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92. Нефть и газ

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное
учреждение высшего образования
«Воронежский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет»
Кафедра иностранных языков
НЕФТЬ И ГАЗ
Методическая разработка
по английскому языку
для студентов 1-го курса специальности 01.23.01 (131000)
«Нефтегазовое дело» и
студентов 2-го курса факультета СПО специальности 08.02.08
«Монтаж и эксплуатация оборудования и систем газоснабжения»
Воронеж 2016
УДК 802.0:69(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:38я7
Составитель Л.Н. Крячко
Нефть и газ: метод. разработка по англ. яз. / Воронежский ГАСУ; сост.: Л. Н.
Крячко. – Воронеж, 2016. – 32 с.
Методическая разработка состоит из пяти уроков, содержащих
аутентичные тексты по проблемам добычи, переработки, хранения и
транспортировки нефти и газа. Данные тематические разделы также
включают фонетические, лексические и грамматические упражнения,
способствующие эффективному усвоению учебного материала.
Методическая разработка предназначена для студентов 1-го курса
обучаюшихся по специальности 01.23.01 (131000) «Нефтегазовое дело» и
студентов 2-го курса факультета СПО специальности 08.02.08 «Монтаж и
экплуатация оборудования и систем газоснабжения».
УДК 802.0:69(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:38я7
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
Воронежского ГАСУ
Рецензент – Н.Б. Бугакова, к.ф.н., доц. кафедры русского языка и
межкультурной коммуникации Воронежского ГАСУ
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данная методическая разработка предназначена для студентов 1 курса
специальности 01.23.01 (131000) «Нефтегазовое дело» и студентов 2 курса
факультета СПО специальности 08.02.08 «Монтаж и экплуатация
оборудования и систем газоснабжения». Данная разработка имеет целью
совершенствовать
знания
студентов
в
области
англоязычной
профессиональной терминологии, развивать их умения высказываться на
английском языке по темам, связанным с их будущей профессиональной
деятельностью.
Методическая разработка состоит из пяти уроков, в основе каждого из
которых лежит аутентичный текст названного профиля.
К тексту прилагается вокабуляр, включающий лексические единицы,
которые могут представлять трудность для студентов при переводе. Снятие
трудностей восприятия студентами учебного материала осуществляется с
помощью предтекстовых упражнений лексического характера. Проверка
понимания студентами прочитанного, а также закрепление усвоенного в
процессе работы материала осуществляется с помощью ряда послетекстовых
заданий.
В каждый из уроков включены фонетические упражнения на
повторение основных правил чтения и разнообразные упражнения для
отработки следующих грамматических тем: “Present Simple Tense”, “Present
Continuous Tense”, “ Present Simple vs Present Continuous” и “Modal Verbs”.
После тщательной проработки и усвоения языкового и речевого
материала данной методической разработки обучающиеся смогут понимать
тексты по специальности, а также cумеют вести беседу по пройденным
темам.
3
LESSON ONE
Phonetics: Letters “a”, “e”.
Grammar: Present Simple Tense.
Topic: Natural Resources in Great Britain. Part I.
Pre-reading task
I. Read the words with the following sounds:
[ei] – lake, make, made, take, plane, pavement, disintegration, foundation, way, day,
lay, detail, maintain, aim.
[x] -– traffic, passenger, factor, transport, mathematical.
[R] -– mark, are, part, car, large, far, marsh.
[ J] - speed, mean, wheel, lead, vehicle.
II. Learn the words from the vocabulary.
1. occur, v [q`kW] – встречаться. попадаться
2. fuel, n [`fjuql] – топливо
3. renewable, a [rI`nju(:)qbl] восполняемый, возобновляемый
4. non-renewable, a [ˋ nOnrI`Nju(:)qbl] – невосполнимый, невозобновляемый
5. care, n [kFq] – внимание
6. sustainably, adv [sqs`teInqblI] – непрерывно, устойчиво
7. fixed amount [q`maunt] –ограниченное количество
8. fossil, a [`fOsl] — ископаемый
9. petroleum, n [pI`trquljqm] – нефть
10. dinosaur, n [`daInqsL] – динозавр
11. trap, v [`trxp] - задерживать
12. odorless, [`qudqlIs] – без запаха
13. supply, n [`sqplaI] – запасы
14. silica, n [`sIlIkq] – кремнезем, кварц
4
Ш. Translate into English.
1. Грибы в этом лесу встречаются не часто. 2. Автомобиль заправляют
бензином, который делают из нефти. 3. Необходимо уделять внимание тому,
чтобы деревья в саду хорошо росли. 4. Мы сделали хорошие запасы
овощных и фруктовых консервов на зиму. 5. В сети попался заяц. 6. Трамвай
и троллейбус – это транспорт, который не издает неприятного запаха. 7.
Динозавры были древними животными, а сейчас они не существуют.
Reading
Natural Resources in Great Britain
Part I
Natural resources are things that occur naturally, and that are useful to us.
They include fuels such as oil and natural gas, and materials such as iron ore and
timber.
Natural resources can be renewable or non-renewable.
Renewable resources are those that are replaced in nature at a rate close to
their rate of use, e.g.: plants, forests, animals. Care is needed to make sure
resources are used sustainably and not over-harvested. There are non-living
renewable resources too such as hydroelectric power, solar power, biomass fuel,
and wind power.
Non-renewable resources exist in fixed amounts or are used up faster than
they can be replaced in nature e.g. fossil fuels. (Fossil fuels could be counted as
renewable but as they take millions of years to form they are not practically
considered “renewable”.
Britain’s Natural Resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas – found in the
British sector of the North Sea. They are also zinc, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt,
clay, slate, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land.
Coal (non-renewable resources). Britain has large deposits of coal, mined
for more than 300 years. For most of the 19th and 20th centuries, coal was Britain’s
richest natural resource, meeting most of the nation’s requirement for energy.
Today coal can be produced more cheaply in other countries and so many British
factories and mines have closed.
In 1970 Britain was the third largest producer of coal but coal production has
declined rapidly since then. In 2000, only 35 million tonnes of coal were produced
compared to 145 million in 1970.
Oil and Natural Gas (non-renewable resources). Oil and gas were formed
from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine
(water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over the years the remains of the plants
and animals were covered by layers of mud and soil which eventually turned to
rock trapping the remains beneath the rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this
5
organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas –
tiny bubbles of odorless gas.
Oil and gas were discovered under the North Sea during 1960s and new
supplies are still being found today. Gas has been particularly important in
replacing coal as a fuel for generating electricity.
[Источник: Natural Resources. Эл. адрес: resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk›Customs…
(время обращения: 05.10.2015)
Comprehension check
I. Find the word or word combination with the general meaning.
1. arable land, fossil fuels, resources, wind power;
2. oak, fern, rose, plant;
3. animal, dinosaur, snake, tiger;
4. gas, fuel, oil, petrol;
5. mineral, zinc, tin, lead.
6. solar power, wind power, energy, hydrocele
II. Match a noun with a compatible word under the line:
Example: natural resources, natural gas
resources power fuel gas
natural, wind, fossil, renewable, non-living, odorless, hydroelectric, biomass, solar,
non-renewable.
Ш. Match a term in column A with its definition in column B.
А
В
1. Deposit -
a) a material that you burn to produce
heat or power.
2. Gas -
b) a mixture of water, earth and other
materials.
3. Rock -
c) the natural world in which people,
animals and plants live.
d) any substance that is neither a solid
nor a liquid, for example hydrogen and
oxygen.
4. Environment -
5. Fuel -
e) a substance that is left somewhere by
the flow of water, oil, etc., such as dirt
left at the bottom of a pipe.
6. Mud -
f) the hard, solid material on the surface
of the earth; a piece of this material.
6
IV. Answer the questions.
1. What are natural resources?
2. Can you name the types of natural resources? Characterize each type.
3. What resources has Britain got?
4. Does Britain produce large amounts of coal now?
5. How were oil and natural gas formed?
6. When were oil and gas discovered under the North Sea?
7. What fuel did gas substitute?
Grammar exercises
I. Use the prompts to make sentences, as in the example.
Example: Mary/ live/ in/ a town/ near Dublin.
Mary lives in a town near Dublin.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
John/ not go to school by bus.
Bob/ be/ a mechanic.
He/ enjoy/ reading books in his free time.
There/ be/ many festivals/ in our country.
I/ usually/ not work/ on Saturdays.
II. Fill in the correct present simple form of the verbs in brackets.
This 1) … (be) Ingrid and she 2) (come) from Sweden. She … (3) live with her
family in a flat in the city of Stockholm. In the winter, it 4) … (get) dark very early
in Sweden and it 5) … (snow) a lot. Most people there 6) … (love) skiing and
children 7) … (learn) to ski at a very young age. In the summer, they 8) … (ride)
bicycles and 9) … (spend) most of the day outdoors. Sweden 10) … (be) a
beautiful country. Ingrid really 11) … (enjoy) living there.
III. Fill in the gaps with the correct present simple form of the verbs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.
The swimming bath … (open) at 9.00 and … (close) at 18.30 every day.
What time … (the banks/close) in Britain?
I have a car but I … (not/use) it very often.
‘What … (you/do)?’ ‘I’m an electrical engineer.’
‘Where … (your father/come) from?’ ‘He … (come) from Scotland.’
If you need money, why … (you/not/get) a job?
I … (play) the guitar, but I … (not/play) very way.
7
IV. Complete using the correct form of the words in the box.
be disagree include know look see seem understand
The City of Omsk
Everyone (1) …… about the stunning sights to see in Moscow and St.
Petersburg. The beautiful city of Omsk, one of the oldest cities in western Siberia,
(2) …….not so well no well-known. Unfortunately, the 2700 km journey from
Moscow just (3) …… too far for many travellers to Russia. For those who do
travel there, however, there are a number of interesting things to see and do. These
(4) ……. visiting the Tobolskie and Tarskie Gates, which were the first stone
buildings in Omsk, the Museum of Local Lore and the modern shops on
Lyubinsky Avenue. When you (5) …… Krestovozdvizhensky Cathedral lit up in
the moonlight, you (6) …… why it’s worth making the effort to come here
Few historians (7) …… with Omsk’shistorical importance – it was even the
capital of Russia for a short period at the beginning of the 20 th century. As
travelling across Russia becomes easier it (8) …… like Omsk may also have a
bright future – as a popular destination for tourists.
LESSON TWO
Phonetics: Letters “i”, “y”.
Grammar: Present Continuous Tense.
Topic: Natural Resources in Great Britain. Part II.
Pre-reading task
I. Read the words with the following sounds:
[ai] – line, five, high, design, mild, kind,
by, type, satisfy, apply.
[W] – first, third, thirteen, thirty.
[I] – traffic, satisfy, distance, since, will
early, industry, many, vary, topography.
II. Learn the words from the vocabulary.
1.
nuclear, a [`njHklIq] – атомный
2.
carbon dioxide [daI`OksaId] – двуокись углерода (углекислый газ)
3.
mount, v [`maunt] – устанавливать, монтировать
8
4.
tin, n [`tIn] - олово
5.
ton, n [`tAn] – тонна
Ш. Translate into English.
1. Мы вдыхаем кислород, а выдыхаем углекислый газ. 2. Статуя Свободы в
Нью-Йорке установлена на педестале. 3. Миллионы тонн грузов перевозятся
по железной дороге. 4. Атомная энергия должна использоваться в мирных
целях. 5. Стойкий оловянный солдатик – это персонаж из сказки Ганса
Христиана Андерсена.
Reading
Natural resources in Great Britain
Part II
Mines and Factories. During the 19th century Britain used to have many
coal and iron mines and had the natural resources to make textiles, steel and ships.
Today coal and textiles can be produced more cheaply in other countries and so
many British factories and mines have closed. Areas like South Wales, central
Scotland, the north of England (the Midlands, Merseyside, Manchester, West
Yorkshire and Newcastle) and London were important industrial centres.
Wind Power (renewable resources). We are using more and more energy
every year. In the UK, the majority of electricity is generated by a mix of fossil
fuels and nuclear power, releasing millions of tons of carbon dioxide into
environment. The business of generating electricity from wind is growing fast as
the world looks for cleaner ways to produce energy. Coal, oil and gas fired power
stations could eventually be replaced by wind farms and other forms of renewable
energy.
In 1997, there were 550 wind turbines and over 30 wind farms in the UK.
The government has made a promise that 10% of the energy of the UK will come
from renewable sources by 2010.
Today wind is used to generate electricity using wind turbines. Like windmills, wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. They are
100 feet (30 metres) or more above ground.
Minerals (non-renewable resources). Britain has relatively few mineral
resources. Zinc, tin, iron ore, and copper are all produced in small quantities. At
one time Cornwall boasted 2,000 tin mines and it was a world leader in tin produc tion.
Commercial minerals used in construction and building industries are such
as sand and gravel, limestone and gypsum. They are normally mined from the
surface in quarries using heavy machinery. Smaller quarries are also found across
England and provide stone for local business industry. This means that many parts
of England have a distinctive appearance according to the local stone available.
9
Agriculture. Most of the land is suitable for agriculture, although the largest
area is reserved for pasture and grazing land. Agriculture provides around 60 per
cent on the country’s food needs.
[Источник: Natural Resources. Эл. адрес: resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk›Customs…
(Время обращения: 05.10.2015).
Comprehension check
I. Which word or word combination is the odd one out? Why?
1. wind turbin, wind mill, wind power, power station
2. ground, quarries, mines, well
3. Newcastle, London, Brighton, Manchester
4. coal fired power stations, gas fired power stations, wind farms, oil fired power
stations
5. pastures, grazing lands, natural resources, fields
II. Match a line in A to a line in B to form the word combinations.
A
1. power
2. wind
3. carbon
4. nuclear
5. renewable
6. grazing
B
a) farm
b) power
c) resources
d) land
e) station
f) dioxide
III. True or false.
1. Areas like south Wales, central Scotland, and the north of Enland used to be
important industrial centres.
2. It’s more expensive to produce coal and textiles outside Britain.
3. In the UK, the majority of electricity is generated by a mix of fossil fuels and
nuclear power.
4. Today wind is used to generate electricity at power stations.
5. In the UK, local stone is provided for local business industry.
6. The largest area of agricultural land is reserved for crops.
Grammar exercises
I. Put the verbs below into the correct present continuous form as in the
example:
mow, ride, have, not go, play, wash, not clean, water, stay, eat
1. Gary is mowing the lawn.
10
2. Juan and Maria …. a sandwich.
3. I …. my room. I …. chess.
4. Kelly …a horse.
5. I … to the party. I … in.
6. She … the flowers.
7. We … the car.
8. They … a dinner party on Saturday.
II. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present simple or
present continuous.
Dear Molly,
I 1) … (write) from the gorgeous island of Jamaica! Jim and I 2) … (stay) in a
five-star hotel by the sea. Right now, I 3) … (sit) on the balcony and I 4) … (drink)
a delicious fruit punch. Jim 5) … (walk) along the beach. He 6) … (collect) shells
and rocks to bring back home. The weather 7) … (be) hot and sunny. We 8) …
(spend) most of the day relaxing and reading under the beautiful palm trees.
Tonight we 9) … (go) to a reggae festival and on Tuesday we 10) … (leave) for
Barbados. The Jamaican people 11) … (make) you feel happy as they 12) … (be)
cheerful and kind. I 13) … (love) it here so much that I 14) … (not/want) to leave!
See you soon.
Cindy
III. Choose the correct sentence.
1. a) Most people in Thailand live in villages.
b) Most people in Thailand are living in villages.
2. a) We’re having a great time.
b) We have a great time.
3. a) What do you do now?
b) What are you doing now?
4. a) He’s flying to Oslo tomorrow.
b) He flies to Oslo tomorrow.
5. a) We see some friends this evening.
b) We are seeing some friends this evening.
6. a) Farmers are working in the fields.
b) Farmers work in the fields.
7. a) What is the Chinese like?
b) What are the Chinese like?
8. a) Brian haven’t got blue eyes.
b) Brian hasn’t got blue eyes.
9. a) A vet can treats sick animals.
b) A vet can treat sick animals.
11
IV. Correct the mistakes.
1. Look! Somebody is climbing up that tree over there. 2. Can you hear those
people? What do they talk about? 3. Are you believing in God? 4. Look! That man
tries to open the door of your car. 5. The moon goes round the earth. 6. I’m
thinking it would be a good idea to leave early. 7. The Government is worried
because the number of people without jobs is increasing. 8. I’m usually going to
work by car.
V. Fill in the gaps with the the correct form of the present simple or present
continuous.
1. We … (have) a party next Saturday. Would you like to come? 2. I … (not/go)
away for my holidays next month because I haven’t got enough money. …
(you/go) away? 3. The concert this evening … (start) at 7.30. 4. George, is it true
that you … (get) married next week? 5. The art exhibition … (open) on 6 June and
(finish) on 1 August. 6. What time …. (the train to London/leave)? Ann, we … (go)
to town. … (you/come) with us?
VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present simple or
present continuous.
A: Carlos 1) … (fly) to Italy next week.
B: Where 2) … (he usually/stay)?
A: When he 3) … (go) there, he 4) … (always/stay) with his cousin.
B: Why 5) … (he/go) there?
A: He 6) … (study) at University.
B: 7) … (he/come) back to England?
A: Yes, after he 8) … (finish) his exams next month.
LESSON THREE
Phonetics: Letter “о”.
Grammar: Modals. (Part I).
Topic: Oil and Gas.
Pre-reading tasks
I. Read the words with the following sounds:
[Ou] – zone, slope, motor, stone, cold, hold.
[L] – or, for, form, order, support.
12
[O] – borrow, from, cross, top, cost.
II. Learn the words from the vocabulary.
1. occur, v [q`kW] – встречаться. попадаться
2. fuel, n [`fjuql] – топливо
3. renewable, a [rI`nju(:)qbl] восполняемый, возобновляемый
4. non-renewable, a [ˋ nOnrI`Nju(:)qbl] – невосполнимый, невозобновляемый
5. care, n [kFq] – внимание
6. sustainably, adv [sqs`teInqblI] – непрерывно, устойчиво
7. fixed amount [q`maunt] –ограниченное количество
8. fossil, a [`fOsl] — ископаемый
9. petroleum, n [pI`trquljqm] – нефть
10. dinosaur, n [`daInqsL] – динозавр
11. trap, v [`trxp] - задерживать
12. odorless, [`qudqlIs] – без запаха
13. supply, n [`sqplaI] – запасы
14. silica, n [`sIlIkq] – кремнезем, кварц
Ш. . Discuss the questions.
1. Which regions are these countries in?
a)
Algeria
e) Malaysia
b)
Brazil
f) the UAE
c)
Canada
g) the UK
d)
Kazakhstan
h) the USA
2. Which region is your country in?
3. Can you name more oil producing countries?
4. Do you know the words to describe the nationalilties for those countries?
IV. Read the sentences about the UK. Make sentences about your country.
1. There is a big oil and gas industry in the UK.
2. There are oilfields and gas fields.
3. There are many offshore wells.
4. They are in the north and in the east.
5. There are not many onshore fields.
6. There is a big onshore field in the south.
13
V. Read the text about Khaled Saleh. He is a technician in a big oil company.
Where is he now?
1. the USA
inside
the UAE
outside
plant
control room
It’s my Job
Hi. My name is Khaled. I am from the UAE - that’s the United Arab Emirates. I
am a technician with an oil company here. I like my job because every day is
different.
Today I am in a team of five technicians at a new plant. One man is inside in the
control room, and I’m outside with the other three men. One man is from the US,
and two are from India. We are from different countries, but we all speak English.
We use radios to speak to the man in the control room.
Most people in the company are Emirati, but there are many other nationalities too
– American, British, Canadian, Egyptian, Indian, and many more. I like meeting
foreign people and practicing my English.
2. Answer the questions.
1. Why does he like his job?
2. Is he inside or outside today?
3. How many technicians are in his team?
4. How many men are outside with him?
5. Where are they from?
6. How do they speak to the control room?
7. What nationalities are there in the company?
VI. Read about the UK. Is your country similar or different?
Some countries have a national oil company (NOC), but there isn’t a NOC
in the UK. There are three other kinds of employer:
1. Operating companies. These are IOCs (international oil companies) with famous
names like Shell, Aramco, and Exxon Mobil. They operate the wells and plants.
There are smaller operating companies too.
2. Drilling companies. The operating companies usually employ drilling
companies for drilling wells. Some are foreign companies.
3. Service companies supply equipment and technical services to the other
companies. They also do special work, such as underwater work. There are a lot of
service companies.
You can find a job with all these companies in newspapers, government job
centres, and on the Internet.
14
VII. Read the text and do the tasks.
Upstream and Downstream
The oil and gas industry has two sectors the upstream sector and the
downstream sector. Workers in the upstream sector find and produce crude oil
and gas. Workers in the downstream sector produce useful things from crude oil,
like fuel for cars and planes.
How do oil companies find oil and gas? The first step is exploration.
Scientists study rocks and do scientific tests. They look for rocks that can hold
hydrocarbons.
What are hydrocarbons? Oil and gas are made of hydrogen (H) and carbon
(C). So we call them hydrocarbons.
Do scientists find hydrocarbons? No, they don’t. They choose a good place
for the next step: drilling. Drillers drill a well, and they sometimes find
hydrocarbons.
Does production start immediately after drilling? No. First the company
does more tests and asks: “How much oil is there?” and “Are there any problems?”
If the results of the tests are good, they go to the next step: development.
What does development mean? It means they prepare for production. For
example they build a pipeline to transport the oil.
How long does development take? From a few weeks to many years. Then
production starts. Crude oil and/or gas flow from the well and along the pipeline.
1. Match the bold words with the explanations a-f.
a) petrol/gasoline and diesel oil, for example
b) oil under the ground, usually dark brown
c) bring out or make
d) parts of an industry
e) the part that gets oil and gas out of the ground
f) the part that makes and sells useful products
2. Complete the four steps in this chain:
1.
__________→
Possible
hydrocarbons?→Yes.
2.___________→
Hydrocarbons?→Yes. →Go to next step?→Yes. → 3.____________→
4.___________.
3. Answer the questions about the text.
1. What do scientists try to find?
2. Do drillers always find hydrocarbons?
3. What do companies do before development?
4. Why do they build pipelines?
15
Reading
Oil and Gas
The oil and gas industry has two sectors: the upstream sector and the
downstream sector. Workers in the upstream sector find and produce crude oil and
gas. Workers in the downstream sector produce useful things from crude oil, like
fuel for cars and planes.
The first step in finding oil and gas is exploration. Scientists study rocks and
do scientific tests. They look for rocks that can hold hydrocarbons. Oil and gas are
made of hydrogen (H) and carbon (C). So we call the hydrocarbons.
Scientists choose a good place for the next step: drilling. Drillers drill a well, and
they sometimes find hydrocarbons. The production doesn’t start immediately after
drilling. First the company does more tests and asks “How much oil is there?” and
“Are there any problems?” If the results of the test are good, they go to the next
step: development. Development means they prepare for production. For example,
they build a pipeline to transport the oil. The development takes from a few weeks
to many years. Then production starts. Crude oil and/or gas flow from the well and
along the pipeline.
Petrochemical plants produce chemicals from hydrocarbons. This plant gets
light hydrocarbons from a refinery and produces ethylene (C2H2) and other
important chemicals. Many industries use ethylene: for example they use it to
make plastics, detergents and car tyres. Petrochemical plants produce millions
tonnes of chemicals per year.
Petrochemical plants produce chemicals from hydrocarbons. This plant gets
light hydrocarbons from a refinery and produces ethylene (C2H2) and other
important chemicals. Many industries use ethylene: for example they use it to
make plastics, detergents and car tyres.
Petrochemical plants produce millions tonnes of chemicals per year. The
production is controlled by computers. But computers can’t do everything. They
often need a technician to open and close the valve or check some data.
The top producers of petrochemicals are countries in North America and
Europe. But this is changing. Now many countries in Asia and the Middle East are
building new petrochemical plants, and petrochemical production is going up fast
in these countries.
Saudi Arabia, for example, is hoping to be the number 3 producer of
petrochemicals in the world in 2015.
This is good business because petrochemicals sell at higher prices than crude
oil. It is good for employment too. Population in Asia and the Middle East are
going up, so these countries need new jobs for their young people.
Oil and gas companies are planning to increase world gas production by
50% before 2030.
Big gas producers like Russia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Iran and the UAE are
increasing their production fast. Gas production in Africa, Europe, Asia and the
Americas is growing too.
16
[Источник: L. Lansford, D’Arcy Vallance. Oil and Gas. Student’s Book. Oxford
University Press, 2011. – 136c., c. 10, 20.]
Comprehension check
I. Match a word in column A with a word in column B.
A
B
1. Middle
2. Petrochenical
3. downstreaml
4. crude
5. scientific
6. top
7. sectors
8. oil and gas
a) sector
b) oil
c) tests
d) parts of an industry
e) producers
f) East
g) industry
h) plant
II. Match the term from the text with its definition.
A
B
a) oil under the ground, usually dark
brown
b) connected with the processing and
selling of oil and gas
c) the part that gets oil and gas out of the
ground
d) parts of an industry
e) connected with finding and drilling for
oil and gas
f) bring out or make
g) the part that makes and sells useful
products
petrol/gasoline and diesel oil, for
example
1. upstream 2. produce 3. crude oil 4. downstream sector 5. downstream 6. fuel 7. sectors 8. upstream sector -
Grammar exercises
I. Is a word or phrase in bold correct?
1. Can you to speak French?
2. I can give you a hand tomorrow morning, if you like.
3. I’ll can take my driving test after a few more lessons.
4. Jack can play the guitar before he learnt to talk.
5. If only I can afford to buy that top!
17
6. We can have gone up the Eiffel Tower while we were in Paris, but we decided to
go to the Louvre instead.
7. I could get a more expensive computer, but it didn’t seem worth it.
II. Which word or phrase is correct? In some cases two options are correct.
1. Hello. Could/Can I speak to Mrs Johnson, please?
2. We could/were allowed to go home yesterday because our teacher was ill.
3. The head teacher said we could/were allowed to go home.
4. Do you think I should/could be worried about these spots on my forehead?
5. You ought to/should enter that talent contest!
6. You couldn’t/shouldn’t talk to people like that! It’s rude!
7. Alan should wright/have written two essays in the exam yesterday, not one!
8. No, you may/should not go out tonight. You know you are grounded!
9. Diana should have waited/been waiting for me at the corner. I wonder where
she went.
10. What were you doing in the park? You ought to have done/been doing your
homework then!
11. Yes, of course you can/are able to open the window if you’re too hot.
III. Write a form of must, have to, need or need to in each gap to complete the
sentences. If more than one possibility is correct, write all possibilities.
1. Oh, I …… remember to get some potatoes on the way home tonight.
2. Jason …… see the headmaster during the next break. I wonder what’s it about?
3. We …… light lots of candles during power cut two nights ago.
4. I’ll …… start doing my Christmas cards soon. It’s nearly December.
5. Carl, you …… run into the street right that without looking first. It’s dangerous!
6. People with solar-powered cars …… worry about the price of petrol.
7. I wouldn’t like to ……. get up at five o’clock every morning.
8. We …… do any washing-up after the picnic because we’d used disposable
plates and cutlery.
9. Do professional musicians …… practise every day?
10. I needn’t have bothered cooking all that food; they’d eaten before they arrived.
IV. Complete each second sentence using the word given so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in
each gap.
1. His lights are on, so I’m pretty sure Dan is at home. as
Dan …… his lights are on.
2. Susie’s car’s not here, so she’s almost certainly taking Dobber to the vet.
Susie …… Dobber to the vet since her car’s not here.
3. There’s no way that boy’s Simon. He’s much taller. boy
18
be
That ……. Simon. He’s much taller!
4. I’m certain the Winners don’t think we’re coming tonight; we arranged it for
next Tuesday. expecting
The Winners …… tonight; we arranged it for next Tuesday.
5. I bet you were exhausted after such a long journey. have
You …… exhausted after such a long journey!
6. The only explanation is that Evan was on the phone to someone in Australia!
…talking
Evan …… on the phone to someone in Australia.
7. There’s no way Casey won the disco dancing competition – he has got two left
feet. have
Casey …… the disco dancing competition – he’s got two left feet.
8. I don’t believe Helen’s been trying to call us all day. The phone hasn’t rung
once. been
Helen …… to call us all day. The phone hasn’t rung once.
LESSON FOUR
Phonetics: Letters “g” and “c”.
Grammar: Modals. (Part II).
Topic: How to Find Oil Traps and a Typical Drilling Crew.
Pre-reading tasks
I. Read the words with the following sounds:
[g] – grub, grader, aggregate, ground, subgrade, guide.
[G] – hydrological, carriageway, drainage, energy, original.
[k] – construct, factor, close, compaction, called, locate, cutting.
[s] – necessary, socialist, efficient, especially.
II. Learn the words from the vocabulary.
1. derrickman, n [`derikmxn] – верховой рабочий
2. geophone, n [`dZJqufqun] – геофон
3. seismic, a [`saIzmIk] сейсмический
4. vibration, n [vaI`breISn] – вибрация
5. wave, n [weIv] – волна
19
III. Steve Dumontet tests wells before production starts. He answers questions
like: What is in with the oil? Water? Gas? Sand? How fast does the oil flow up
from the well?
1. Give your opinions. Does he need to:
1. be fit?
2. be careful?
3. be good with numbers?
4. use a computer?
2. Read the dialogue.
It’s my Job
I=Interviewer, S=Steve
I Who do you work for, Steve?
S I work for a Canadian oil company.
I What’s your job?
S I’m a well test operator.
I And where do you work?
S I work in lots of different places, all over Canada.
I Lots of different places?
S Yeah. The company has oil wells all over the country. We go to an oil well for
a few days or maybe a few weeks. Then we move on to a different well.
I Who is “we”? Do you work in a team?
S.. Yeah. A well-testin crew has three people: a supervisor, an operator, and an
assistant operator. At first I was an assistant operator. Now I’m an op erator.
I I see. What do you do on a typical day?
S Well, usually we do tests on new wells. First we prepare the test equipment.
Some of it’s heavy equipment, so it’s hard work. Then we do tests – a lot of
different tests – and record data on a computer.
3. Answer the questions.
1. Why does he like his job?
2. Is he inside or outside today?
3. How many technicians are in his team?
4. How many men are outside with him?
5. Where are they from?
6. How do they speak to the control room?
7. What nationalities are there in the company?
Reading
How to Find Oil Traps and a Typical Drilling Crew
Drilling is expensive. So oil companies plan carefully before they start
20
drilling. First they make 3D maps of the rocks below the surface. Then they study
these maps carefully. They look for possible oil traps.
How do they make these maps? How do they find out what is below the
surface? The answer is “seismic waves”.
Seismic waves are sound waves, and they can travel through rock layers.
Most oil companies use vibrator trucks to make seismic waves. These heavy
trucks make vibrations on the surface, and vibrations send waves down to the rocks
below.
Each rock layer reflects some of the waves. The reflected waves travel up to
geophones on the surface. Geophones are like microphones: they convert the
waves into electrical signals. A machine in the recording truck records the signals.
Computers can convert these signals into 3D maps.
Seismic reflection works at sea too. But the crews use hydrophones, not
geophones, and they use an underwater gun to make seismic waves.
A typical drilling crew includes: roustabouts, roughnecks, the derrickman,
the driller, the rig manager or toolpusher.
Roustabouts are often the youngest people in a drilling crew. They clean
maintain, and move equipment and help the other workers. Roustabouts want
better jobs, so they work hard, listen carefully, and learn fast.
Roughnecks are like roustabouts, but they are more skilled. They work on
the drilling floor. They connect the heavy drill pipes and put them into the hole, or
they disconnect the pipes as they come up out of the hole.
The derrickman works high up on the monkey board about 25 meters above
the floor. He guides the top part of the drill pipe. At other times, he helps the mud
enginer (or “mudman”): he checks the mud and maintains the pump. The mud
must not be too thick or too thin, and the pump must keep working.
The driller supervises and trains the drilling crew, and he controls the
drilling equipment. For example, he operates the motor that lifts the drill pipes. He
controls the speed of the drill, which must not be too fast or too slow. On very
modern rigs, the driller sits in a special driller’s chair. The chair has joystick
controls and display screens – like a computer game.
The rig manager or toolpusher is the most senior person in the drilling crew.
He is usually the oldest and the most experienced person too. He makes sure the
crew has all the right equipment. He is responsible for their safety and for
paperwork.
[Источник: L. Lansford, D’Arcy Vallance. Oil and Gas. Student’s Book. Oxford
University Press, 2011. – 136c., c. 29, 35.]
Comprehension check
I. Match the term from the text with its definitions.
A
1. mud -
B
a) a skilled person who
works on a drill, for example
21
2. derrick 3. roughneck -
4. vibration-
5. roustabout -
6. geophone -
7.driller 8. derrickman 9. toolpusher 10. truck 11. seismic -
by connecting or separating
the pipes in a drill string
b) the person who moves the
top part of a drill string
c) a mixture of water, earth,
and other materials which
cools and cleans the drill bit
d) a person who controls a
drill and managers the work
of the drilling crew
e) a device that is used on
land for recording seismic
waves so that you can make a
map of the land and rocks in
that area
f) a man with no special
skills who does basic work
on an oil or gas rig
g) a continuous shaking
movement
h) a tall structure over an oil
well for holding the drill
i) a large vehicle for carrying
heavy loads by road
j) relating to earthquakes or
other movements of the earth
k) the most senior person in a
drilling crew who is respon
sible for managing the staff
and the supply of equipment;
also known as a rig manager
II. Match the jobs with the descriptions.
Jobs
1. crane operator
2. driller
3. geologist
4. geotechnician
5. maintenance technician
6. pipe-fitter
7. production operator
8. roughneck
Descriptions
a) studies rocks
b) operates equipment to help geologists
c) supervises a drilling crew
22
d) works in a drilling crew under the driller’s supervision
e) operates a machine for lifting and moving heavy things
f) fits pipes to make a pipeline
g) services and repairs machines and equipment
h) checks and operates production equipment
Grammar exercises
I. Use the words in the box only once to complete the sentences in Table A. The
meaning of the sentences in Table B will help you.
able cannot could had have might must
needn’t mustn’t ought should will
Table A
1. I …… have left my bag on the bus.
2. In a few months I’ll be …… to buy a car.
3. I …… drive when I was thirteen years old!
4. No, you …… have any more pocket money!
5. I think you …… consider a career in the
armed forces.
6. I …… forget to phone Julie tonight.
7. I …… to have a filling at the dentist’s.
Table B
expressing certainty
expressing future ability
Expressing past ability
refusing a request
giving advice
expressing personal obligation
expressing external obligation
in the past
8. You don’t …… to do Exercise D for expressing a lack of obligation
homework.
9. You …… have to work a lot harder if you expressing future obligation
want to get a good report.
10. They …… to arrive at about 8,
expressing probability
11. Sean …… have got stuck in traffic.
expressing possibility
12. I …… have worried so much about Jan’s expressing a lack of past
present. She loved it.
obligation
II. Write a modal or semi-modal in each gap to replace the phrase in brackets.
Add any other words you need.
1. Bruce … (is able to) finish most crosswords in under ten minutes.
2. Charlotte didn’t get to the Craig David concert because she …… (wasn’t able to)
get tickets.
3. I …… (had the opportunity to go) to Oxford but I decided to go to a more
modern university.
4. You …… (were wrong to tell) Angus. You know he can’tbkeep a secret!
5. If you have a cashpoint card, you …… (are not forced to) go into the bank to get
money from your account.
23
6. We …… (were made to) apologise to the police for wasting their time.
7. That …… (almost definitely wasn’t) the last can of soda in the fridge. I bought
loads this morning!
8. …… (Were you obliged to) talk about two photographs during the interview?
9. Children …… (are not allowed to) be left unattended.
10. The weather …… (will probably) be good tomorrow.
III. Choose the correct answer.
Choosing a gym
Choosing to go to a gym regularly (1) …… change your life for the better. Don’t
let it be a decision you regret!
Good gyms have a lot to offer. They (2) …… provide exercise equipment that is
just too expensive to buy and their trained staff are (3) …… to provide quality
health and fitness advice. But if you’re planning to join a gym, you (4) ……
definitely ask to look round before you become a member. There are a number of
things to bear in mind before choosing which gym to join.
Before the law changed a few years ago, anyone (5) …… set up a gym and even
today gyms (6) …… employ trained fitness instructors. Find out what
qualifications the staff have. If they’re untrained, it’s best to go elsewhere.
You (7) …… be put off by the gym’s hard sell. Just because they want you to sign
up – they want your money, after all – that doesn’t mean you (8) …… decide
thereand then. See a few gyms before you make your final decision.
Ask yourself: Wht kind of equipment and facilities do they have? There’s little
point joining a gym and then thinking a few months later, “I (9) …… have chosen
a gym with a pool.” Do you (10) …… book equipment in advance, or can you just
turn up and use it? How busy does the gym get? It (11) …… be very pleasant
turning up to find there’s no room in the changing room and there’s a huge queue
for each piece of equipment. It (12) …… also be good idea to talk to people who
already go to that gym to find out their opinion.
1 A must
2 . A can
3. A made
4 . A should
5 . A can
6. A mustn’t
7. A mustn’t
8. A can’t
9. A ought to
10. A able
11. A won’t have to
12.A must
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
would
could
forced
would
could
don’t have to
couldn’t
can
must
must
doesn’t have to
might
24
C should
C would
C allowed
C might
C might
C can’t
C won’t
C would
C have to
C have to
C mustn’t
C has to
D will have to
D must
D able
D will
D may
D shouldn’t
D mightn’t
D have to
D can’t
D allowed
D won’t
D ought to
IV. Write one word in each gap.
When I broke my arm a a week ago, I guess it (1) …… to have hurt. But it didn’t!
We were doing PE at school, and we were making a pyramid. We (2) …… to stand
on each other’s shoulders. I was right at the top. We (3) ……. Have been doing it
properly because suddenly the pyramid collapsed asnd we all fell. I landed on my
arm.
Mr Jenkins (4) …… have known immediatelythat I’d broken my arm because he
sent someone to call an ambulance. “Sit still, and don’t move your arm at all until
the ambulance comes,” he said. I (5) …… still remember the feeling –my arm was
numb, and looked very strange, but there was no pain at all. I remember thinking:
“It (6) …… be broken. If it was broken, I’d be in agony.” I suppose not feeling any
pain (7) …… have been because I was in shock.
The plaster (8) …… come off in about three weeks but it (9) …… have to stay on
longer. It depends on whether the break was healed properly or not. The next three
weeks may (10) …… be the best three weeks of my life – no basketball, no
playing in the playground, no swimming – but I’m counting my blessings. It (11)
…… have been a lot worse.
LESSON FIVE
Phonetics: Letter “u”.
Grammar: Modals. (Part II).
Topic: The Distribution System
Pre-reading tasks
I. Read the words with the following sounds:
[jH] – use, usually, produce, human, continue, consecutive.
[A] - thus, grub, stump, must, number.
[W] – turn, purpose, burn, return.
[kw] – require, equip, quite, quality, quantity.
II. Learn the words from the vocabulary.
1. LNG (liquefied natural gas) [¸lIkwI`faId] – (СПГ) сжиженный природный газ
2. handle, v [hxndl] – транспортировать
3. tertiary, a [`tWSqrI] - третичный
25
4. pattern, n [`pxtqn] – форма
5. barge, n [`bRG] – баржа
II. Use the information in the box to ask and answer questions about Igor
Kinsky.
1. Company
2. Job
3. Where
4. A typical day
5. Hours per day
6. Start and finish
7. Like
a Russian oil company
driller
Kazakhstan
supervise the drilling crew
12
7 a.m. to 7 p.m.
good money
III. Read the text and complete the table below.
There are some very big numbers in the oil and gas industry.
The world uses about 85 million barrels of oil per day. A barrel is 159 litres. So
that’s more than thirteen billion litres a day. Thirteen billion litres a day is about
560 million litres per hour.
So oil companies need to produce a lot of oil and they need to produce it fast.
There are about 40,000 oil and gas fields in the world. Most of them are small
fields, but some are very big. The biggest is the Ghawar field in Saudi Arabia. This
very big field is 280 km long and 30 km wide. The Saudi national oil company,
Saudi Aramco, operates the field and produces about five million barrels of iol a
day. That’s a lot of oil! Five million barrels is 790,000 cubic metres: 790,000 cubic
metres every day.
Ghawar also produces about 57 million cubic metres of natural gas per day.
Oil: the world uses …
a) __________________bbl/d
b)__________________l/d
c)__________________l/hr
Number of oil and gas d)__________________
fields in the world
The
biggest
field
(Ghawar)
location
e)__________________
size
f)__________________
oil production (bb/d)
g)__________________
oil production (m³/d)
h)__________________
gas production (m³/d)
i)___________________
26
Reading
The Distribution System
1. As liquid hydrocarbons, oil or LNC, flow from the wellhead to the consumer,
patterns of ownership change along the course. Let us see how the distribution system functions. The United States will serve as the example, since it is the world’s
single biggest petroleum market and since other distribution systems follow the
general pattern.
2. The U.S. distribution system has three parts. What is called the primary distribution system handles crude oil and products from the wellhead to large bulk terminals for petroleum products. The secondary distribution system divides the large
quantities of product from large bulk terminals into smaller quantities for delivery
to retail outlets and smaller bulk storage facilities. The tertiary system includes
storage facilities and inventories of product consumers.
3. The primary distribution system begins at the lease tank, a storage unit near the
producing well. Crude oil moves from there into gathering pipelines or tank trucks.
Gathering pipelines may connect to larger trunk pipelines or to loading stations for
trucks, barges, or rail tank cars. The crude may travel to a storage terminal or directly to a refinery, where it usually spends more time in a storage tank. Imported
crude oil arrives by tanker for unloading at marine terminals, which have storage
capacity and pipeline links to refineries or trunk pipelines. Crude oil purchased by
the U.S. government goes into storage facilities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
4. Refineries have storage tanks for crude, intermediate products (those requiring
further processing), and finished products. The finished products move from refinery storage by pipeline, tank truck, barge or tanker toward a general market area,
stopping usually at the large bulk terminal that represents the end of the primary
distribution system.
5. The secondary distribution system includes localized storage facilities and retail
outlets. The storage at this stage usually involves wholesale bulk plants that receive
products by tank car or truck. From wholesale storage, products move to tanks at
retail outlets, including service stations and retail fuel oil dealers.
6. Storage in the tertiary distribution system includes everything from fuel tanks
for boilers at factories to fuel oil tanks in homes, to gasoline tanks in automobiles.
Sometimes products move directly from the primary distribution system to the tertiary system. High-volume fuel users often invest in direct transportation links to
the primary system in order to avoid the costs of the secondary system. Large airlines, for example, purchase jet fuel directly from refineries where logistics are favourable.
7. Downstream of refineries, product ownership can change several times. Esp ecially in the case of gasoline, this is not always apparent because of widespread
brend identification with oil companies. A motorist filling up at a service station
identified by the brand of a major refiner indeed buys that refiner’s gasoline, but
the station attendant may or may not be an employee of the refiner. In fact, the at27
tendant probably works for an independent business preson who owns the station
and pays for the right to use the refiner’s brand. The station owner might also be an
investment company operating stations on behalf of the refiner.
8. When crude oil comes out of the ground, then, it and its derivatives most likely
will have several owners before a consumer buys the finished. Each of these chandes in ownership implies a business transaction. Petroleum changes many hands
and rings many cash registers, as it passes through production, processing, and distribution systems.
[Источник: L. Lansford, D’Arcy Vallance. Oil and Gas. Student’s Book. Oxford
University Press, 2011. – 136c., c. 88.]
Comprehension check
I. Match the term from the text with its definitions.
A
1. wellhead -
2. consumer -
3. liquid -
4. bulk tanker-
5. refinery 6. pipeline 7.barrel -
8. liquefied natural gas
(LNG) 9. operate 10. processing plant -
B
a) a ship or truck that carries
oil, gas, or petrol in very
large quantities
b) a unit for measuring oil
that equals 42 US gallons (=
about 159 litres)
c) a structure over the top of
a well with equipment for
controlling the flow of oil or
gas
d) a series of pipes that
carries oil and gas over long
distances
e) to manage an organization
or process
f) that who uses something,
especially fuel or energy
g) a factory that separates the
different substances within
oil and natural gas
h) a thing that is made
usually for sale
i) in the form of a liquid; not
a solid or a gas
j) a place where crude oil is
separated into different
substances and processed in
order to produce petrol/
gasoline, plastic, etc.
28
11. product -
k) natural gas such as
methane that is changed into
liquid so that it can be stored
or transported more easily
II. Read the text.
It’s my Job
Hi. My name’s Danny. I often work in high places. It looks dangerous, doesn’t it? I
always wear a safety harness, so I can’t fall very far. Still, a lot of people can’t go
up high, but I love it! I’m a rigger, by the way. What do riggers do? Well, riggers
lift things and move things – heavy loads, like big pipes and big machines. First we
estimate the weight and the size of the load. Then we decide how we can move it.
Sometimes we erect special lifting equipment, and sometimes we work with
special operators.
When riggers work with crane operators, we prepare the load: I mean we put the
load in the sling, and then the crane lifts it.
There are a lot of riggers in the oil and gas industry. We’re everywhere! Why?
Because there’s always heavy equipment that needs lifting and moving. I work for
a good company. Safety is important to them. Every day the supervisor talks about
safety. There are lots of hazards in my job, so safety is important to me too.
Grammar exercises
I. Circle the correct word or phrase.
1. Elizabeth usually goes/ is usually going to bed at around eleven o’clock.
2. Dan talks/is talking on the other phone right now.
3. We don’t eat/aren’t eating any meat at the moment as we are both on a diet.
4. Does air travel get/Is air travel getting increasingly safe?
5. My mum calls/is calling me every weekend without fail.
6. How much do babysitters generally earn/are babysitters generally earning?
7. You always come/You’re always coming up with excuses for not having done
your homework. It’s so annoying!
8. I don’t go/I’m not going out much during the week, but I always try/I’m
always trying to go out somewhere on Saturday night.
9. No, the train does stop/is stopping at Cirencester on Saturdays.
10. My mum takes/is taking part in ice-skating competitions almost every
weekend.
II. Rewrite correctly. Change the words or phrases in bold.
1. My dad is often getting up late on Saturday mornings.
2. Are you speaking any other languages apart from English?
29
3. I already buy all my Cristmass presents and it’s only October.
4. It’s the first time I’m ever having a party at home.
5. Actually, I think Darren does works quite hard sometimes.
6. Carlo is never eating Chinese food before.
7. Sean already books a table for tonight.
8. Needs Melanie any help painting her new flat?
III. Complete using the correct form of the verb in brackets.
1. It’s the first time …… (I/ever/eat) octopus!
2. Sandy …… (not/see) his sister since she went to university.
3. They …… (go) on holiday to Spain and won’t be back until the end of the
month.
4. Poor Jane! She …… (write) that essay for hours now and she still hasn’t
finished.
5. …… (you/ever/meet) anyone famous?
6. …… (I/try) to get in touch
7. …… (I/not finish) the book yet so I can’t tell you what happens.
8. …… (you/already decide) where you are going this summer?
9. …… (We/live) here for the last 6 years.
10. …… (I/never/hear) such nonsense!
30
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение……………………………………………………………........3
Урок 1. Natural Resources in Great Britain. Part I…..….……………..…4
Урок 2. Natural Resources in Great Britain. Part II.……………..……….8
Урок 3. Oil and Gas……….………………………………..…..……......12
Урок 4. How to Find Oil Traps and a Typical Drilling Crew……….……19
Урок 5. The Distribution System………………..…………….................25
Список использованных источников:
1. Natural Resources. Эл. адрес: resources.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk›Customs…(время обращения: 05.10.2015)
2. L. Lansford, D’Arcy Vallance. Oil and Gas. Student’s Book. Oxford University
Press, 2011. – 136c.
3. M. Mann, S. Taylore-Knowles. Exam Skills for Russia. Grammar and
Vocabulary, Macmillan, 2006. – 240 с.
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Нефть и газ
Методическая. разработка
по английскому языку для студентов 1-го курса
специальности 01.23.01 (131000) «Нефтегазовое дело»
и студентов 2-го курса факультета СПО специальности
08.02.08 «Монтаж и эксплуатация оборудования и систем газоснабжения»
Составитель Крячко Лилия Николаевна
Подписано в печать 12.01.2016 г. Формат 60*84 1/8. Уч.-изд. л.. 2,1.
Усл.-печ. л.2,2.. Бумага писчая. Тираж 150 экз. Заказ № 34
Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной
литературы и учебно-методических пособий Воронежского ГАСУ
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
32
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