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107.Нестерова О.Ф.Business Communication. Деловое Общение

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О.Ф. Нестерова
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
ДЕЛОВОЕ ОБЩЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие
ENGLISH
Воронеж 2011
1
Министерство науки и образования РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное
учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный
университет»
О.Ф. Нестерова
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
ДЕЛОВОЕ ОБЩЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие
Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия
редакционно-издательским советом
Воронежского государственного
архитектурно-строительного университета
для студентов, обучающихся по специальности
«Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации»
Воронеж 2011
2
УДК 802.0:159.9(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:88.53я7
Н561
Рецензенты:
кафедра английского языка Воронежского государственного
педагогического университета;
С.В. Спиридонова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент,
заведующая кафедрой современных языков и коммуникации МОУ ВПО
Воронежского института экономики и социального управления
Н561
Нестерова, О.Ф.
Business Communication. Деловое Общение: учеб. пособие
для ПСПК / О.Ф. Нестерова; Воронеж. гос. арх.-строит. ун-т.Воронеж, 2011. – 50 с.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации».
Основная цель пособия – ознакомить студентов, обучающихся по дополнительной
образовательной программе «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации», с
особенностями поведения в современной деловой жизни, развить профессиональные
навыки и научить применять свои знания в деловых ситуациях, максимально приближенных к реальным условиям, усвоить правила общения в сфере бизнеса.
Материал пособия рассчитан для активного усвоения и самостоятельного изучения
курса делового общения.
Библиогр.: 15 назв.
УДК 802.0:159.9(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:88.53я7
ISBN 978-5-89040-359-9
© Нестерова О.Ф., 2011
© Воронежский государственный
архитектурно-строительный
университет, 2011
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Человек – частица общества. Живя в обществе, нельзя быть свободным
от него. Но человеческое общество живет по определенным правилам и законам, в деловой сфере также существуют свои нормы поведения и свой этикет. И каждому человеку, независимо от образования и социального статуса,
в той или иной степени приходится вступать в деловые контакты. Как пр авильно составить официальное письмо, принять партнера и провести с ним
переговоры, разрешить спорный вопрос и наладить взаимовыгодное сотрудничество – всем этим вопросам во многих странах уделяется очень большое
внимание. Во многом от того, насколько люди владеют наукой и искусством
общения, зависит успех их деятельности.
Практически в каждом университете мира существуют соответствующие учебные курсы, обучающие правилам и нормам делового общения, умению вести переговоры и беседы. Кроме того, знание делового протокола,
этикета важно еще в психологическом плане.
Очень важно учитывать нормы поведения, существующие у каждого
народа и в каждой стране, при контакте представителей разных культур.
Учебное пособие «Деловое общение» предназначено для студентов
специальности «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации» , но
может быть интересно и более широкому кругу читателей.
Деловое общение предполагает уверенное владение современным деловым языком, а переводчику, помимо прочего, необходимо владение деловым английским языком, умение общаться с зарубежными партнерами, читать и составлять различные документы на английском языке.
Данное учебное пособие включает в себя 9 тем, раскрывающих основные особенности делового общения в современном мире. В информационной
части предложены сведения, полезные для людей, имеющих отношение к
сфере бизнеса и производства. Приведенные диалоги позволяют наиболее
наглядно представить ту или иную ситуацию в профессиональной сфере. В
качестве закрепления материала предложены тематические вопросы для с амоконтроля. В заключение в алфавитном порядке подобрана лексика, имеющая отношение к данной теме.
В приложении представлены лексические различия между британским
и американским вариантом английского языка.
Предложенная структура и содержание пособия позволят легко овладеть основами делового общения.
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FORMS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Before speaking about “Business communication” let us consider the word
“communication” itself. It means “коммуникация”, ”общение”. Effective communicators have many tools at their disposal (written or oral speech, gestures or
actions). Whether writing or speaking, they know how to put together the words
that will convey their meaning. They reinforce their words with gestures and actions. They look into the eyes, listen to what you say and think about your feelings
and needs. At the same time, they study your reactions, listening to your tone of
voice and evaluating your words. Thus, we can differ between non-verbal communication and verbal one.
Non-verbal communication
We use non-verbal cues to express superiority, dependence, dislike, respect,
love and other feelings. Although non-verbal communication is often unplanned, it
has more impact than verbal communication. Experts in non-verbal communication suggest that it has six specific functions:
1.
to provide information, either consciously or unconsciously;
2.
to regulate the flow of conversation;
3.
to express emotions;
4.
to qualify, complement, contradict or expand verbal messages;
5.
to control or influence others;
6.
to facilitate specific tasks.
Non-verbal communication plays a role in business too. For one thing, it
helps to establish credibility and leadership potential. If you can learn to manage
the impression you create with your body language, facial characteristics, voice
and appearance, you can do a great deal to communication. For another thing, if
you can learn to read other people’s non-verbal messages, you will be able to interpret their attitudes and intentions.
Verbal communication
Although you can express many things non-verbally, there are limits to what
you can communicate without the help of language. Business people use speaking
and writing to send messages; they use listening and reading to receive them.
When you send business messages, speaking is more common than writing.
Giving instructions, conducting interviews, working in small groups, attending
meetings and making speeches are all important activities. But when you want to
send a complex message of lasting significance, you will probably want to put it in
writing.
People in business spend more time obtaining information than transmitting
it, so to do their jobs effectively, they need good listening and reading skills. Unfortunately, most of us are not very good listeners. Obtaining and remembering information take a special effort.
Although listening and reading obviously differ, both require a similar approach. The first step is to register the information, which means that you must focus your attention. You must then interpret and evaluate the information. While
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absorbing the material, we must decide what is important and what is not. The next
step is presentation of the necessary information.
Ways of business communication may be quite different. First of all, we
can divide them into “Business Communication” and “Business Correspondence”.
What do they presuppose? We can refer the term “communication” mainly to “oral
speech” and the term “correspondence” to “written speech”.
Then, in the first case we can speak about “oral forms of communication”
and in the second one we speak about “written forms of communication”.
While studying this course we are interested in oral forms of communication, i.e. speaking and listening. How do you think what they are?
Well, the “communication” itself presupposes:
7.
Employment interviewing;
8.
Introducing;
9.
Speech etiquette;
10.
Business conversation;
11.
Telephone talks;
12.
Negotiations;
13.
Presentations.
All these types of business communication presuppose good speaking and
listening skills. But to communicate you should possess some norms of behavior.
You have to be acquainted with the rules of writing any business correspondence,
i.e. business etiquette, and from the other hand you must be ready to talk on the
phone, to introduce yourself, to meet with your partners. So, in other words you
should deal with the rules and norms of business behavior and communication.
Our course presupposes the skills to talk on the phone, to negotiate and, certainly,
to introduce yourself during your first personal contact. And it’s very important to
make an impression on your future partner (a good impression), to catch his or her
interest. And the success of the future deal or business will depend upon the first
personal meeting.
So, in business everything is important, beginning with your appearance,
your clothes, your manners, your voice and ending with your business qualities
(characteristics).
Nowadays, we have to communicate with different business partners from
various countries, we’ve a great deal of co-enterprises and we’ve got to make deals
and subscribe many commercial documents. And how to persuade the partner, how
to interest him, to make an impression on him, considering his cultural and national
peculiarities? It is the complex question requiring many skills and knowledge not
only in your sphere of business but also abilities to create the positive image. And
if you represent the firm you are the face of it. The image is greatly paid attention
to today.
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“GOOD MANNERS ARE BENEFITABLE” – Хорошие манеры при-
быльны.
We can refer this slogan both to the business communication and to the
business correspondence. It’s very important to be correct and literate while writing any business letter and to have adequate communication skills when talking to
your boss or your business partner.
The firms where business etiquette isn’t preserved lose a lot and those ones
which keep to it win a lot.
For example, in the USA there are more than 300 firms which train people
working or going to work in business to good manners, rules and forms of co mmunication. The Japanese corporations, for instance, spend up to 700 mln. dol. annually for this purpose.
What is business etiquette?
Business etiquette are such rules of social behavior which promote mutual understanding in the process of communication. The absence of etiquette
limits the initiative, restrains the behavior, creates the inconfidence and nervousness of the situation, impossibility to get necessary results and to come to an
agreement.
So, we can sum up, to be successful in business you should have an appropriate appearance, good manners, surely, be competent in your business and have
some ideas as for customs and traditions of your partners.
Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What forms of communication do you know? What is their role?
What does the “communication” presuppose?
Why is communication so important?
Do you think that “good manners are benefitable”?
What is business etiquette?
EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWING
So, we have defined 7 main types (kinds) of oral business communication.
And we said that we had to be acquainted with the norms of business etiquette, because good manners are benefitable.
Now, imagine that you’re in search of a good, well-paid job. You look
through a lot of (a great deal of) various employment advertisements.
At last, you find one of such attractive adverts. It’s yours! You think you’re
in two steps from your long-awaited aim. You’re sure that you are the person they
need. You send your resume and wait for an answer. But ask yourself if you are
ready or not to be interviewed. You have some time to be prepared for the interview.
We are going to present you some statements concerning the interview. Are
they true or false from your point of view?
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1. There are 6 types of interviews.
2. Job seekers often overlook researching a job for which they are interviewed.
3. Experience unrelated to a job for which you are interviewed illustrates important skills.
4. If an interviewer asks you to describe yourself, it means you should talk
about your personal life.
5. Describing hobbies is important for preparing for an interview.
6. It is important to explain a weakness during an interview.
7. It is unimportant to explain what you learn from job experiences.
8. Critiquing previous employers or coworkers makes a positive impression.
9. Many employers expect women to wear short skirts and open-toed shoes.
10. Many employers expect men to wear suits that are only grey or black.
11. You should arrive at least 30 minutes before an interview.
12. The purpose of an interview is to establish a rapport with the interviewer.
13. An interview begins the moment you arrive for the meeting.
14. An interview should have a conversational tone.
15. An interview is an opportunity to ask about salary or benefits.
16. After the interview you should write a letter of inquiry.
And now be ready to listen what interviewing is and what you should do,
how to behave yourself during this very important meeting in your life.
Thus, we can define the main points how to be interviewed successfully.
Preparation:
First of all, you should be well prepared for the interview:
1. research everything about the company beginning with the history and ending its goals and the position for which you are being interviewed;
2. be able to describe your professional and personal characteristics, hobbies
and interests (you should speak comfortably without any strain). Try to accentuate the positive and never criticize a previous employer or coworker;
3. dress professionally without any overindulgences (излишества).
Showtime:
1. on the day of the interview arrive 10 or 15 minutes earlier;
2. get all necessary things with you: a pen, some paper, copies of your resume,
references and so on;
3. don’t be nervous!!! Relax! An interview should be conversational;
4. remember! The interview begins the moment you arrive;
5. make eye contact during the conversation;
6. don’t use slang or one word answers;
7. focus on your strength but always tell the truth;
8. avoid giving vague (смутные, неопределенные) answers;
9. recommendations of 2 or 3 people won’t be unnecessary, they will provide
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favourability (придадут весомости, обеспечат лишние баллы);
10. an interview is not the time to inquire about salary or benefits. Do it after
you have been offered the job;
11. before leaving the interview, make sure you understand the next step in the
hiring process;
12. a phone interview doesn’t presuppose eye-an-eye contact but don’t think it
is easier to talk the phone – you should be self-disciplined (собранный), speak
clearly and listen attentively;
13. send a thank you letter
- in the 1-st paragraph you thank the interviewer for meeting and mention the date
of the interview and the position for which you applied;
- in the 2-nd paragraph you briefly reiterate (повторять) your skills necessary for
the job and give some important information you have forgotten to mention before;
- in the 3-d paragraph you thank again and may give your phone number.
Sample interview
- Good morning, sir.
- Good morning. Come in. Tell me, how long have you worked in your last job
with Astoria?
- Six years. I am leaving only because the firm is moving to, but I think a
change will do me good.
- What do you know about our company? Do you have any questions to me?
- I know that this is a very promising company, so I would like you to inform
me what will be a major focus of efforts in the next few years.
- We plan to expand our activity on English-speaking countries, mainly on
England, to buy equipment and technologies from them and run training
programmes here. We need a team of creative persons to make our company
competitive in the world market.
- What responsibilities and obligations do you suggest during the first year?
- Well, first of all to be responsible for our contacts with English partners, to
buy a good equipment and generally to be skillful in negotiations. You will
have to travel a lot. Besides, we are expecting a new fair in London soon
and maybe you will have a chance to go there.
- Yes, I see.
- So, tell me what are your three main strong features?
- I think they are reliability, loyalty, energy.
- OK. How do you relieve everyday tensions?
- I am accustomed to work under pressure.
- Are you a leader, an entrepreneur by nature?
- Yes, I think so, because I make contacts with people very easily.
- All right. Now, I am quite prepared to offer you a job with us. You have excellent references from your previous job. What do you find a fair salary?
- Equivalent of $ 1000.
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- I think we will begin you from $ 900 for experimental period and if you do
well we will review it by the end of three months. Hours are from nine to five
thirty, with an hour for lunch and fortnight’s holiday. Does that suit you?
Any questions?
- What about travel: length, where?
- Mostly to England for no longer than a month.
- All right. I suppose supportive environment here. When do you want me to
start, sir?
- In a week, if possible.
- I am afraid I can begin working only since November 5.
- No problem. We will be seeing you on the fifth then?
- Yes, certainly. Thank you very much. Goodbye.
- Goodbye.
Now, can you answer some questions? Give your opinion.
1. Do the candidate’s answers correspond to the rules of employment interviewing?
2. Is he interested in the company?
3. What does he know about this company?
4. What is he interested in from the very beginning?
5. Dos he underline, stress out the most important features of himself? Are these
features important in business?
6. Is he optimistic in his attitude?
7. Is he quite polite and confident person?
Some additions to the employment interviewing
- Don’t learn your speech by heart but think over some moments;
- Switch off your mobile phone before entering the interviewing room;
- Be ready for unexpected questions, for example: ‘How can you be useful for
our company?’, ‘What is your favourable difference from other applicants (candidates)?’. You should not be afraid but improvise ‘I think my knowledge in
this field will be useful…’.
The heart of the interviewing rules
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Do not be late for the interview.
Be neatly dressed.
Listen to the question asked attentively.
Do not be surprised by some simple questions at the beginning, for example,
‘How did you travel to the interview?’.
Answer the entire question to the point.
Don not be too laconic in your answers.
Do not be afraid of giving your own views and decisions.
Be calm and polite during the interview.
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Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Did you agree with a large amount of statements?
Are your personal characteristics and hobbies important for the interviewer?
What moment does the interview begin?
What should a thank you letter include?
Your own views and decisions are necessary, aren’t they?
Vocabulary in need
Education
BA (Bachelor of Arts)
Bsc (Bachelor of Science)
MA (Master of Arts)
Msc (Master of Science)
PGCE (Postgraduate Certificate
in Education)
MBA (Master of Business Administration)
Med (Master of Education)
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Job hunting
applicant, candidate
application
apply (for)
CV (Curriculum Vitae)
employment agency
human resource, personnel
department
Job occupation
reference
salary
skilled
wage
Organizations and companies
head office
headquarter
joint venture
shareholder, stockholder
Образование
Бакалавр гуманитарных наук
Бакалавр точных наук
Магистр гуманитарных наук
Магистр точных наук
Сертификат об окончании
аспирантуры
Магистр в области управления
бизнесом
Магистр в области
образования
Кандидат и доктор наук
Устройство на работу
кандидат, претендент
заявление, заявка
претендовать на
автобиография, резюме
агентство по трудоустройству
отдел кадров работа (место или
отдельное задание)
род занятия
рекомендация
зарплата служащих
квалифицированный
зарплата рабочих
Организации и компании
главный офис
штаб-квартира
совместное предприятие
акционер
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Jobs
Board of Directors
chairman (UK), president (US)
deputy
director (UK),
vice president (US)
employee
employer
executive
general manager (UK)
chief operating officer (US) head
lawyer
managing director (UK)
chief executive officer (US)
receptionist
security guide
Должности
совет директоров, правление
глава фирмы
заместитель
заведующий отделом
наемный работник
работодатель
исполнитель
генеральный директор
глава, заведующий
юрист
исполнительный директор
секретарь приемной
охранник
Departments
design
development
finance, financial control
production
purchasing
sales
services
Отделы
конструкторское бюро
опытно-конструкторский
финансовый
производственный
снабжения
сбыта
техобслуживания
Events
acquisition
События
приобретение одной фирмы
другой
спад
снижение темпов роста
финансовые трудности
слияние фирм
захват одной фирмы другой
boost
downturn, decline
drought
merger
takeover
Expressions
be accountable to, report to, be
under
be qualified for a job
be self-employed
compete against, with others
competitive edge
face competition
fierce, keen competition
fire, dismiss someone
Выражения
подчиняться кому-либо
подходить для работы
работать на себя, самостоятельно
конкурировать с кем-либо
конкурентоспособность
испытывать конкуренцию
жестокая, острая конкуренция
увольнять кого-либо
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grant authority
handle authority
hire, employ someone
hold a post, fill a position
join the company
make requests
run
tailor a particular position
upgrade product
work background
наделить полномочиями
пользоваться властью
нанимать кого-либо на работу
занимать должность
поступить на работу
обратиться с просьбой
управлять
рассчитывать на конкретную
должность
усовершенствовать продукцию
профессиональный опыт
SPEECH ETIQUETTE
На званом вечере два господина
Представляются друг другу:
- Серонсен, коммерсант: уголь и кокс.
- Ольсен, директор тюрьмы: вода и хлеб.
What is the speech etiquette? We can define it briefly as “what to say and
how to say in different situations”.
When you attend any office on your personal or business affair, certainly
you should greet and introduce yourself before you’ll start your conversation.
There are some common rules of greeting (greeting etiquette) which you
have already known, I suppose.
They are the following ones:
1. The person who is entering greets the first.
2. The man greets the woman.
3. The younger person greets the senior one.
4. You should look at the person you greet with smile.
5. In European countries and in Russia people shake hands each other, even the
man and the woman. And in Arabian countries it isn’t accepted.
6. While speaking with an unknown person don’t use informal greetings such as
‘Hi’, ‘Hello’ and something like that. You should say ‘Good morning’, ‘Good
afternoon’. Such informal expressions as ‘Hi’, ‘Hello’, ‘Bye-bye’, ‘So long’,
‘See you later’ etc. are more often used by friends.
7. When you are introduced your surname and name are called loudly to everybody and you only nod your head lightly. When you introduce yourself call
your surname, name and sometimes patronymic (middle name). The person
who you introduce yourself says ‘Glad (nice) to meet you’.
8. There are different ways of addressing people in different languages. In English, there is only one personal pronoun ‘you’ which is used both to strangers
and to close friends and family members. While in Spanish there are three personal pronouns depending on the degree of familiarity: ‘usted’ – ‘вы’ – офици-
13
альная вежливая форма по отношению к одному человеку (the official polite form applied to one person); ‘ustedes’ – ‘вы’ – (plural); ‘tu’ – ‘ты' – неофициальное обращение (unofficial addressing). In American English there is
a tendency to reach ‘first-name terms’ with strangers as quickly as possible.
The British, on the other hand, are more cautious about using first names and
tend to stick with ‘Mr Smith’ or ‘MISS brown’ until they are invited to use first
names. Other languages such as Korean have a complex system of honorific titles.
«Заговори, чтобы я тебя увидел» (Сократ) – “Speak to see you” or
“Speak I can see you”.
Speech etiquette is a complex of rules, principles and specific forms of
verbal communication presupposing the respectful attitude to the interloc utor.
It is the speech etiquette which regulates the business relations.
The functions of speech etiquette:
1) Establishment of contact between people –
Speech etiquette allows to attract attention to the interlocutor, to contact, to meet
the interlocutor.
2) Maintenance of contact between people –
It is a conversation “about nothing” during which people make impressions about
each other, find out news and support their relations.
3) Demonstration of politeness and respect to the interlocutor –
It’s reached with the help of various means – different forms of addressing, apologies, gratitude, greeting, request, sympathy.
4) Regulation of people’s behavior in the society –
The preservation of etiquette rules makes people’s behavior predictable, and gives
an opportunity to determine how to behave in specific situation.
5) Prevention of conflicts –
The reliable means of conflict prevention is maintenance of etiquette communication and if the conflict breaks out the etiquette allows to overcome it.
FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE
The most important elements of speech etiquette:
1. GREETING
For business communication the stylistically neutral greetings are common:
- How do you do?
- Good afternoon, colleagues!
- Good evening, ladies and gentlemen!
- Glad to meet you!
- I am greeting you (Let me greet you).
2. ADDRESSING
This element presupposes the addressing to the interlocutor by name, surname,
profession or post:
- Dear colleagues!
14
-
Ladies and gentlemen!
Professor!
Sir! (in the USA army) Comrade Colonel! (in our army)
Mr Brown!
In the western companies it’s commonly accepted to address “you” and call
by name. In Russian business circles there are no established traditions. Usually
you address to your direct chef and to the person at the first contact by name and
middle name.
Addressing “citizen” is held in official situations, especially dealing with
lawguarded bodies and also in documents. When you address to official person you
should say “Mr President”, “Comrade Colonel” – without name. If you communicate with the scientist the appropriate form of addressing is “Dc Johnson” or Pr
Likhachyov”.
3. INTRODUCING
It is an act of mutual identification between people who haven’t been introduced
before. The speech patterns are:
- Let me introduce myself.
- My name is … (I’m…)
- I represent…
- I am a representative of…
The reply pattern is:
- Nice to meet you.
The introducing of the third party:
- Let me introduce…
- I’d like to introduce you…
4. INVITATION
It should be formulated openly and contain the following components:
- reason;
- place and time of meeting;
- list of invited persons.
5. COMPLIMENT
It is an utterance which contains a certain exaggeration of person’s positive
qualities. They are the “magic words”. And you may begin any meeting, conference or business communication with the compliment. You know, certainly, the
proverb “A kind word is nice to the cat even”. And it concerns everybody.
Firstly, every person likes to hear some nice words to his or her address.
Then, these words will arise the feeling of satisfaction and make positive emotions.
And at last they will create disposition to the person or to the question discussed.
But the compliment
- should have only the direct meaning;
- should carry only positive assessment and not contain any double meaning;
- shouldn’t be moralizing;
- shouldn’t be added with some words which eliminate it;
- shouldn’t persuade the evident objects.
15
Don’t
- use hyperbole because otherwise it won’t be a compliment but a mockery;
- make a compliment of quality which is appreciated greatly by the pe rson himself.
Never do the compliment to the quality the person wants to avoid of.
6. CONGRATULATION
It may be on occurrence of any anniversary or event.
Official or business congratulation proves the established relations and it should be
correct:
- Let me congratulate you.
- My congratulations.
It may be connected with successful fulfillment of the work. In casual business
communication we use the stylistically neutral tone:
- You’ve made a good job of it.
- Thank you for …
Reply forms:
- Thank you for your attention.
- Thanks. I am glad to hear such response.
7. ADVICE
You should give some advice only in the case your interlocutor needs it. And, of
course, you should ask:
- Will you let me to give you some advice?
Or you may say:
- Why wouldn’t you…
- Wouldn’t you like…
You shouldn’t thrust your advice on a person.
8. CONSENT (AGREEMENT)
In official language the expression of consent is characterized with restraint:
- You’re right.
- Surely.
- I quite agree with you.
- I don’t object.
- I haven’t any objections.
9. DISSENT (DISAGREEMENT)
It should be said in mild form:
- I doubt it.
- Sorry, you aren’t quite right.
- I am not quite sure that…
- I think you are mistaken.
10.APOLOGIES
It depends on the degree of fault and the type of situation. Insignificant fault:
- Excuse my troubling you.
- Forgive me, please.
When the situation is more official we say:
16
- I must apologize.
When the faults are serious you should give the detailed explanation:
- I didn’t mean to hurt you.
- Sorry, I’ve kept you waiting.
You mustn’t say:
- Excuse myself (извиняюсь).
Note: If you say “Excuse me” to attract somebody’s attention – with the falling intonation. If you express request to repeat something – with the rising intonation.
11.REPLY ON THE APOLOGY
It is usually the nod by head or approving look. You may say:
- Don’t worry.
- That’s all right.
- You needn’t apologize. It’s my fault.
If you talk on the phone you say:
- I accept your excuses.
12.REQUEST
If you ask somebody to do something you should say:
- Can (could) you do me a favour?
- Would you be so kind…
- Could you spare me a moment?
- If you don’t object…
13.GRATITUDE (THANKS)
In official language we use stylistically coloured patterns:
- This was very kind of you…
- Thank you for the trouble you’ve taken.
- I am very grateful to you.
12. PARTING
It ends any type of speech communication, sums up the conversation and expresses
hope on continuation of the contacts in future:
- Good-bye. Hope to…
- Let me say good-bye.
THE CULTURE OF SPEECH
One of the tasks of speech communication is effective self-presentation,
the ability to impress the interlocutor. It is impossible without correct, clear and
literate speech. That’s why the culture of speech plays the important role in communication. Cultural speech has some criteria. It should be:
1. Correct It should correspond to the phonetic, grammatical and stylistic norms of language.
2. Communicatively conditioned You should speak differently in various situations. You shouldn’t use “the high
style” when you speak to more familiar person and don’t use the colloquial language attending the officials.
17
3. Accurate It should be true and reliable.
4. Logical The utterance should contain the relations between facts.
5. Simple and accessible Your speech should be clear and easily understandable for the addressee.
6. Pure Your speech should be free from dialects, popular speech, barbarisms, jargons,
slang, vulgarisms.
7. Expressive To support your listener’s attention and interest you should give interesting info rmation and do it emotionally.
8. Various in expressive means The active usage of words and their synonyms.
9. Appropriate You should choose language means suitable for the context, situation, psychological characteristics of the interlocutor.
10. Aesthetical Your speech shouldn’t be offensive for your interlocutor, you should avoid disharmonious and tactless words and expressions. You use euphemisms in these cases. Instead of “he goes bald” – (он лысеет) – you should say “he loses hair” –
(он теряет волосы); “beggar” – “нищий“ и “needy”, “indigent” – “нуждающийся“.
PECULIARITIES OF COMMUNICATION WITH THE HELP OF THE
TRANSLATOR (INTERPRETER)
It concerns you directly. The “good” interpreter is not the specialist in the
field of language only but also the expert of the country. The professional interpreter plays the key-role in establishing of cooperation, especially, in the case if the
talks are held with representatives of the countries whose culture, life philosophy
and business etiquette differ from those in European countries or in Russia.
If you communicate with the help of the interpreter you should observe the
following rules. And if you’re the interpreter you should demand:
- to speak slowly formulating the thoughts accurately;
- to tell not more than 1 or 2 sentences because, you know, it’s difficult to keep in
memory much information. And besides the syntactical arrangement is different in
different languages. For example, in Persian language the predicative is always at
the end of the sentence;
- don’t use proverbs, idioms or verses in speech because their translation to other
languages requires more time and some proverbs may be offensive for other peoples;
- you should consider your partner’s reaction and in some situations explain the
thoughts with more simple words. The interpreter can ask you the same;
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- the interpreter should be acquainted with the problems touched beforehand. He
should have enough time to look through the material and terminology used. Remember! There is no interpreter who can operate with medical, technical or other
terminology quite perfectly without any preparation.
Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
How would you define the “speech etiquette”?
What are the functions of speech etiquette?
Name the most important elements of the speech etiquette.
What are the main rules of compliment?
Could you point out the criteria of cultural speech?
What are the main peculiarities of communication with the help of the interpreter?
Vocabulary in need
Expressions
admit fault
body gestures
check details
keep speaking distance
keep your cool
rules of conduct
Выражения
признавать вину
манеры
уточнять детали
выдерживать расстояние между
собеседниками
сохранять хладнокровие
правила поведения
BUSINESS CONVERSATION
It is an important part of business communication, which presupposes not
the dialogues only but the monologues as well. T may be meeting where you discuss the urgent questions; it may be your report (monthly, weekly or annual), it
may be the communication with people during the business trip. And you should
express your thoughts correctly during all kinds of conversation, in every speech
situation. Before speaking about rules of behavior in the process of conversation
we should note that in any employment a situation involving some amount of tension, frustration or even conflict can be considered as normal. There are many
types of conflicts. Some are related to the nature of the work itself. And often they
are related to various social or even cultural factors. In a multicultural work environment some degree of conflict and misunderstanding is unavoidable. When two
people from the same culture meet, they sometimes fail to hit it off together because of differences in style or personality. But when two people from different
cultures get together, they sometimes feel uncomfortable because of cultural differences. Many conflicts can be related to unclear chains of command. Some co nflicts are related to tone and register. They tend to occur more often in telephone
communication than in face-to-face communication. When using the telephone,
19
many people are not cautious in monitoring their tone and often express irritation
in their voice while they would normally try to conceal when speaking face to face.
Thus, we try to determine conflict areas:
1) misunderstood speech;
2) wrong register or tone;
3) inappropriate style or attitude;
4) ambiguous or conflicting domain.
According to anthropologist Edward Hall, within every culture there are at
least three levels of interaction and communication. These are the technical, the
formal and the informal levels. On the technical level, conflicts can be resolved
pretty much by the book or by checking with the proper authority.
Rules of behavior on the formal and informal levels are arbitrary and differ
from culture to culture, but there is one basic difference between informal and
formal rules: the first ones are often unconscious.
So, to handle conflicts we should keep some tips:
1)
identify and clarify the specific problem;
2)
consider relationships of involved persons;
3)
think before speaking or having reaction;
4)
allow all the involved persons to explain how they see the problem;
5)
discuss the issue, but do not attack the person;
6)
if you can not resolve the problem, try to manage it.
And, surely, consider the national peculiarities of your interlocutor.
We can have business conversation during the meeting or making different
kinds of reports, going to the business trips or communicating with your partner or
colleague.
Meeting
To speak at the meeting or to hold a meeting requires some skills. Meetings
are effective when:
1. All participants were informed in advance of the time, place and probable
length of the meeting.
2. A written agenda is useful if there are several points to be discussed. The agenda should clearly state the purpose of the meeting.
3. Time, limits for the meeting should be set up in advance. The meeting should
start and end at the scheduled time.
4. It should be an honest, open exchange of ideas. Participants should speak out
their opinions avoiding conflict situations.
Meetings come in all shapes and sizes, of course. Here are some types:
 chat (informal discussion) with colleagues at the coffee machine;
 brainstorming among colleagues: where as many ideas as possible are produced quickly, to be evaluated later;
 project meeting/ team meeting of employees involved in a particular activity;
 department meeting;
20




meeting with suppliers, for example to negotiate prices for an order;
meeting with a customer, for example to discuss a contract;
board meeting: an official, formal meeting of a company’s directors;
annual general meeting: where shareholders discuss the company’s annual
report;
 extraordinary general meeting: a shareholders’ meeting to discuss an important issue such as a proposed merger.
Reporting
This kind of business speech is usually represented in two forms: oral and
written. So we can speak that reporting is equally a kind of communication (monologue) and a kind of correspondence.
Very often you have to describe the trends either in your reports or articles.
To illustrate their conclusions people use tables and graphs. They organize information in easily understandable form.
In your report you must point out the time period, the purpose, the key issue, the actions taken, the actions scheduled, request or recommendations.
Modifying words are often used in trends descriptions. They can be classified in the following ways:
Size
substantially
considerably
moderately
slightly
modestly
Speed
rapidly
fast
gradually
steadily
slowly
Impact
remarkably
dramatically
significantly
noticeably
markedly
Modifying words always precede adjectives, for example:
pretty stable, fairly constant, quite stagnant.
Business trip
Usually business trip involves and inquires different documentation for the
ticket on the plane or train, for the hotel room, communication with co-workers or
local inhabitants. And here we should speak about different ways of communic ation at whole. During oral communication the rules of speech etiquette are the
same certainly.
If you ask some information you surely use such phrases as ‘Could you tell
me (explain me)?’, ‘Do you happen to know?’. And if you seek information about
travel, hotels etc. of the city you are going to visit, book a flight or reserve a room
at a hotel ask politely.
In addition people usually communicate with the help of the notices and
warnings. If you are in a foreign country you should know them.
21
Business conversation itself is an oral speech contact between people connected
with business relations. It serves for solving business problems and establishing
business cooperation. Competence, benevolence, tactfulness, striving for solving
the problem quickly and effectively are the necessary provisions. As a rule, bus iness conversations are planned beforehand.
- The key moments (issues) of conversation are marked.
- The questions to interlocutor are thought over.
- The possible results are defined.
- Order of business is established.
- Time and place of conversation are agreed.
First of all, try to dispose your interlocutor, create the positive mood. Have a
habit to look into the eyes, but not too insistently, otherwise the person will feel
uncomfortably. Your face expression, gestures, voice tone should express politeness at the meeting, interest at the listening to, courtesy at the opinion exchange
and discussion, sympathy and tact during the criticism and comments.
The general tone of conversation should be neutral, but some emotions are
quite suitable.
Don’t distract your attention on phone calls or other affairs. Try not to interrupt your interlocutor. When it is necessary you should apologize and explain the
reason.
Keep self-possession and benevolence during the conversation. Don’t criticize your interlocutor’s opinion sharply. But if you argue, then argue the subject,
not the personality.
In your conversation don’t touch questions you have vague idea about.
Don’t boast your knowledge, talent, abilities or your acquaintances with famous
people. You should be able both to speak and to listen to well. Finally, you sum up
and thank your interlocutor.
Assignment for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What are the main conflict areas?
What tips should you keep to handle conflicts?
Where can you face with business conversation?
What does business conversation itself presuppose?
Can you name the main rules of business conversation?
Vocabulary in need
be brought about by, be caused by,
be due to
chairperson
chart
deceleration
draft
быть обусловленным
председательствующий
схема
замедление
набросок, проект текста документа
22
drop
findings
fluctuation
inquire
minutes
outcome
overdue
proceedings
proposer
spokesperson
survey
резкое уменьшение
полученные данные
колебание
запрашивать информацию
протокол
результат
просроченный счет
заседание
вносящий предложение
спикер
сводка
Expressions
at your earliest convenience
be run out of time
bring into discussion
cover the issue
delegate authority
dramatic rise
explore the issue
handle conflict
hold a meeting
make concessions
signify
take a floor
take the minutes
Выражения
при первой возможности
быть ограниченным во времени
поставить на обсуждение
осветить вопрос
передавать полномочия
серьезный подъем
исчерпать вопрос
разрешать конфликт
проводить собрание
делать уступки
извещать
взять слово
вести протокол
I’m afraid that might not work,
help, be possible
Yes, I’ll go along with that
Well, you’ve convinced me
Боюсь, что это не сработает, не
поможет, невозможно
Да, я соглашусь с этим
Хорошо, Вы меня убедили
PUBLIC SPEECH
‘The lecturer was falling asleep slowly and the
audience was the first to sleep long before him.’
‘Лектор медленно засыпал, аудитория намного
его опередила.’ – А. Чехов
Public speech is not always the independent form of communication. Very
often it is a part of business meeting, conference, presentation or business talks.
There are some classifications of speech.
The condensed speech is said on a certain reason. It may be expanded form
of greeting, parting, congratulation, condolences, opening or closing any event.
23
The main difficulty it is made spontaneously and requires unordinary thinking, splendid memory, good taste and brilliant erudition. You should be quite good
psychologist to сatch the audience mood and choose the favourable moment for
speaking. Your speech should be brief, but convincing and sincere.
The solemn or special speech is usually started with greeting and proclamation of reason.
The mourning speech should be simple and short. (About dead you tell either well or nothing).
Depends on the degree of influence speech may be:
1. informing – is spoken out to pass some knowledge. The kinds of informing
speech are lecture, message, account, speech at the meeting, report;
2. persuading – as a rule, is used as promotional one. It is aspired to impact on
way of thinking;
3. motivating is also promotional one, but it points what to do.
There are main kinds of public speeches:
- speech which is read (с листа). Now there are special screens allowing to read
the text looking at the spectators;
- speech has been learnt by heart. However, at this moment a person doesn’t think
about what and how he says but he tries not to forget something important;
- improvised speech, it is the most widespread form of public speech. It impacts
effectively the audience and contains some elements of spontaneous speech and the
previous one;
- spontaneous speech is made without preliminary preparation. It is highly evaluated. And if the person is well-read and possesses high level of culture, he will be
successful to be spontaneous.
Any speech consists of beginning, the main content and conclusion. It’s necessary to care of correctness and adequateness of every phrase and the text at
whole.
Business speech should be convincing, eloquent, argumenting, logical and
literate. It is unique and irreversible.
The pronounced text is characterized with certain peculiarities making it
more comfortable to accept:
- lexical means – repetitions, perephrases, introductory words and constructions;
- intonation means – pauses, slowing down of speech speed, rising the voice;
- special segmentation – each paragraph and enumeration of arguments are
marked with “firstly”, “secondly”, the pause, intonation singling out of
words.
When you create such text as a report or an account, etc. the information s election is quite important. The sentences should be very short. It’ll be convenient
for the listeners and for you. The phrase containing 10-13 words is accepted the
most, 14-18 words – well. But the phrase which has 25-30words is difficult to keep
in memory. And the phrase with 30 words isn’t accepted at all.
Don’t speak too loudly even if the time is limitable.
24
Don’t overload your speech with foreign words and terminology. Don’t use
the words-parasites (как бы, вот, значит).
Avoid the superficial words (вы знаете, короче говоря, если хотите).
Pay attention to your positions and gestures.
The work of the person at the exhibition
The display-stand personnel is the face of the enterprise, trade mark or any
product. The person who is responsible for the exhibition must possess the wo nderful skills of business communication.
The work at the exhibition is specific and the least mistake can lead to und esirable and irreversible consequences.
As a rule, communication time with one customer is nearly 6 min. And the
customer expects the delicate approach, irreproachable reception, warm manners,
professional service.
A special attention is paid to the contact making. The main principles of
modern business protocol are relevant here: the friendly visual contact, polite
greeting, introducing, delivering of business card, the selection of behavior strategy.
It’s very important to create positive atmosphere which is correlated with the
image of the enterprise.
The personnel must have a desire to communicate with people and do it perfectly. The personnel should know a lot about the firm and its history, about production and activity trends, be attractive and hardy.
Some rules you should keep being a representative at the exhibition:
- take care of your appearance. You should look irreproachable. Keep cleanness;
- have a smile but your face must be clever;
- call by name your customers. It is an excellent way to the mutual understanding;
- take notes. Write all necessary information about the client, while demonstrating
your being interested in the interlocutor;
- don’t sit. You should be attentive to your customer;
- don’t read;
- don’t talk on the phone;
- don’t have a snack or drink. Your speech should be clear and quite loud;
- don’t smoke. It’s impolite;
- don’t impose advertisement materials or your aggressive behavior may spoil everything.
And at last, speaking about communication we shouldn’t forget about gestures, behavior, face expression in any situation. It is non-verbal form of communication which is also very important.
Assignments for self-control
1. What kinds of speech do you know?
2. Name the main requirements to the business speech.
25
3. What stylistic devices are used to create effective speech?
4. How is the work of the person at the exhibition characterized?
5. Is non-verbal form of communication important during public speech?
Vocabulary in need
advertisement
billboard
campaign
consumer
deal
demand
demographics
emphasis
implement
networking
promotion
sales
supply
well-publicized
отдельное рекламное объявление
рекламный щит
кампания
потребитель
сделка
спрос
информация о рынке
акцент, фокус
внедрять
дистрибьюторская сеть
продвижение товара
сбыт реализация
предложение
хорошо разрекламированный
Expressions
advertising campaign
adverse, favourable conditions
Выражения
рекламная кампания
неблагоприятные, благоприятные условия
доминировать на рынке
проникнуть на рынок
dominate the market
enter, penetrate, break into the
market
find a new market for
saturate, flood the market
target market
найти новый рынок для
насытить рынок
целевой рынок
THE TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION RULES
Mostly all the types of communication between business people are directed
towards one aim: the order. Sometimes business people prefer to place orders on
the phone, especially when there is an urgent matter. But there are also other bus iness occasions to speak on the phone. The phone conversation involves less official language than written orders. Here are some common rules of telephone communication.
Remember that the other person:
1. Wants to understand you easily, so try to speak clearly.
2. Cannot see your reaction, so always confirm that you have (or have not) understood each point that has been made.
26
3. Cannot see you and does not know what a nice person you are, so make sure
your voice sounds polite and agreeable.
4. Cannot spend much time, so make sure your call is brief.
5. Is getting an impression of your company while talking to you, so make sure
that your voice sounds efficient.
Here is an example of telephone conversation:
- Bill Jones speaking: can I help you?
- Yes, my name is Peter Brown. A mutual friend of ours, Susan Priesley, referred
me to you. I am interested in hanging careers, and she thought you would be a valuable source of information for me.
- Mrs. Priesley, of course. How can I help you?
- I would like very much to come up and speak with you. Would you be willing to
give me a few minutes of your time?
- Well, my schedule is a little tight. When were you thinking of meeting?
- Whenever it is convenient for you.
- Well, can you make it after five o’clock some day next week?
- Yes, I can.
- Fine, then how is 5.15, Wednesday, at my office?
- Next Wednesday at 5.15 is fine. Thank you very much, Mr. Jones.
- You’re welcome. Hold on – my secretary will give you directions.
- Thank you. See you Wednesday.
To save time at the beginning and at the end of telephone conversations
standard phrases are used.
The caller may wish to leave additional information. Complete telephone
messages usually include important details such as names, telephone number.
Many firms have their own special printed forms for messages. Messages
contain five main elements:
- name of the person the message is for;
- date;
- time of taking message;
- message;
- name of the person who receives the message.
Abbreviations may be used provided the message is clear. On a message
form, the year is not necessary when indicating the date. In an office, the taker of
the message may use only the initials of the person the message is for. The same
may apply to the taker of the message. The name of the caller should be noted in
full as well as the name of the firm where applicable. It is always advisable to take
the telephone number of the caller, except in special circumstances, i.e. where the
telephone number is well-known to the person the message is for, or where there is
no necessity to call back. The message should be repeated back to the caller.
Sometimes if the person you want to speak to is not there, you may hear the
voicemail or an answer phone. It can be difficult to leave a message on an answer
phone. You have to think quickly and speak clearly, and you have to pretend that
you are talking to a machine.
27
How to leave a message on an answer phone!
First of all, introduce yourself……. Hello. This is …….
My name is ……….
Then, give the day and time ………It’s three o’clock on Monday afternoon.
Explain reason for phoning………..I’m ringing…to let you know that……..
….to find out if…...
…because I need…
Then, request action follows ………Could you ring me back?
…………...help me?
After, you give your number……….My number is…
You can get me on……
I’m on 784 567 until five o’clock.
End………………………………….Thanks a lot.
THE MAIN RULES OF THE ACTIVE LISTENING
- Keep silence! You cannot listen to, if you are speaking.
- Help the client to feel he can speak easily. Make a “liberated situation”.
- Show to the client you want to listen to him/her. Express your interest. Listen to
understand and not to answer.
- Don’t divert the client.
- Approve the client. Try to imagine if you were him/her.
- Be patient. Let him/her express. Don’t interrupt.
- Avoid being aggressive.
- Keep off the criticism and argument. It will provoke the client’s defense. He/she
can “close” or get angry. Don’t argue: if you even win, you have lost.
- Ask questions. It gives to the client courage and shows he/she is being listened to.
- Be a personality, be responsible. Distinguish your personal reactions.
Then, we give phrases most commonly used in connection with placing orders:
- We beg to order …
- Please, send us the following goods as soon as possible by the quickest route.
- Kindly supply (deliver) the following goods …
- We believe you will do your best to execute this order.
- We request you to …
The main requirements of telephone communication are brevity and clarity
of thoughts presentation.
The conversation should be held without big pauses or wrong words. But
you should consider non-verbal stimuli. They are:
- the moment for pause and its duration;
- silence;
- intonation which expresses enthusiasm and consent or reverse reactions.
During the telephone communication the interlocutor observes nor your face
expression, nor your suit or the interior of your office, that’s why your personal
28
image depends mainly upon your ability to speak on the phone. Thus, we can
summarize that the knowledge of telephone etiquette and rules of telephone communication are necessary for every civilized businessman.
To avoid the waste of time because of phone you should keep the following
recommendations:
- inform your potential telephone subscribers beforehand when they shouldn’t
phone you;
- inform the appropriate time for calling;
- don’t late with the promised calls and don’t wait when you are called;
- try to use the voicemail (answer phone). If you haven’t one and you’re busy use
the phrases like that “I’ll call back you later”.
During your communication you should find out who your telephone subscriber is, what the problem is, how important and urgent his affair is, when and
where you can phone him back.
If you’re called at your work you should name your organization and introduce yourself. You should demand the same from your interlocutor.
Before serious conversation and the call to another city it’s useful to write
down the main points of your conversation and necessary names and figures.
The optimal time to call is chosen according to 3 when’s:
1. When you think your call will be more convenient for the telephone subscriber;
2. When it’s easier to call for him;
3. When it’s more convenient for you.
When dialed the number, you should clarify if you are connected right. If
you arranged to call you should fulfill your promise.
Take notes and read aloud the most important information. From time to
time, speak out some words proving your attendance. Don’t relax during your telephone communication, it influences your attention and your state is quite perceived
by your interlocutor.
There are various circumstances for interrupting your conversation. You
should say in such cases:
- I don’t want to interrupt you but I’m afraid to be late for the meeting.
- Sorry, but the time up for the next meeting, I need to go.
- It’s nice to talk to you, but I have to call to one more place. Can I call you back
later?
- I’m busy now. Can I call you back?
- I’m glad to hear you but now I have to leave.
While finishing up your telephone communication you say:
- Let’s discuss everything once more in some days.
- I’ll call you next Monday.
- Let’s talk once more and sum up what we’ve come to.
If the conversation was broken up the person who rang, calls back. And the
person who started the conversation, finishes it up.
But keep some rules:
Don’t
29
- Ask “Can I help you?”
- Hold 2 conversations at the moment
- Say “Nobody is here”
Do
- Raise the receiver up to the 4-th bell
- Ask “What can I do for you?”
- Concentrate on your conversation
- Listen to very attentively
- Offer to wait to clarify or call back
The expressions you should avoid:
1. I don’t know
It would be better to say “The good question is. I’ll clarify this for you”.
2. We can’t help you
But you should find the other decision and concentrate on what you can.
3. You must
It’s a serious mistake, your client has nothing to have to. You should say “It
would be better if you…”
4. No – at the very beginning of your phrase.
There is no universal recipe but in every case you can find not so negative dec ision.
Try to be reserved during your conversation.
Remember! The phrase “This isn’t the telephone conversation” has the reverse effect. Everything you’ve spoken before and after it is analyzed very carefully.
Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What are the common rules of telephone communication?
What are the most important elements of messages?
How should you leave a message on an answer phone?
Enumerate the main rules of active listening.
What recommendations do you consider the most necessary in telephone
conversation?
Vocabulary in need
answerphone
area code
busy, engaged
buzzing
extension
free
long-distance, trunk
receiver
автоответчик
код города, страны
занятый
гудок
дополнительный номер
свободный, бесплатный
междугородний
телефонная трубка
30
Expressions
answer a call
be in
be out, away, off
call, phone, ring up
confirm an appointment, engagement
connect, put through
contact someone, get in touch with
someone
cut off, disconnect
hang up, put down the receiver
have a word (with), speak, talk to
hold on, hold the line
pick up the receiver
sort out something
speak over (on) the phone
Выражения
отвечать на звонок
быть на месте
отсутствовать на месте
звонить
подтвердить договоренность
соединить
связаться
разъединять
положить трубку
поговорить с
подождать у телефона
взять трубку
выяснить и уладить что-либо
говорить по телефону
NEGOTIATIONS
The word “negotiation” is from the Latin expression “negotiatus” which
means “to carry on business”. “Negotium” means literally “not leisure”.
Their purpose is:
- to promote a reasonable agreement;
- to settle discords when the conflicts have risen;
- to improve or to maintain relations.
The negotiations have 2 sides: proceeding (external) and content (internal).
The proceeding part
For negotiating 2 programmes should be developed: general – for guests and
detailed which includes all technical features – for the “holders”.
The general programme includes: meeting of the delegation, the programme
of business part – the negotiations, receptions, cultural procedures, delegation departure.
The detailed programme contains all organizational moments: delegation reception, participation of mass media, greeting speeches, the questions for discussion, transport provision, hotel arrangement, etc.
Before negotiations begin, preparing and planning are very important.
1) Get as much information as possible about the situation. If dealing with
people from another culture, find out about its etiquette and negotiating styles: the
way people negotiate, what they consider to be acceptable and unacceptable behavior, and so on.
31
2) Work out your initial bargaining position: what are your needs and objectives (the things that you want to achieve)? Decide your priorities (the most important objectives).
3) Try to estimate the needs and objectives of the other side.
4) Prepare a fallback position: conditions that you will accept if your original objectives are not met.
5) If you are negotiating as part of a negotiating team, consult your colleagues about previous points, and allocate roles and responsibilities.
The most important moments of negotiation
- date and time;
- the participants composition;
- the selection of common language;
- the preparation of the room for the negotiations;
- the meeting at the office;
- some organizational questions.
The content part
The first stage of the negotiation process is the conversation when the subject of negotiations is elaborated, the organizational questions are discussed.
There are six main rules of relations establishment:
1. Rationality
2. Understanding
3. Communication
4. Reliability
5. Avoid the didactic tone
6. Acceptance
There are different methods of conducting negotiations. The three of them
are the most wide-spread ones:
1. The mild method
- to avoid the personal conflict and to compromise for agreement;
2. The hard method
- any situation is considered as the will competition;
3. The method of principle negotiations
- presupposes the problem decision, considering the essence of the affair. It d enotes the hard approach to the essence of the affair but the mild approach to the relations between the participants. The method shows how to reach the desired and
do it correctly.
There are six steps common to each negotiation:
Step 1: Get to know the other, keep it friendly.
Step 2: Share goals, learn the other’s goals.
Step 3: Study all the issues beforehand, raise specific questions.
Step 4: Express areas of disagreement.
Step 5: Reassess positions.
Step 6: Affirm agreements.
32
Write a clear report including the following items:
1. The decision. Was there agreement?
2. If there was agreement, list everything agreed to in the negotiations.
3. If anything was not agreed upon explain the stumbling blocks that need to be
overcome.
4. If there was no agreement at all and the negotiations ended in failure explain
what happened to cause the failure.
5. Your assessment of the other team’s negotiating strategies, tactics and communication styles.
6. What you have learned while negotiating or communicating from this task.
What are good negotiators like?
The average negotiators think in terms of the present but the good negotiators take a long-term view.
The average negotiators set their objectives as – “We hope to get $ 2.00”.
The good negotiators set their objectives as following – “We hope to get $ 2.00 but
if we get $ 1.50 it’ll be all right”.
The average negotiators do not give many reasons. They just repeat the same
ones. On the contrary, good negotiators always summarize and review, checking
they have understood everything correctly and giving new proposals and reasons.
But cultural differences cause four kinds of problems in international bus iness negotiations at the levels of:
language;
nonverbal behaviours;
values;
thinking and decision-making processes.
Translation problems are often substantial in international negotiations. Often the language used is English. Indeed, native speakers from England, India and
the United States often have trouble understanding one another.
Anthropologist Ray L. Birdwhistell demonstrated that less than 35% of the
messages in conversations is conveyed by the spoken word while the other 65% is
communicated nonverbally. Albert Mehrabian, a UCLA psychologist, reports:
- 7% of the meaning is derived from the words spoken;
- 38% from paralinguistic channels, that is, tone of voice, loudness, and other
aspects of how things are said;
- 55% from facial expressions.
As we know, misunderstandings are especially likely to occur when the people who are communicating have different backgrounds. We shouldn’t ignore the
fact that people from other cultures differ in many ways: in their religion and values, their ideas of status, their attitude toward time, their use of space, their manners.
When faced with a complex negotiation task, most Westerners divide the
large task up into a series of smaller tasks. In Asia, however, a different approach
33
is more often taken when all the issues are discussed at once and concessions are
made on all issues at the end of the discussion. The Western sequential approach
and the Eastern holistic approach do not mix well.
So, when you are negotiating with people from other cultures, it’s important
to think about what they consider as ‘normal’ behavior. You’ll need to think about
the following:
body language;
physical contact;
conversational rules;
relationship building;
hierarchy;
attitudes to time.
When negotiations get stuck, and don’t progress, there are a number of
things you can do:
- Underline common ground - the areas where agreement has been reached.
- Reassure the other side on key points that have been decided - confirm that
you have not changed your mind.
- Be willing to compromise on your original objectives - be ready to accept
less than you wanted in exchange for compromises from the other side.
- Identify the exact obstacles or sticking points - the problems that are causing negotiations to become difficult.
- Postpone discussions until later so that each side can reconsider its pos ition.
Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What is the purpose of negotiations?
What does the proceeding part include?
Name six main rules of conducting negotiations.
What does the method of principle negotiations presuppose?
What steps are characteristic of negotiations?
What are good negotiators like?
What are the main problems in negotiations because of cultural differences?
Vocabulary in need
arrogant
bargain
be short of
capitalize on
confident
considerate
contradiction
courteous
высокомерный
торговаться
испытывать нехватку
извлечь преимущество
уверенный в себе
тактичный
противоречие
вежливый
34
drawback, obstacle
empathetic
fair
goal-oriented
haggle
hitch
hostile
incentive
indirect
negotiations, talks
open-minded
perceptive
persistent
Rebate
shortage
strength, advantage, benefit
substantiate
weakness, limitation
препятствие
эмоциональный
справедливый
целеустремленный
пререкаться
заминка, помеха
враждебно настроенный
стимул
уклончивый
переговоры
непредубежденный
восприимчивый
настойчивый
уступка, скидка
дефицит
преимущество
обосновывать
недостаток
Expressions
be in stock
be out of stock
fail to reach a deal
Reach a deal
Выражения
быть в наличии (на складе)
отсутствовать на складе
проиграть в переговорном процессе
добиться успеха в переговорном
процессе
COMMUNICATION WITH FOREIGN PARTNERS
Parkland Research Europe carried out a detailed research which gave some
idea of what Europeans think of each other. Here is an example.
Businessmen were asked to imagine they were setting up a multinational
company. They had to choose a nationality for the positions of president, managing
director, chief cashier, public relations officer and skilled and unskilled labour.
Germans were universal choice for the top jobs and also first choice for
skilled workers. The Italians were relegated to the unskilled jobs. The French received massive support for the light-weight public relations post. No European
picked up an Italian as president or chief cashier. Moreover, no Italian or Frenc hman picked one of his own nationalities as chief cashier.
Were you surprised at the information you’ve just read?
The first step in learning to communicate with people from other cultures is
to become aware of what culture means.
We can define culture as a system of shared symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and norms of behavior. Cultures vary widely. The major pro b-
35
lems in inter-cultural business communication are language barriers, cultural differences and ethnocentric reactions.
Oral communication usually presents more problems than written communication. So, when speaking any foreign language, follow these simple rules:
Pronounce words clearly.
Don’t be afraid to repeat the question and check the listener’s comprehension.
Rephrase your sentence when necessary.
Use accurate language.
Let other people finish what they have to say. Listen carefully and patiently.
At the end of a conversation, be sure that both you and the other person agre
what has been said and decided.
Misunderstandings especially occur when the people who are communicating have different backgrounds. We ignore that people from other cultures differ
from us in many ways: in their religion and values, their ideas of status, their decision-making habits, their attitude toward time, their use of space, their body language and their manners. What is polite in one country may be considered rude in
another. However, many of us have an ethnocentric reaction to people from other
cultures – that is, we judge all other groups according to our own standards. When
we react ethnocentrically, we ignore the distinctions between our own culture and
the other person’s culture. Fortunately, a healthy dose of tolerance can prevent a lot
of problems.
The best way to prepare yourself to do business with people from another
culture is to study their culture in advance. If you plan to live in another country or
to do business there repeatedly, learn the language. In addition you will learn
something about the culture and its customs in the process. You should be aware
with some moments. Does the business world have its own rules and protocol?
Who makes decisions? How are negotiations usually conducted? Is gift giving expected? What is the etiquette for exchanging business cards? etc.
The peculiarities of etiquette in some countries
The U S A
The American style of business communication is characterized with ignorance to the traditions; the reliability of the word given; the carefulness in organization; brevity and clarity; detailed check of execution; great attention to the details; specialization of stuff and production; constructiveness.
At the talks Americans pay much attention to the problem in question. They
prefer to come straight to the point. They are discussing not just general approac hes to the problem, but also the details concerning realization of the agreements.
The American business is hard in its essence and the protectionism is generally accepted.
36
The Americans pretend to be “know-it-all” in business of any country and
nationality.
You should determine the result desired in advance and plan your convers ation so to touch your main tasks and advantages. Find the specific unusual features
in your proposal which distinguish you from the other firms and always attract attention of your partner to this fact.
They are energetic and demonstrate friendliness and openness. Americans
don’t like too formal atmosphere during the talks. They may insist on first name
terms, they appreciate humour and jokes.
American style of negotiation is characterized by high professionalism. You
can hardly find an incompetent member in an American delegation. That’s why
they are rather independent in making decisions.
Punctuality is extremely important for Americans.
The style of your clothes is conservative, neat and fashionable simultaneously.
The meetings should be talked about beforehand. And, certainly, try to inform about your visit some days before your arrival.
Shaking hands is not so common in the USA.
The business cards are sometimes exchanged not at the beginning of the negotiations but after the question “How can I contact with you?”. The gifts connec ted with the foreign culture are appreciated.
Avoid the racial, religious, social or political topics and the discussion of
previous or present wars the America took part in during the conversation. Some
common topics are the person’s job, travel, foods and dieting, sports, music, mo vies, etc.
Americans start talking about business after a very brief exchange of small
talk.
Business is done at lightning speed in comparison to many countries.
Great Britain
English business is characterized with social conservatism.
British representatives don’t pay much attention to the preparation for the
negotiations. Their approach is very pragmatic: they believe that it is at the negotiations that they can find the best solution. The British are flexible enough.
You should negotiate only after you have found out the approximate level of
prices and their tendencies, the peculiarities of the firm and obtained the information about the staff.
The English businessmen occupy the hard position at the negotiations. The
numerous factual, statistic and reference material are applied.
The British are normally more interested in short-term results than in the
long-term future.
Avoid the hard sell.
Don’t make comparisons with the USA out loud.
Don’t rush the English toward a decision.
37
The English are even more direct than US executives.
They are calm, reserved, open-minded, trustworthy. And at the same time
insular and superior. But they have an excellent sense of humour.
Remember! The Scots, Welsh and Irish do not call themselves “English”.
The English do not consider themselves “European”.
Customs, etiquette and social rules of behavior are strictly kept.
You should be aware of titles.
The elder people are respected and appreciated.
Handshake is necessary.
The business cards are exchanged at the beginning of the negotiations.
The punctuality is appreciated highly.
Gratitude speeches and letters are also welcomed.
Avoid the conversation about the politics, money, prices, religion and the
Northern Ireland. The English enjoy talking about animals, sports, travel and gardening.
Do not make jokes about the royal family.
The souvenirs accepted are calendars, notebooks, lighters, pens, alcohol
drinks.
You should be acquainted with the distinguishing features of British English
and American English languages.
The best clothes for any meeting is the traditional business suit. You
shouldn’t be too well-dressed.
Germany
People get acquainted introducing each other. Titles are very important. Address to each other as “герр”, “фрау”, “Professor”. The Germans prefer officiality
in business relations. Everybody is polite.
It’s better to have business cards, simple and elegant, on German or English
languages.
Handshake is accepted here as much as nowhere else.
The talks don’t begin before 10 a.m. and are over not late than 4 p.m. You
are expected to possess the entire information. Tour speech, in its essence, should
be clear and strict. The Germans are neat and punctual. If you doubt in your intensions to observe the arrangement conditions and terms, you’d better to refuse from
your proposals.
Don’t doubt in knowledge and abilities of the Germans.
Don’t be offended if your German partners lock the telephone or any other
apparatus in your presence. It is only German economy.
The Germans can hold the business telephone talks. They don’t spare the
time to begin the conversation. It has the specific character.
Gratitude and response speeches are necessary. They are carefully prepared
and are said without any notes. The following topics as the Second World War,
Nazism, the Jews. The Germany separation are not concerned.
38
The souvenirs are not exchanged during the establishing of business relations. The gifts are often presented for Christmas.
If you are invited to the restaurant, keep in mind, that bills are paid by the
person inviting and the guests separately. The tips are included into your dinner.
France
Having known as much as possible about the firms you’re interested in, send
a set of brochures and catalogues on your enterprise production. The materials
should be written in French, the Frenchmen don’t accept English or German in
business communication, believing it infringes their national dignity.
It must be remembered, that different relations and acquaintances are very
important in business life of France.
The requirements to the appearance of the business person are generally the
same as in the other European countries. But there is one main rule: the clothes
should be of high quality and made of natural material. The special attention is
paid to the shoes.
The business card is necessary during the first meeting.
Addressing by name is not accepted. “Monsieur” and “Madame” are usually
used.
Sometimes during the conversation the French businessmen interrupt their
interlocutor, speaking out the critical notes. But it is generally accepted here and it
does not show disrespect.
Some important decisions are accepted not only in the office, but at the dinner table. But you should be cautious in touching the questions of religion, perso nal problems, incomes, expenditures, diseases, marital status, political likes. The bill
is paid, as a rule, by the person who has invited.
Italy
The acquaintance begins with the exchange of business cards, you should
have a lot of them. Business cards should be in Italian, English or French languages.
The Italians communicate with their partners even in spare time. Moreover
many business items are discussed preferably unofficially, for example, in the restaurant.
Clothes for business: the official suit and natural jewelry only.
Forbidden topics: Mussollini, fascism, Mafia, criminal, politics.
The gifts should be of high quality and elegant.
Taking taxi, occupy the back right seat. Pay according to the meter, those,
who don’t waste money, are respected here.
China
39
Although China is an Asian country, the business etiquette is, mainly, European here.
The official suit is also important. Business cards are necessary. One side of
them is in Chinese, another one – in English.
The old age is the sign of wisdom and the elder people are respected. The
forty-years people are considered to be young.
The Chinese are non-categorical in their opinions. You also should avoid
the word “no”.
The negotiations with Chinese partners are rather long: from some days to
some months because the Chinese accept any decisions only after thorough stud ying of all aspects.
At first, the Chinese appreciate the status of each participant at the negotiations. The appearance, behavior, relations inside the delegation are taken into
consideration.
The talks are successful if you can persuade the Chinese partner in real advantages of cooperation with you. Your delegation should include highly qualified
specialists able to solve technical questions at once and a good interpreter, who
knows the specific terms in your business and local dialect.
They give the enormous significance to the establishment of friendly, informal relations with foreign partners.
Japan
The business etiquette of Japanese businessmen differs greatly from that one
of the European countries.
The style in clothes is very strict and neat: in winter the suit is dark, in summer it is light.
Get acquainted with the help of the third person. Pronounce your name distinctly. Acquaintance begins with the exchange of business cards. It should be both
presented and taken with two hands, read your partner’s card carefully. It’s imp olite to keep business cards merely in your pocket.
The accepted addressing is Mr. Sudzuki or Sudzuki-san.
Avoid the physical contacts: don’t touch your partner, lean yourself against
somebody, grab somebody’s hands or tap the shoulder.
Bowing substitute handshaking. The older and more significant person, the
lower he is bowed. If you are presented a souvenir you should also bow.
Numerous ceremonies are important for Japanese because they can characterize the person. The Japanese give great significance to the order or the rules of
business etiquette.
The Japanese are rather “closed” and speak any foreign language badly, especially Russian. You should have a good interpreter. All materials should be in
Japanese. And learn some Japanese phrases.
Be punctual at the talks. If you can’t arrive in time, say beforehand and the
duration of the meeting should be reduced then on the late time.
40
Japanese see negotiations as a ritualized process with harmony and the saving of face at all stages being paramount. It is usually inappropriate ‘to get down to
business’ immediately.
If the counterpart is making a concession the Japanese party will most probably do the same.
The working day is one of the longest in the world. It isn’t accepted to leave
for home before the boss’s departure. The holiday is quite short because the Jap anese can’t have a rest for a long time. They are very hard-working people.
The peculiarity of the Japanese business is the loyalty to the firm, state, nation and therefore self-discipline, the high level of corporative culture, unselfishness, patriotism.
You can hardly meet women in business.
Be as polite as you can. Don’t loose the self-possession in the presence of
Japanese partners, even if you are very angry, keep yourself in hands.
Don’t press the Japanese or make him do some actions.
Don’t be verbose. The silence is more appreciated than speech in Japanese
ethics and culture.
The best topics for conversation are your country and national culture, ho bbies, children and business. Try not to speak about the Emperor and the Second
World War.
Take off your shoes before the entry into the dwelling, restaurant etc. (Don’t
step on the threshold because it is considered to be the place where kind spirits
live.)
Finland
The features of national Finnish character are industriousness, solidness, persistence. Modern Finnish business ethics is characterized with reliability, correctness, precision and honesty in relations and as well punctuality and pedantism. You are expected to be careful and to carry out your obligations.
The style in clothes is also official. The business cards are widely used. They
should be in English or Swedish, many people know German. Russian is a
little spoken.
The Finnish are straightforward. The compliments are rarely used, but politeness is
appreciated. You shouldn’t speak out on the relations between Finland and
the USSR.
Many business problems are solved in sauna or restaurant. You shouldn’t refuse
from these invitations.
There is a strict law as for the smoking in the country. It is banned in public places
and offices.
Turkey
Business clothes, business cards, acquaintance, speeches and etiquette are of
western style.
41
The Turkish are very polite, brought up and hospitable, but terribly unpunctual. It is accepted to be late for an hour in Istanbul. The Turkish consider themselves the Europeans. Most of them are Muslims, but they are quite free in their
thoughts and opinions. They are rather tolerable to the people of other beliefs.
A lot of conversations begins in the café while drinking tea with cakes. The
Turkish are sweet teeth. They have the proverb “Eaten sweetly – spoken sweetly”.
To meet with the Turkish you should have enough time, because business
conversation will be proceeded by the conversation about nothing, tea or coffee.
But, may be, it is during this conversation the fate of your proposal about cooperation will be solved.
Arab countries
Islam is not just a religion, it’s a mode of life. You shouldn’t touch upon religious topics. They have specific sense of humour. Arabs don’t understand intellectual jokes, they prefer straightforward jokes. They are self-conceited people,
having a high opinion of themselves. That is why they prefer to be flattered and not
to be criticized. They are quick to take offence.
The most important factor in business relations is personal contacts. Many
problems can be solved easier, if an Arab knows and respects the counterpart. Arabs are very precise in discussing the details in question.
Due to the Islamic philosophy Arabs have peculiar attitude towards time and
punctuality. Being late and not fulfilling agreements are common things for them.
To express your resentment is of no use.
Many Arabs, even those who received their education in western countries,
are not interested in music or literature. They may be interested in politics if it influences their personal or business interests.
As a rule, Arabs don’t drink alcohol, although using drugs is quite common.
In the Middle East, for example, a skilled negotiator would get down to real
business only after a lengthy and polite discussion of more general topics. In co ntrast, an American negotiator would value a more direct approach to negotiation.
The Arab negotiator considers the American rude, the American negotiator sees
the Arab as wasting valuable time.
Russia
It is usual for Russians to be one or two hours late to an appointment. Patience, not punctuality is considered a virtue in Russia. Allow plenty of time for
each appointment. Not only may they start late but they may run two or three
times longer than originally planned.
Be sure to take enough business cards. Do not be surprised if you do not receive a Russian’s business card in exchange for yours. They may not have them.
Peace, international relations, and the changes in Russia are all common topics of conversation.
42
In the former USSR, managers used to say “no” at every opportunity. First
of all, people were afraid that if they gave go ahead and a project failed, they
would be held responsible. And, secondly, you rarely met a Russian bureaucrat
who had the power to push a project forward without the agreement of others. The
ability to say “no” was the only real power many bureaucrats possessed. However,
Russian businessmen now often say “yes” to proposal – even if they lack the authority to arrange the project. They make promises in order to continue the contacts
they want with foreigners.
It is said that Russians are great “sitters” during negotiations. Many Russians
regard compromise as a sign of weakness; compromise is morally incorrect. Russians would rather outsit the other negotiator and gain more concessions from the
other side.
Know and agree on exactly what you want out of the deal. Do not show the
Russians anything other than unity among your team.
Be factual and include all technical details. You may be asked to sign a
“Protokol” after each meeting. This is a joint statement. It is not a formal agreement.
“Final Offers” are never final during initial negotiations. Be prepared to
wait.
Get your own expert in Russian law. Don’t be surprised when something
you did yesterday is disallowed tomorrow; the interpretation of many laws is subjected to change.
Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Why is learning culture so important in inter-cultural communication?
What rules should you follow in oral communication?
What a characteristic of the American style of business communication?
How does the British business style differ from the American one?
What is important for the French businessmen?
What can you say about the Chinese business style?
How does the Japanese business etiquette differ from that one of the European countries?
8. How does the Islamic philosophy influence the Arab business behavior?
9. Do you agree with everything what is said about the Russian business etiquette? What can you add?
Vocabulary in need
ambiguous
arbitrary
expedient
face-to-face
fail
handle
двусмысленный
произвольный
целесообразный
лицом к лицу
потерпеть неудачу
уладить
43
tension, stress
намеренный
спутать
недоразумение
препятствие
право выбора
маневр, уловка
согласиться на компромиссный
вариант
напряженность, стресс
Expressions
delegate authority
make concessions
I’m willing to go along with you
Выражения
передавать полномочия
делать уступки
Я готов с Вами согласиться
intentional
mess-up
misunderstanding
obstacle, barrier
option, alternative
ploy, trick
settle (for)
PRESENTATION
Presentations are arranged on different occasions: finishing up the project,
introducing of new goods and services at the market, opening of a new firm, issue
of a new book, opening of an industrial or art exhibition, presenting of a new idea,
etc.
The purpose is to demonstrate something new to the publicity, arouse an interest to the subject of presentation, give some additional information, make the
public to do some actions. Usually presentation is limited in time.
To prepare presentation you should find out:
- what audience will be;
- what is expected to hear from you;
- where and when the presentation will take place.
The most important rules for a successful presentation:
Good knowledge of your subject and thorough prepared speech.
Make all the necessary preparations beforehand.
Having an idea how much time you have, what your audience is, how far official the event is.
Durative presentation makes the listeners tired and the interest to it is lost.
Keep the time limit.
Pay special attention to the starting and closing phrases as the most memorable bits.
Don’t speak out all information you have. Include the facts which arouse interest. Focus audience attention on the main points.
Your speech should be distinctive, clear, with correct grammar, understandable, honest, enthusiastic, loud enough and may be humorous.
44
You have to be able to answer any questions. Be brief and keep to the point
when answering questions. Be friendly and flexible, try to react to the situation adequately.
Visual aids should be offered. They will help to attract attention and stimulate the interest. To keep in memory it’s important not to hear only but also
to see. But don’t place too much information on your posters.
There are some tips to make a successful presentation:
- make eye contact – look at each person in the audience for about a second, before
moving on to the next person. Don’t concentrate on just one or two people;
- don’t speak to the equipment or the screen – face the audience at all times;
- smiling is fie at appropriate moments, but not too much;
- use gesture (hand movements) to emphasize key points;
- stay more or less in one place – don’t move around too much;
- avoid mannerisms (ways of moving and speaking which you do repeatedly without realizing).
The most presentations are built in such a way as:
1. INTRODUCTION: greeting; introducing the presenter the purpose of the
presentation; stating the brief content.
2. THE MAIN PART: background information; problem; possibilities; proposals.
3. CONCLUSION: short summary of the main issues; answers on questions.
Attention level is changed during 40 min. It can be presented in diagram.
According to this diagram “the information to think over” should be spoken
out twice: at the beginning and at the end of the presentation. After the first 10
min. it’ll be correct to pass to the interesting facts which can attract and keep attention of the audience. Up to the end you should “wake up” the listeners and give
them the most important.
Start your presentation with confidence. Usually presentations are held after
2 p.m. Press-conference, some cultural program may be included in it. The duration of the presentation itself is 30-40 min., and the whole event is 1,5-2 hours.
The questions may be neutral and awkward. If you are asked such a question
answer it not justifying yourself. Don’t argue. For example, ‘Why is the price so
high?’. Be honest. If you don’t know how to answer promise to clear up and do it.
At first, attention level is high then for the next 10 min. it is slowly lowered.
The next 20 min. this lowering is much quicker and in 30 min. it reaches the lowest
mark. Then the level starts to rise steeply and in the last 5 min. it is becoming
enough high.
Experts say that you can gain the audience’s attention in a presentation by:
- telling an anecdote (a story, perhaps a personal one);
- mentioning a really surprising fact or statistic;
- stating a problem;
- asking a question.
Of course, it is important to respect the cultural expectations of your audience.
45
Here are some examples of different presentations:
 press conference: two chief executives tell journalists why their companies
have merged;
 briefing: a senior officer gives information to other officers about a police
operation they are about to undertake;
 demonstration: the head of research and development tells non-technical
colleagues about a new machine;
 product launch: a car company announces a new model:
 lecture: a university professor communicates information about economics
to students;
 talk: a member of any club tells other members about something :
 seminar: a financial adviser gives advice about investments to some people;
 workshop: a yoga expert tells people how to improve their techniques and
gets them to practice.
Assignments for self-control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What occasions to present do you know? Have you made any presentations?
What is the purpose of presentations?
What rules should be kept for a successful presentation?
What do the most presentations consist of?
What are some peculiarities of any presentation?
Vocabulary in need
launch
leaflet
terms of reference
пуск, открытие
рекламный листок
программа работы
Expressions
Выражения
hand around the leaflets
раздать рекламные листовки
get down to business
перейти к делу
give brief outline
дать краткий очерк
keep the time limit
придерживаться регламента
keep to the point
говорить по теме
maintain eye contact
следить за реакцией аудитории
on behalf of someone
от имени кого-либо
put over ideas
изложить мысли
state terms of reference
дать программу работы
Would you mind explaining that a little Не могли бы Вы изложить более
more, please?
детально?
Could you be more specific?
Не могли бы Вы конкретизировать
этот вопрос?
I don’t quite follow
Я не совсем уловил Вашу мысль
I think that is a waste of time, money
Считаю, что это пустая трата
46
времени, денег
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
Лексические различия между британским и американским вариантами
английского языка
Британский
Advocate
Banknote
carriage forward
carriage paid
cash-flow
cash on delivery
chairman
cheque
city, town centre
company
consignment
current account
deposit account
director
general manager
goods train
lawyer
luggage
managing director
merchant bank
offer
ordinary post
petrol
post
post restate
profit and loss account
rates
resume
running expences
shareholder
Американский
Trial lawyer
Bill
freight not prepaid
freight prepaid
working capital
Перевод
адвокат
банкнота
без оплаты перевозки
с оплатой перевозки
движение
денежных
средств
collect on delivery
оплата при доставке
president
президент компании
check
чек
downtown
центр города
corporation
крупная компания,
корпорация
shipment
партия товара
checking account
текущий счет
saving account
депозитный счет
vice-president
начальник отдела
в корпорации
chief-operating officer
исполнительный
директор
freight train
товарный поезд
attorney
юрист
baggage
багаж
chief executive officer управляющий директор
(CEO)
investment bank
инвестиционный банк
tender
предложение
regular post
обычная почта
gasoline, gas
бензин
mail
почта
general delivery
до востребования
income statement
отчет о прибылях
и убытках
local taxes
местные налоги
CV
резюме
operating costs
текущие расходы
stockholder
акционер
47
time-table
schedule
расписание
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
Деловой мир – это отдельный мегаполис со своими закономерностями
и условностями, национальными особенностями, которыми нельзя пренебр егать, если ваша цель – успешное общение и достижение значительных результатов в профессиональной сфере. В настоящее время процесс взаимодействия, общения между различными народами стал довольно тесным. Обычаи,
традиции, правила поведения народов смешались. Принимая во внимание эти
обстоятельства, можно говорить о международных правилах хорошего тона,
то есть о международном этикете, который включает в себя нравственные и
поведенческие установки различных социальных групп и национальностей и
обобщает их. Знание и соблюдение этих элементарных правил хорошего тона
облегчает жизнь и помогает чувствовать себя комфортно и уверенно в любых
ситуациях повседневного, делового, а также международного общения.
Развивая деловые отношения, надо всегда иметь в виду, что люди
смотрят на вас как на представителя вашего государства и вашего народа;
каждое неестественное и ненужное подражание другим нравам произво дит
отрицательный эффект, кроме того, никто за рубежом не ожидает от нас, что
мы будем вести себя точно так же, как француз или араб, каждый человек является плодом своего воспитания, образования, а в конечном счете, истории
своей страны.
Вступая в международный бизнес, нельзя оставлять дома присущие
нам черты и качества, напротив, нужно всегда вести себя, поступать как достойный представитель своего государства и, наверное, где бы человек не
находился, самым важным в его поведении остается чувство такта.
Однако, вступая в деловые контакты, необходимо проявлять также
определенное чувство терпимости к правам других народов, не следует забывать об этом особенно при проявлении религиозных или политических убеждений.
Профессиональная деятельность переводчика связана не только с иностранной аутентичной литературой по различным научно-техническим профилям, но и с деловой корреспонденцией, а также с живым общением в производственной сфере и коммерции. А общение с иностранными партнерами и
коллегами по бизнесу, более того, конкурентами требует не только знания
языка, но и межкультурных ценностей, этикета, правил и норм поведения в
различных языковых средах. Специалисту данной квалификации необходимо
приобрести
навыки
общения
при
ведении
переговоров,
на
презентациях, совещаниях, в телефонных переговорах, при общении в неформальной деловой обстановке. Хочется надеяться, что данное пособие поможет
в
решении
широкого
круга коммуникативных задач.
48
Библиографический список
1. Алёхина, И.В. Имидж и этикет делового человека. /И.В. Алёхина – 2-е
изд. – М.: Дело, 2001. – 75 с.
2. Гойхман, О.Я., Надеина, Т.М. Основы речевой коммуникации. /О.Я.
Гойхман, Т.М. Надеина – М.: ИНФРА-М, 1997. – 78 с.
3. Грачёв, Ю.Н. Ведение переговоров с инофирмами. /Ю.Н. Грачёв – М.:
1997. – 134 с.
4. Dukanova, N. Business contacts. Деловые контакты. /N. Dukanova – M.:
Иностранный язык, ОНИКС, 2008. – 383 с.
5. Crosby, O. Investigations and recommendations of the US Department of Labor Occupational Outlook Quarterly. /O. Crosby – 2000.
6. Бройнич, Г. Руководство по ведению переговоров. Рекомендации для
успешного проведения переговоров. /Г. Бройнич – М., 1996. – 96 с.
7. Володина, Л.В., Карпухина, О.К. Деловое общение и основы теории коммуникации. /Л.В. Володина, О.К. Карпухина – М., 1998. – 154 с.
8. Карнеги, Д. Учебник жизни. /Д. Карнеги – М.: Эксмо пресс, 2001. – 719 с.
9. Лазарев, Д. Презентация. Лучше один раз увидеть. /Д. Лазарев – М.: Издво. Альпина, Паблишерз, 2010. – 85 с.
10. Мицич, П. Как проводить деловые беседы. /П. Мицич – М., 1987. – 77с.
11. Панкеев, И.А. Энциклопедия этикета. /И.А. Панкеев – М.: Олма-Пресс,
1999. – 180 с.
12. Raiffa H. The Art and Science of Negotiation. /H. Raiffa – Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1982. – 205 c.
13. Соловьёв, Э.Я. Современный этикет. Деловой и международный протокол. /Э.Я. Соловьёв – 6-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М.: Ось, 1989.–136 с.
14. Честар, Д. Деловой этикет. /Д. Честар – пер. с англ. Л. Бесковой – М.:
Фаир, 1997. – 113 с.
15. Шейнов, В.П. Психология и этика делового контакта. /В.П. Шейнов –
Минск: Амалфея, 1999. – 215 с.
49
Оглавление
Введение …………………………………………………………………………3
Forms of business communication……………………………………………....4
Assignments for self-control
Employment interviewing…………………………………………………..........6
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Speech etiquette………………………………………………………………....12
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Business conversation…………………………………………………………..18
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Public speech…………………………………………………………………….22
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
The telephone communication rules……………………………………………25
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Negotiations……………………………………………………………………..30
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Communication with foreign partners………………………………………….34
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Presentation………………………………………………………………………43
Assignments for self-control
Vocabulary in need
Приложение……………………………………………………………………46
Заключение…………………………………………………………………….47
Библиографический список…………………………………………………48
50
Учебное издание
Ольга Федоровна Нестерова
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
ДЕЛОВОЕ ОБЩЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие
для студентов, обучающихся по специальности
«Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации»
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