close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

236. Времена и формы английского глагола

код для вставкиСкачать
216
Времена и формы английского глагола
The English Verb Forms and Tenses
Методическая разработка
к лекционному курсу теоретической грамматики английского языка
для студентов 1-го курса специальности «Переводчик в сфере
профессиональной коммуникации»
Воронеж 2012
0
Министерство образования и науки РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет»
Времена и формы английского глагола
The English Verb Forms and Tenses
Методическая разработка
к лекционному курсу теоретической грамматики английского языка
для студентов 1-го курса специальности «Переводчик в сфере
профессиональной коммуникации»
Воронеж 2012
1
УДК 802-5(07)
ББК 81.2Англ-2я7
Составитель Н.В. Меркулова
Времена и формы английского глагола / The English Verb Forms
and Tenses : методическая разработка к лекционному курсу теоретической
грамматики англ. яз. для студентов 1-го курса специальности «Переводчик в
сфере профессиональной коммуникации» / Воронеж. гос. арх.-строит. ун-т ;
сост.: Н.В. Меркулова. – Воронеж, 2012. – 33 с.
Данная разработка представляет собой обобщение основного
материала к лекционному курсу теоретической грамматики английского
языка.
Рассмотрены базовые грамматические характеристики глагола в
английском языке: общая классификация, система времен, глагольные
формы. Предложены таблицы отдельных грамматических элементов в
рамках изучаемого курса.
Предназначена для студентов 1-го курса специальности «Переводчик в
сфере профессиональной коммуникации».
УДК802-5(07)
ББК 81.2Англ-2я7
Печатается
Воронежского
университета
по решению редакционно-издательского совета
государственного
архитектурно-строительного
Рецензент – Т.А. Воронова, к.ф.н., доцент кафедры русского языка и
межкультурной коммуникации Воронежского ГАСУ
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данная методическая разработка, предназначенная для студентов 1-го
курса специальности
«Переводчик в сфере профессиональной
коммуникации», представляет собой обобщение основного материала к
лекционному курсу теоретической грамматики английского языка в
количестве 16 лекционных и 16 семинарских часов.
В методической разработке к лекционному курсу рассматриваются
базовые грамматические характеристики глагола в английском языке: общая
классификация, система времен, глагольные формы. Отдельные элементы
грамматики английского языка представлены в форме таблиц.
Рекомендуется к использованию как для самостоятельной работы, так и
для работы под руководством преподавателя.
LETURE 1: VERBS.
The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a
one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word
sentence with any other type of word.
Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs
give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight,
do and work all convey action.
But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of
state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey
state.
A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the
subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs
are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe:
action (Ram plays football.)
state (Anthony seems kind.)
There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words
(adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc.) do not change in form (although nouns can
have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form. For example,
the verb to work has five forms:
to work, work, works, worked, working
Of course, this is still very few forms compared to some languages which may
have thirty or more forms for a single verb.
1. General characteristics
Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech. First of all it performs
the central role in realizing predication - connection between situation in the
utterance and reality. That is why the verb is of primary informative significance in
an utterance. Besides, the verb possesses quite a lot of grammatical categories.
3
Furthermore, within the class of verb various subclass divisions based on different
principles of classification can be found.
Semantic features of the verb. The verb possesses the grammatical meaning of
verbiality - the ability to denote a process developing in time. This meaning is
inherent not only in the verbs denoting processes, but also in those denoting states,
forms of existence, evaluations, etc.
Morphological features of the verb. The verb possesses the following grammatical
categories: tense, aspect, voice, mood, person, number, finitude and phase. The
common categories for finite and non-finite forms are voice, aspect, phase and
finitude. The grammatical categories of the English verb find their expression in
synthetical and analytical forms. The formative elements expressing these
categories are grammatical affixes, inner inflexion and function words. Some
categories have only synthetical forms (person, number), others - only analytical
(voice). There are also categories expressed by both synthetical and analytical
forms (mood, tense, aspect).
Syntactic features. The most universal syntactic feature of verbs is their ability to
be modified by adverbs. The second important syntactic criterion is the ability of
the verb to perform the syntactic function of the predicate. However, this criterion
is not absolute because only finite forms can perform this function while non-finite
forms can be used in any function but predicate. And finally, any verb in the form
of the infinitive can be combined with a modal verb.
2. Verb Classification
We divide verbs into two broad classifications:
1. Helping Verbs have no meaning on their own:
I can.
People must.
These verbs are helping verbs and they are necessary for the grammatical
structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use
helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the
above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to
complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.
2. Main Verbs have meaning on their own. They tell us something:
I teach.
The Earth rotates.
There are thousands of main verbs.
3. Helping Verbs
Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs".
There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into 3 basic
groups:
Primary helping verbs (3 verbs)
These are the verbs be, do, and have. Note that we can use these three verbs as
helping verbs or as main verbs.
4
We use helping verbs in the following cases:
1) be
o to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.)
o to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.)
2)
have
o
3)
to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.)
do
to make negatives (I do not like you.)
o to ask questions (Do you want some coffee?)
o to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.)
o to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than
she does.)
Modal helping verbs (10 verbs)
We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some
way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the
main verb in that sense. These are the modal verbs:
can, could (I can't speak Chinese.)
may, might (John may arrive late.)
will, would (Would you like a cup of coffee?)
shall, should (You should see a doctor.)
must, ought to (I really must go now.)
Semi-modal verbs (3 verbs)
The following verbs are often called "semi-modals" because they are partly like
modal helping verbs and partly like main verbs:
need
dare
used to
4. Main Verbs
Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs".
There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways:
1) Transitive and intransitive verbs
A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An
intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. Many verbs, like speak,
can be transitive or intransitive:
I saw an elephant. (transitive)
We are watching TV. (transitive)
He has arrived. (intransitive)
John goes to school. (intransitive)
o
5
2) Linking verbs
A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what
is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to
a different state or place (>).
Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking
verbs):
Mary is a teacher. (Mary = teacher)
The sky became dark. (the sky > dark)
3) Dynamic and stative verbs
Some verbs describe action. They are called "dynamic", and can be used with
continuous tenses. Other verbs describe state (non-action, a situation). They are
called "stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some
of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning).
Dynamic verbs (examples):
hit, explode, fight, run, go
Stative verbs (examples):
be
like, love, prefer, wish
impress, please, surprise
hear, see, sound
belong to, consist of, contain, include, need
appear, resemble, seem
4) Regular and irregular verbs
The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have
different endings for their past tense and past participle forms.
For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the
same: -ed:
look, looked, looked; work, worked, worked
For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable,
so it is necessary to learn them by heart:
buy, bought, bought; cut, cut, cut; do, did, done
Some verbs can be both regular and irregular, for example:
learn, learned, learned or learn, learnt, learnt
Some verbs change their meaning depending on whether they are regular or
irregular, for example "to hang":
regular
hang, hanged, to kill or die, by dropping with a rope around the
hanged
neck
irregular
hang,
hung
hung, to fix something (for example, a picture) at the top
so that the lower part is free
6
5) Forms of Main Verbs
English verbs come in several forms. For example, the verb to sing can be: to sing,
sing, sang, sung, singing or sings. This is a total of 6 forms. English tenses may be
quite complicated, but the forms that we use to make the tenses are actually very
simple. With the exception of the verb to be, English main verbs have only 4, 5 or
6 forms. To be has 9 forms:
V1
infinitive
base-present
simple
(except 3rd pers.
sing.)/
imperative/
base after modal
auxiliary verbs
I
R
R
E
G
U
L
A
R
V3
present
simple,
present
3rd
participle
person
singular
past
simple
past
participle
I
worked
last
week.
I
have I
am He works
worked
working. in
here
for
London.
five years.
You sing well /
You
Make this! /
made a
You must sing
mistake
louder.
He needs a Singing
She sings
folder
well is not
well.
made of easy.
plastic.
I want to I work in London /
R
work.
Work well! /
E
I
can
work
G
tomorrow.
U
L
A
R
He has to
sing.
V2
(to) do* do
(to) have* have
did
had
done
had
doing
having
does
has
Having
She has
finished,
a lot of
he went
money.
home.
This work
is easy to
do.
They
They have a lot of
had a It is done
money / Have a
good
like this.
nice day /
time.
They might do it.
infinitive
base
past
simple
past
participle
present
present
participle simple
(to) be*
be
was,
were
been
being
7
am, are,
is
To be, or
They
not to be, Be quiet! /
were
that is the You could be right.
asleep.
question.
I
have You are
It
is
never been being
English.
so happy. silly!
Do not confuse verb forms with tenses. We use the different verb forms to make
the tenses, but they are not the same thing.
The infinitive can be with or without to. For example, to sing and sing are both
infinitives. We often call the infinitive without to the "bare infinitive".
6) Forms of Helping Verbs
The table below shows the principal forms and uses of helping verbs, and explains
the differences between primary and modal helping verbs:
Primary
Modal
do
(to make simple tenses,
questions and negatives)
and
can
could
be
(to make continuous tenses, and
may
the passive voice)
might
have
(to make perfect tenses)
will
would
shall
should
must
ought (to)
"Do", "be" and "have" as helping verbs
have exactly the same forms as when they Modal helping verbs are invariable.
are main verbs (except that as helping verbs They always have the same form.
they are never used in infinitive forms).
"Ought" is followed by the main
Primary helping verbs are followed by the verb in infinitive form. Other modal
main verb in a particular form:
helping verbs are followed by the
do + V1 (base verb)
main verb in its base form (V1).
be + -ing (present participle)
ought + to... (infinitive)
have + V3 (past participle)
other modals + V1 (base
verb)
"Do", "be" and "have" can also function as Modal helping verbs cannot function
main verbs.
as main verbs.
8
LECTURE 2: THE ENGLISH TENSE SYSTEM
In English, the concept of tense is very important. The category of tense is a verbal
category that reflects the objective category of time. Many languages use tenses to
talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk
about time, using different methods.
So, we talk about time in English with tenses. But:
we can also talk about time without using tenses (for example, going to is a
special construction to talk about the future, it is not a tense)
one tense does not always talk about one time.
1. The Categories of a Verb.
Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses:
1) Mood
indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact, which can be positive
(affirmative) or negative:
I like coffee.
I do not like coffee.
interrogative mood expresses a question:
Why do you like coffee?
imperative mood expresses a command:
Sit down!
subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible:
The President ordered that he attend the meeting.
2) Voice: the form of the verb may show whether the agent expressed by the
subject is the doer of the action or the recipient of the action (John broke the vase the vase was broken). The category of voice is realized through the opposition
Active voice / Passive voice.
Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the
subject does the action (cats eat mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives
the action (mice are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to help
us change the focus of attention.
3) Aspect: the category of aspect is a linguistic representation of the objective
category of Manner of Action. It is realized through the opposition Continuous /
Non-Continuous (Progressive / Non-Progressive). The realization of the category
of aspect is closely connected with the lexical meaning of verbs.
Aspect expresses a feature of the action related to time, such as completion or
duration. Present simple and past simple tenses have no aspect, but if we wish we
can stress with other tenses that:
the action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still
relevant):
I have emailed the report to Jane. ( now she has the report)
(This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.)
the action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is,
uncompleted):
9
We are eating.
(This is called progressive aspect, using progressive/continuous tenses.)
4) Tense and Time: the essential characteristic of the category of tense is that it
relates the time of the action, event or state of affairs referred to in the sentence to
the time of the utterance (the time of the utterance being "now" or the present
moment). The tense category is realized through the oppositions: Past / Present /
Future.
It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to
talk about time.
For example, a present tense does not always refer to present time:
I hope it rains tomorrow - "rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time
(tomorrow).
Or a past tense does not always refer to past time:
If I had some money now, I could buy it - "had" is past simple but it refers here to
present time (now)
2. Basic Tenses
For past and present, there are 2 simple tenses + 6 complex tenses (using auxiliary
verbs). To these, we can add 4 "modal tenses" for the future (using modal auxiliary
verbs will/shall). This makes a total of 12 tenses in the active voice. Another 12
tenses are available in the passive voice. So now we have 24 tenses.
24 Tenses
simple
tenses
past
present
past
present
future
past perfect
present perfect
future perfect
past continuous
present
continuous
future
continuous
ACTIVE
complex
tenses
formed
with
auxiliary
verbs
PASSIVE
future
past
perfect present perfect future perfect
continuous
continuous
continuous
past
present
future
past perfect
present perfect
future perfect
past continuous
present
continuous
future
continuous
past
perfect present perfect future perfect
continuous
continuous
continuous
10
Technically, there are no future tenses in English. The word will is a modal
auxiliary verb and future tenses are sometimes called "modal tenses". The
examples are included here for convenience and comparison.
LECTURE 3: THE ENGLISH TENSES: FORM & MEANING
1) Present Simple Tense
We use the simple present tense when:
the action is general
the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
the action is not only happening now
the statement is always true
The structure of the present simple tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
do
base
There are three important exceptions:
1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add -s to the main verb or -es to
the auxiliary.
3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and
negatives.
Look at these examples:
I am a student.
The Moon goes round the Earth.
John drives a taxi.
He does not drive a bus.
Do you play football?
Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the simple present tense for
situations that are not general. We can use the simple present tense to talk about
now. Look at these examples of the verb "to be" in the simple present tense - some
of them are general, some of them are now:
Tara is not at home.
You are happy.
She is not fat.
Ram is tall.
2) Past Simple Tense
To make the simple past tense, we use:
past form only
or
auxiliary did + base form
We use the simple past tense when:
the event is in the past
the event is completely finished
11
we say (or understand) the time and/or place of the event
We use the simple past tense to talk about an action or a situation / an event - in the
past. The event can be short or long.
Notice that it does not matter how long ago the event is: it can be a few minutes or
seconds in the past, or millions of years in the past. In general, if we say the time
or place of the event, we must use the simple past tense; we cannot use the present
perfect.
Here are some more examples:
I lived in that house when I was young.
He didn't like the movie.
What did you eat for dinner?
I was at work yesterday.
Note that when we tell a story, we usually use the simple past tense. We may use
the past continuous tense to "set the scene", but we almost always use the simple
past tense for the action.
3) Future Simple Tense
The structure of the simple future tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + main verb
invariable
base
will
V1
The simple future tense is often called will, because we make the simple future
tense with the modal auxiliary will.
We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something
before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking (the
decision is made at the time of speaking).
Look at these examples:
We will see what we can do to help you.
Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:
I think I will have a holiday next year.
I don't think I'll buy that car.
We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again,
there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some
examples:
It will rain tomorrow.
People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.
When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a
firm plan or decision before speaking. Examples:
I'll be in London tomorrow.
Will you be at work tomorrow?
12
Note that when we have a plan or intention to do something in the future, we
usually use other tenses or expressions, such as the present continuous tense or
going to.
4) Present Continuous Tense
The structure of the present continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
be
base + ing
We use the present continuous tense to talk about:
action happening now /the action is happening around now:
I am eating my lunch now.
Muriel is learning to drive.
action in the future
We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future - if we add a
future word. We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future
words" include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We
only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have
planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a
plan before speaking.
Look at these examples:
We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table.
They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're not working.
There are some verbs that we do not normally use with continuous tenses. We
usually use the following verbs with simple tenses only (not continuous tenses):
hate, like, love, need, prefer, want, wish
believe, imagine, know, mean, realize, recognize, remember, suppose,
understand
belong, concern, consist, contain, depend, involve, matter, need, owe, own,
possess
appear, resemble, seem,
hear, see
I want a coffee.
I don't believe you are right.
I don't hear anything.
Some verbs have two different meanings or senses. For one sense we must use a
simple tense. For the other sense we can use a continuous or simple tense.
For example, the verb to think has two different senses:
1. to believe, to have an opinion
I think red is a good colour.
2. to reflect, to use your brain to solve a problem
I am thinking about my homework.
When we use the stative sense, we use a simple tense. When we use the dynamic
sense, we can use a simple or continuous tense, depending on the situation.
13
5) Past Continuous Tense
The structure of the past continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb BE
+ main verb
conjugated in simple past tense
present participle
was
were
base + ing
The past continuous tense is an important tense in English. We use it to say what
we were in the middle of doing at a particular moment in the past.
The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past.
The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment:
What were you doing at 10pm last night- I was working at 10pm last night.
She was cooking when I telephoned her.
We often use the past continuous tense to "set the scene" in stories. We use it to
describe the background situation at the moment when the action begins. Often, the
story starts with the past continuous tense and then moves into the simple past
tense:
"James Bond was driving through town. It was raining. The wind was blowing
hard. Nobody was walking in the streets. Suddenly, Bond saw the killer in a
telephone box..."
6) Future Continuous Tense
The structure of the future continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
invariable
invariable
present participle
will
be
base + ing
The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future.
The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that
moment. For example, tomorrow I will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm:
When we use the future continuous tense, our listener usually knows or
understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples:
I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.
She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.
We 'll be having dinner when the film starts.
7) Present Perfect Tense
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
have/has
past participle
14
There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically
three uses for the present perfect tense:
1. We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past.
We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you
did it:
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
2. We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:
I have bought a car.
John has broken his leg.
The police have arrested the killer.
3. We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This
is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably
continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or
since with this structure.
I have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?
We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January,
Monday.
Here are some examples:
I have been studying for 3 hours.
I have been watching TV since 7pm.
Tara hasn't been visiting us since March.
He has been playing football for a long time.
For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.
8) Past Perfect Tense
The structure of the past perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb HAVE
+ main verb
conjugated in simple past tense
past participle
had
V3
The past perfect tense expresses action in the past before another action in the
past. This is the past in the past. For example:
I wasn't hungry. I had just eaten.
I didn't know who he was. I had never seen him before.
You can sometimes think of the past perfect tense like the present perfect tense, but
instead of the time being now the time is past:
"You are too late. The train has left." - "You were too late. The train had left."
15
We often use the past perfect tense in reported speech after verbs like said, told,
asked, thought, wondered:
He told us that the train had left. I wondered if I had been there before.
9)Future Perfect Tense
The structure of the future perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb
invariable
invariable
past participle
will
have
V3
The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the
future. This is the past in the future. For example:
You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.
They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.
10)Present Perfect Continuous Tense
The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb
have
been
base + ing
has
This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a
connection with the present or now. There are basically two uses for the present
perfect continuous tense:
1. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped
We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in
the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now.
I'm tired because I've been running. Why is the grass wet? Has it been raining?
You don't understand because you haven't been listening.
2. An action continuing up to now
We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in
the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since:
I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.]We've been studying
since 9 o'clock. [We're still studying now.]How long have you been learning
English? [You are still learning now.]
11)Past Perfect Continuous Tense
The structure of the past perfect continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb HAVE + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
conjugated in simple
past tense
past participle
present participle
had
been
base + ing
16
The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense, but it expresses
longer actions in the past before another action in the past. For example:
I could smell cigarettes. Somebody had been smoking.
Suddenly, my car broke down. I was not surprised. It had not been running well
for a long time.
You can sometimes think of the past perfect continuous tense like the present
perfect continuous tense, but instead of the time being now the time is past:
Now: "I am angry. I have been waiting for two hours."
Later: "I was angry. I had been waiting for two hours."
12)Future Perfect Continuous Tense
The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is:
subject +
auxiliary verb
auxiliary verb
auxiliary
+
+
WILL
HAVE
verb BE
+ main verb
invariable
invariable
past
participle
present
participle
will
have
been
base + ing
We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some
point in the future:
I will have been working here for ten years next week.
He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours.
LECTURE 4: ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE
There are two special forms for verbs called voice: Active and Passive.
The active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that we use most of the
time. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb:
subject verb object
active
>
Cats
eat
fish.
The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice, the subject receives the
action of the verb (the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive
verb):
subject verb
object
passive <
Fish
are eaten by cats.
17
1. The Structure of the Passive Voice
The structure of the passive voice is very simple:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
We use the passive when:
we want to make the active object more important
we do not know the active subject
Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object:
Fish are eaten by cats.
He was killed with a gun. (Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But
the gun is not the active subject. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the
active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the
instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer").
2. Conjugation for the Passive Voice
We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive
tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the
auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary
verb. Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:
infinitive
to be washed
present
It is washed.
past
It was washed.
future
It will be washed.
simple
conditional It would be washed.
present
It is being washed.
past
It was being washed.
future
It will be being washed.
continuous
conditional It would be being washed.
present
It has been washed.
past
It had been washed.
future
It will have been washed.
perfect simple
conditional It would have been washed.
18
present
It has been being washed.
past
It had been being washed.
future
It will have been being washed.
perfect continuous
conditional It would have been being washed.
LECTURE 5: ENGLISH CONDITIONALS
There are several structures in English that are called conditionals.
"Condition" means "situation or circumstance". If a particular condition is true,
then a particular result happens:
If y = 10 then 2y = 20
There are three basic conditionals that we use very often as well as the so-called
zero conditional.
People sometimes call conditionals "IF" structures or sentences, because there is
usually (but not always) the word "if" in a conditional sentence.
1. Structure of Conditional Sentences
The structure of most conditionals is very simple. There are two basic possibilities.
Of course, we add many words and can use various tenses, but the basic structure
is usually like this:
IF condition result
IF y = 10
2y = 20
or like this:
result
IF condition
2y = 20 IF y = 10
2. First Conditional: Real Possibility
We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or
situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility
that this condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You
plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine
that it rains. What will you do?
IF condition
result
present simple WILL + base verb
If
it rains
I will stay at home.
19
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. But the
sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use the present simple tense to
talk about the possible future condition. We use WILL + base verb to talk about
the possible future result. The important thing about the first conditional is that
there is a real possibility that the condition will happen. Here are some more
examples (do you remember the two basic structures: [IF condition result] and
[result IF condition]?):
IF
condition
result
present simple
WILL + base verb
If
I see Mary
I will tell her.
If
Tara is free tomorrow
he will invite her.
If
they do not pass their
their teacher will be sad.
exam
If
it rains tomorrow
will you stay at home?
If
it rains tomorrow
what will you do?
IF
condition
result
WILL + base verb
present simple
I will tell Mary
if
I see her.
He will invite Tara
if
she is free tomorrow.
Their teacher will be
if
sad
they do not pass their
exam.
Will you stay at home
if
it rains tomorrow?
What will you do
if
it rains tomorrow?
Sometimes, we use shall, can, or may instead of will, for example: If you are good
today, you can watch TV tonight.
3. Second Conditional: Unreal Possibility or Dream
The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still thinking about the
future. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of
this condition. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. For
example, you do not have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery
ticket, no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can
20
think about winning in the future, like a dream. It's not very real, but it's still
possible.
IF condition
past simple
If
result
WOULD + base verb
I won the lottery I would buy a car.
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past simple tense
to talk about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the
future result. The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an
unreal possibility that the condition will happen.
Here are some more examples:
IF
condition
result
past simple
WOULD + base verb
If
I married Mary
I would be happy.
If
Ram became rich
she would marry him.
If
it snowed next July would you be surprised?
If
it snowed next July what would you do?
result
IF
condition
WOULD + base verb
past simple
I would be happy
if
I married Mary.
She would marry Ram
if
he became rich.
Would you be surprised if
it snowed next July?
What would you do
it snowed next July?
if
Sometimes, we use should, could or might instead of would, for example: If I
won a million dollars, I could stop working.
4. Third Conditional: No Possibility
The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third
conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did
not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. The third
conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true.
Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. :-(
21
condition
result
Past Perfect
WOULD HAVE + Past Participle
If I had won the lottery I would have bought a car.
Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win
the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be
true because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the
impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about
the impossible past result. The important thing about the third conditional is that
both the condition and result are impossible now.
Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have,
for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF condition
result
past perfect
WOULD HAVE + past participle
If
I had seen Mary
I would have told her.
If
Tara had been free yesterday
I would have invited her.
If
they had not passed their exam their teacher would have been sad.
If
it had rained yesterday
would you have stayed at home?
If
it had rained yesterday
what would you have done?
result
IF
condition
WOULD HAVE + past participle
past perfect
I would have told Mary
if
I had seen her.
I would have invited Tara
if
she had been free yesterday.
Their teacher would have been sad
if
they had not passed their
exam.
Would you have stayed at home
if
it had rained yesterday?
What would you have done
if
it had rained yesterday?
5. Zero Conditional: Certainty
We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always
true, like a scientific fact.
22
Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What happens? The ice
melts (it becomes water). You would be surprised if it did not.
IF condition
result
present simple present simple
If
you heat ice
it melts.
Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. The
result of the condition is an absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the
future or the past, or even the present. We are thinking about a simple fact. We use
the present simple tense to talk about the condition. We also use the present simple
tense to talk about the result. The important thing about the zero conditional is that
the condition always has the same result.
We can also use when instead of if, for example: When I get up late I miss my
bus.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF
condition
result
present simple
present simple
If
I miss the 8 o'clock bus I am late for work.
If
I am late for work
my boss gets angry.
If
people don't eat
they get hungry.
If
you heat ice
does it melt?
IF
condition
result
present simple
I am late for work
present simple
if
I miss the 8 o'clock bus.
My boss gets angry if
I am late for work.
People get hungry
if
they don't eat.
Does ice melt
if
you heat it?
23
LECTURE 6: SUBJUNCTIVE
The subjunctive is a special, relatively rare verb form in English.
1. Structure of the Subjunctive
The structure of the subjunctive is extremely simple. For all verbs except the past
tense of be, the subjunctive is the same as the bare infinitive (infinitive without
"to"):
be (past)
be (present) all other verbs (past & present)
I
were
you
were
he, she, it were
we
were
you
were
they
were
I
be
you
be
he, she, it be
we
be
you
be
they
be
I
you
he,
we
you
they
she,
it
work
work
work
work
work
work
The subjunctive does not change according to person (I, you, he etc).
2. Use of the Subjunctive
We use subjunctives mainly when talking about events that are not certain to
happen. For example, we use the subjunctive when talking about events that
somebody:
wants to happen
hopes will happen
imagines happening
Look at these examples:
The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
The subjunctive is typically used after two structures:
the verbs: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request,
suggest + that
the expressions: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that
Here are some examples with the subjunctive:
The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.
Notice that in these structures the subjunctive is always the same. It does not
matter whether the sentence is past or present. Look at these examples:
Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
Present: It is essential that she be present.
Past: It was essential that she be present.
24
The use of the subjunctive as above is more common in American English than in
English, where should + infinitive is often used:
The manager insists that the car park should be locked at night.
It was essential that we should vote as soon as possible.
We usually use the subjunctive were instead of "was" after if (and other words
with similar meaning). Look at these sentences:
If I were you, I would ask her.
Suppose she were here. What would you say?
Why do we say "I were", "he were"?
We sometimes hear things like "if I were you, I would go" or "if he were here, he
would tell you". Normally, the past tense of the verb "to be" is: I was, he was. But
the if I were you structure does not use the past simple tense of the verb "to be". It
uses the past subjunctive of the verb "to be". In the following examples, you can
see that we often use the subjunctive form were instead of "was" after:
if
as if
wish
suppose
Formal
Informal
(The were form is correct at all (The was form is possible in informal, familiar
times.)
conversation.)
If I were younger, I would go.
If I was younger, I would go.
If he weren't so mean, he
If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me.
would buy one for me.
I wish I weren't so slow!
I wish I wasn't so slow!
I wish it were longer.
I wish it was longer.
It's not as if I were ugly.
It's not as if I was ugly.
She acts as if she were Queen.
She acts as if she was Queen.
If I were you, I should tell her.
Note: We do not normally say "if I was you",
even in familiar conversation.
Some fixed expressions use the subjunctive. Here are some examples:
Long live the King!
God bless America!
Heaven forbid!
Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
Come what may, I will never forget you.
25
LECTURE 7: GERUNDS
When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important
to understand that they are not the same.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:
Fishing is fun.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a
present participle:
Anthony is fishing.
I have a boring teacher.
Gerunds are sometimes called "verbal nouns".
In this lesson, we look at how we use gerunds, followed by a quiz to check your
understanding:
1. Gerunds as Subject, Object or Complement
Try to think of gerunds as verbs in noun form.
Like nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence:
Smoking costs a lot of money.
I don't like writing.
My favourite occupation is reading.
But, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole
expression [gerund + object] can be the subject, object or complement of the
sentence.
Smoking cigarettes costs a lot of money.
I don't like writing letters.
My favourite occupation is reading detective stories.
Like nouns, we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other
determiners):
pointless questioning
a settling of debts
the making of Titanic
his drinking of alcohol
But when we use a gerund with an article, it does not usually take a direct object:
a settling of debts (not a settling debts)
Making "Titanic" was expensive.
The making of "Titanic" was expensive.
Do you see the difference in these two sentences? In one, "reading" is a gerund
(noun). In the other "reading" is a present participle (verb).
My favourite occupation is reading.
My favourite niece is reading.
2. Gerunds after Prepositions
This is a good rule. It has no exceptions!
If we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund. It is impossible to
use an infinitive after a preposition. So for example, we say:
26
I will call you after arriving at the office.
Please have a drink before leaving.
I am looking forward to meeting you.
Do you object to working late?
Tara always dreams about going on holiday.
Notice that you could replace all the above gerunds with "real" nouns:
I will call you after my arrival at the office.
Please have a drink before your departure.
I am looking forward to our lunch.
Do you object to this job?
Tara always dreams about holidays.
The above rule has no exceptions!
So why is "to" followed by "driving" in 1 and by "drive" in 2?
1. I am used to driving on the left.
2. I used to drive on the left.
3. Gerunds after Certain Verbs
We sometimes use one verb after another verb. Often the second verb is in the
infinitive form, for example:
I want to eat.
But sometimes the second verb must be in gerund form, for example:
I dislike eating.
This depends on the first verb. Here is a list of verbs that are usually followed by a
verb in gerund form:
admit, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest,
dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, feel like, finish, forgive, give up,
can't help, imagine, involve, leave off, mention, mind, miss, postpone,
practise, put off, report, resent, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand
Look at these examples:
She is considering having a holiday.
Do you feel like going out?
I can't help falling in love with you.
I can't stand not seeing you.
Some verbs can be followed by the gerund form or the infinitive form without a
big change in meaning: begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, propose,
start
I like to play tennis.
I like playing tennis.
It started to rain.
It started raining.
4. Gerunds in Passive Sense
We often use a gerund after the verbs need, require and want. In this case, the
gerund has a passive sense.
I have three shirts that need washing. (need to be washed)
27
This letter requires signing. (needs to be signed)
The house wants repainting. (needs to be repainted)
The expression "something wants doing" is not normally used in American
English.
LECTURE 8: COMPLEX OBJECT and COMPLEX SUBJECT
1. Complex Object
Complex Object is a syntactic construction typical of modern English. It’s used as
one member of the sentence – an object. It’s called complex because it consists of
two parts: a nominal part & verbal part.
The nominal part names the doer or the recipient of the action, state or property
denoted by the verbal part.
The verbal part names an action, a state or a property which is performed, directed
at or ascribed to the nominal part.
Hence the relations between the nominal and the verbal parts are like those
between the subject and the predicate.
That’s why the nominal part of complex object can be treated as a secondary
subject, while the verbal part as a secondary predicate only within complex object.
So complex object is a secondary predicative construction which is actually a
compressed subordinate clause or a sentence:
I saw him enter the room. ( --> I saw him as he entered the room. He entered the
room and I saw it.)
The nominal part or the secondary subject can be expressed by:
1. a noun: She wants her son to enter the University.
2. a personal pronoun in the objective case: She invited her to come.
3. an indefinite personal pronoun: I heard somebody open the door.
4. a reciprocal pronoun: They asked each other to forget it.
5. a reflexive pronoun (We have it when the subject of the sentence and the
secondary subject in CO denote the same agent): He imagined himself
dancing with her. Cf.: He imagined him  Not himself but some other guy.
6. a negative pronoun: He wanted nobody to bother him.
7. a demostrative pronoun: I consider those to be nice flowers.
8. a relative pronoun: She didn’t know who to invite.
9. a phrase (pronoun phrase): I found some of them learning grammar.
10. an infinitive (In such casses the inf. of the secondary subject is mostly
placed after the verbal part of CO and its position is filled by the anticipatory
“it”): I find it (to be) difficult* to say it to him. * - verbal part.
11. a gerund: He considers learning grammar (to be) difficult.
12. a For-phrase ( the For-phrase is usually placed after the verbal part and the
position of the nominal part is filled in by “it”.): I believe it necessary for
him to learn grammar.
28
13. a subordinate clause (which is placed after the verbal part of CO and its
position is filled in by “it”): I find it difficult that everybody should be
present there.
The verbal part of CO which is a secondary predicate can correspond to different
types of primary predicates: Simple Verbal, Compound Verbal, Compound
Nominal:
I find him to be rather naive. (CNP)
He noticed the child start falling asleep. (CNAP)
The wanted me to try to persuade her. (CVMP)
When the verbal part corresponds to the Compound Nominal predicate, the linkverb is omitted and the secondary predicate is expressed by any meaningful unit
but the finite form of the verb:
I find him (to be) a brilliant humorist. She believed it strange that she should have
failed to do it.
The verbal part or the secondary predicate can be expressed by:
1. an infinitive She made me do it.
2. a participle I (which stresses the development of the action) I saw him
talking.
3. a participle II (which shows that the action is directed at the agent expressed
by the nominal part because participle II is mostly passive in its meaning) I
found the flowers already watered.
A complex object with participle II after “to have, to have got, to get” shows that
the action named by participle II is performed by somebody for the benefit or to
the detriment of the agent expressed by the subject of the sentence:
I want to have my hair cut. She had a new dress made last week.
Complex Object is used:
1. After the verbs of PHYSICAL PERCEPTION: see, hear, watch, notice, feel,
observe:
I saw him run (running). I watched her cry (crying). I noticed him smile (smiling).
I felt my hand trembling.
NB. After “to see” = to understand, to realize a subordinate clause should be used:
I saw he was trying to deceive me
“to hear” = to be aware of: I hear he has left for London.
2. After the verbs of MENTAL PERCEPTION: think, consider, find, believe,
expect, admit, know, suppose, imagine, feel, trust, acknowledge, assume, deny,
prove:
I think him to be a good man. I found him broken. She felt her story to impress him.
I consider it (to be) foolish. I trust you to do this work on time.
+ after the verbs of Declaring: pronounce, declare: I pronounce you (to be) man
and wife.
3. After the verbs expressing ORDER, PERMISION, REQUEST, COMPULSION:
let, make, have * order ask force cause allow suffer, command, compel,
request, persuade, mean, get:
29
I’ll have him do it. Don’t let her go. You made her cry. She asked him to come on
time. I won’t have you object to me.
4. After the verbs expressing LIKING, DISLIKING, WISH, PREFERENCE:
want, wish, would like, hate, can’t stand, desire, mean, intend, choose, like,
dislike, love:
I would like you to go there. I hate you to think we’re late on purpose.
CO is translated into Russian by a) a subordinate object clause (я видел, как (что))
or b) a construction with an infinitive.
Verbs which require a preposition preserve it with CO (wait for, rely on, listen to):
He listened to the wind blowing outside.
Participle I shows the action in progress: I saw him running.
Participle II is used in CO after “have” in “to have smth done”: I’ve had my hair
cut.
2. Complex Subject
Complex Subject is a syntactic construction typical of modern English. It’s called
complex because it consists of The Nominative with the Infinitive Construction.
Complex Subject (all the forms of the infinitive) is used:
1) In the ACTIVE VOICE:
- After the verbs: seem, appear, happen, chance, prove, turn out:
He seems to know everything.
She chanced to be in the park.
He appeared to be a good man.
The book has proved to be useful.
- With the phrases: to be certain, to be likely, to be sure, to be unlikely:
He is unlikely to appear in the street tonight.
He is sure to have seen this movie.
2) In the PASSIVE VOICE:
- After the verbs of MENTAL or PHYSICAL PERCEPTION:
see, hear, think, consider, know, expect, believe, suppose:
They were heard to laugh (laughing) heartily
She was seen to leave (leaving) the house
- After the verbs of ORDER, PERMISION, REQUEST, COMPULSION:
let, make, order, ask, force, allow, compel, request, persuade:
She was requested to wait for a few minutes.
-After the verbs of SAYING, REPORTING: say, report, allege, pronounce:
She is said to resemble me.
She is reported (to be) missing.
-After the verbs of WISH, EXPECTATION: suppose, expect:
He was supposed to be dead.
She was expected to come on Friday.
NB. A perfect infinitive shows that the action wasn't carried out: He was supposed
to have come on Monday (but he didn't).
The Particle "to" is not used:
30
1.After MODALS (except: ought to, have to, be to, *need, dare): had better,
would rather … than, would sooner, can't help but,
have nothing to do but, won't have, can't but, do nothing but (save).
2. After the verbs of PHYSICAL PERCEPTION: see, hear, watch, observe, feel,
notice.
NB. If see, hear, feel are used in the meaning of mental perception "to" is used:
I hear him to leave. I felt my hand to be freezing.
3. After let, make, have:
I won't have you talk to me like that.
4.In RHETORICAL and COLLOQUIAL QUESTIONS:
Why stay here? Why not go home? How leave her there?
NB. 1. After know = “be aware of” in Present & Past Simple + to:
I know it to be true.
After know = “experience, witness” - without “to”:
I've never known him smile.
2. After help (admits of variations): Help me (to) do it.
3. In the passive voice the infinitive is always used with “to”:
They were seen to leave.
Complex subject is usually translated into Russian by a subordinate object clause.
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
Данная методическая разработка, содержащая обзор основного
материала к лекционному курсу на иностранном языке по теоретической
грамматике английского языка, призвана помочь студентам 1-го курса
специальности «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации» в
подготовке к семинарским занятиям по изучаемой дисциплине.
Представленный
в
разработке
грамматический
материал
систематизирован и четко структурирован, что облегчает его освоение
учащимися и способствует оптимальному восприятию теоретической
дисциплины.
Данная методическая разработка рекомендуется как для аудиторной,
так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.
31
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК
РЕКОМЕНДУЕМОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1. Блох, М.Я. Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского
языка : учеб. пособие / М.Я. Блох, Т.Н. Семенова, С.В. Тимофеева. – М. :
Высш. шк., 2004. – 471 с.
2. Блох, М.Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка : учебник /
М.Я. Блох. – Изд. 5-е, стер. – М. : Высш. шк., 2004. – 421 с.
3. Категория настоящего времени в английском языке : метод.
разработка для студентов 2-3 курсов международного фак. / сост. :
Е.А. Журавлева, Т.А. Воронова ; Воронеж. гос. архит.-строит. ун-т. –
Воронеж : Отдел оперативной полиграфии ВГАСУ, 2008. – 26 с.
4. Категория прошедшего времени в английском языке : метод.
указания для студентов 2-го курса международного факультета / сост. :
Т.М. Крючкова. – Воронеж : Отдел оперативной полиграфии ВГАСУ, 2005. –
32 с.
5. Клементьева, Т.Б. Повторяем времена английского глагола : учеб.
пособие / Т.Б. Клементьева. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. : Высш. шк., 1990. – 206 с.
6. Комаровская, С.Д. Modern English Grammar / Современная
английская грамматика / С.Д. Комаровская. – Книжный дом «Университет»,
2002. – 440 с.
7. Худяков, А.А. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка : учеб.
пособие / А.А. Худяков. – М. : Academia, 2005. – 254 с.
8. Эккерсли, К.Е. Английский для всех : Учеб. пособие : В 4 кн. Кн. 3 /
К.Е. Эккерсли. – М. : Дело, 1992. – 310 с. : ил.
9. Эккерсли, К.Е. Английский для всех : Учеб. пособие : В 4 кн. Кн. 4 /
К.Е. Эккерсли. – М. : Дело, 1992. – 311 с. : ил.
10. Craven, M. English Grammar in Use CD-ROM : Hundreds of additional
exercises to accompany the third edition of the book : User’s Guide. Version 1.0 /
M. Craven, B. Viney. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
11. Evans, V. Enterprise. Grammar 3 : Student’s Book / V/ Evans, J.
Dooley. – Newbury : Express Publishing, 2000. – 143 p. : il.
12. Evans, V. Enterprise. Grammar 4 : Student’s Book / V/ Evans, J.
Dooley. – Newbury : Express Publishing, 2000. – 159p. : il.
13.Murphy, R. Essential Grammar in Use : A self-study reference and
practice book for elementary students of English with answers / R/ Murphy – third
edition. – Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 319 p.
14. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use : A self-study reference and
practice book for intermediate students of English with answers / R/ Murphy –
third edition. – Cambridge University Press, 2006. – 379 p. + 1 CD-ROM : il.
32
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение ………………………………………………………………………..
LECTURE 1: Verbs…………………..………………………….……………..
LECTURE 2: The English Tense System………………………………..….......
LECTURE 3: The English Tenses: Form and Meaning………………………....
LECTURE 4: Active and Passive Voice…..…………………………..………...
LECTURE 5: English Conditionals………………………………….………….
LECTURE 6: Subjunctive..………………………………………….…………..
LECTURE 7: Gerunds….……………………………………………………….
LECTURE 8: Complex Object and Complex Subject….……………….….…...
Заключение…………………………………………………..………………….
Библиографический список рекомендуемой литературы………………..….
3
3
9
11
17
19
24
26
28
31
32
Времена и формы английского глагола
The English Verb Forms and Tenses
Методическая разработка
к лекционному курсу теоретической грамматики английского языка
для студентов 1-го курса специальности «Переводчик в сфере
профессиональной коммуникации»
Составитель: Надежда Вячеславовна Меркулова
Подписано в печать 13.04.2012. Формат 60x84 1/16.
Уч.- изд.л.2,0. Усл.- печ. л. 2,0. Бумага писчая. Тираж 80 экз. Заказ №222.
Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной
литературы и учебно-методических пособий Воронежского
государственного архитектурно-строительного университета
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
33
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
7
Размер файла
498 Кб
Теги
времени, глаголы, 236, английского, формы
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа