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327. Строительство зданий

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет»
Кафедра иностранных языков
СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО ЗДАНИЙ
Методическая разработка
по английскому языку
для студентов 1-го курса факультета СПО специальности 270802
«Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений»
Воронеж 2014
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УДК 802.0:69(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:38я7
Составители Л.В. Карпова, Л.Н. Крячко
Строительство зданий: метод. разработка по английскому языку для студ.
1-го курса факультета СПО, спец. «Строительство и эксплуатация зданий
и сооружений» / Воронежский ГАСУ; сост.: Л.В. Карпова, Л. Н. Крячко. –
Воронеж, 2014. – 30 с.
Методическая разработка состоит из шести уроков, включающих
тексты по основам строительного дела на английском языке. Разработка
содержит фонетические, словообразовательные, лексические и грамматические упражнения, способствующие эффективному усвоению учебного
материала.
Методическая разработка предназначена для студентов 1-го курса
факультета СПО, обучаюшихся по специальности «Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений».
УДК 802.0:69(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:38я7
Печатается по решению научно-методического совета
Воронежского ГАСУ
Рецензент – Н.Н. Лапынина, канд. филол. наук, проф.
кафедры русского языка и межкультурной коммуникации Воронежского ГАСУ
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данная методическая разработка предназначена для студентов 1 курса факультета СПО, обучающихся по специальности «Строительство и
эксплуатация зданий и сооружений», и имеет целью совершенствовать
знания студентов в области англоязычной профессиональной терминологии, развивать их умения высказываться на английском языке по темам,
связанным с их будущей профессиональной деятельностью.
Методическая разработка состоит из шести уроков, нацеленных на
ознакомление обучаемых с основами строительного дела. Тематический
материал доступно изложен в специальных текстах на английском языке.
К каждому тексту прилагается вокабуляр, включающий лексические
единицы, которые могут представлять трудность при переводе. Облегчить
восприятие учебного материала также помогают предтекстовые упражнения лексического характера. Проверка понимания студентами прочитанного, а также закрепление усвоенного в процессе работы материала ос уществляется с помощью ряда послетекстовых заданий.
В каждый из уроков включены фонетические упражнения на повторение основных правил чтения; задания на ознакомление с основами словообразования; а также разнообразные упражнения для отработки следующих грамматических тем: “Past Simple Tense”, “Present Perfect Tense”,
“Past Simple vs Present Perfect Simple” и “Passive Voice”.
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LESSON 1
Phonetics: [ai], [au], [о:], [t∫]
Word Formation: Suffixes -er; -or; - tion/ation, -ing; -ity; -ment.
Grammar: Past Simple Tense.
Topic: Cement. Цемент.
I. Read and translate the following words:
finе, find, bind, grind, kind, mind, high, light, right, child, mild, side, site, size,
white, wide, final, private, type, prior, design, wire, fire;
house, how, now, down, town, round, about, layout, out, amount, powder, foundation, brown, ground, allow, without;
also, always, chalk, small, tall, talk, more, short, all, mortar, wall, door, floor,
coarse, course, restore, former, cause, draw, proportion, warm;
lecture, mixture, texture, admixture, temperature, manufacture, architecture,
structure, nature, culture, picture, moisture, signature, future, departure.
II. Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
cement [si`ment] – цемент, цементировать
fine powder [`paud Ə] – мелкий порошок
binding properties [`baindiŋ 'propetiz] – вяжущиe свойства
raw materials [ro:] – сырьевые материалы
limestone [`laimstoun] – известняк
chalk [`t∫o:k] – мел
clay [`klei] – глина
marl – мергель
to produce [prƏ`dju:s] – производить
kiln – печь
mixing [`miksiŋ] – перемешивание
burning of clinkers [`bƏ:niŋ] – обжиг клинкера
grinding [`graindiŋ] – измельчение
to rotate [rou`teit] – вращаться
slurry [`sl ri] – шлам
to slide down – скользить вниз
to take place – происходить
constituent [kƏn`stitjuƏnt] – составная часть = ingredient
mortar [`m o:tƏ] – раствор
concrete [`kOnkri:t] – бетон
housing [`hauziŋ] – жилищное строительство
bridge – мост
foundation – фундамент
infrastructure – инфраструктура (промышленная, городская);
сети обслуживания населения
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III. Form the nouns adding the suffixes and translate them into Russian.
Model:
stem + suffix = noun
to build – builder ; строить – строитель
- er: do, mix, compute, work, design, produce, plan, receive, restore.
- or: construct, elevate, invent, decorate, coordinate, instruct, imitate, create.
- ion/ation: combine, construct, prepare, classify, decorate, create, organize.
- ing: burn, build, mix, produce, grind, set, house, place, train, plan.
- ity: dense, porous, durable, available, total, active, real, popular, regular, s ecure.
- ment: base, develop, achieve, employ, govern, treat, require, reinforce, settle.
IV. Point out the suffixes of the following words and the parts of speech
they form. Make sentences with the words.
1. Binder, coloured, producer, mixing, combination, chemical, slowly, lower, layout, architecture, without, foundation.
V. Read and translate the text
CEMENT
Cement is a fine powder. It has good binding properties. Cement is usually of grey colour. There are also white and coloured cements. Cement is made of
different materials. The materials for cement are: limestone, chalk, marl and
clay. Those are raw materials.
There are three stages in producing cement. They are: 1) grinding and
mixing the raw materials, 2) burning of clinkers, 3) grinding of clinkers. There
are special kilns for burning clinkers. The temperature of the kilns is high. The
kiln rotates slowly as the slurry slides down to its lower end. During the burning
chemical combination takes place between the constituents, and cement clinkers
come out of the kiln. A special machine makes powder from them.
Clinker composition depends on the nature of the raw materials, the proportioning, the process (wet or dry), the plant equipment and laboratory control.
The main Russian cement types used in construction are:
Alumina Cement – глиноземистый цемент
Fire Cement – огнеупорный цемент
Hydraulic Cement – гидравлический цемент
Normal Portland Cement – обычный портландцемент
Special Cement – быстротвердеющий цемент
White and Coloured Portland Cement - белый и цветной портландцемент
Cement is widely used in all types of construction: industrial, housing, agricultural 1) for binding panels, stones, bricks and 2) for producing mortars and
concretes.
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Cement is the key ingredient of concrete which in turn is a key ingredient
of the world’s infrastructure – as well as your home, your office and your kid’s
playgrounds.
VI. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Cement is usually ...... grey colour.
2. It is made ...... different materials.
3. The raw materials ...... cement are limestone, chalk, marl and clay.
4. There are special kilns ...... burning clinkers.
5. There are three stages ...... producing cement.
6. Chemical combination takes place ...... the constituents.
7. Cement clinkers come out ...... the kiln.
8. A special machine makes powder ...... them.
9. Portland cement is widely used … all types … construction.
VII. Translate the sentences into English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Цемент – вяжущий материал.
Сырье для цемента – мел, глина, известняк и мергель.
Цемент обычно серый, белый или цветной.
В производстве цемента три стадии: 1) перемешивание, 2) обжиг клинкера, 3) измельчение клинкера.
Обжиг клинкера происходит в печах с высокой температурой.
Вяжущие свойства цемента очень важны для строительства.
Цемент широко используют в промышленном и сельскохозяйственном
строительстве.
Название «портландцемент» связано с полуостровом на юге Великобритании – Портланд, где в 1824 году началось промышленное производство цемента.
VIII. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is cement?
3. What properties does cement have?
4. What are the raw materials for сеment?
5. What stages are there in producing cement?
6. Speak about special kilns for burning clinkers.
7. What takes place during the burning?
8. Where is cement used?
9. Why is cement widely used in construction?
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IX. Speak about cement as one of the popular binding materials in
construction. Make use of the following expressions:
1. I'm going to speak about – я собираюсь рассказать о ...
2. Now a few words about – теперь несколько слов о ...
3. In conclusion I'd like to say that – в заключение мне бы хотелось сказать что
...
Grammar: Past Simple Tense.
I. Put the verbs in brackets in the form of the Past Simple Tense.
1. A: … (you/go) on holiday last summer?
B: Yes, I … (go) to Hungary.
2. A: Where … (be) you last night?
B: I … (meet) a friend for dinner.
3. I … (call) her house but there … (be) no answer.
4. Yesterday Sue … (receive) a package in the post from Tom.
5. A: What … (you/do) when you … (finish) school?
B: I … (travel) through Europe.
6. I … (send) an e-mail to Marie yesterday and she … (write) back immediately.
7. A: … (they/go) to the football game on Saturday?
II. Read the following note and put the verbs into the correct form of the
Present Simple, Present Continuous or Past Simple.
Dear Pam,
I 1) … (be) sorry I 2) … (not/come) to your party yesterday. As you 3) …
(know) I 4) … (go) skiing three days ago. It was fantastic but I 5) … (catch) a
terrible cold! I 6) … (still/lie) in bed with a temperature! That’s why I 7) …
(miss) your party. Julie 8) … (tell) me it 9) … (be) great.
Call me as soon as you can.
Love,
Alison
III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Past Simple Tense.
1. A: Where … (you/go) last weekend?
B: I … (visit) my grandparents on their farm.
A: … (you/enjoy) yourself?
B: Oh, yes!
A: What … (you/do)?
B: Well, on Saturday I … (go) swimming and on Sunday I … (help) my
grandfather milk the cows.
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2. A: Uncle Tom, how … (you/spend) your time when you … (be) young?
B: First of all, we … (not/have) a television so we … (play) a lot of games.
A: Really! What else … (you/do)?
B: Well, we … (listen) to the radio and … (read) books.
IV. Ten years ago Jerry was a student. Now he is a lawyer. Use the prompts
to ask and answer questions about Jerry, as in the example.
A: Did Jerry use to work hard?
B: No, he didn’t. He used to study hard.
Then
Study hard
Live with his parents
Take the bus to University
Wear jeans and pullovers
Shop at discount stores
Eat fastfood at McDonald’s
Now
Work hard
Have his own house
Drive to work in his car
Wear suits
Shop at expensive stores
Eat in expensive restaurants
LESSON 2
Phonetics: [а:], [i:], [ ], [æ], [ŋ]
Grammar: Present Perfect Tense.
Topic: Brick. Кирпич.
I.
Read and translate the following words:
article, particle, fast, past, pass, task, dark, bar, tar, far, partition, hard, glass,
arch, after, mark, larch, vast, branch, answer, demand, cast, example;
cheap, heat, beam, steel, reason, keep, speed, treat, chief, need, ceiling, receive,
field, engineering, appearance, deal, increase, piece, brief, we, meter;
but, cut, up, number, some, come, done, colour, result, under, touch, double,
must, substance, publish, much, structure, cover, wonder, company;
where, there, their, rare, spare, square, chair, share, wear, bear, care, various;
strong, along, wrong, prolong, bring, pink, link, bank, mixing, sink, setting,
blank, young, facing, among, according, morning, thing.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
brick [`brik] – кирпич
artificial [a:ti`fi∫Əl] – искусственный
reason [`ri:zn] – причина, основание
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to survive [s Ə`vaiv] – выжить
to influence [`influƏns] – влиять на ...
availability [aveilƏ`biliti] – наличие
to obtain [Əb`tein] – добывать
to revive [ri`vaiv] – возрождать, возобновлять
to deliver [di`livƏ] – доставлять
to change [t∫eindჳ] – менять
forming [`fo:miŋ] – формовка
kind [`kaind] – вид, тип
facing [feisiŋ] – облицовочный
common [`kOmƏn] – обычный
engineering [endჳi`niƏriŋ] – кирпич повышенной прочности
hollow [`holou] – пустотелый
porous [`po:rƏs] – пористый
lime-sand – силикатный
reinforced – армированный
refractory – огнеупорный
appearance [Ə`piƏrƏns] – внешний вид
resistance to impact [`impækt] – устойчивость удару
wear [`wεƏ] – износ
to require [ri`kwaiƏ] – требовать
maintenance [`meintinƏns] – техническое обслуживание
III.
Put all possible questions to the sentences.
1. Historically the use of brick has been influenced by the availability of raw
materials.
2. In England the art of brick-making came and went with the Romans.
3. Engineering bricks must have excellent resistance to impact, corrosion and
wear.
IV.
Read and translate the text
BRICK
Brick was the first artificial building material made by man of clay and
sand. There are practical and economic reasons why the use of brick has survived. Brick is reasonably priced, standardized product, durable, with good ins ulating properties, satisfactory porosity and weather-resistant.
Historically the use of brick has been influenced by the availability of raw
materials. The main material clay can be obtained practically everywhere. Egypt
and Mesopotamia have some of the earliest examples of brick -making. The
Romans were quick to see its potential and organized production where they
found the raw materials. In England the art of brick-making came and went with
9
the Romans. But it revived in the Middle Ages and since then there has been the
development of mass-production techniques and transport systems to deliver the
products. In Russia bricks have been used in construction for centuries.
The basic principles of brick-making have never changed. This process
was rather simple. Nowadays there are also four stages in the manufacture of
bricks: 1) mixing the raw material, 2) forming 3) drying and 4) burning.
There are different kinds of bricks: facing, common, engineering, hollow
and porous: reinforced and refractory. Facing bricks have a pleasant appearance.
Common bricks are cheap. Engineering bricks have excellent resistance to impact, corrosion and wear. Hollow and porous bricks are lightweight and more
economical than common ones.
Bricks are of different size, colour and texture. The principal structural defect of brick is its porosity.
Bricks are widely used in construction:
1) for bearing elements, for example, walls and foundations
2) for producing aggregates
3) for decoration.
4) reinforced and refractory bricks are used in the metallurgy and glass industries for lining furnaces.
Brick structures require almost no maintenance. They are characterized by
high durability and can last for hundreds of years.
V.
Put in the correct prepositions.
1. Brick was the first artificial building material made ... man.
2. The use ... brick has been influenced ... the availability ... raw materials.
3. Egypt has the earliest examples ... brick-making.
4. There are different kinds ... bricks.
5. The raw materials ... bricks are cheap.
6. The process ... manufacture is rather simple.
7. All bricks are ... different size, colour and texture.
8. Bricks are widely used ... construction ... build walls, facades and foundations.
9. Brick structures can last ... hundreds ... years.
10. Bricks have been used … construction … centuries … many countries.
VI.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Глиняный кирпич – первый строительный материал, созданный человеком.
2. Существуют различные виды кирпичей.
3. Кирпич должен обладать прочностью, морозостойкостью, малым водонасыщением, малой теплопроводностью и устойчивостью к коррозии.
4. Основной материал для кирпичей – глина.
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5. В производстве кирпича четыре стадии: 1) перемешивание сырья, 2)
формовка, 3) сушка и 4) обжиг.
6. Кирпич используют для возведения конструкционных и конструкционно-теплоизоляционных зданий и сооружений.
7. Кирпичные здания отличаются высокой долговечностью.
8. Кирпич используют в строительстве сотни лет во многих странах.
9. Кирпич – ценный строительный материал.
VII. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is brick?
3. What is the history of brick-making?
4. Have the basic principles of brick-making ever changed?
5. Is the process of brick-making simple or complicated?
6. What are the stages in the manufacture of bricks?
7. What properties do bricks have?
8. What kinds of brick are there?
9. Brick structures require almost no maintenance, don't they?
10. Why is brick so popular in modern construction?
VIII. Speak about brick as the first artificial building material made by
man. Make use of the key word combinations and expressions.
The main material clay, can be obtained, practically everywhere, Mesopotamia,
Egypt and England, the basic principles of brickmaking, the Romans saw its potential, rapid development, due to, properties, equal to those of stone, transport
system, mass-production techniques, practical and economic reasons, the availability of raw materials, kinds of brick, for bearing elements, brick structures, can
last…
1. There is no doubt that… – нет сомнения в том, что…
2. I`m quite sure that… – я совершенно уверен, что…
3. It is necessary to stress… – важно подчеркнуть…
4. It has been the result of… – это явилось результатом…
5. Apart from… – в отличие от…
6. Characterize brick structures – охарактеризуйте кирпичные сооружения
Grammar: Present Perfect Tense.
I. Match Column A to Column B.
A
1. Tom hasn’t spoken
B
a) five times this morning.
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2. Have you ever been
3. Sam has called me
4. How long have you
5. I haven’t seen my grandmother
6. Jason has already finished
7. We are hungry because we
haven’t
8. Molly is an excellent student and has never
b) since I was 12 years old.
c) his homework.
d) to Lee for three years.
e) eaten dinner yet.
f) lived in Chicago.
g) failed an exam.
h) to Singapore?
II. Make short exchanges using the prompts below, as in the example .
Example: The dog is barking. (you/take/for a walk)
A: The dog is barking. Have you taken him for a walk?
B: No, I haven’t.
1. The food is burning. (you/turn off/oven).
A: ………………………………….
B: ………………………………….
2. The flowers are dry. (Ann water them).
3. The kitchen floor is dirty. (Scott/mop/it).
4. The baby is crying. (Carol/feed/her).
5. There isn’t any milk. (Tom and Chris/do/shopping).
6. Mary is on the phone. (you/tell her/good news).
7. The fridge isn’t working. (Sam/call/repairman).
8. Our guests are here. (Bill/set/the table).
III. Fill in the gaps with have/has been или have/has gone.
1. “Where are Mary and Steve?”
“They … to Cornwall for the weekend.”
3. “Are you going to Vienna for your holiday?”
“No, I … already … to Vienna.”
4. The Smiths … to many European countries.
5. Your sister … to the theatre tonight.
6. Dad … to the supermarket. The fridge is full.
7. I have heard that London is a pretty city but I … never … there.
8. Marie … to the shops. She should be home by 9:00.
IV. Выберите наиболее подходящее к данному предложению слово из
двух предложенных.
1. Has Carl painted the kitchen just/yet?
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2. Pete has already/since cleaned his room.
3. We have yet/just finished eating our dinner.
4. Janet hasn’t called me back yet/already.
5. Have they returned from their trip yet/already?
6. She hasn’t seen her cousin for/just two years.
7. They have just/for returned from their trip
8. I have already/yet been to the post office.
IV. Fill in the gaps with since or for, as in the example.
1. …for… four years.
2. ………..we had lunch
3. ………..one hour
4. ………..I left school
5. ………..two months
6. ……Sunday morning
7. ……three weeks
8. ……this afternoon
9. ……five minutes
10….…she has a baby
LESSON 3
Phonetics: [i], [θ], [ð]
Grammar: Past Simple vs Present Perfect Simple
Text: Concrete. Бетон
I.
Read and translate the following words:
system, brick, mix, which, give, gypsum, is, timber, will, little, fill, build, simple, figure, million, width, symbol, carry, plenty, since;
method, monolithic, month, strength, width, think, thermal, thank, fifth, thick,
synthetic, bath, south, depth, thought, length, theory;
they, that, with, there, then, those, within, thus, therefore, their, themselves,
without, another, mother, further, bathe, other.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
concrete [`kOnkri:t] – бетон, бетонировать
dense [dens] – плотный
heat-insulating – теплоизоляционный
heat-resistant – жаростойкий
fast-hardening – быстротвердеющий
high-strength – высокопрочный
lime concrete – силикатный
setting [`setiŋ] – схватывание
hardening [`ha:dniŋ] – твердение
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cellular [`seljula] – ячеистый
acid-resistant [`Æsid] – кислотостойкий
fire-resistant [faiƏ] – огнестойкий
building site [`sait] – строительная площадка
monolithic = in-situ [in-'saitju:] – монолитный
precast [pri`kast] – сборный
to influence [`influens] – влиять на, воздействовать
water-cement ratio [`rei∫iou] – водоцементное отношение
quality [`kwOliti] – качество
supporting elements [s Ə`po:tiŋ] – опорные элементы
slab [slæb] – плита
hydraulic engineering structures [hai`dro:lik] – гидротехнические сооружения
channel [t∫ænl] – канал
road surfaces [`s Ə:fisiz] – дорожные покрытия
base – основание
marine concrete [mƏ`r i:n] – гидротехнический бетон для морских сооружений
III. Give the synonyms to the following words and translate them into
Russian.
Model: to use = to utilize - использовать
To construct, to vary, different, aim, material, ordinary, man-made, to classify,
to apply, general, to make, rapid, to resist, to speak, special.
IV.
Read and translate the text
CONCRETE
Concrete is one of the constructive building materials which led to great
innovations: reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete.
It was used by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans in the construction of
roads, tunnels, bridges, aqueducts, town walls and even underwater structures.
Some of them have survived for example the Pantheon. This famous concrete
building was constructed by Roman hands. Today it stands in the business district of Rome – much as it was built some 18 centuries ago.
As cement was not known in those times, concrete was made of clay and
later of gypsum and lime.
At present concrete is made by mixing water, cement and aggregates usually sand, gravel and crushed stone.
There are four stages in producing concrete: 1) preparing the raw materials 2) their mixing, 3) forming and 4) hardening. The resulting material is
strong, durable, hard, heavyweight or lightweight, acid-, air-, water-, gas-, heat-,
fire-, and corrosion-resistant.
14
There are different kinds of concrete: dense, lightweight, super-heavy, extra-lightweight, cellular, heat-resistant, high-strength. For special purposes acid
and heat-resistant superheavy concrete is used.
The kind of concrete depends on the aggregates used.
There are different methods in producing concrete. It may be prepared
right at the building site and is called monolithic or in-situ concrete. It may be
prepared at a factory and is called precast.
The strength of any concrete is influenced by the following factors:
the activity of cement;
the water-cement ratio;
the quality of aggregates;
the hardening conditions.
Concrete today is widely used in construction:
1) for supporting elements of buildings: beams, floors, slabs, panels, columns;
2) for hydraulic engineering structures: dams, facing of channels;
3) for road surfaces and bases.
Concrete is one of the main constructive building materials in the world.
V.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Put in the correct prepositions.
Concrete is one … the constructive building materials.
Concrete is a mixture ... water, cement and aggregates.
There are four stages ... producing concrete.
Concrete may be prepared right ... a building site.
It may also be prepared ... a factory.
The kind of concrete depends ... the aggregates used.
Concrete has many advantages ... other building materials.
The strength of any concrete is influenced ... many factors.
Concrete is widely used ... construction ... supporting elements.
VI.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Бетон – особый конструктивный материал.
2. Его издавна использовали египтяне, греки и римляне.
3. Бетон – композиционный материал, полученный в результате твердения
рационально подобранной смеси из вяжущего материала, заполнителя и
воды.
4. В производстве бетона четыре стадии: 1) приготовление сырья, 2) его
перемешивание, 3) формование и 4) твердение.
5. Плотность бетона зависит от плотности цементного камня, плотности
заполнителей и степени уплотнения.
6. Конструкции из монолитного бетона изготавливают непосредственно
на строительной площадке, а сборные конструкции – на заводе.
15
7. Бетон является главным строительным материалом, который применяют во всех областях строительства.
VII. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What is concrete?
3. What stages are there in producing concrete?
4. What properties does concrete have?
5. What kinds of concrete do you know?
6. What does the kind of concrete depend on?
7. Speak about cellular concrete.
8. What factors influence the strength of any concrete?
9. Where is concrete widely used today?
10. Why is concrete one of the main building materials in construction world?
VIII. Speak about concrete as one of the main building materials today.
Make use of the key words and expressions.
Constructive material, its composition, stages in producing, the resulting material, the kind of concrete, depends on, methods in producing, the s trength of any
concrete, is influenced by, wide application, will be required in future, concrete
structures, economic, safe and sound = strong.
1. I`ll speak about… – я расскажу о…
2. If I`m not mistaken… – если я не ошибаюсь…
3. Now just a few words about… – сейчас несколько слов о…
4. Technical characteristics of…are… – техническими характеристиками
являются…
5. It is no doubt that… – нет сомнения в том, что…
6. In conclusion I`d like to say that… – в заключение мне бы хотелось
сказать, что…
Grammar: Past Simple vs Present Perfect Simple
I.
Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the present perfect
simple.
1. A: …… (you/ever/be) to Paris?
B: Yes, we …… (spend) a month in Paris two years ago.
2. A: …… (you/see) Janice at the party?
B: No, I …… (see) her for weeks.
3. A: … (Fred/visit) his grandparents in Italy?
B: Yes, he … (go) to Italy last summer to see them.
4. A: I … (eat) at Martin’s Steak House last night – the food was delicious.
B: That’s my favourite restaurant. I … (eat) there many times.
5. A: … (Mum/speak) to Jim?
16
B: Yes, she … (call) him this morning.
6. A: … (Michael/buy) a CD player?
B: No, he … (not/save up) enough money yet.
7. A: …… (you/buy) a dress for the wedding yet?
B: No, I …… (not/find) anything that I really like.
8. A: …… (Sara/come) home from work yet?
B: No, she …… (called) and ……(say) that she is going to come home late
tonight.
II. In this exercise you have to put the verb into the correct form, present
perfect or past simple.
1.
Jill ……(buy) a new car two weeks ago.
2.
His hair is very short. He …… (have) a haircut.
3.
Last night I …… (arrive) home at half past twelve. I …… (have) a bath
and then I …… (go) to bed.
4.
…… (you/visit) many museums when you were in Paris?
5.
My bicycle isn’t here any more. Somebody …… (Take) it.
6.
I …… (not/eat) anything yesterday because I …… (not/feel) hungry.
7.
Why …….. (Jim/not/want) to play tennis last Friday?
8.
The car looks very clean. …… (you/wash) it?
9.
Mr Clark ……. (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
10. Molly lives in Dublin. She …… (live) there all her life.
11. Bob and Alice are married. They …… (be) married for 20 years.
12. When we were on holiday, the weather ……. (be) awful.
13. My grandfather died 30 years ago. I …… (never/meet) him.
14. I don’t know Carol’s husband. I …… (never/meet) him.
LESSON 4
Phonetics: [ ], [a:], [o:]
Grammar: Past Perfect
Text: Parts of a Building. Части здания
I.
Read and translate the following words and word combinations:
some, public, covered, does, other, multistoreyed, industrial, structure, constructive, function, come, number, study, confront, subject, result;
vast, after, past, architect, rafter, last, part, are, arch, task, plant, dark, ask;
more, order, all, form, boarding, wall, floor, also, for, always.
17
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations:
to devote [di`vout] – посвящать
creative energies [`enƏdჳiz] – творческие усилия
to reflect – отражать
society [s Ə`saiƏti] – общество
art-form – образец искусства
to surround [s Ə`raund] – окружать
part of a building – часть здания
vast majority – громадное большинство
to provide shelter– обеспечить кров
choice – выбор
excavation [ekskƏvei∫n] – котлован
to dig (dug, dug) – копать
foundation [faundei∫n] – фундамент
to keep (from) – предохранять
soil – грунт
framework [`freimwƏ:k] – каркас
stability [stƏ`biliti] – устойчивость
to carry the loads – нести нагрузку
to clothe [`klouð] – заполнять
to divide into stories – делить на этажи
to support – поддерживать
to protect – защищать
wall – стена
floor – перекрытие
roof – крыша
to tie – связывать
firmness [`fƏ:mnis] – устойчивость
bitumen felt [`bitjumin felt] – битумный войлок
wood = timber – древесина
tiling [`tailiŋ] – черепица
III.
Read and translate the text.
PARTS OF A BUILDING
Since the beginning of civilization man has always been a builder, devoting creative energies to the construction of buildings to live in and to work at. A
building reflects the society of its time more than any other art-form.
The meaning of any building depends on the materials used and the function it is designed to perform. The vast majority of buildings consist of external
walls, surrounding an interior space and covered by a roof to provide shelter.
Three basic factors - availability, physical properties and cost determine
the initial choice of a building. The main parts of a building are a foundation, a
framework, floors and a roof.
18
In order to build a house first an excavation must be dug. After that the
foundation is constructed to keep the walls and floors from the contact with soil.
It may be of stone, bricks, concrete. Then a framework is raised.
A framework is the part of a building on which the stability of the structure depends. This part of a building carries the loads from the roof and floors.
The framework is clothed with various materials in the form of panels. Floors
divide the building into stories. They may be of timber, reinforced concrete or
other materials. The floors are supported on beams. A roof is the topmost part of
a building. Its function is to cover the building and protect it from rain and wind.
Roofs also tie the walls and give strength and firmness to the structure. Wood,
metal, tiling, bitumen felt and other materials are used for roofs.
IV.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Memorize the following antonyms:
to begin – to stop;
the first – the last;
to fulfil – to fail;
complete – incomplete;
ancient – modern;
strong – weak;
V.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
VI.
7) expensive – inexpensive =
cheap;
8) favourable – unfavourable;
9) positive – negative;
10) useful – useless;
11) valuable – invaluable;
12) flexible – inflexible.
Match the English and Russian definitions using Fig. 3:
a multistoreyed house;
plinth floor;
cornice;
roof boarding;
strip foundation;
constructive scheme;
intermediate floor;
landing;
external wall;
attic floor;
internal wall;
flight;
rafter.
a) наружная стена;
b) чердачное перекрытие;
c) карниз;
d) обрешетка кровельного покрытия;
e) цокольное перекрытие;
f) ленточный фундамент;
g) лестничный марш;
h) стропило;
i) внутренняя стена;
j) конструктивная схема;
k) лестничная площадка;
l) многоэтажный дом;
m) междуэтажное перекрытие.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What are the constructive elements of a building?
3. What is a foundation?
19
4. What is the function of the foundation?
5. What materials are used for foundation?
6. What is a framework?
7. What is the function of the framework?
8. What is the framework clothed with?
9. What is the function of a floor?
10. What materials are floors made of?
11. What is the topmost part of a building?
12. What is the function of a roof?
13. What is the most important part of a building?
Grammar: Past Perfect
I.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past perfect.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
When we returned, we found that somebody … (broke into) our flat.
I … (not/finish) cooking dinner when my parents came to visit.
Jim went out for coffee after he … (write) a letter to his grandmother.
They left the cinema after the film … (end).
She was excited because she ……. (not/see) a play before.
Did you like the cake ……. (she/bake)?
He …… (hear) the song on the radio before he bought the CD.
They were tired because they …… (play) football.
She was sad because she …… (lose) the game.
The match …… (already/start) when they arrived at the stadium.
II. Join the sentences using the words in brackets and putting the verbs into
the correct tense, as in the example.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
They watched TV. They have finished their homework. (after)
Jeff was 12 years old. He learned to speak English. (by the time).
Tim lived in London. He moved to Paris. (before)
Mum cooked dinner. I came home from school. (by the time)
She went to work. She had breakfast. (as soon as)
Susan tried on many dresses. She decided to buy the green one. (after)
Jason failed his driving test three times. He finally got his license. (before)
Wendy finished the washing-up. She played chess. (after)
20
VII. Speak about the main parts of a building and their functions.
Fig. 1. Constructive scheme of a multistoreyed house:
1 - strip foundation – ленточный фундамент; 2 - external wall – наружная стена;
3 - internal wall – внутренняя стена; 4 - plinth floor – цокольное перекрытие;
5 - intermediate floor – междуэтажное перекрытие; 6 - attic floor – чердачное перекрытие;
7 - rafter – стропило; 8 - roof boarding – обрешетка кровельного покрытия,
9 - landing – лестничная площадка; 10 - flight – лестничный марш; 11 - eave = cornice –
карниз
21
LESSON 5
Phonetics: [æ], [ei], [Ə:], [ju:]
Grammar: Passive Voice
Text: Floors. Перекрытия.
I. Read and translate the following words:
Aspect, gravel, sand, fact, impact, factory, plan, panel, rapid, standard, attractive, practical, aggregate, expand, exam, gas;
name, aim, say, take, place, stage, day, grey, they, rate, clay, obtain, basic, eight,
weight, able, again, wait, date;
serve, term, certain, person, purpose, inert, firm, burn, first, third, perfect, urgent;
new, few, student, duty, super, produce, view, unit, using, news.
II. Learn the following words and word combinations:
floor – перекрытие
dead load – постоянная нагрузка
live load – переменная нагрузка
to superimpose – прикладывать нагрузку
basement – подвал
upper – верхний
attic – чердак
to satisfy = to meet requirements – удовлетворять требованиям
sufficient – достаточный
rigidity – жесткость
sound insulation – звукоизоляция
obvious – очевидный
to lay along – лежать вдоль
to allow – позволять
high speed – высокоскоростной
rib – ребро
steel beam – стальная балка
to erect – монтировать, сооружать
design – назначение, конструкция
cladding – заполнитель каркаса
22
III. Read and translate the text.
FLOORS
Floors are the structural elements which divide a building into stories and
carry the dead load or the weight of the floor itself and the superimposed or live
load. According to the design they are classified as basement floors, upper
floors, and attic floors. But all of them must satisfy some common requirements:
sufficient strength and rigidity, good sound insulation, fire resistance. It is obvious that basement and attic floors must be warmed while the floors in sanitary
units must be water and gas resistant. As to the materials used floors are divided
into three groups: timber, reinforced concrete floors and floors laid along steel
beams.
Timber floors are simple to erect but they are liable to fire, to rot and are
not so durable as others. Therefore they are generally used in dwellings and service buildings.
Reinforced concrete floors have many advantages which allow to use
them especially in big constructions of industrial design. Reinforced concrete
floors are not liable to fire, they are strong, durable and economical. Precast reinforced concrete floors developed by Russian designers meet the requirements
of high speed industrial construction. Most widely used monolithic floors are
ribbed and beamless. Floors laid along steel beams are usually made with fireproof cladding in precast or monolithic reinforced concrete slabs. There are also
combined precast-monolithic floors and many other kinds besides the three main
groups mentioned.
IV. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Какие конструктивные элементы делят здание на этажи?
2. Перекрытия делятся на подвальные, верхние и чердачные.
3. Деревянные перекрытия имеют следующие недостатки: они подвержены
гниению и горению.
4. Скоростное строительство требует применения сборных и железобетонных перекрытий.
5. Какие материалы используют для перекрытий?
6. Перекрытия могут быть комбинированными – из сборных и монолитных
элементов.
7. Общие требования к перекрытиям следующие: достаточная прочность и
жесткость, хорошая звукоизоляция и огнестойкость.
8. Перекрытия классифицируют согласно конструкциям и используемым
материалам.
23
V. Give the synonyms to the following words:
1) element; 2) to classify; 3) timber; 4) monolithic; 5) generally; 6) to meet requirements; 7) profession; 8) basic; 9) speed; 10) method; 11) material;
12)dwelling; 13) various; 14) a lot of; 15) to define; 16) for example; 17) to apply; 18) thank to.
Grammar: Passive Voice
I. Rewrite the sentences below in the passive, as in the example.
1. Someone will meet you at the airport.
You will be met at the airport.
2. He hasn’t watered the plants.
3. George and Sarah arranged a fantastic party.
4. The mechanic hasn’t repaired the car.
5. They feed the animals twice a day.
6. Sam will fix the roof.
7. Cherry Lane launched a new menswear line.
8. Claire designed the red dress.
9. The clown will entertain the children.
10. He has mended the puncture in the tyre.
I.
Fill in the gaps with the correct passive tense of the verbs in brackets.
1.A: Have they delivered your new sofa yet?
B: Not yet. It …… (deliver) at the end of the day.
2. A: Is your house old?
B: Yes, it’s quite old. It …… (build) in 1920.
3. A: That’s a beautiful watch.
B: Thank you. It …… (give) to me for Christmas.
4. A: When will I get my money?
B: It …… (put) in the bank tomorrow morning.
5. A: Are the Musical Notes a good band?
B: Yes, they are. They …… (award) best song of the year in 1997.
6. A: Did Shakespeare write Wuthering Heights?
B: No, of course not. Wuthering Heights …… (write) by Emily Brönte.
7. A: What will happen to the old town library?
B: It …… (tear down) at the end of the month.
8. A: Do you do the housework?
B: No, I don’t. The housework …… (do) once a week by a cleaning lady.
24
III. Fill in the gaps with is, was, has or will, as in the example.
1. He …was… asked to open the window.
2. The metro …… be finished early next year.
3. The shopping …… done every Friday.
4. The telephone …… been repaired.
5. The office …… redecorated last week.
6. She ….. been asked to leave.
7. The new shop …… be opened tomorrow.
8. When I was in high school the history class ……. taught by Mr Allen.
9. The building ……. destroyed in the flood.
10. The thief …… been caught by the police.
LESSON 6
Phonetics: [kw], [ks], [gz], [ai]
Grammar: Passive Voice
Text: Walls. Стены
I.
Read and translate the following words.
square, quickly, quality, question, quantity, require, liquid, equal, request;
text, next, box, six, fix, mixing, extra, complex, expect, explain;
exam, exist, example, exact, exceed, excellent, examinant, except;
high, right, light, mild, might, flight, kind, find, minus, mine.
II.
Learn the following words and word combinations to the text:
wall [`wo:l] – стена, обносить стеной
to enclose areas [in`klouz] -– ограждать пространства
to resist loads – воспринимать нагрузки
upper floor – верхнее перекрытие
to serve [`s Ə:v] – служить
partition [pa:`ti∫n] – перегородка
according to – согласно, в соответствии с
loadbearing [`loudbεƏriŋ] – несущий
non-loadbearing – ненесущий
tо rest – опираться
unit – элемент, конструкция
25
entire construction [in`taiƏ] – все сооружение, целое здание
inside wall – внутренняя стена
outside wall – наружная стена
dwelling – дом, жилище
solid – сплошной
cavity = hollow – пустотелый
introduction – введение
because of – из-за
insulating value ['insjuleitiŋ`vælju:] – изоляционные свойства
precast unit – сборный элемент
building site – строительная площадка
quantity [`kwOntiti] – количество
simple erection – простой монтаж
III.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. A revolutionary technique has made possible the manufacture of quality wood
flooring at extremely economical price.
2. The strength of brickwork construction depends both upon that of the brick
and that of the mortar.
3. Easy of cleaning, attractive colourful patterns make new plastics ideal for
shelves, table tops and other surfaces.
4. The gypsum concrete sets approximately 15 min after pouring.
5. One of the particular advantages of gypsum concrete is its fire-resistance.
6. Paints based on natural materials are showing very high promise.
7. Research in Germany has led to the development of a composite building material called "aluminium plywood".
8. New methods of construction bring their own specific difficulties.
9. When a building is finished, the work is praised - its design, its quality and its
price.
10. An early example of the glass wall is in the Factory of Boots at Beeston in
Nottinghamshire, England, built in 1932 according to the design of Sir Owen
Williams.
IV.
Form the verbs from the following nouns and translate them:
application, increase, compression, difference, weight, requirement, decoration,
economy, builder, appearance, reinforcement, designer, engineer, mortar.
V.
Memorize the following antonyms:
1) artificial – natural;
2) to construct – to destroy;
6) possible – impossible;
7) fine – coarse;
26
3) compound – simple;
4) to give – to take;
5) internal – external;
VI.
8) light – heavy;
9) advantage – disadvantage;
10) initial – final.
Read and translate the text.
WALLS
The function of the walls is to enclose areas, to resist loads from the floors
and roofs or to serve as partitions inside the building. Walls may be classified
according to their functions or type of construction and materials used. As to the
functions there are loadbearing and non-loadbearing walls, or partitions.
An outside wall rests directly on the foundation wall forming a bearing
unit for the upper floors and the roof and an enclosure for entire construction.
Inside walls may or may not support other parts of the structure. They
serve as partitions for several rooms inside the dwelling. Walls may be co nstructed as solid elements or they may be of hollow or cavity type. Solid walls
are made of brickwork, sometimes reinforced by the introduction of steel in the
form of rods or wires. Cavity walls are the type of construction generally preferred to solid because of their high heat insulating value and economy. There
are also whole precast units in the form of wall-slabs mostly used for partitions
but loadbearing precast units with windows and doors are produced and brought
to the building site.
Low weight, good heat insulation, small quantities of mortar required and
simple erection have made these wall units very popular among builders.
Different types of houses are given in Fig. 2. and Fig. 3.
VII. Match the English and Russian definitions using Fig. 2.:
1)
2)
3)
4)
internal wall;
a large-panel house;
floor slab;
longitudinal loadbearing
wall;
5) external wall;
6) constructive scheme.
7) made of precast concrete elements.
a) наружная стеновая панель;
b) конструктивная схема;
c) крупнопанельный дом;
d) панель перекрытия;
e) внутренняя стена;
f) продольная несущая стена.
g) Сделанный из сборных бетонных элементов
VIII. Read the information given below and answer the following questions.
One can see different types of houses in our city: frameless houses and
those with frames. This is a frameless large-panel house with three longitudinal
27
Constructive scheme of a large-panel house
with longitudinal loadbearing walls
Fig. 2. Constructive scheme of a large-panel house with longitudinal loadbearing walls:
1 - external wall slab – наружная стеновая панель; 2 - floor slab – панель перекрытия;
3 - internal wall – внутренняя стена; 4 - a large-panel house – крупнопанельный дом;
5 - with longitudinal loadbearing wall – с продольной несущей стеной
loadbearing walls: two external walls and one internal wall. External walls of
the house are made of precast concrete elements.
Partitions are made of gypsum-slag concrete. Reinforced concrete panels
one-storey height are used for internal longitudinal loadbearing walls of the
house.
28
Intermediate floors rest on external and internal walls. Such constructive
scheme is used for public and industrial multistoried buildings.
1. What kind of house is shown in Fig. 2 ?
2. What structures may have the constructive scheme with three longitudinal
loadbearing walls?
3. What materials are used for external walls?
4. What are partitions made of?
5. What materials are used for internal walls?
6. What is the information about?
IX.
Study the constructive scheme shown in Fig.3.
Fig. 3. Constructive scheme of a large-panel house with transverse loadbearing walls:
1 - floor slab – панель перекрытия; 2 - external wall slab – наружная стена;
3 - partition slab – перегородочная панель;
4 - with transverse loadbearing wall – с поперечной несущей стеной
29
X.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Match the English and Russian equivalents using Fig. 3:
transverse loadbearing wall;
external wall;
partition slab;
floor slab.
XI.
a)
b)
c)
d)
панель перекрытия;
перегородочная панель;
поперечная несущая стена;
наружная стеновая панель.
Study the information and answer the questions.
This is a frameless large-panel house with transverse loadbearing walls.
All main elements of the house - transverse partitions, internal longitudinal walls
and external walls - are loadbearing.
Floor slabs have supports from four sides.
Partitions and floor slabs are made of heavy concrete.
1. What kind of house is shown in Fig. 5?
2. What structures may have the constructive scheme with transverse loadbearing walls?
3. What materials are used for partitions and floor slabs?
4. Are all main elements in the house loadbearing or non-loadbearing?
5. What is the information about?
XII. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the text about?
2. What are walls?
3. What are the functions of the walls?
4. How are walls classified?
5. What is a loadbearing wall?
6. What is a non-loadbearing wall?
7. What materials are solid walls made of?
8. What are the advantages of cavity walls?
9. What frameless large-panel structures do you know?
10. What constructive scheme has the house you live in?
Grammar: Passive Voice
I. Use the prompts to make sentences in the passive, as in the example.
1. the ironing/ share/ Susan and David
… The ironing is shared by Suzanne and David …
2. the fence/ paint/ last Tuesday
3. the invitations/ just/ send
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4. the stolen painting/ no find yet
5. the clothes/ wash/ tomorrow
6. the doctor/ already/ call
7. the house/ clean/ next weekend
8. the washing-up/do/Joseph/every night
II. Fill in the gaps with the correct passive tense of the verbs in brackets.
One of the most famous bridges in North America is the George Washington
Bridge. It 1) ….. (name) after the first American president and the states of New
York and New Jersey 2) …… (connect) by it. The bridge 3) …… (design) by
Othmar H. Amman, a Swiss-born engineer and it 4) …… (complete) in 1931. It
5) …… (make) so that cars could travel more quickly and easily to and from the
two states. In 1962, a lower deck with more traffic lanes and a modern bus terminal 6) …… (add). On the New York side, one of the towers of the bridge 7)
…… (build) on land whereas on the New Jersey side, the other tower 8) ……
(place) in the Hudson River. It is worth crossing the bridge because the incred ible New York sky line 9) …… (can/see) from there.
III. Read the newspaper and fill in the gaps with the verbs in brackets using
the passive.
Earthquake Hits Whiterose
Whiterose’s city centre 1) …… (seriously/damage) yesterday morning when it
2) …… (hit) by an earthquake measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale. Fifty people
3) …… (injure) and more than two hundred 4) ……. (trap) under debris since
10 a.m. It 5) …… (believe) by experts that another earthquake may strike the
area again in the near future. The local council announced this afternoon that
money 6) …… (give) to help those in need. Any donations to charitable organizations 7) …… (collect) by Mrs Randall on Monday from 9.00 – 5.00.
IV. Rewrite the following sentences about the preparations for Julie’s we dding in the passive, as in the example.
She booked the church two months ago. She has already sent out the invitations
and has ordered the cake. She hasn’t picked up the wedding dress yet. She will
pick it up on Friday. The florist will deliver the flowers on Saturday morning.
The hairdresser will style her hair right before the wedding.
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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение……………………………………………………………........3
Lesson 1. Cement. .…………………...…………………….……………4
Lesson 2. Brick. ………………………………………………………….8
Lesson 3. Concrete. ……………………………………………..……......13
Lesson 4. Parts of a Building. ....…………………………………………17
Lesson 6. Floors. ….…………………………………………….................22
Lesson 7. Walls. …………………………………………………………...25
Строительство зданий
Методическая разработка по английскому языку
для студентов 1 курса факультета СПО, специальности
«Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений»
Составители: Людмила Владимировна Карпова
Лилия Николаевна Крячко
Отпечатано в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 31.05. 2014. Формат 60x84 1/16. Уч.-изд. л. 1.75.
Усл.-печ. л. 1.8. Бумага писчая. Заказ №116. Тираж 70 экз.
Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной литературы и учебно-методических пособий
Воронежского ГАСУ
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
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