manufacturer innovation. This is where an agent (person or business) innovates in
order to sell the innovation.
Another source of innovation, only now becoming widely recognized, is end-user
innovation. This is where an agent (person or company) develops an innovation for
their own (personal or in-house) use because existing products do not meet their
needs. The economist Eric von Hippel has identified end-user innovation as, by far,
the most important and critical in his classic book on the subject, “Sources of
Innovation”. In addition, the famous robotics engineer Joseph F. Engelberger asserts
that innovations require only three things:
1. A recognized need,
2. Competent people with relevant technology, and
3. Financial support.
The Kline Chain-linked model of innovation places emphasis on potential market
needs as drivers of the innovation process, and describes the complex and often
iterative feedback loops between marketing, design, manufacturing, and R&D.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using Participle I and II.
V. Answer the following questions.
1. What does the text deal with?
2. Are there several sources of innovation?
3. What are the general sources of innovation according to Peter F. Drucker?
4. What is the simplest linear model of innovation?
5. hat is another source of innovation?
6. How has economist Eric von Hippel identify end-user innovation?
7. hat do innovations require according to Joseph F. Engelberg?
8.What can you say about the Kline Chain linked model of innovation?
9. What can you say in conclusion?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 10
Text: Sources of Information (part 2)
22
Grammar: Participle I and II. Причасти I и II. (Повторение).
Present Perfect Tense. Настоящее совершенное время. (Повторение).
Tasks:
I. Learn the following words.
1.Breakthrough [`breikTrH]n открытие, крупное достижение
2. Achieve [q`CJv] v достигать
3. Spur [spW]v побуждать, снабжать
4. Emerge [i`mWG]v появляться, возникать
5. Exception [ iks`sepSn]n исключение
6. Incremental [`inkrimqntql]a возрастаюший
7. By far [bai`fR] намного
8. So-called [`sOukOld] так называемый
9. Closely with [`klOusli]adv близко с …
10. Reveal [ri`vJl]v открывать, обнаруживать
11. Supplier [sq`plaiq]n поставщик
12. Reinvent [rq`invent]v изобретать вновь
13. Meaning [`mJniN]n значение
II. Read and translate the following text.
Sources of Innovation (part 2)
Innovation by businesses is achieved in many ways, with much attention now
given to formal research and development (R&D) for "breakthrough innovations."
R&D help spur on patents and other scientific innovations that leads to productive
growth in such areas as industry, medicine, engineering, and government. Yet,
innovations can be developed by less formal on-the-job modifications of practice,
through exchange and combination of professional experience and by many other
routes. The more radical and revolutionary innovations tend to emerge from R&D,
while more incremental innovations may emerge from practice – but there are many
exceptions to each of these trends.
An important innovation factor includes customers buying products or using
services. As a result, firms may incorporate users in focus groups (user centred
approach), work closely with so called lead users (lead user approach) or users might
adapt their products themselves. The lead user method focuses on idea generation
based on leading users to develop breakthrough innovations. U-STIR, a project to
innovate Europe’s surface transportation system, employs such workshops.
Regarding this user innovation, a great deal of innovation is done by those actually
implementing and using technologies and products as part of their normal activities.
23
In most of the times user innovators have some personal record motivating them.
Sometimes user-innovators may become entrepreneurs, selling their product, they
may choose to trade their innovation in exchange for other innovations, or they may
be adopted by their suppliers. Nowadays, they may also choose to freely reveal their
innovations, using methods like open source. In such networks of innovation the
users or communities of users can further develop technologies and reinvent their
social meaning.
III. Having read text find all the cases of using the Modal Verbs.
IV. Answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What is this text about?
Is innovation by businesses achieved in many ways?
What factors is much attention given to now?
What do scientific innovations lead to?
How else can innovations be developed?
From where do more radical and revolutionary innovations tend to emerge?
From where may more incremental innovations emerge?
What does an important innovation factor include?
What can you say about user-innovators?
V. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that ….
LESSON 11
Text: System Analysis Phase Overview
Grammar: Infinitive. Инфинитив.
Tasks:
I. Review the Infinitive.
Simple
Progressive
Perfect
Perfect Progressive
Active
to determine определять,
чтобы определять
to be determining
to have determined
to have been determining
II. Learn the following words.
1. Underlie [,Andq`lai] v лежать в основе
2. Contain [kqn`tein]v содержать в себе
24
Passive
to be determined быть
определенным
to have been determined
-
3. Requirement [ri`kwaiqmqnt]n требование, потребность
4. Receive [ri`sJv]v получать
5. Activity [xk`tiviti]n деятельность
6. Represent [,repri`zent]v представлять
7. Proposed prq`pouzd] a предложенный
8. Current [kArqnt] a текущий, современный
9. Entity [`entiti] n организация, сущность
10 .Relationship [ri`leiSqnSip] n взаимоотношение, связь
11. Team [tJm] n команда
12. Overall [,ouvqr`Ll] adv в общем целом
13. Background [`bxkgraund]Bn предпосылка, данные
14. Acumen [q`kjHmen] n сообразительность, проницательность
15. Skill [skil] n умение, мастерство
16. Capability [,keipq`biliti] n способность, возможность
17. In addition [in q`diSqn] кроме того
18. Perform [pq`fLm] v выполнять
III. Read and translate the following text.
System Analysis Phase Overview
The system analysis phase consists of two sub-phases. These are requirements
determination and enterprise modeling. Requirements determination contains two
major activities. The first sub-phase is investigating the current system and business
processes to identify the underlying issues. There are many different tools and
techniques used to gather this information. These tools and techniques will be
discussed in further detail.
The second activity is enterprise modeling. In this sub-phase, the information
received from the requirements determination tasks will be used to develop models to
represent the current and proposed systems. Models such as data flow diagrams and
entity relationship diagrams are used to logically represent how systems work. These
modeling techniques will be discussed in further detail.
System analysis is performed by many parties of the system development team.
Overall, the system analyst is the person that controls activities in this phase. This
person must have a strong technical and analytical background. The system analyst
has the task of investigating the current business processes and determines the
requirements of the new system. So this person needs to have some business acumen
and "CSI" investigation skills; in addition, they should be able to understand the
capabilities of technology. Also, the system analyst performs many communication
activities. Using interviewing as a means of information gathering will be discussed
in further detail. The system analyst needs to have strong communication skills to run
these interviews.
25
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using the Infinitive.
V. Answer the following questions.
1. What does the system analysis consist of?
2. What are these sub-phases?
3. What do requirements determination contain?
4. What is the first sub-phase?
5. What is the second sub-phase?
6. What will the information received for the requirements determination 7.can
be used for?
8. Who is the system analysis performed by?
9. What does the system analyst do?
10.What does the system analyst need to have?
11.What does the system analyst perform?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: Now a few words about …; it should be said that …;
it is interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that … .
LESSON 12
Text: Fact-Finding - The Paper Trail
Grammar: The Gerund with Prepositions. Герундий с предлогами.
Tasks:
I. Review the Gerund with the Preposition.
Example:
For researching – для исследования
In researching – при исследовании, исследуя
On researching – исследовав, после того как исследовали
Without researching – без исследования
II. Learn the following words.
1. Multiple [`mAltipl] a многочисленный
2. In order to [n`Ldq tq] для того чтобы
3. Trail [treil] n прослеживание
4. Paper [peipq]n документ, кредитные бумаги
5. Interaction [,intq`rxkSqn] n взаимодействие
6. Interviewing [`intqvjHIN] n интервью, деловая встреча
7. Questionnaire [,kwestiq`nFq] n анкета, вопросник
8. Survey [`sWvei] n обследование, инспектирование
26
9. Review [ri`vjH] v рассматривать
10.Provide [prq`vaid]v обеспечивать
11. Insight [`insait] n проникновение в суть, понимание
12. Annual [`xnjuql]a ежегодный
13. Report [ri`pLt] n отчет, доклад
14. Corporate [ `kLpqrit] a общий, корпоративный
15. In conjunction with [inkqn`GANkSqn wiD] вместе с
16. Track [trxk] v прослеживать
17. Inventory [`invqntri] n товары, внесенные в инвентарь
18. Summarize [`sAmqraiz] v суммировать, подводить итоги
19. Purchase [`pWCqs] n покупка, закупка, приобретение
20. Interface [intqfeis] v связывать
III. Read and translate the following text.
Fact-Finding - The Paper Trail
The system analyst performs multiple researching tasks in order to gather
information about the business processes and current systems. The system analyst
uses multiple tools and techniques in this research.
These tools and techniques can be classified into three categories:
Paper trail and background research
Interaction and interviewing
Questionnaires and surveys
The first category deals with background research. This may include reviewing
documents that provide insight into the organization such as an annual report and the
corporate Web site. If there are existing IT systems, this may include reviewing the
documents either to use in conjunction with the current system or produced by the
current system. The second category of fact-finding or investigation has a more
personal approach. This category involves interviewing the personnel in the
organization, which may include the users of the current system. The system analyst
will interview the employees and observe them perform their daily tasks. The last
category, questionnaires and surveys, can be both a personal or impersonal approach
to fact-finding. This category uses questionnaires and surveys to gather the
information. Following the paper trail is an important tool used for researching the
current information system. As stated above, the "paper trail" is made up of
documents used in conjunction with or produced by the current information system.
There are several reasons why this tool is effective. First, this task involves reviewing
documents that will express what is important to the organization. Another reason for
tracking the "paper trail" is to understand all the different components that make up
the current system and what other systems, if any, in the organization use the current
system. Let us still consider the Wal-Mart example. In reviewing the documents, the
27
system analyst comes across a document that summarizes the inventory that has been
sold for that day's purchases. From that document, a question can be asked to WalMart to see if their current POS interfaces with the inventory system. If the POS does,
the system analyst must make sure that the new system also interfaces with the
inventory system. From upper management to the employees who perform day-today duties, there are multiple types of documentation used that can be studied to find
critical information about an information system.
IV. Having read text find all the cases of using the Gerund with the Prepositions.
V. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What does the system analyst do?
3. What does the system analyst use?
4. How can these tools and techniques be classified?
5. What does the first category deal with?
6. What may background research include?
7. What does the second category involve?
8. What does the last category use?
9. What is the paper trail used for?
10. What can you say in conclusion?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: now a few words about ..; it should be said that …; it is
interesting to note that ..; in conclusion I`d like to say that … .
LESSON 13
Text: Fact-Finding--The Face-to-Face Interaction (part 1)
Grammar: Participle I. Причастие настоящего времени. (Повторение).
Perfect Tenses. Passive Voice. Совершенные времена. Пассивный залог.
Tasks:
I. Review the Perfect Tenses. Passive Voice.
Example:
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
The tasks have been defined
The task has been defined
The tasks had been defined
The task had been defined
The tasks will have been defined
28
The task will have been defined
II. Learn the following words.
1. Essential [I`senSql]a необходимый, неотъемлемый
2. Applicant [`xplikqnt] n претендент
3. Various [`vFqriqs] a различный
4. Update [Ap`deit] v модергизировать
5. Reference [`refrqns]a справочный
6. List [list] n инвентарь, список
7. Objective [Ob`Gektiv] n цель, стремление
8. IT (Information Technology) информационные технологии
9. Tricky [`triki] a сложный
10. Individual [,indi`vidJuql] n личность, человек
11. Select [sq`lekt] v отбирать, выбирать
III. Read and translate the following text.
Fact-Finding--The Face-to-Face Interaction (part 1)
The second category of fact-finding deals with interacting with people.
Interviewing and observing people is essential in understanding the current business
processes. This lesson will review the importance of interviewing and observing
members of the organization. The whole interview process is long and detail-oriented
for both the interviewer and the interviewee. Interviewing for a job takes a lot of
work. Applicants need to take various steps including researching the organization,
developing questions for the interviewer, and updating their reference list. Once the
individuals have been selected, the next task is to establish the objectives of the
interview. These objectives are general areas that need to be covered. For example,
one of the objectives may be to understand how the current system receives data. The
system analyst can ask the end user how they input data (i.e., a form, batch file, etc.).
If there are any systems from which the system under investigation receives data,
then the system analyst can ask the IT staff for more information about these systems.
After the objectives have been established, questions need to be developed in order to
satisfy those objectives. There are many types of questions, and selecting the type of
questions can be a tricky process.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using Perfect Tenses Passive Voice.
V. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about ?
2. What does the category of fact-finding deal with?
3. Why is interviewing and observing people essential?
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4. What can be said about the whole interview process?
5. What do applicants need to do?
6. What is the next task after the individuals have been selected?
7. What are these objectives?
8. What should be done after the objectives have been established?
9. What can you say about selecting the type of questions?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: now a few words about …; it should be said that …;
It is interesting to say that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that … .
LESSON 14
Text: The Face-to-Face Interaction (part 2)
Grammar: Gerund in the Function of the Subject.
Герундий в функции подлежащего.
Tasks:
I. Review the Gerund in the function of the Subject. Pay attention to its translation
Example:
Developing a specific plan for the interview is very important.
Разработка конкретного плана для интервью – очень важна.
II. Learn the following words.
1.Careful `kFqful] a тщательный, точный
2. Casual [`kxZjuql]a случайный, небрежный
3. Chat [Cxt]Сn беседа, дружеская встреча
4. Set [set] v назначать, определять
5. Interviewee [,intqvjH`I:] n дающий интервью, интервьюируемый
6. Reduce [ri`djHs] v уменьшать, сокращать
7. Waste [weist] v тратить в пустую
8. Specific [spi`sifik] a конкретный, определенный
9. Conduct [kqn`dAkt] v проводить, вести
10. Developing [di`velOpiN] n разработка
11. Smooth [smHD] a гладкий, спокойный
12. Reason [`rJzn] n причина, основание, мотив
13. Introduction [,intrq`dAkSn] n представление
14.Party [pRti] n участник, сторона
15. Lose (lost, lost) [lHz] v упустить, терять
16. Appriciation [q,prJSi`eiSqn] n оценка
30
17. Message [`mesiG] n сообщение
18. Express [iks`pres] v выражать
19. Summary [sAmqri] n краткое изложение, резюме
20. Allow [q`lau] v позволять, предоставлять, зд. учитывать
21. Ability [q`biliti] n умение, способность
22. Addition [q`diSqn] n дополнение
23. Add [xd] v прибавлять, дополнять
24. Correction [kq`rekSqn] n исправление, поправка
III. Read and translate the following text.
The Face-to-Face Interaction (part 2)
The next step is to prepare for the interview. Careful preparation is essential
because an interview is an important meeting and it is not just a casual chat. The
place and time of the interview needs to be set. Selecting a place and time where the
interviewee is comfortable may help the interviewee answer questions easily. To
reduce time wasted, sending a list of topics that will be covered, sending a lis t of
specific questions, and sending a list of materials the interviewee should bring to the
interview should help keep the interviewee concentrate on the objective of the
interview.
After preparing for the interview, it is time to conduct the interview.
Developing a specific plan for the meeting will help the interview run smooth. Begin
with a good introduction of the parties of the interview and the reason for the
interview. One of the most important tasks the interviewer needs to do during the
interview is to take notes. Notes should be taken during the session so nothing in the
conversation points are lost. Also, these notes can be discussed with the interviewee
at the end of the session. After the interview, send a message expressing app reciation
to the interviewee. In the message, include the main points discussed so the
interviewee has a written summary. Also, allow the interviewee the ability to add
additions or corrections.
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using he Gerund in the function of
the Subject.
V. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is the next step for fact-finding?
3. What is essential for the interview?
4. What should be set?
5. What is done after preparing for the interview?
6. What will the interview help to run smooth?
31
7. What is one of the most important task of the interviewee during the
interview?
8. When can the notes done by the interviewee be discussed?
9. What should be done after the interview?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: now a few words about …; it should be said that …;
it is interesting to say that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that … .
LESSON 15
Text: Wrap-Up: System Analysis
Grammar: Infinitive in the Function of the Adverbial Modifier of Purpose.
Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели.
Tasks:
I. Review the Infinitive in the function of the Adverbial Modifier of Purpose.
Example:
These models will be used to discover the requirements of the new system.
Эти модели будут использованы, для чтобы определить требования новой
системы.
II. Learn the following words.
1. Wrap-up [`rxp`Ap] n краткая сводка
2. Portrayal [pL`treiql] n изображение, описание
3. Survey [`sWvei] n обзор
4. Display [dis`plei] v показывать, демонстрировать
5. Chart [CRt] n таблица, схема, диаграмма
7. Cutout [`kAt`aut] v сокращать
8. Contain [kqn`tein] v вмещать, содержать
9. Mailing [meiliN] n посылаемое по почте
10.Mass [mxs] n большое количество
III. Read and translate the following text.
Wrap-Up: System Analysis
The system analysis phase of the systems development life cycle contains
information gathering and graphical portrayal of the information into models. These
models will be used to understand the current system to discover the requirements of
the new system. There are multiple forms of information gathering or fact-finding.
System analysts can either use a direct approach by interviewing members of an
organization or observing end users perform their day-to-day duties. The system
32
analyst also has the ability to cutout the human factor by reviewing documentation or
mass mailing or e-mailing a survey to members of the organizations.
Once the information has been gathered, there are multiple tools that can display
the data into models. The system analyst can model the organization’s members in an
organization chart and the systems they use in a Functional Decomposition Diagram
(FDD). Also, the system analyst can model the current and new system by using
Entity Relationship (ER) and Data Flow (DF) diagrams.
Now that you have completed this topic, you should be able to:
Describe the system analysis phase
Identify the tools used for fact-finding
Discuss who should be interviewed and observed
Identify the components needed for observation
Identify the importance of a questionnaire and survey
Define Requirements Modeling
IV. Having read the text find all the cases of using the Infinitive in the function of
the Adverbial Modifier of Purpose.
V. Answer the following questions.
1.What does the text deal with?
2. What does the system analysis phase contain?
3. What will the models be used for?
4. Are there multiple forms of information gathering?
5. What forms can system analysts use?
6. What ability has the system analyst?
7. What are there for displaying the data into models?
8.What can the system analyst model?
VI. Retell the text according to the questions.
Use the expressions: now a few words about …; it should be said that …;
it is interesting to note that …; in conclusion I`d like to say that …
Оглавление
Введение ……………………………………………………………………………………... 3
Lesson 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Lesson 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Lesson 3 ………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Lesson 4 …………………………………………………………………………………………10
Lesson 5 …………………………………………………………………………………………12
Lesson 6 …………………………………………………………………………………………15
Lesson 7 …………………………………………………………………………………………16
Lesson 8 …………………………………………………………………………………………18
Lesson 9 …………………………………………………………………………………………20
Lesson 10 ………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Lesson 11 ………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
Lesson 12 ………………………………………………………………………………………..26
33
Lesson 13 ………………………………………………………………………………………..28
Lesson 14 ………………………………………………………………………………………..29
Lesson 15 ………………………………………………………………………………………..31
Методические указания
по английскому языку для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов,
обучающихся по специальностям 222000 «Инноватика»
и 220100 «Системный анализ и управление»
Составитель: Кочнева Маргарита Григорьевна
Отпечатано в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 6.09.2013. Формат 60х84 1/16. Уч.-изд. л. 2.0. Усл.-печ. л.2.1
Бумага писчая. Тираж 70 экз. Заказ № 386.
Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной литературы
и учебно-методических пособий Воронежского ГАСУ
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
34
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