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225. Английский язык

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Министерство образования и науки РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет»
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания
для студентов, обучающихся по направлению 20.03.01 (280700),
«Техносферная безопасность»
Воронеж 2014
1
УДК 802.0(07)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
Составитель О.Ф. Нестерова
Английский язык: метод. указания для студ. направл. 20.03.01(280700) /
Воронежский ГАСУ; сост.: О.Ф. Нестерова. – Воронеж, 2014. – 28 c.
Содержат 8 уроков, рассчитанных для активного усвоения. В рамках
указанных тем представлена лексика, необходимая для работы с текстами в
техносферной безопасности. Каждая тема содержит предтекстовые задания,
текст и послетекстовые лексические, грамматические и речевые упражнения с
целью формирования умений чтения и перевода технической литературы, а
также для развития навыков устной речи в рамках профессионального
общения.
Предназначены для студентов 1-го курса дневного обучения направления
20.03.01(280700).
УДК 802.0(07)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
Печатается по решению научно-методического совета
Воронежского ГАСУ
Рецензент – Н.Б. Бугакова, к. ф. н., доц. кафедры русского языка
и межкультурной коммуникации Воронежского ГАСУ
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Важным компонентом в обучении иностранному языку в строительном
вузе является овладение базовыми строительными понятиями, знание
конструктивных материалов и технологий строительного производства. Но не
менее важным является знание техники безопасности, необходимой при
выполнении строительных работ.
Данные методические указания знакомят с разными видами опасностей и
рисков для здоровья и жизни на строительных площадках. Отдельное внимание
уделяется контрольным мерам, соблюдение которых максимально позволит
избежать многих несчастных случаев при выполнении строительных работ.
Студенты знакомятся с правилами техники безопасности на
строительных площадках и обязанностями инженеров техносферной
безопасности.
Предложенные упражнения помогают студентам в систематизации
грамматических навыков и развитии речевых навыков в соответствии с
предложенной темой. В каждой теме предложен словарь-минимум,
необходимый для эффективного усвоения материала, а лексические и речевые
упражнения помогают закрепить знания и способствуют формированию и
совершенствованию коммуникативных навыков.
Данные методические указания предлагают базовые знания основных
правил техники безопасности и рекомендации по соблюдению мер
безопасности в строительстве на английском языке и могут использоваться
студентами разных строительных направлений и специальностей.
WHY IS SAFETY IMPORTANT TO CONSTRUCTION?
1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте на поставленный выше вопрос.
Construction is one of the areas of employment where hazardous conditions are
part of the everyday working environment. Safety is important in construction
because of the many risks to worker health.
Construction workers are exposed to job hazards on a daily basis. It's important
for companies to follow a safety checklist. Various types of injuries can result from
improper safety on construction commercial and residential construction sites.
Construction job-related accidents can be significantly reduced with the proper safety
equipment and with safety checklists. According to the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration, the fatality rate for construction-related injuries is one of the
highest in industry.
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PART 1. COMMON SAFETY RULES
LESSON 1. HOW TO MAKE A CONSTRUCTION SITE SAFE
Грамматика: imperative mood.
Словообразование: суффиксы – ous, - ful, -al.
Текст: How to Make a Construction Site Safe.
Упражнения
1.Обратите внимание на следующие слова. От каких слов они образованы? Дайте их
русские эквиваленты.
Hazardous, commercial, residential, dangerous, harmful, electrical, mechanical, fruitful, enormous.
2.Запомните следующие слова, необходимые для понимания текста:
hazard – опасность
scaffolds – строительные леса
the environment – окружающая среда
an employee – работник
health threat – угроза здоровью
an employer – работодатель
harmful – вредный
a hard hat – каска
a pedestrian – пешеход
safety goggles – защитные очки
safe –безопасный
gloves – перчатки, рукавицы
to assess – оценить
ear plugs – наушники
to store – хранить
emergency – чрезвычайное положение
immediately - немедленно
(ситуация)
repair – ремонт, починка
failure – повреждение
roof (roof work) – крыша (кровельные
to lock down – закрывать на замок
работы)
3.Подберите
русские
соответствия
следующим
английским
словосочетаниям.
Придумайте
предложения
с
английскими
словосочетаниями.
1. Work environment
a) механическая поломка
2. To minimize the hazards
б) свести к минимуму опасности
3. To assess hazards
в) хранить материалы
4. To store materials
г) оценить опасности
5. To make repairs
д) осуществить ремонт, починку
6. To perform roof work
е) рабочая среда
7. To work on scaffolds
ж) выполнять кровельные работы
8. Mechanical failure
з) работать на строительных лесах
4. Просмотрите текст и найдите в нем предложения в повелительном
наклонении.
Образец: Identify and assess any workplace hazards.
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5. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Сложно ли следовать инструкциям по
соблюдению техники безопасности при выполнении строительных работ?
TEXT: HOW TO MAKE A CONSTRUCTION SITE SAFE
Construction sites are hazardous by nature. The problem is not that the hazards
and risks are unknown, it is that they are very difficult to control in a constantly
changing work environment.
The environment is not only dangerous, the materials and chemicals that are
used also pose a health threat to construction workers and others at the site.
Many construction sites include dangerous equipment and potentially harmful
materials to workers or pedestrians around the work site.
To make your construction site safe, you can minimize the hazards while
following the instructions:
Identify and assess any workplace hazards. Determine ways to correct any
problems to make the construction site safe.
Train all personnel in work site safety and safe operating procedures.
Identify and mark any hazardous materials. Determine any risk involved to
personnel. Label and store hazardous materials in proper containers.
Inspect equipment to be sure it is working properly. Report any problems
immediately and do not operate the machinery until repairs have been made.
Use safety equipment when performing roof work or working on scaffolds.
Provide personal protective equipment to all employees, including hard hats,
safety goggles and boots, work gloves, ear plugs (or another form of
protection) and face masks. Inspect all equipment and replace any items that
are in poor or unsafe condition.
Prepare for an emergency. Operators and site workers should know what to do
in case of electrical, mechanical or power failures.
Protect the public by barricading the construction site during work hours. After
hours, lock down all points of entry.
6. Задайте собеседнику вопросы по тексту, требующие краткие ответы
(yes/no questions), предложите ему ответить на них.
Образец: 1. Are construction sites hazardous? Yes, they are.
1. Are the hazards easy to control? No, they aren’t.
7. Закончите следующие предложения, исходя из содержания текста.
1. The problem is that the hazards and risks are very … to control. 2. … pose a health
threat to construction workers. 3. Many construction sites include … and …
equipment. 4. To make your construction site safe, you can … . 5. Identify and …
any workplace hazards. 6. It’s necessary to label and … hazardous materials in proper
containers. 7. Personal protective equipment includes hard hats, safety goggles and
boots, …, ear plugs. 8. The construction site should be … during work hours.
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8. Расскажите, какие меры безопасности нужно предпринимать, чтобы
свести к минимуму опасность на строительной площадке.
LESSON 2. COMMON SAFETY RULES FOR WORKERS ON
CONSTRUCTION SITES
Грамматика: modal verbs.
Словообразование: суффиксы – ly, -ty.
Текст: Common Safety Rules on Construction Site.
Упражнения
1.Обратите внимание на следующую словообразовательную модель
а) прилагательное + суффикс –ly – наречие – proper – properly
и образуйте от данных прилагательных соответствующие наречия:
special, sharp, typical, constant, correct, safe, possible, easy, different;
б) прилагательное + суффикс –ty – существительное – safe – safety
и образуйте от данных прилагательных соответствующие существительные:
stable, safe, possible, proper, severe, eternal, final, equal, real, honest.
2.Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словам:
general, construction, result, machinery, operators, visual, contact, stability, typically, material,
manufacturer.
3.Что вы можете сказать по поводу следующих слов: may, must, should,
could, can. Каковы их эквиваленты в русском языке? Существуют ли
модальные глаголы в русском языке?
а) Переведите следующие предложения с модальными глаголами:
1. You may open the window. 2. We must visit the doctor. 3. He shouldn’t go there.
4. It must be remembered about danger. 5. Escape routes must lead away.
б) Найдите в тексте предложения с модальными глаголами и переведите
их на русский язык.
4.Выучите предложенные слова.
To observe – соблюдать
injury – травма
to keep – держать, сдерживать
garbage – мусор
to improve – улучшать
to reduce – снижать
sharp – острый
a nail – гвоздь
a screw – винт
a ladder - лестница
to extend – расширять, простираться
to toss – откидывать, скидывать
weight - вес
6
5. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
TEXT: COMMON SAFETY RULES ON CONSTRUCTION SITE
There are some common safety rules which should be observed by workers.
1.General Regulations.
Construction workers must always keep their mind on the job. Otherwise it
could result in the serious injury of themselves or others. Safety equipment may
differ from job to job, although basics like hard hats, safety glasses, gloves, and
safety shoes should be worn at all times. Workers must stay properly hydrated and
know the locations of water in case of fire or a chemical burn.
Construction sites should be kept clean. Keeping the work site free of garbage
will improve work efficiency and reduce the chances of an injury due to falling.
Workers should be especially conscious of sharp objects, such as nails, screws or
glass.
Workers must be properly trained in their jobs. Only the drivers of heavy
machinery should ride on the vehicles. People who are working on the ground near
heavy machinery must be sure that machinery operators have visual contact with
them at all times.
1. Working Aloft
First, it's important for workers who are afraid of height to stay on the ground.
Ladders must be equipped with safety feet in order to improve stability. Ladders must
also extend three feet above their landing, for safe entry and exit.
Scaffolds should be assembled according to the specifications set by the
manufacturer. In addition, it's important to observe the weight limits specified on
scaffolds. No materials should ever be tossed off a roof, ladder or scaffold, because
other workers might be passing underneath.
6.Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами, данными ниже.
1. Construction workers must always keep their mind on the … .
2.Workers must know the locations of … in case of fire or a chemical burn.
3. Construction sites should be kept … .
4. Only the … should ride on the vehicles.
5. Workers who are afraid of … must stay on the ground.
6. Ladders must be equipped with … in order to improve stability.
Safety feet, water, drivers of heavy machinery, job, clean, height.
7.Задайте собеседнику следующие вопросы:
1. What must construction workers always keep their mind on?
2. What basics should be observed all times?
3. Why should constructions be kept clean?
4. Who should ride on the vehicles only?
5. What is important for workers who are afraid of height?
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6. What must ladders be equipped with?
7. What is important to observe on scaffolds?
8. Расскажите об общих рекомендациях, которые должны соблюдать рабочие на
строительной площадке, используя следующие ключевые слова и фразы:
keep their mind on the job, basics, the locations of water, free of garbage, sharp objects, trained,
drivers of heavy machinery, visual contact.
9. Каковы основные рекомендации при работе на высоте? Для своего ответа
используйте следующий план:
- workers
- ladders
- scaffolds.
LESSON 3. HAZARD AND RISK
Грамматика: Simple Active и Passive.
Словообразование: суффикс – tion.
Текст: Hazard and Risk.
Упражнения
1.Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные при помощи
суффикса –tion. Переведите их на русский язык.
Образец: to locate – location; располагать – расположение
To prevent, to coordinate, to produce, to apply, to protect, to operate, to form, to
install, to construct.
2.Найдите в тексте существительные с суффиксом –tion, от каких глаголов
они образованы?
3.Что необходимо для образования отрицательных и вопросительных
предложений в Simple Active? В соответствии с приведенным образцом
преобразуйте утвердительные предложения в отрицательные и
вопросительные.
Образец: Many construction sites include dangerous equipment. - Many
construction sites do not include dangerous equipment. Do many construction sites
include dangerous equipment?
1. Control measures include actions to reduce the potential of the hazard. 2.
Engineering Controls involve redesigning a process to place a barrier between the
person and the hazard. 3. Administrative controls include adopting standard operating
procedures. 4. The construction industry covers a wide range of activities, hazards,
8
materials and technique. 5. Personal protective equipment includes gloves, glasses,
safety footwear, dust masks.
4.Выучите следующие слова, необходимые для понимания текста:
harm – вред, телесное повреждение
to substitute – заменять
to restrict – ограничивать
to include – включать
defence- защита
severity – серьезность, тяжесть
likelihood – вероятность
to be exposed – быть подверженным
level – уровень
to remove – удалять, устранять
to eliminate – ликвидировать
5.Прочитайте и переведите текст, внимательно изучив диаграмму схему.
TEXT: HAZARD AND RISK
What is Hazard?
Hazard is a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or
persons.
What is Risk?
Risk is the likelihood that a person may be harmed or suffers adverse health
effects if exposed to a hazard.
Categorizing Risk
The level of risk is often categorized upon the potential harm or adverse health
effect that the hazard may cause, the number of times persons are exposed and the
number of persons exposed
What are Control Measures?
Control measures include actions that can be taken to reduce the potential of
the hazard, to remove the hazard or to reduce the likelihood of the risk that hazard
being realized.
1. Eliminate the hazard
Elimination of the hazard is not always achievable though it does totally
remove the hazard and thereby eliminates the risk.
2. Substitute the hazard with a lesser risk
Substituting the hazard may not remove all of the hazards associated with the
process or activity and may introduce different hazards but the overall harm or health
effects will be lessened.
9
3. Isolate the hazard
Isolating the hazard is achieved by restricting access to plant and equipment or
in the case of substances locking them away under strict controls.
4. Use engineering controls
Engineering Controls involve redesigning a process to place a barrier between
the person and the hazard or remove the hazard from the person.
5. Use administrative controls
Administrative controls include adopting standard operating procedures or safe
work practices or providing appropriate training, instruction or information to reduce
the potential for harm and/or adverse health effects to person(s).
6. Use personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes gloves, glasses, earmuffs,
aprons, safety footwear, dust masks which are designed to reduce exposure to the
hazard. PPE is usually seen as the last line of defence and is usually used in
conjunction with one or more of the other control measures.
What is Risk Assessment?
Risk Assessment is necessary where the severity of the hazard is considered in
conjunction with other factors including the level of exposure and the number of
persons exposed. There are a number of different formulae used to calculate the
overall risk from basic calculations using high, medium and low categories to
complicated algorithms to calculate risks at Nuclear power stations and other high
risk work locations.
10
6.Подтвердите или опровергните следующие утверждения, начиная свое
высказывание соответствующей фразой: I agree, you are right или I don’t
agree, you are not right, you are wrong. Исправьте неверное утверждение.
1. Hazard is the likelihood that a person may be harmed. 2. Risk is the
likelihood that a person may be harmed. 3. The level of risk is often categorized upon
the number of persons exposed. 4. Elimination totally removes the hazard and
eliminates the risk. 5. Isolating the hazard is restricting access to plant and
equipment. 6. Engineering Controls involves providing appropriate training. 7.
Personal protective equipment is the control measure which is used separately.
7. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным частям предложений. Обратите
внимание на предложения в Passive Voice (to be + V³).
1. The level of risk is often categorized upon the potential harm. 2. Isolating
the hazard is achieved by restricting access to plant and equipment. 3. PPE is
usually seen as the last line of defence. 4. Personal protective equipment is usually
used in conjunction with one or more of the other control measures . 5. The
severity of the hazard is considered in conjunction with other factors.
8.Сделайте небольшое выступление о контрольных мерах по уменьшению
и предотвращению опасности на строительных объектах с опорой на
ключевые фразы.
Hazard, risk, the level of risk, actions to reduce (to remove) the hazard, by restricting
access, to place a barrier, adopting standard operating procedures, to reduce exposure
to the hazard.
LESSON 4. HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION
Грамматика: Participle 1.
Словообразование: international words.
Текст: Health and Safety in Construction.
Упражнения
1.Какие
русские
эквиваленты
соответствуют
следующим
интернациональным словам?
Construction, industry, material, management, design, process, type, collapse, contact, electricity,
line, excavation, protection, risk, system, fatal, platform, contractor.
2.Выучите основные понятия:
cause – причина
illness – заболевание
an accident – несчастный случай, авария
height – высота
a trench – траншея
a ramp – пандус
hoist – подъемник
edge – край
to require – требовать
temporary – временный
to deal with – иметь дело с …
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3.а) Обратимте внимание на перевод следующих причастий. От каких частей речи
они образованы?
Moving – to move, reading – to read, acting – to act, doing – to do, making – to make.
б) Переведите самостоятельно на русский язык следующие причастия:
causing, falling, leading, reducing, including, removing.
4.Прочитав текст, найдите в нем английские эквиваленты следующих
русских словосочетаний и переведите его на русский язык:
Охватывает широкий спектр деятельности; плохое управление; первопричина
большинства смертей и травм; несчастные случаи, приводящие к гибели; разрушение
материала; воздушные линии электропередач; подъемные области; жилищное
строительство; не смертельные травмы.
TEXT: HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION
The construction industry covers a wide range of activities, hazards, materials
and technique. Poor management of the design or construction process is a prime
cause of most of the deaths, injuries and illness in the construction industry.
The main types of accidents causing death during construction activities are:
falls from height;
site vehicles;
falling or collapsing material (including trench accidents);
contact with overhead electricity lines.
Fall from height is the leading cause of injury in the construction industry. Fall
protection is needed in areas and activities that include ramps, runways , and other
walkways; excavations; hoist areas; holes; unprotected sides and edges; roofing; wall
openings; residential construction; and other walking/working surfaces.
Protection is also required when the employee is at risk of falling onto
dangerous equipment.
The employee or employer will be responsible for providing fall protection
systems and to ensure the use of these systems.
The most common items associated with non-fatal injuries are temporary
working platforms, scaffolds and ladders.
Motor Vehicle Crashes are another major safety hazard on construction sites
During excavation, the contractor is responsible for providing a safe work
environment for employees and pedestrians.
Working with electricity can be dangerous. Engineers, electricians, and other
workers deal with electricity directly, including working on overhead lines and
electrical installations. Others, such as office workers, farmers, and construction
workers work with electricity indirectly and may also be exposed to electrical
hazards.
12
5.Выберите правильную форму слова.
1. The main types of accidents causing/caused death during construction
activities are…2. During excavation the contractor providing/provided a safe work
environment for employees and pedestrians. 3. Engineers, electricians, and other
workers dealing/dealt with electricity directly are subjected to hazard. 4. Employees
working/worked on temporary scaffolds and ladders are needed in fall protection. 5.
Poor management of the construction process caused/causing most of the deaths,
injuries and illness in the construction industry.
6. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу предлогами, данными
ниже:
of, to, with, for, from, at, in.
1. The construction industry covers a wide range … activities. 2. One of the death
reasons during construction activities is contact… overhead electricity lines. 3. Fall
… height is the leading cause of injury in the construction industry. 4. Fall protection
is needed … areas and activities that include ramps, excavations; hoist areas. 5.
Protection is also required when the employee is … risk of falling onto dangerous
equipment. 6. The employee or employer will be responsible … providing fall
protection systems. 7. Construction workers dealing with electricity indirectly may
also be exposed … electrical hazards.
7. Ответьте на вопросы, используя вводные фразы, - it should be said, it is
noted that, it is important to stress (underline).
1. What does the construction industry cover?
2. What is a prime cause of most of the deaths?
3. Can trench accidents cause death?
4. Fall from height is the leading cause of injury in the construction industry, isn’t it?
5. Where is fall protection needed?
6. Who is responsible for providing fall protection systems?
7. What are the most common items associated with non-fatal injuries?
8. When is the contractor responsible for providing a safe work environment for
employees and pedestrians?
9. Who is exposed to electrical hazards?
8. Расскажите о безопасности в строительстве, используя следующие
ключевые слова и фразы:
Poor management, prime cause, accidents causing death, falls, site vehicles,
falling or collapsing material, overhead electricity lines, injury, fall protection,
responsible for, non-fatal injuries, safety hazard, safe work environment, be exposed
to electrical hazards.
13
PART
П.
DIFFERENT
HAZARDS
AND
THEIR
SOLUTIONS
LESSON 1. HAZARDS TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (1). FALL
PROTECTION
Грамматика: Imperative mood, Infinitive.
Словообразование: Plural
Текст: Hazards to Construction Workers (1). Fall Protection.
Упражнения
1.а)Обратите внимание на образование множественного числа имен
существительных. Сделайте вывод на основе приведенных примеров.
System – system, surface – surfaces, fatality – fatalities, box – boxes.
б) Найдите в тексте примеры множественного числа существительных, от какой
формы единственного числа они образованы?
2.Обратите внимание, что форма повелительного наклонения в английском языке
(Imperative mood) совпадает с первой формой глагола. При образовании
отрицательной формы повелительного наклонения добавляем вспомогательный
глагол do и отрицательную частицу not.
Образец: open –открой (откройте), do not open – не открывай (не открывайте); use –
используй (используйте), do not use – не используй (не используйте).
Найдите в тексте примеры повелительного наклонения.
3.Постарайтесь правильно перевести следующие предложения с инфинитивом на
русский язык.
1. Great number of fatalities in the construction industry happens because of failure
to use fall protection equipment. 2. All employees are trained to identify hazards. 3.
Scaffold must be rigid enough to carry its own weight and the weight of intended
load. 4. Employees are not permitted to work on scaffolds in bad weather or high
winds. 5. Read the ladder label to find out the maximum load capacity.
4.Выучите следующие слова, необходимые для понимания текста:
to account for – составлять
suspension – подвесной
misuse – неправильное использование
slippery – скользкий
solution – решение
shift – смена
guardrail – перила
damaged – поврежденный
warning
–
предупреждение,
repair – ремонт
предупредительный
replacement – замена
rigid – жесткий
to avoid – избегать
load –груз, нагрузка
debris – обломки, развалины
rope – веревка, канат, трос
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5.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая особое внимание на необходимые меры
безопасности при выполнении строительных работ.
TEXT: HAZARDS TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (1). FALL
PROTECTION
Each year falls consistently account for the greatest number of fatalities in the
construction industry because of unstable working surfaces, misuse or failure to use
fall protection equipment and human error.
Solutions.
Fall protection can be provided by guardrail systems, safety net systems,
personal fall arrest systems and warning line systems.
All employees should be trained to understand the proper way to use these
systems and to identify hazards.
Floor openings are guarded by a secured cover or a guardrail.
Scaffolding. Fall from height can occur when using scaffolding. About 2.3 million
construction workers frequently work on scaffolds. Protecting these workers would
prevent 4,500 injuries and 50 fatalities each year.
Solutions.
Scaffold must be rigid and sufficient to carry its own weight plus four times the
maximum intended load.
Scaffold must be equipped with guardrails.
Synthetic and natural rope used in suspension scaffolding must be protected
from heat-producing sources.
Employees are not permitted to work on scaffolds in bad weather or high
winds or when the site is covered with snow, ice, or other slippery materials.
Scaffolds are not erected or moved within 10 feet of power lines.
A trained person should inspect scaffolding before and after each shift.
Ladders. Ladders are another source of injuries and fatalities among construction
workers.
Solutions.
Use the correct ladder for the task.
Mark or tag ("Do Not Use") damaged or defective ladders for repair or
replacement.
Read the ladder label to find out the maximum load capacity. Never go on a
ladder with a load heavier than the load recommendation on the ladder.
Avoid using ladders with metallic components near electrical work and
overhead power lines.
A trained safety team member should inspect all ladders, prior to their use
during each work shift.
Any ladders with damage should be immediately removed from the work area.
Workers should never walk under, around or near ladders that are in use.
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Stairways. Slips, trips and falls on stairways are a major source of injuries and
fatalities among construction workers.
Solutions.
Walkways must be free of dangerous objects, debris and materials.
Slippery conditions on stairways and walkways must be corrected
immediately.
Stairways rising more than 1 meter must have at least one handrail.
Most serious accidents can be avoided by good design, good planning and the
use of tried and tested techniques for building safely.
6.Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя приведенные ниже
термины.
1. Fall protection can be provided by guardrail systems, …, personal fall arrest
systems and warning line systems.
2. Employees are not permitted to work on scaffolds when the site is covered with
snow, ice, or other … .
3. A trained person should inspect scaffolding and … before and after each shift.
4. Walkways must be free of dangerous objects, … and materials.
5. Damaged or defective ladders must be … for repair or replacement.
Debris, slippery materials, marked, safety net systems, ladders.
7.Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Наибольшее число смертельных случаев в строительной отрасли приходится
на падения из-за неправильного использования или невозможности
использования оборудования, защищающего от падений.
2. Защита от падений может быть обеспечена посредством перил,
оградительных сеток, персональных средств защиты от падений и
предупредительных систем.
3. Не разрешается работать на строительных лесах в плохих погодных
условиях.
4. Поврежденные лестницы должны быть немедленно изъяты из эксплуатации.
5. Лестницы высотой более 1 метра должны иметь, по крайне мере, один
поручень.
6. Проходы должны быть свободны от опасных предметов и материалов.
7. Большинства несчастных случаев можно избежать при условии соблюдения
техники безопасности.
8. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. Why do falls account for the greatest fatalities in the construction industry?
2. What can fall protection be provided by?
3. How are floor openings guarded?
4. What are the requirements as to the scaffold?
5. What should you do with damaged ladders?
6. How can most serious accidents be avoided?
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9.Расскажите о необходимой технике безопасности при выполнении
строительных работ, используя следующие фразы:
guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, warning line
systems, to carry its own weight, to work in bad weather, inspect scaffolding, to find
out the maximum load capacity, ladders with damage, free of dangerous objects,
tested techniques for building safely.
LESSON 2. HAZARDS TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (2). MOTOR
VEHICLES
Грамматика: Participle II.
Словообразование: служебные слова.
Текст: Hazards to Construction Workers (2) Motor Vehicles.
Упражнения
1.Какие служебные слова вы знаете? А в английском языке? Приведите примеры.
2.Какие из приведенных служебных слов являются предлогами, а какие – союзами?
Поясните их значение.
If, before, in, for, or, from, of, over, within, and, with, while, under, on, at.
3.Выпишите из текста Participle II. От каких глаголов они образованы?
Образец: mixed – to mix, used – to use, built – to build.
4.Прочитайте и запомните неизвестные вам слова:
crane – подъемный кран
to handle – держать в руках
to rig – бурить
seatbelt – привязной ремень
wire – провод
to elevate – поднимать
hook – крючок
to warn –предупреждать
to exceed – превышать, превосходить
brake – тормоз
derrick – буровая вышка
emergency – аварийная ситуация
forklift truck – грузоподъемник
windshield wiper – стеклоочиститель
to pick up – поднимать
rear –задний
stack – складывать
underneath – внизу, под
5.Прочитайте и переведите текст.
TEXT: HAZARDS TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (2). MOTOR VEHICLES.
Cranes. Significant and serious injuries may occur if cranes are not inspected
before use and if they are not used properly.
Solutions.
Crane machinery and other rigging equipment is inspected daily prior to use to
make sure that it is in good condition.
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Inspect wire rope, chains and hook for any damage. Broken, worn or damaged
wire rope is removed from service.
Know the weight of the load that the crane is to lift. Ensure that the load does
not exceed the crane's rated capacity.
Do not move a load over workers.
Cranes and derricks are restricted from operating within 10 feet of any
electrical power line.
Accessible areas within the crane's operation radius are barricaded.
Only properly trained and qualified operators are allowed to work with
hoisting and rigging equipment.
Forklifts. Approximately 100 employees are fatally injured and approximately
95,000 employees are injured every year while operating powered industrial trucks.
Solutions.
Train and certify all operators to ensure that they operate forklifts safely.
Do not allow any employee under 18 years old to operate a forklift.
Examine forklift truck for defects before using.
Follow safe operating procedures for picking up, moving, putting down and
stacking loads.
Do not handle loads that are heavier than the capacity of the industrial truck.
Remove unsafe or defective forklift trucks from service.
Operators shall always wear seatbelts.
Avoid traveling with elevated loads.
All vehicles must be equipped with an audible warning system if the operator
chooses to use it.
Trucks are operated at a safe speed. The maximum speed to drive a forklift is 7
km ph.
Motor vehicles should have a service brake system, emergency brake system,
and a parking brake system.
Vehicles must have windows and doors, power windshield wipers, and have a
clear view of site from the rear window.
Equipment on the job site must have light and reflectors if intended for night
use. The glass in the cab of the equipment must be safety glass.
No person is allowed to cross underneath or stand underneath any loading or
digging equipment. Employees are to remain at a safe distance from all
equipment while it is operational.
6.Подтвердите или опровергните следующие утверждения, начиная свое
высказывание соответствующей фразой: I agree, you are right или I don’t
agree, you are not right, you are wrong. Исправьте неверное утверждение.
1. The weight of the load the crane lifts can be various. 2. You mustn’t move a load
over workers. 3. Everybody can work with hoisting and rigging equipment. 4.
Employees under 18 years old are not allowed to operate a forklift. 5. Operators shall
always wear seatbelts. 6. The maximum speed to drive a forklift is 20 kmph. 7. Motor
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vehicles should have a parking brake system only. 8. Vehicles must have a clear view
of site from the front window. 9. Equipment on the job site must have light and
reflectors at night. 10. No person is allowed to cross underneath or stand underneath
any loading or digging equipment.
7.Заполните пропуски соответствующими глаголами, данными ниже,
исходя из содержания текста.
1. …. wire rope, chains and hook for any damage. 2. … broken, worn or damaged
wire rope. 3. … areas within the crane's operation radius. 4. … all forklifts operators.
5. … all operators to ensure that they operate forklifts. 6. … safe operating
procedures for picking up, moving, putting down and stacking loads. 7. … traveling
with elevated loads. 8. … all vehicles with an audible warning system. 9. … at a safe
distance from all equipment while it is operational.
Follow, barricade, equip, remain, inspect, train, remove, avoid, examine.
8. Каждому вопросу найдите соответствующий ответ.
1. How often is crane machinery inspected?
2. What should be done with worn or damaged wire rope?
3. What distance from electric power lines should be observed while operating on
cranes and derricks?
4. What personnel is allowed to work with rigging equipment?
5. When should you follow safe operating procedures?
6. What equipment shall operators always wear?
7. What is the maximum speed to drive a forklift?
8. What should motor vehicles have?
9. What should equipment for night use be provided with?
a) properly trained and qualified operators;
b) daily;
c) with light and reflectors;
d) windows and doors, power windshield wipers;
e) for picking up, moving, putting down and stacking loads;
f) 10 feet;
g) be removed from service;
h) 7 km ph;
i) seatbelts.
9.Напишите краткую инструкцию по технике безопасности при работе с
транспортными средствами на строительной площадке, руководствуясь
текстом и используя следующие фразы: crane machinery; broken, worn or
damaged wire rope; exceed the crane's rated capacity; within 10 feet; accessible
areas; to work with hoisting and rigging equipment; operate forklifts safely; safe
operating procedures; unsafe or defective forklift trucks; wear seatbelts; traveling
with elevated loads; an audible warning system; at a safe speed; should have a service
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brake system, emergency brake system, and a parking brake system; a clear view of
site from the rear window; light and reflectors; to cross underneath or stand
underneath; at a safe distance.
LESSON 3. HAZARDS TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (3). TRENCHING.
ELECTRICAL SAFETY. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES
Грамматика: Common questions.
Словообразование: suffixes, complex words.
Текст: Hazards to Construction Workers (3). Trenching. Electrical Safety. Chemical
Substances.
Упражнения
1.Приведите примеры прилагательных, образованных при помощи
следующих суффиксов: –ive; –able(-ible); –ous;-y; -ent; -al и
существительных, образованных при помощи суффиксов –tion, -ment, -er.
От каких слов они образованы?
Образец: effect – effective, suit – suitable, danger – dangerous, tide – tidy.
Construct – construction; work – worker.
2.Найдите в тексте прилагательные и существительные, образованные при
помощи вышеперечисленных суффиксов, переведите их на русский язык.
3.Приведите примеры сложных слов в английском языке. Как они
образуются? Найдите в тексте сложные слова.
4.Подберите к следующим русским словам: обвал, защитный,
предотвращать, осматривать, компетентный, вибрация, постоянный, кабель,
регулярно,
эксплуатация,
химический,
дыхательный,
контейнер,
производитель, инструкция, личный
английские эквиваленты, из перечисленных ниже:
to inspect, regularly, service, constant, cable, competent, container, chemical,
instruction, personal, vibration, to prevent, manufacturer, protective, collapse.
5.Усомнитесь в содержании следующих высказываний, превратив их в общие
вопросы.
Образец: Trench collapses cause hundreds of injuries each year. – Do trench
collapses cause hundreds of injuries each year? Trench boxes are used to prevent soil
cave-ins. – Are trench boxes used to prevent soil cave-ins?
1. Trenches are inspected by a competent person prior to entry. 2. Electrocution is a
constant risk on construction sites. 3. Frayed, damaged or worn electrical cords or
cables are promptly replaced. 4. All electrical tools and equipment are maintained in
safe condition. 5. Each container of a hazardous substance is labeled with a hazard
warnings. 6. Employers provide proper personal protective equipment. 7. The
responsible persons store chemicals safely and securely.
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6.Запомните новые для вас слова:
trench – траншея
to support – поддерживать
soil – почва
cave-in – обвал
ramp – скат
rainstorm – ливень
excessive – чрезмерный
electrocution
–
поражение
электричеством
to prohibit – запретить
frayed – изношенный
flexible – гибкий
to maintain – поддерживать
to check – проверять
to ground – заземлять
to store - хранить
7.Внимательно прочитайте текст и переведите его. Что нового вы узнали
из его содержания?
TEXT: HAZARDS TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (3). TRENCHING.
ELECTRICAL SAFETY. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES
Trench collapses cause dozens of fatalities and hundreds of injuries each year.
Solutions.
Never enter an unprotected trench.
Always use a protective system for trenches.
Use trench boxes or other types of supports to prevent soil cave-ins.
Always provide a way to exit a trench such as a ladder, stairway or ramp.
Make sure that trenches are inspected by a competent person prior to entry and
after any hazard-increasing event such as a rainstorm, vibrations or excessive
surcharge loads.
Electrical Safety. Electrocution is a constant risk on construction sites.
Solutions.
Work on new and existing energized (hot) electrical circuits is prohibited until
all power is shut off and grounds are attached.
Frayed, damaged or worn electrical cords or cables are promptly replaced.
Protect flexible cords and cables from damage.
All electrical tools and equipment are maintained in safe condition and checked
regularly for defects and taken out of service if a defect is found.
All electrical tools must be properly grounded.
Working with Chemical Substances. Failure to recognize the hazards
associated with chemicals can cause chemical burns, respiratory problems,
fires and explosions.
Solutions.
Each container of a hazardous substance (vats, bottles, storage tanks) is labeled
with product identity and a hazard warnings.
Follow manufacturer's instructions for handling hazardous chemicals.
21
Provide proper personal protective equipment.
Store chemicals safely and securely.
8.Закончите предложения, используя словосочетания, приведенные ниже:
1. Never enter an … . 2. Use trench boxes to … . 3. Protect flexible cords and cables
from … . 4. All electrical tools and equipment are taken out of service if a … . 5.
Each container of a hazardous substance is labeled with … . 6. Provide proper
personal … . 7. Store chemicals … .
a) … safely and securely
b) … product identity
c) … unprotected trench
d) … defect is found
e) … protective equipment
f) … prevent soil cave-ins
g) … damage.
9. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. Какие меры безопасности следует соблюдать при выполнении траншейных
работ?
2. В каких случаях необходим тщательный осмотр траншей перед
продолжением работ?
3. Какие правила необходимо соблюдать при работе с электрическим
оборудованием?
4. К каким последствиям может привести неосторожность при обращении с
химическими веществами?
5. Каковы правила хранения химикатов?
6. Как защитить себя от воздействия химических веществ?
10.Передайте основное содержание текста, используя следующий план:
1. How to work with trenches safely
2. Protection working with electrical equipment
3. Danger from chemical substances
4. Prevention measures while working with chemicals.
LESSON 4. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)
Грамматика: -ing forms.
Словообразование: цепочка определений.
Текст: Personal Protective Equipment.
Упражнения
1.Вспомните правила образования множественного числа английских имен
существительных. Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных:
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gas, process, way, hazard, source, foot, eye, face, object, system, particle, hand, glove.
2.Определите главное слово в следующих цепочках определений: eye and face
protection; safety glasses; face shields; heavy-duty rubber gloves; accidental head contact;
trench collapse; soil cave-in; construction site; safety equipment; fatality rate
и переведите их на русский язык согласно правилам перевода.
3.Обратите внимание на –ing формы в следующих предложениях, каковы
способы их перевода на русский язык:
1. Work operations can cause foreign objects getting into the eye such as welding,
cutting, grinding, nailing. 2. Safety-toed footwear prevents crushed toes when
working around heavy equipment or falling objects. 3. Workers wear welding gloves
for welding. 4. It’s necessary to wear hard hats where there is a potential hazard of
objects falling from above. 5. Protection is also required when the employee is at risk
of falling onto dangerous equipment. 6. Keeping the work site free of garbage will
improve work efficiency and reduce the chances of an injury due to falling. 7.
Protecting the workers would prevent 4,500 injuries and 50 fatalities each year.
4.Запомните новые для вас слова:
face shield – защитная маска
welding – сварка
grinding – шлифование
nailing – забивание гвоздей
slip-resistant – противоскользящий
puncture-resistant – антипрокольный
toe – палец на ноге
to crush – раздавить
sleeve – рукав
bump – удар
crack - трещина
5.Ознакомьтесь с основными правилами индивидуальной защиты при
выполнении строительных работ и переведите текст на русский язык.
TEXT: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Eye and Face Protection. Safety glasses or face shields are worn any time because
work operations can cause foreign objects getting into the eye such as welding,
cutting, grinding, nailing, when exposed to any electrical hazards including work on
energized electrical systems (or when working with concrete and/or harmful
chemicals or when exposed to flying particles).
Foot Protection. Construction workers should wear work shoes or boots with slipresistant and puncture-resistant soles. Safety-toed footwear is worn to prevent
crushed toes when working around heavy equipment or falling objects.
Hand Protection. Workers wear the right gloves for the job (for example, heavyduty rubber gloves for concrete work, welding gloves for welding, insulated gloves
and sleeves when exposed to electrical hazards).
Head Protection. Be sure that workers wear hard hats where there is a potential
hazard of objects falling from above, bumps to their heads from fixed objects, or
23
accidental head contact with electrical hazards. Hard hats are routinely inspected for
cracks and replaced after a heavy blow or electrical shock. Hard hats are maintained
in good condition.
6.Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу фразами, данными ниже:
1. Safety glasses or face shields are worn while … . 2. Work shoes or boots with …
are necessary during work operations with heavy equipment or falling objects. 3. …
for concrete work protect hands. 4. Hard hats are routinely inspected for … and
replaced after a heavy blow or electrical shock. 5. Where there is … falling from
above workers should wear hard hats. 6. When exposed to any electrical hazards the
workers should wear … .
Cracks; a potential hazard of objects; safety glasses or face shields; welding, cutting,
grinding, nailing; slip-resistant and puncture-resistant soles; heavy-duty rubber
gloves.
7.Распределите средства индивидуальной защиты согласно перечню
строительных работ. Обратите внимание, что некоторым видам работ
соответствует несколько средств защиты.
Средства индивидуальной защиты: Hard hats, face shields, heavy-duty rubber
gloves, safety-toed footwear, insulated gloves, safety glasses, welding gloves, boots
with slip-resistant soles,
Виды строительных работ: Working with flying particles, objects falling from
above, working around heavy equipment, concrete work, slippery surface, welding.
8.Задайте собеседнику вопросы (заменив русские слова на их английские
эквиваленты) и выслушайте его ответы:
1.(Что) is worn when exposed to work operations with harmful chemicals or flying
particles? 2. (Что) should construction workers wear dealing with slippery or
dangerous surface? 3. (Как) can you prevent crushed toes? 4. (Когда) do workers
wear gloves for the job? 5. (Какое) personal protective equipment can protect head?
9.Представьте, что Вы – инженер по технике безопасности на строительной
площадке. Перед Вами группа англоязычных рабочих, которых Вы
должны ознакомить с индивидуальными средствами защиты,
имеющимися в их распоряжении, при выполнении различных
строительных работ.
LESSON 5. HAZARDS TO NON-WORKERS
Грамматика: типы вопросов.
Словообразование: конверсия.
Текст: Hazards to Non-workers.
24
Упражнения
1.Найдите в тексте слова, образованные по типу конверсии, переведите их на
русский язык приведите примеры их использования в качестве другой части речи.
Образец: cost –(глагол) – стоить, cost – (сущ.) – стоимость;
increase – (глагол) – увеличивать;, increase – (сущ.) – увеличение.
2.Переведите на русский язык все знаки, приведенные ниже в тексте, на
каких строительных объектах они могут находиться?
3.Запомните новые для вас слова:
to exclude – исключать
traffic – движение
degree – степень
ahead – впереди
to redirect – перенаправлять
sign – знак
to cause – вызывать, служить
причиной
to roll over –переворачивать(ся)
to throw – бросать
to penetrate – проникать
to forbid – запрещать
to be aware – знать
restriction – ограничение
visible –видимый
to deal with – рассматривать
to explain –объяснять
to warn - предупреждать
4.Прочитайте текст и переведите все рекомендации по соблюдению
необходимых мер безопасности вблизи и на строительной площадке.
TEXT: HAZARDS TO NON-WORKERS
Many construction sites cannot completely exclude non-workers. Road
construction sites must often allow traffic to pass through. This places non-workers at
some degree of risk.
Road construction sites are to be blocked-off and traffic is to be redirected. The
sites and vehicles are protected by signs and barricades. However, sometimes even
these signs and barricades can be a hazard to vehicle traffic. For example, improperly
designed barricades can cause cars that strike them to roll over or even be thrown into
the air. Even a simple safety sign can penetrate the windshield or roof of a car if hit
from certain angles.
The proper signs forbid and exclude non-workers penetration into the
construction site. Everybody should be aware of these signs and entry restrictions. Do
you know these signs?
You can see some of them here.
Hazard labels or safety signs should be clearly visible and lit in the dark. Since
the construction site constantly deals with heavy machinery and moving multi-ton
transport the role of these signs is very great. They may be informing, explaining or
warning of the danger. But all of them are used for the prevention of accidents during
construction works.
25
5.В английском языке существует несколько типов вопросов: общие,
альтернативные, разделительные, специальные, вопросы к подлежащему
и косвенные. Задайте разные типы вопросов к предложенным ниже
предложениям:
Образец: Do vehicles have a clear view of site from the front window?
Do workers wear special boots or insulated gloves when exposed to electrical
hazards?
Hazard labels should be clearly visible, shouldn’t they?
What is protected by signs and barricades?
When are safety glasses worn?
Can you tell me how hard hats are maintained?
1. Many construction sites cannot completely exclude non-workers. 2. Road
construction sites are blocked-off and traffic is redirected. 3. The sites and vehicles
are protected by signs and barricades. 4. The proper signs forbid and exclude nonworkers penetration into the construction site. 5. The construction site constantly
deals with heavy machinery. 6. Signs are used for the prevention of accidents during
construction works.
6. Задайте собеседнику разные типы вопросов по теме «Безопасность в
строительстве».
7. Подтвердите или опровергните следующие утверждения, начав свое
высказывание соответствующей фразой: Yes, you are right. I think you are
right. Certainly. Sure. I (quite) agree with you.Или: I don’t think so. I think
you’re mistaken. I disagree. You are wrong.
26
1. Construction sites completely exclude non-workers. 2. Road construction sites
mustn’t allow traffic to pass through. 3. The sites and vehicles are protected by signs
and barricades. 4. Signs and barricades can be a hazard to vehicle traffic. 5. The
proper signs permit non-workers penetration into the construction site. 6. Signs are
used to inform, explain or warn of the danger at the construction site. 7. They help to
prevent accidents.
8. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. What does place non-workers at some degree of risk? 2. What should be blocked
off? 3. What are the sites and vehicles protected by? 4. What can be a hazard to
vehicle traffic? 5. Who do the signs forbid and exclude entry? 6. What are the main
requirements to hazard labels and safety signs? 7. What kind of signs may be? 8.
When do they prevent accidents?
9. Расскажите какие меры безопасности должны быть предприняты на
строительных площадках в целях предотвращения существующей
опасности для посторонних лиц, используя следующие фразы:
to be blocked off, to be redirected, protected by signs and barricades, forbid and
exclude penetration, to be aware of, clearly visible and lit in the dark, prevention of
accidents.
27
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение…………………………………………………………………………………………….3
Part 1. Common safety rules
Lesson 1. How to make a construction site safe …………………………………………………….4
Lesson 2. Common safety rules for workers on construction sites ………………………………….6
Lesson 3.Hazard and risk…………………………………………………………………………….8
Lesson 4. Health and safety in construction………………………………………………………...11
Part II. Different hazards and their solutions
Lesson 1. Hazards to construction workers (1). Fall protection ……………………………………14
Lesson 2. Hazards to construction workers (2). Motor vehicles …………………………………...17
Lesson 3. Hazards to construction workers (3). Trenching. Electrical safety. Chemical Substances20
Lesson 4. Personal protective equipment (PPE) ……………………………………………………22
Lesson 5. Hazards to non-workers …………………………………………………………………24
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания для студентов 1-го курса,
обучающихся по направлению 20.03.01(280700)
«Техносферная безопасность»
Составитель: Нестерова Ольга Федоровна
Подписано в печать 17. 11. 2014.Формат 60*84 1/16. Уч.-изд. л. 1,7. Усл.-печ. л. 1,8. Бумага писчая.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 460.
__________________________________________________________________
Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной литературы
и учебно-методических пособий Воронежского ГАСУ
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
28
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