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518.Лукина Л.В.Cultural Studies.Лингвострановедение

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Лукина Л.В.
CULTURAL STUDIES
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ
АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ СТРАНЫ
Учебно-методическое пособие
Воронеж 2011
2
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования
Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный
университет
Лукина Л.В.
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ
АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ СТРАНЫ
CULTURAL STUDIES
Учебно-методическое пособие
Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия
редакционно-издательским советом Воронежского государственного
архитектурно-строительного университета для студентов
специальности 620100 – «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной
коммуникации»
(третий уровень высшего профессионального образования)
Воронеж 2011
3
УДК 802.0:910(07)
ББК 81.2Англ: 26.89я7
Л647
Рецензенты:
кафедра иностранных языков Воронежского филиала Московского
гуманитарно-экономического института;
М.А. Стернина, доктор филол. наук, проф. кафедры английского языка
естественнонаучных факультетов Воронежского государственного
университета
Л647
Лукина, Л.В.
Cultural Studies. Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные страны:
учеб.-метод. пособие для ПСПК / Л.В. Лукина; Воронеж. гос. арх.строит. ун.-т. – Воронеж, 2011. – 188 с.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие разработано в соответствии с действующими
государственными стандартами и программой по данному курсу. Цель пособия –
познакомить студентов с историей, социальной и культурной практикой народов
Великобритании, США, Канады, Австралии и Новой Зеландии, а также связанные с
ними языковые реалии.
Пособие содержит обширный страноведческий материал по англоязычным странам,
отдельные разделы знакомят студентов с географией, политической и образовательной
системами англоязычных стран, а также с различными сторонами современной жизни
этих стран. Пособие включает теоретический и практический материалы: лекции,
планы семинарских занятий, темы презентаций, контрольные вопросы, тесты для
самостоятельной оценки качества освоения дисциплины, а также народные и
популярные песни Великобритании и США.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, занимающихся по программе
«Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации». Материал пособия рассчитан
для активного усвоения и самостоятельного изучения дисциплины «Лингвострановедение
англоязычных стран» и рассчитано на 141 час (121 час аудиторных занятий и 20 часов
самостоятельной работы).
Ил. 53. Библиогр.: 38 назв.
УДК 802.0:910(07)
ББК 81.2Англ: 26.89я7
ISBN 978-5-89040-323-0
© Лукина Л.В., 2011
© Воронежский государственный
архитектурно-строительный
университет, 2011
4
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие «Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные страны»
предназначено
для
студентов,
обучающихся
по
программе
дополнительной квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной
коммуникации» и
составлено в соответствии с действующими
государственными стандартами и программой по данному курсу.
Пособие в систематизированном виде содержит необходимые для
изучения курса лингвострановедение материалы: лекции, планы
семинарских занятий, практические задания, темы презентаций,
контрольные вопросы и тесты для самостоятельной оценки качества
освоения дисциплины. Оно может быть использовано как для аудиторной,
так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.
Цель пособия заключается в том, чтобы познакомить студентов с
историей и культурой Великобритании, США, Канады, Австралии и
Новой Зеландии, а также сформировать навыки критического осмысления
явлений современной англоязычной культуры. Данная цель определяется
тем, что курс лингвострановедения является составной частью подготовки
студентов переводческой специализации в области профессиональной
коммуникации.
Пособие по лингвострановедению охватывает пять англоязычных
стран мира. В нем отражена обширная информация о прошлом и
настоящем Великобритании, Соединенных Штатов Америки, Канады,
Австралии и Новой Зеландии. В пособии использованы аутентичные
страноведческие материалы, которые сопровождаются заданиями,
способствующими умению выражать мысль на английском языке.
Данное учебное пособие состоит из 11разделов (Part), включающих
26 лекций (Lecture) и 8 семинарских занятий (Seminar). Заключительная
часть пособия (Supplement) содержит перечень тем для курсовой работы,
образцы оформления курсовой работы, вопросы для повторения и
подготовки к сдаче зачета, экзамена.
Пособие открывается тестом для самоконтроля исходных знаний
студентов по различным сторонам жизни Великобритании. Первый раздел
посвящен предмету «Лингвострановедение» и понятию «Культура».
Второй и третий раздел содержат общие сведения о Великобритании.
Далее
следуют
пять
тематических
разделов,
посвященных
Великобритании и другим англоязычным странам, каждый из которых
состоит из нескольких лекций. Темы для обсуждения в конце каждой
лекции дают возможность обобщить материал лекции, закрепить и
детализировать его, а также выразить свое отношение к данной теме. В
пособие включен раздел, посвященный народной музыке и песням
Британии и США.
Курс «Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные страны» объемом 121 час
изучается в течение трех семестров на 2-м и 3-м курсах.
5
CULTURAL STUDIES
British Studies Quiz
Test your Knowledge
I. Choose the correct answer for each question.
1. The capital of Northern Ireland is
a) Dublin
b) Cardiff
c) Belfast
2. The British flag is often called
a) the Union Jack
b) the Stars and Stripes
c) the Maple Leaf
3. Ben Nevis is
a) a famous footballer
b) a sort of whiskey
c) a mountain
4. The national currency of the UK is
a) the euro
b) the dollar
c) the pound
5. The most popular sport in Britain is
a) ice hockey
b) baseball
c) football
6. Britain’s national drink is
a) tea
b) Coca-Cola
c) coffee
6
7. The mysterious Loch Ness Monster is from
a) Wales
b) Iceland
c) Scotland
8. The famous British newspaper which is printed on pink paper is
a) The Times
b) The Guardian
c) The Financial Times
9. The Beatles started their career in
a) London
b) Liverpool
c) Birmingham
10. The kilt is
a) a shirt
b) a skirt
c) a pair of trousers
11. British football fans
a) are the most indifferent fans in the world.
b) are very reserved.
c) have a very bad reputation in Europe for their behaviour.
12. Stonehenge is about …….. years old.
a) 40
b) 400
c) 4000
II. True or false.
1. The future king of England is called the Prince of Wales.
2. Welsh is an official language in Wales.
3. The BBC stands for “Best British Culture”.
4. A mile is longer than a kilometre.
5. Elizabeth II has two birthdays.
6. In Britain, black cats are believed to bring bad luck.
7. Speakers’ Corner is part of the British Parliament.
8. The President of Britain is elected every seven years.
9. A bobby is a guard at the Tower of London.
10. Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon.
***
7
PART ONE
BRITISH CULTURAL STUDIES
Subject
Iceberg of Culture
High Culture and Sub-cultures
Culture and Traditions
The Language of Cross Cultural Communication
Cultural studies as an academic discipline emerged in the second half of
the 1980s. The subject of British Cultural Studies is the history, social and
cultural practice of people of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United
States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and also connecting
with language phenomena.
8
British Cultural Studies as a multidisciplinary subject is based on the
notion of culture. In the United Kingdom, sociologists and other scholars such
as Stuart Hall and Raymond Williams developed Cultural Studies. They
identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities (such as art,
music, film, food, sports, and clothing). The British version of cultural studies
was developed in the 1950s and 1960s. In the United States, "Cultural Studies"
focuses largely on the study of popular culture, that is, the social meanings of
mass-produced consumer and leisure goods. It began to combine political
economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media
theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies
and art history.
According to the British scholar Robert Gibson’s view of culture, it is an
iceberg phenomenon. The visible part of culture is formed up by institutes
(state structure, government, mass media, education system, etc.), artifacts
(fashion, food, etc.), and behaviour (body language, addressing other
people, conducting business, expressing love, hate, etc.). The invisible part
of an iceberg of culture is made up of beliefs (faith, religion), attitudes
(those formed up by upbringing, education) and values (shaped by the
family, tradition, society).
"Cultural studies" is concerned with the meaning and practices of everyday
life. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as
watching television, or eating out) in a given culture.
Culture is made up of High Culture (Arts) and Sub-cultures.
“Culture” includes traditional high culture (the culture of ruling social
groups) and popular culture.
High Culture or Arts includes literature, visual arts, especially painting,
architecture and the performing arts – music, drama, dance and film.
9
In cultural studies, a subculture is a culture (whether distinct or hidden), or a
group of people, which differentiates from the larger culture, for example, if a
particular subculture is characterized by a systematic opposition to the dominant
culture, it may be described as a counterculture. Members of a subculture often
signal their membership through a distinctive and symbolic use of style, which
includes fashions, mannerisms, and ar got. The study of subcultures often
consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible
affectations by members of subcultures. It may be difficult to identify certain
subcultures because their style (particularly clothing and music) may be adopted
by mass culture for commercial purposes. Music-based subcultures such as jazz,
punk, hip hop and rave cultures now may represent mass culture. The punk
subculture's distinctive (and initially shocking) style of clothing was adopted by
mass-market fashion companies.
Cultural studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of culture. A cultural
artifact is any object made or modified by a human. An artifact is anything that
can be placed in your houses. Artifacts deal with kitchen and history of food,
body culture and sports, housing and privacy, parks and gardens.
The word “Culture” has a number of meanings. It often refers to music,
literature, art, and higher education. It also means the customs of a society and
the way in which people interact with each other.
These are fundamental things that everyone knows from his or her childhood,
and which are automatic to the people who live in that culture. They include
everything from the common courtesies (правила вежливости) and details of
daily life to the deeper issues of a person's place in society, of family, of life.
Certain types of behaviour are expected in English-speaking countries.
The Americans like to speak about their home, colleges and achievements. The
English like to speak about weather. Nicknames are much more often used in the
USA than in Britain.
10
People in both countries consider time as an expensive object or material.
They talk about it in many different ways. They save it, waste it, spend it, kill it.
They have free time, leisure time, spare time. They invest in it and carefully
budget it. Be polite and friendly in public places. Daily showers and a fresh set
of clothes are the norm. Smile and people will smile with you.
There are around 6,000 living languages in the world. English is one of
the most widely used languages in the world. Today knowledge of foreign
languages is important because they are the main and the most efficient means of
information exchange between the people of the world. Over 337 million people
in the world speak English as their mother tongue, and about 350 million people
speak it as a second language. English is an official language in over 75 of the
world’s territories. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, in the
United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the
official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada and South African Republic. As
a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
English is the major international language for communication in such
areas as science, technology, business and mass media. English is used as one of
the official languages of the United Nations Organisation. It is the language of
computer software and video games, literature and education, popular music and
satellite broadcasting, academic conferences and international tourism.
English is the language of international commerce. Over 80 per cent of the
world’s electronically stored information is in English and two-thirds of the
world’s scientists read in English. English words are borrowed to add to other
languages. Almost all computer terms in Russian are taken from English.
Every good specialist has to know English because it is necessary
nowadays. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of
the country where this language is spoken.
***
11
PART TWO
BRITAIN: GENERAL SURVEY
1. THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE
The British Isles
England
Scotland
Wales
Northern Ireland
The British Isles
England is the most important component of Britain and is a part of the
British Isles. When the British themselves speak of England, they mean
only England. When they say Great Britain, they mean England, Wales
and Scotland. For the United Kingdom they add Northern Ireland. The
British Isles is Great Britain, with the addition of the Channel Islands, the
Isle of Man, and other small islands.
The northern and western parts of Britain are highlands, poor inhabited;
the eastern and southern parts are lowlands, rich and densely populated.
Lowland Britain, essentially Anglo-Saxon, has had an entirely different
history from Highland Britain, mainly Celtic. To this day, the Highland
peoples – the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish – are distinct in traditions,
language, outlook, from the Lowland English.
All over the British Isles, there reigns a maritime climate, temperate and
rainy. Winter may be damp and foggy.
12
England
England is the largest, the industrial and the most densely populated part
of the United Kingdom. England with its 45 million people has varieties of
scenery and humanity. The North of England is its industrial area, and the
South is agricultural.
The coasts of England are washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the
English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The Channel Tunnel, railway
network, is now linked directly to Europe. Eurostar trains run several times
a day from the centre of London to Paris and Brussels.
There are many rivers in England. The longest and the most important
one is the Thames.
Northern England, Midlands and Southern England – each part of
England is different. The Lake District in Northern England with its lakes,
mountains and valleys is a favourite holiday area.
Scotland
Highland Britain includes Scotland, where over five million people live.
Scotland takes up one third of the territory of the British Isles. The largest
section is taken up by the Scottish Highlands, a beautiful region of blue
peaks, freshwater lakes, called lochs (the best-known is Loch Ness), thinly
populated by small farmers and fishermen, some of whom still speak the
Gaelic. The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary between England and
Scotland. The highest mountain of the Highlands of Scotland is Ben Nevis
(1343 metres).
Edinburgh is the capital and cultural centre of Scotland. Scotland was
joined into the UK in 1707, after a long struggle for its independence.
The Scotsman of comic papers is supposed to have red hair, and to be
addicted to golf, whisky, to wear the kilt and to play the bagpipes. The
13
Scots have a passion for learning, and a magnificent sense of hospitality.
They are proud of their great poets Robert Burns, George Byron.
Wales
Wales, where 3 million people now live, was long protected from
invasion by its mountains, which accounts for the survival of the Welsh
language and culture. Wales is a highland country of old rocks. North
Wales is known for its feudal castles, and impressive scenery including
mountains and valleys. South Wales is a land of high hills. The pride of
Wales in scenery is Snowdonia, a region of high mountains. Snowdon is
the highest mountain in England and Wales.
The capital of Wales is Cardiff, the largest city of Wales. Wales became
part of England in 1536.
The Welsh are fond of folk music, singing, poetry and drama.
Wales has its own flag called the Welsh dragon. A red dragon is the
official symbol of Wales.
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is the smallest component of the United Kingdom, where
1,7 million people live. It occupies the northeast of the island of Ireland, only
one-sixth of its territory. Belfast is its capital city, a modern industrial town and
a large sea-port.
For seven centuries Ireland was a colony of Britain. In 1949 it was officially
proclaimed an independent state. But Northern Ireland was retained by Great
Britain as its smallest component.
There are low hills and peaks of rocks in the northwest. The rivers are short,
but deep. Irish poets call Ireland “the Emerald Isle”.
In Ireland the national musical instrument is the harp.
14
2. TRIUMPH OF INDUSTRIALISM
Britain the Pioneer
The English Character
The Mixture of Races and Cultures
The English Mind and Heart
Religion in Britain
Britain the Pioneer
The middle of the 18th century marked the beginning of a period of rapid
change which gradually transformed rural Britain into an industrial society. This
economic development, known as the Industrial Revolution, started in England
first because the English, of all Europeans, were best equipped for it. They
possessed overseas markets and an expanding commerce, fluid capital (a London
merchant was the first millionaire), considerable experience in banking, internal
free trade, political stability, and mineral resources near sea-ports. Thus, Britain
is the birthplace of modern industrialism.
The English Character
Compared with Latin peoples the English are ethnically young. They are
good observers of Nature and great lovers of plants and animals. The English
are fond of sport.
Other constants in the national character seem to spring from the land itself,
its nature, climate and position on the north-western edge of the Continent. The
insularity of the English, long isolated from Europe, is perhaps their most
invaluable traits. They often distrust foreigners, their food, their habits and their
morals. Today the man in the street simply believes that “a world without
England would have no adequate standard of rightness”. The average
Englishman has a real passion for liberty and law.
15
The Mixture of Races and Cultures
The English have been concisely defined as “a stream of Germans with a
few ingredients of native Celt, Roman and Norman French. For the population
is predominantly Anglo-Saxon. Of the blond, blue-eyed German the
Englishman has the solid qualities: industry, domestic tastes, fearlessness,
tenacity, and sometimes the ruthlessness.
The British have produced great poets and writers. And Shakespeare, the
most universal of English poets, was born in the very heart of England, at the
cross-roads where races and cultures mixed.
The English Mind and Heart
When an Englishman says: “We are not particularly clever”. It means: “We
have no use for brilliant discussions leading nowhere. We use common sense
and get results.” The English distrust idle theorizing. They act from instinct, and
not from logic. Life, they believe, is far more complex than logic admits.
It has been said that the English have an understanding heart rather than an
understanding head. England has produced more poets than philosophers. It is in
poetry that the English race has unlocked its heart. Shakespeare, Milton,
Blake, Keats, Shelley, and Eliot, all the major and minor poets are the glory of
England. The country gave birth to Turner and Constable, the fine watercolourists of the early 19th century. The access of all museums is free of charge
in Britain.
The cultural programmes of the B.B.C. are probably the best in the world.
Religion in Britain
England was a Catholic country until the 16th century. Then, for a variety
of reasons some of them connected with the matrimonial instability of Henry
VIII, it ceased to acknowledge the authority of the Pope and recognized the
King as the head of the English Anglican Church.
16
The structure of the Church of England is simple. The heads of the Church,
under the Queen, defender of the Faith, are the Archbishops of Canterbury and
York. Dioceses are administered by bishops. The bishops are addressed as “My
Lord”. 26 bishops sit in the House of Lords. The Church of England is the
spiritual home of the nation.
3. BRITISH DEMOCRACY
The Constitutional Monarchy
The House of Lords
The House of Commons
Political Parties
The Mass Media
Class Society
The Commonwealth
The Constitutional Monarchy
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a
monarch (a king or a queen). Everything today is done in the Queen’s name. It is
her government, her armed forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the
ministers, including the Prime Minister. Everything is done, however, on the
advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decisionmaking process.
The Queen exercises a real influence corresponding to her knowledge of
public affairs. She has “the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, the right
to warn”. Thus, she plays an essential role in the practical working of the
constitution.
The monarch is officially the Head of the State, and the Head of the Church,
moreover, is the Head of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The present Queen Elizabeth II was born in 1926. She succeeded to the
throne on the death of her farther King George VI, in 1952. She is married to
17
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The Queen’s heir is Charles, Prince of Wales,
born in 1948. Her Majesty has got a daughter – Princess Ann, and two more sons
– Prince Andrew and Prince Edward.
The House of Lords
The British Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of
Lords and the House of Commons and the Sovereign as its head. About 900
peers (are entitled) sit in the Upper House. Some are life peers (created since
1958) – they are those men and women who were given a title as a reward for
important public service; 9 judges and 26 bishops sit in the House of Lords; but
most peers hold hereditary titles (dukes, barons, earls).
The House of Lords has always been conservative and was tolerated as such
until it rejected Liberal proposals for taxing the rich in order to finance social
reforms.
The work of the House of Lords includes examining and revising bills from
the House of Commons and discussing important matters which the Commons
cannot find time to debate.
The Speaker of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor. The special seat
on which the Lord Chancellor sits in the British Parliament is called the
woolsack.
The House of Commons
After centuries of political struggle, the House of Commons has finally
established its supremacy over the Crown and the House of Lords. At present its
625 members, elected by the whole adult population at intervals of not more than
five years, known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Governmental power is
placed in the hands of a few members of Parliament, the Cabinet, headed by the
leader of the majority in the Commons, the Prime Minister.
Based on the two-party system, Members of Parliament sit on two sides of
the hall; one side is for the governing party and the other for the Opposition. The
House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker. The House of Commons
plays the major role in law-making.
18
Political Parties
Today, the Conservative Party and the Labour Party represent the main
interests of the country, and they have practically absorbed the Liberals.
Conservative and Labour Party have to solve the same problems: Housing, Food,
Social Security, Full Employment, etc.; but they disagree on what methods to
use in order to achieve their common ends. The Conservatives believes in
individual initiative and private enterprise, the Labour Party in State control and
nationalisation.
The Conservative Party, often called the Tory Party, is one of those which
can trace its roots back to the late seventeenth century. The Labour Party,
formed in 1906 as a democratic socialist party, was the one which drew away
working people’s support. It was founded by the Trade Unions.
The Party of Social and Liberal Democrats formed in 1988 from the Liberal
Party is the third largest party.
The Mass Media
In Britain 609 copies of daily papers are sold to every 1,000 inhabitants or 14
million copies a day. There are 12 national daily newspapers. Newspapers in
Britain are of two main types: quality papers or broadsheets and popular papers
or tabloids. Newspapers with the world-wide reputation are the Times, the
Guardian, the Financial Times. The popular dailies are the Daily Express, the
Daily Mail, the Daily Mirror, the Sun.
Broadcasting in the United Kingdom is controlled by the British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC receives its income from the
government. There are two publicly-funded television channels and five national
radio services.
Class Society
England preserves a class-system. Social differences are illustrated in manners
and speech, and rend the nation in two classes: the Upper class and the Middle
class. However, the old pattern of society is breaking up. The upper classes are
19
crushed by heavy taxation. The working-classes enjoy better education and
opportunities.
The Commonwealth
The Commonwealth is a free association of independent states, on an equal
footing with Britain. The Queen is the Head of the Commonwealth. She is the
only official link between nations.
The Commonwealth consists of the United Kingdom and various
independent states, previously subjected to Great Britain. There are currently 49
members (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Republics of India and Pakistan,
some African countries, etc.). Their Prime Ministers meet for a conference in
London every two years to discuss common problems of defense and economic
interests.
***
PART THREE
The UK
FACTFILE
The official name:
long form: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
short Form: the United Kingdom (the UK)
Type of the state:
constitutional monarchy
Area:
244, 820 sq km
20
Britain is just 1,000 km from the south coast to the
north of Scotland and just under 500 km at the widest
point
twice smaller than France, one fifth smaller than
Spain
Population:
over 60 million people
Nationality:
Briton(s), the British
Ethnic groups:
English 81,5%, Scottish 9,6%, Irish 2,4%, Welsh
1,9%, Ulster 1,8%, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2,8%
Languages:
English
Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales)
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
Longest river:
the Severn, 354 km long
Highest mountain:
Ben Nevis, in Scotland, 1,343 m
Climate:
often changes, mild and temperate
Natural resources:
oil and natural gas, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold,
salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, sand, gravel, sandstone and some
other minerals
Capital:
London
Independence:
1 January 1801, the United Kingdom was established
21
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)
The Head of the State:
Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952)
The Head of the Government:
the Prime Minister
The Legislative branch:
the Parliament which consists of an upper house or
House of Lords and a lower house or House of
Commons
House of Lords (consists of 500 life peers, 92
hereditary peers and 26 clergy) and House of
Commons (646 seats since 2005 elections)
The Executive branch:
monarch
prime minister
Cabinet of ministers
Political Parties:
the two largest parties are the Conservative and Labour
parties
Elections:
to the House of Commons, at least once in every
five years, every citizen over 18 has the right to
vote, last held 5 May 2005 (next to be held by May
2010)
the House of Lords – no elections
Flag:
known as the Union Jack, with the crosses of patron
saints of England (St George), Scotland (St Andrew),
22
Ireland (St Patrick). It is blue with three red crosses
edged in white
Currency:
British pound (pounds) or pound sterling
1 British pound (J) = 100 pence. There are 1p, 2p,
5p, 20p, 50p and J1 coins
banknotes are J5, J10, J20 and J50
***
What do you know about:
the UK as an island state?
the languages spoken in the UK?
the chief rivers of Britain and their importance in the life
of the country?
the main countries of the UK and their capitals?
countries of the UK which occupy the two main islands?
the area and the population of the UK?
the Lake District?
the longest river in the UK?
reasons why the sea has been important in the history of
England?
natural resources of Britain?
national flag of the UK?
***
23
PART FOUR
LECTURES
LECTURE 1: THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND NORTHERN IRELAND
The UK: Country, People
Formation of the Country
Meanings of Some Names
The National Symbols
The British Commonwealth of Nations
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a
country situated on the British Isles, lying off the north-west coast of the
continent of Europe. The British Isles are composed of about 4,000 islands.
The largest of the British Isles is Great Britain which contains England,
Wales and Scotland. The second largest island is Ireland. It is shared by two
independent states. The larger part of Ireland is the Republic of Ireland, an
independent state with its capital in Dublin. Northern Ireland remains a part
of the United Kingdom.
People of Great Britain are called “the British” or “Britons”, and
separately they are the English, the Welsh, the Scotch (Scots), the Irish.
The formation of the United Kingdom took centuries. The union of
England with Wales dates from 1301, when Edward I’s son was announced
the first Prince of Wales.
24
The union of England and Scotland dates from 1603, when King of
Scotland James VI inherited the crown of England after the death of
Elizabeth I.
Ireland was joined to England in 1801, and the country’s official name
became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1937, 26 Irish
counties withdrew from the UK and formed the Irish Free State (renamed to
the Republic of Ireland in 1949). Only 6 northern counties remained under
British control and now the official name of the country is the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The country is often unofficially called the UK, Great Britain, Britain
or England, and sometimes old and romantic name – Albion.
The word “Britain” derives from the word Britannia, the name given by
the Romans to the area inhabited by Brits and which is now England,
Scotland and Wales.
Nowadays the UK is personified under the name of Britannia “as a
woman seated on a globe”.
The flag of the UK (known as Union Jack – for an old word “sailor”) is
made up of colours and crosses of national flags of England, Scotland and
Ireland. The name, the colours and crosses symbolize the united parts of the
country. Union Jack comprises three crosses. The red cross on the white
field is St George’s Cross – saint of England; the white cross on the blue
field is St Andrew’s Cross – the saint of Scotland; the red cross on the white
field is St Patrick’s Cross – the saint of Ireland.
The British national anthem “God save the Queen (King)” is the oldest in
the world, established in 1745.
25
The national emblem of England is the red rose; the purple thistle – of
Scotland; the leek or daffodil – of Wales; the shamrock – of Ireland.
The red rose became the emblem of England after the Wars of the Roses
(15th century), which was the war of the dynasties for the English throne.
The War of the Roses was ended by the marriage of Henry VII Tudor
(whose emblem was the red rose) with Princess Elizabeth, the daughter of
Edward IV (whose emblem was the white rose). The red rose has since
become the national emblem of England.
The thistle, the national emblem of Scotland, saved the country from the
enemy. A legend says in ancient times the Norsemen wanted to settle in
Scotland. The people of Scotland were tired after a long march and were
resting and not expected the enemy. The Norsemen saw that no guards
protected the camp and they intended to take the Scots by surprise. They
took off their shoes not to make noise. But one of them stepped on a thistle
and cried with pain. The alarm was given in the Scots camp. So, they chose
the thistle as their national emblem.
The leek or daffodil is Welshmen’s national emblem.
Welshmen
celebrate on March 1 St David’s Day by wearing either leeks or daffodils.
St David is supposed to have lived for several years on bread and wild
leeks.
The shamrock, the national emblem of the Irish, is worn on St Patrick’s
Day, March 17. It is worn in memory of Ireland’s saint, who when
preaching to the pagan he used the shamrock.
Today the British Empire is known as the British Commonwealth of
Nations. It is used to describe the relations between Britain and its former
26
colonies that have become independent but still have some links with the
UK.
TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION:
The UK: country and people
Multinational society
What some names mean
The formation of the British Nation
The national symbols
***
LECTURE 2: HISTORY OF BRITAIN
The Early Days of Britain
The Celtic Tribes
Roman Britain
The Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain
Old English
Britain has a long and rich history. Little is known about the ancient
population of the British Isles. About ten thousand years B.C. (before
Christ) the British Isles, were peopled by small groups of hunters and
fishers. Then they learned to grow crops, made tools of stone. Later they
learned to make metal tools. These people were religious and built primitive
temples which still stand in some parts of England and Scotland. They are
circles of great stones.
In some parts of modern Britain one can see a number of huge stones
standing in a circle. These are the monuments left by the earliest inhabitants
of the country. The best-known stone-circle named Stonehenge dates from
27
between 1900 and 1600 B.C. in the south of England. It is made of many
upright stones; they are joined on the top by other flat stones, each
weighing about 7 tons. Stonehenge is still a mystery to scientists.
In the course of time, different groups of people were arriving in
Britain, bringing their customs and skills. During the period from the 6th to
the 3rd century B.C. a people called the Celts spread across Europe from the
east to the west. Celtic tribes – the Iberians (иберы), the Picts (пикты), the
Scots and the Britons – invaded Britain. The Picts penetrated into the
mountains on the North; the Scots settled in the North beside the Picts.
Powerful Celtic tribes, the Britons, held most of the country, and the
southern half of the island was named Britain after them. Celts lived in
tribes, and were ruled by military leaders, sometimes they were called
kings. Celts introduced the use of iron. The ancient Celts were tall and blueeyed. They believed their gods lived in natural places (forests, on hills or by
water). Their priests known as druids were an important part of society.
Two thousand years ago while the Celts were still living in tribes the
Romans conquered a huge empire in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
In 55 B.C. the Roman army with Julius Caesar crossed the Channel
and invaded Britain. The Celts resisted Roman attack and the well-armed
Romans had to retreat to France. In the next year, 54 B.C., Caesar again
came to Britain, this time with larger forces. The local tribes fought bravely
for their independence but they were not strong enough. The Romans
defeated the Celts and some of them agreed to pay tributes to Rome.
The Romans didn’t appear on the British shores for hundred years .
Then, in the year 43 A.D. (Anno Domini) the Romans returned and
occupied England. The Celts fought fiercely against the Romans who never
managed to become masters of the whole island. They were unable to
conquer Scotland and never tried to occupy Ireland.
28
British history of that period contains information on Boudicea’s
revolt. Boudicea was the queen of a tribe after her husband’s death. In 61
A.D. she led an uprising against the Romans. The revolt was suppressed.
The English remember her because she was the first famous British queen.
Today you can see her, a tall, beautiful woman, in Hyde Park, in the middle
of London.
The Romans remained in Britain for about four centuries. The Romans
had to withdraw their troops from Britain in 410 A.D. because the army was
needed to defend the Roman Empire from the attacks of the barbarian
Germanic tribes. They never returned to Britain.
As soon as the Romans had conquered Britain they began to build long
roads, bridges, splendid villas, public bath. They constructed new towns,
introduced drainage system, houses with glass windows, and central
heating. One of the oldest buildings in Britain is the Roman lighthouse or
Pharos, at Dover. Roman camps became centres of trade. The Romans
brought the skills of reading and writing. They introduced the Alphabet the
British use today, and almost half the words in modern English derive from
Latin.
There are many Roman remains in Britain, for example, baths in Bath,
castle walls in York.
From the middle of the 5th century Celtic tribes had to defend the
country against the attacks of Germanic tribes (the Angles, the Saxons and
the Jutes) from the Continent. They were wild and fearless people. Celts
fought against the invaders and it took the Angles and the Saxons a
hundred and fifty years to conquer the country. The British natives were
forced to retreat to the mountains in the west of the isle and settled there.
The Saxons formed a number of kingdoms in the South, and the Angles
settled in the North. The new settlers preferred to live in small villages.
They destroyed the Roman towns, buildings. Roads were soon in ruins.
29
The Saxons and the Angles gradually merged into one people and
made up the majority of the population in Britain. Their customs, religion
and
language
became
predominant.
Only
the
Celts
who
remained
independent in Scotland and Ireland spoke their native tongue.
For a long time the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms fought with one another for
supreme power. By the 7th century England consisted of seven kingdoms.
The strong kingdoms controlled their weaker neighbours. In 829 under the
rule of King Egbert all the small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united to
form one kingdom which was called England.
Old English belongs to the branch of West Germanic languages. A
distinctive mark of old English is inflectional endings.
TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION:
Early Britain
The Celtic tribes
The origin of the British
Roman Influence in Britain
The Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain
Video (DVD): Simon Schama A History of Britain (BBC) («Саймон Шама
История Британии») 1, 2 parts
***
LECTURE 3: THE MIDDLE AGES
The Raids of the Danes
Alfred the Great
The Norman Invasion
30
The Feudal System
The Great Charter
Until the 8th century Anglo-Saxon Britain was not a united country. It
consisted of small and weak kingdoms and they could not hold out against
attacks from abroad.
Beginning with the 8th century, pirates from Scandinavia and Denmark
began raiding the eastern shores of Britain. They are known in English
history as the Danes. They landed their long boats, killed and robbed the
population of the towns and villages and sailed away. They returned over
and over again and continued killing and robbing the population. Gradually
they began settling in Britain and seized more and more land.
The Anglo-Saxons understood that their small kingdoms must unite in
order to struggle against the Danes. In the 9th century Egbert, the king one
of the strongest Anglo-Saxon kingdoms,
united
several neighbouring
kingdoms, and Egbert became the first king of the country called England.
Alfred, the grandson of Egbert, became king in the year 871, when
England’s danger was greatest. The Danes who had settled on the shores of
Britain, robbed and killed the people of England. Alfred gathered a big
army and gave the Danes a great battle in 891. The Danes were defeated in
this battle, but still remained very strong and dangerous, and Alfred hurried
to make peace with them. There were some years of peace, and during this
time Alfred built the first English navy.
Alfred is the only king of England who got the name “the Great”. And
he was really a great king. He was very well educated for his time. He had
travelled on the continent and visited France. He had learned to read and
write when he was quite young. He knew Latin. He tried to enlighten his
people. He worked out a code of laws. He translated the Church history and
parts of the Bible from Latin into Anglo-Saxon. He started the famous
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which is the first history of England.
31
The Normans or “Northmen” was descended from Vikings who had
settled in northern France during the 9th century.
After the time of Alfred the Great people were continually fighting all
over England. The country was needed a strong king. In 1066 King Edward
of England died and his nephew William, Duke of Normandy (France)
gathered a great army and sailed across the English Channel on hundreds of
ships. Most English nobles did not want a French king and proclaimed
Harold, the son of the Earl of Wessex, the King of England. There was a
great battle on October 14, 1066. Harold’s soldiers fought bravely, but
William’s army was stronger. Harold was killed in the battle.
William marched his army to London and became the English king
William I known as “the Conqueror”. William the Conqueror took lands
from Saxon nobles and gave them to his Norman barons who became new
masters of the land. The Normans did not know the Anglo-Saxon language
and did not want to learn it. And for a very long time two languages were
spoken in the country.
The Normans introduced a new social system into England which is
known as the feudal system. The central idea of feudal society was that all
land was owned by the king but it was held by others, called vassals, in
return for services and goods. The king gave large estates to his main nobles
in return for a promise to serve him in war.
William I organized a strong central government in which Normans
held most positions of power. The nobles paid taxes to the King. There were
two types of peasant. Free peasants owned or rented land; villains
(крепостной) paid their lord dues and worked on his land as well as their
own.
After William the Conqueror’s death in 1087, three more kings of the
Norman dynasty ruled England: his two sons, William II and Henry I, and
32
his grandson, the son of his daughter, Stephen. Henry I’s daughter was
married to the French count and their son Henry was made the King of
England, after Stephen’s death in 1154. Henry II ruled a large empire
stretched from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees; England and a large part
of the south of France.
His son Richard I known as the Lion-Heart became King of England
after his father’s death. Richard I played a small part in the affairs of
England and a large part in the affairs of Europe. He spent most of his time
on crusade (a series of military expeditions undertaken by Christian
European power). Richard I was a man of excellent manners, kind to his
friends and cruel to his enemies. He was famous for his good education; he
knew Latin and was fond of music and poetry.
Richard the Lion-Heart was killed in one of the battles in France, and
the English throne passed to his brother John. At that time great territories
in France belonged to England. The French Kings and nobles did not like it.
So the English and the French waged continuous wars in France. King John
needed a lot of money to wage these wars. He made the barons give him
that money, and he made enemies among the barons (a landowning
nobleman) and the clergy. He imposed on them heavy taxes. The barons did
not like it and in 1215 the barons made him sign a document called the
Great Charter (Magna Carta in Latin), establishing their rights and
protecting the nobles from taxation. Merchants received permission to
travel freely and do business.
For the first time in the history of England, the Great Charter officially
stated certain rights and liberties of the people, which the king had to
respect.
TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION:
Uniting the Country
33
A new social system
English Kings of the 11th and 12th Centuries
Video (DVD): Simon Schama A History of Britain (BBC) («Саймон Шама
История Британии») 3, 4, 5 parts
***
Lecture 4: THE NEW MONARCHY
The Wars of the Roses
Tudor Dynasty
The 100 Years’ War
Absolute Monarchy
The Wars of the Roses is the name given to the struggle for power
between the two factions of the royal family – the houses of York and
Lancaster. They are named after the emblems of the two rivals – the white
rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.
Henry VI could not control his nobles and lost most of the land that
Henry V had gained in France. The fighting began in 1455 and continued
for 30 years. Each royal house murdered every possible heir to the throne.
Some of them were killed in the war, some were prisoners in the Tower and
murdered there. The head of the house of Lancaster Henry Tudor’s marriage
to Elizabeth of York, Edward IV’s daughter, put an end to the Wars of
Roses. This marriage was of great political importance.
A new dynasty came to power with the union of the red rose of the
House of Lancaster and the white rose of the House of York. The period of
Tudor rule (1485-1603) is described as the most glorious period in English
34
history and is often associated with the names of Henry VII, Henry VIII and
Elizabeth I.
Henry VII established the new monarchy. He created new nobility
from among merchants making them his statesmen who were devoted to
him. This helped him to recover royal authority. Henry VII was clever with
people, careful with money, encouraged trade and enterprise. During his
reign only king could keep armed men, this strengthened his power and
weakened the nobles. He encouraged English trade at home and abroad.
Henry VII financed construction works, culture and especially the building
of ships for a merchant fleet. He understood that England’s future wealth
would depend on international trade for which a fleet was a necessity.
The 100 Years’ War was a series of wars between England and France
which lasted from 1337 to 1453. In 1328 Charles IV of France died without
a male heir. The English King Edward III, whose mother was a French
Princess, wanted to become the King of France. Edward declared that he
wished to defend English trade and the war broke out in 1337. At first
England was successful in the war. The English fleet defeated the French
fleet in the English Channel. The war ended in 1453 and England lost all its
French land.
Henry VII’s son Henry VIII succeeded his father at the age of 17. He
was well-educated, spoke French, Latin and Spanish, and was very
religious. He was fond of music, hunting and playing tennis. During his
reign music and poetry flourished at his court, he composed music and
poetry himself.
His father left him a stable and well-ordered country. But Henry VIII
was quite unlike his father, careful and patient ruler. His son was cruel,
wasteful with money and interested in pleasing himself. Henry VIII wanted
to
have an important influence on European politics. But he was
35
unsuccessful. England had lost its lands in France in the Hundred Years’
War. France and Spain were more powerful than England.
Henry VIII disliked the power of the Catholic Church in England. He
decided to take control of the Church in England and to keep its wealth in
his own kingdom. He persuaded the English bishops to break away from the
Catholic Church and establish a new Church in England, the head of which
would be the English monarch. In 1531 the Church of England was
established in the country, and England officially became a Protestant
country. Henry VIII closed many monasteries and their property was
confiscated by the King. Most of them were sold and many were destroyed.
Henry’s break with Rome and Catholic Church was a necessary
declaration of national independence. England became a separate and
independent nation.
Elizabeth, Henry VIII’s daughter, succeeded him on the throne at the
age of 25. When coming to power she confronted with many problems, one
of which was the Church. Elizabeth was Protestant. She became Supreme
Governor of the English (or Anglican) Church. Elizabeth I managed to
make the Church a part of the state machine.
Elizabeth’s reign is known as the Golden Age of Britain. The Queen
reigned almost 45 years and turned the poor and weak country into a great
world
power
expending
its
influence overseas.
Elizabeth I pursued
successful policies at home and abroad. She skillfully used rivalry of the
two greatest Catholic powers (Spain and France) to gain peace which she
needed to turn the country into a strong country.
She improved the economy of the country. Elizabeth, as well as her
father and grandfather, considered trade the most important foreign policy
and encouraged merchant expansion. England became known as the nation
of merchants. The people were busy making money.
Elizabeth I allowed her “sea dogs” (seamen) who were traders as well
as pirates to attack Spanish ships returning from America loaded with silver
36
and gold. The treasure was shared with the Queen, and she could increase
her income and save people from high taxes. Her share enabled Elizabeth’s
government to start a vast building programme. Many schools, hospitals
were founded. The arts flourished in England during Elizabeth’s reign.
It was the age of great names and of great deeds (Francis Drake,
William Shakespeare and others).
The peak of the country’s development was reached in 1588, when the
Spanish Armada, an enormous fleet sent by Spanish King Philip II to
conquer England, was defeated. The defeat of the Spanish Armada was the
high point of the Queen’s reign and united the nation.
Elizabeth I was never married and in 1587 she accepted James VI of
Scotland, the Protestant son of Mary Queen of Scots as her heir. Elizabeth
died in 1603 and James became James I of England, first Stuart king of
England. He united the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland.
TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION:
The House of Lancaster and York
The House of Tudor
Wars Abroad and At Home
The New Monarchy
Video (DVD): Kings and Queens (BBC) («Короли и королевы»)
***
PART FIVE
REVISION
37
LECTURE 5: THE PERIOD OF INVASIONS
Ancient Tribes of the British Isles
Britain Under the Romans
Britain in Anglo-Saxon Times
Scandinavian invasion
The Normans
About two thousand years ago the British Isles were inhabited by
Celtic
tribes.
They
fought
against
the
Romans,
Germans,
and
Scandinavians through their whole history.
The Romans came from Italy in 43 A.D. Their intention was to expand
the boundaries of the Roman Empire. The Romans brought to Britain their
way of life, their language and religion. They built large towns, constructed
a network of roads and made Latin an official language of the country.
The Angles and Saxons came from Germany, Denmark. By the end of
the sixth century they founded seven kingdoms, which gradually merged
into one country – England.
The Scandinavian invasion began in the 8th century. They were good
sailors and traders. They favoured the growth of towns and the development
of trade in England.
The Normans invaded the British Isles from France in 1066. As a
result of this invasion the English language changed greatly. The French
was the official language of England for almost three centuries. The modern
English has a lot of words of French origin.
***
38
Test your Knowledge
1. What ancient tribes inhabited the British Isles B.C.?
a) the Celts
b) the Saxons
c) the Angles
2. Against whom did the ancient tribes of the British Isles wage
endless wars?
a) the Germans
b) the Romans
c) the French
3. With what intention did the Romans invade the British Isles?
a) to build towns and roads
b) to expand the boundaries of the Roman Empire
c) to learn the English language
4. When was French the official language on the British Isles?
a) in the 6th century
b) in the 12th century
c) in the 15th century
Task:
Prepare presentation about: a) the most mysterious monument of the British past;
b) how the Romans equipped their towns; c) what else except civilization the
Romans brought to the British Isles; d) how Elizabeth I settled the problem of
disagreement between the Catholics and Protestants; e) Francis Drake – the most
famous English seamen that caused trouble to Spanish ships in the Atlantic
Ocean.
Video (DVD): Как строилась Британия (BBC), часть 1 (Восток. Сердце
Англии)
***
PART SIX
BRITAIN IN THE 17th – 19th CENTURIES
39
LECTURE 6: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
Britain in the 17th Century. British Fleet
The Colonial System of Britain
Three Stages of Economic Development of Britain
Britain Began to Lose its Industrial Supremacy
The British Isles are situated on the crossways of sea routes. That
helped the British fleet to develop very early in history. In the 17th
century became not only “the workshop of the world” but also “the
mistress of the seas”. Its ships carried the products of British industries all
over the world and brought back food and raw materials.
Large territories in India, Australia, America and Africa became
dependent on the British Empire. Britain sent to these overseas lands
soldiers and clerks to look after its property. Settlers from Britain moved to
these new lands in search of riches.
Some colonies were self-governing, such as Canada, Australia and
New Zealand. Others like India, Africa were ruled by a governor appointed
from Britain.
At the period of its prosperity the British Empire covered one quarter
of the earth and had one quarter of the world’s population. Having many
colonies, Britain controlled large areas of the world. The territory of the
British Empire was so large that the British said, “The sun never sets on the
British Empire”.
The colonial system of Britain was founded on the three principal
stages of capitalist development – Merchant Capital, Industrial Capital and
Finance Capital. Merchant Capital initiated and dominated the first period
of large-scale overseas colonial expansion. This was the period of the
conquest of newly discovered overseas territories, extermination of the
40
original inhabitants and establishment of colonial settlements by migration.
Colonies were direct source of wealth for the country.
Cheap raw materials were drawn from all over the world. The products
of British machine industry dominated the markets of every country. British
factories produced more than any other country in the world. British
shipping dominated the world trade. The colonial system provided the main
basis for the primary accumulation of capital which made possible the
Industrial Revolution. The era of industrial capital had given place to the
era of finance capital.
At the end of the 19th century Britain began to lose industrial
supremacy. The direction of capital investment and accumulation more and
more overseas has led to the decay of home industry. The colonial system
and British economy entered into deepening crisis. The population of the
colonies began to struggle against the British colonists and their struggle
led to powerful national liberation movements. India, Pakistan and many
colonies in Africa became independent. Britain lost military strength and
employment for its population.
Britain has greatly weakened today by the pressure of the USA.
Topics for discussion:
The Age of Power and Prosperity
Decay of the British Empire
Video (DVD): Как строилась Британия (BBC), часть 2 (Шотландия.
Запад); часть 3 (Север. Юг)
***
PART SEVEN
41
PRESENT-DAY BRITAIN
LECTURE 7: THE LAND (PHYSICAL BACKGROUND)
Geographical Position
The Surface of Britain
The Climate of Britain
The Population of Britain
Language
Parts of the UK
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK
for short) is actually four countries united into one state: England, Scotland,
Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff
and Belfast.
The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles lying to the
north-west of the continent of Europe. The largest islands are Great Britain
(comprising
England,
Scotland
and
Wales)
and
Ireland
(comprising
Northern Ireland and the independent state Irish Republic). They are
separated by the Irish Sea. The United Kingdom includes also more than
5000 smaller islands. In the west the country is washed by the Atlantic
Ocean, in the east by the North Sea. Great Britain is separated from the
continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover (32 km wide). The
UK is a small country. The total area of the country is 244,000 sq. km of
which nearly 99% is land and the remainder inland water.
42
The surface of England and Ireland is rather flat while the highland
area comprises Scotland and most of Wales. The Cheviot Hills separate
England from Scotland.
There are many rivers in Britain but they are not long. The longest
river is the Severn, flowing along the border between England and Wales
into the Irish Sea. The busiest and the most important river is the Thames.
Many of the English and Scottish rivers are joined by canals, so that it is
possible to travel by water from one end of Great Britain to the other.
The UK has many beautiful lakes in Scotland, which are called lochs,
and north-west England. The Lake District in northern England with its
lakes, mountains and valleys is a holiday resort.
There are no great forests in Britain now. Historically, the most
famous forest is Sherwood Forest, in the north of London, the home of
Robin Hood.
The Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the
climate of Britain, making it temperate and mild. Winters are not severe,
summers are not very hot.
The British Isles are the home of four nations – the English, the
Scotsmen (the Scots), the Welsh and the Irishmen (the Irish). The British
are descendants of different peoples who settled on the British Isles at
different times. The English are mainly Anglo-Saxon in origin, while the
Scots, the Welsh and the Irish regard themselves as Celtic people.
Nowadays the population of the United Kingdom is 60 million
inhabitants.
English is the official language of the state. English developed from
Anglo-Saxon and it is a language of the Germanic group.
43
The Celts spoke Celtic, which survives today in the form of Welsh,
Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic (гаэльский). Nowadays all Welsh, Scottish
and Irish people speak English but they have their own special language,
accents, and dialects as well. The southern accent is generally accepted as
Standard English.
From the British Isles the English language was exported to Britain’s
colonies, which by the 19th century accounted for one quarter of the
world’s population. In the 20th century, even though Britain’s role as a
world power has declined, English spread all over the world and is now
widely spoken as a first, second or foreign language on six continents. It is
the primary language of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada,
Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and various small island nations in the
Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It is also an official language of India,
the Philippines, and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South
Africa.
In modern English the number of native words is rather small, about 30%.
About 70% of words are borrowed from other languages: French, Latin,
Scandinavian, and German and Dutch.
English is an analytical language. It tends to bring its units into complexes,
rather than use morphological combination.
English language is the richest in vocabulary of all the world’s languages
(which now number some 2,700). The Oxford English Dictionary lists about
500,000 words; and a half million technical and scientific terms. German has a
vocabulary of about 185,000 words and French fewer than 100,000.
England is the largest and most populated part of the United
Kingdom. 46 million people of the population of the country live in
England. England is a highly developed industrialised country, 80 per cent
of the population live in urban areas. It is a major trading nation. The sea
played an important role in the history of England. It was a good protection
44
against attacks of outside enemies. England has highly developed fishing
industry.
England is mostly a lowland country. The midlands is the main
industrial area in England. Birmingham is a big city where all kinds of
metal goods are produced. Manchester is a centre of the textile industry and
one of the chief centres of heavy engineering. Sheffield is famous for its
high-quality steels and tools. Liverpool is the second port of Britain after
London, a great centre of shipbuilding.
Scotland is the most northern of the four countries constituting
Britain. It occupies the territory of 80 thousand square kilometers and is not
so densely populated as England.
Scotland is the land of mountains, lakes. Scotland’s main regions are
the Lowlands and Highlands.
Scotland is best-known to the world through its national costume, the
kilt, its musical instrument, the bagpipe, and its national beverage, whisky.
Wales is another part of the United Kingdom. It became part of
England in 1536 by the Act of Union. This small country is situated along
the western side of the island, about 250 km long and 130 km wide. It
occupies the territory of 35 thousand sq. km. Three million people live in
Wales. It is a highland country. The pride of Wales is Snowdonia, the
national park. Snowdon is the highest mountain in Wales. The capital of
Wales is Cardiff, the largest city in Wales. The second largest city in Wales
is Swansea where metal industries are developed.
Northern Ireland (sometimes called Ulster) is the smallest part of the
United Kingdom. Ireland is divided into Northern Ireland and the Irish
Republic. It is independent since 1922, the capital is Dublin. Northern
Ireland is Protestant and the Irish Republic is Catholic.
In 1171 English invaders landed in Ireland and since that time the
struggle of the Irish people has never stopped. In 1949 Ireland was
45
officially proclaimed an independent state. But part of the country the
northeast was retained by Britain.
Northern Ireland occupies only one sixth of the territory of the island
of Ireland. The capital is Belfast. Northern Ireland is not rich in minerals.
Its population is a million and a half. Three basic industries are developed
there: agriculture, textile and shipbuilding.
Topics for discussion:
Geographical Survey
Demographic Background
Composition of the Country
The Main Cities of the United Kingdom
Task:
Prepare presentation about: capitals and cities of the United Kingdom.
Video (DVD): Window on Britain (Oxford English Video) («Окно в
Британию»)
***
LECTURE 8: FAMILY LIFE AND HUMAN RELATIONS
The Family Status
The Way of Life
Married Life
The Individual and the Family
Social Class Society
House and Home
46
A typical British family used to consist of mother, father and two
children, but in recent years there have been many changes in family life.
Nowadays the family group is smaller. People’s views on marriage and the
family are very different from the views of their parents and grandparents.
Some of these have been caused by new laws and others are the result of
changes in society. Divorce was very difficult and took a long time. In
1969, the divorce laws were changed and divorce became quicker and easier
and the number of divorces has increased. In fact one marriage in every
three now ends in divorce. Today there are a lot of one-parent families.
Society is more tolerant than it used to be of unmarried people, unmarried
couples and single parents. However, the majority of divorced people marry
again.
Another change has been caused by the fact that people are living longer
nowadays, and many old people live alone. When children grow up, they
usually leave their parents’ home for university or work.
Members of a family – grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins – keep in
touch, but they see less of each other than they used to. This is because
people often move away from their home town to work. Christmas is the
traditional season for reunions. Relatives often travel many miles in order to
spend the holiday together.
The most common type of household in England, Scotland and Wales
today is two people; either married or living together without being
officially married, have no children. Only seven per cent of British families
consist of five or more people. The average British couple today has only
1,8 children.
The average British family lives in a semi-detached house with a
garden in the south of England. They own their house, which is situated in
the suburbs of a large town. The house has three bedrooms. On average they
have two children and a pet. The family drives a two-year-old Ford Cortina.
47
He works in the office of an engineering company for 40 hours a week and
earns 200 pounds per week. He starts at 9.00 in the morning and finishes at
5.30 in the evening. He goes to work by car, which takes him 20 minutes.
He likes: The Times, the Queen, privacy, people who call him “Sir”, dogs
and his umbrella. He is never tired of saying “Thank you”, “I am sorry”.
She works in a service industry for three days a week and earns £ 95. She
works locally and goes there by bus.
The children go to a state school which is a few miles from home. A special
bus comes to pick them up every day. They are at school from 9.00 to 3.30.
Nowadays, if two people are living together, they are not necessarily
married. Eighteen per cent of unmarried people aged between 36 and 59
years old are living with someone. Often people get married after living
together. People get married at a later age now. In Britain people can get
married in a church or in a registry office. The average age for the first
marriages in England is now over 26 for men and 24 for women. 29% of the
married couples have no children, 28% - have children.
Relationships within the family are different now. Parents treat their
children more as equals than they used to, and children have more freedom
to make their own decisions. The father is more involved with bringing up
children, often because the mother goes out to work. Although the family
holiday is still an important part of family life (usually taken in August, and
often abroad) many children have holidays away from their parents, often
with a school party or other organized group.
An invitation to tea is a common way of keeping in touch with friends
and relatives. Besides endless cups of tea, there is thin bread and butter with
jam, meat or fish paste and some home-made or bought cakes. On special
occasion the family may go out to tea – to a tea-shop or a café and order
48
high tea, that is a fairly substantial meal often consisting of fish and chips,
or ham and salad, followed by bread and butter and cakes.
Sunday dinner is a special family occasion in many parts of the
country. On Saturday the housewife chooses beef or lamb (pork is not eaten
very much in England). The meat is roasted in the oven and the roasted or
boiled potatoes and other vegetables are added.
All letters concerning social affairs – invitations to parties, dinners,
weddings, etc. – have to be directed to the wives and husbands together,
never to the husband alone. The habit of taking flowers to the hostess is not
observed in England. “White Tie” means full evening-dress.
Whenever you have spent a night or a weekend in somebody’s house
you have to write a letter, when you get back, a so-called bread-and-butter
letter.
Britain has a deeply individualistic society, also described as a classridden one. Most people are classified according to their work occupations,
falling into two broad groups, as in other industrialised societies: the middle
class (or white-collar workers) and the working class (or blue-collar
workers).
The peculiarity of the British class make-up is that there are no
peasants at all. There are farmers and their hired (mostly for a season)
labourers, which make a part of the working class. Less than 2% of the
working population work on farms.
The middle class in Britain embraces a range of people from senior
professionals, judges, senior medical specialists and senior civil servants to
clerical workers – in other words, people who earn their living in a
nonmanual way.
Beyond the middle class lies a small but powerful upper class, which
survives from one generation to another. It is characterised by three things:
property, networks and power.
49
The strangest feature of class in Britain is that it is not entirely
dependent on money. One can be high class and poor, or low class and rich.
It is so because the class system is based on something historical which
does not exactly match present conditions.
Official statistics treats class as an economic distinction which is
based on a six-point scale of employment types:
A – Upper middle class (top managers, doctors, lawyers, etc.)
B – Middle class (middle managers, teachers, etc.)
C1 – Lower middle class (office workers, etc.)
C2 – Skilled working class (electricians, car mechanics, etc.)
D – Unskilled working class (farm or building labourers, etc.)
E – Residual (unemployed, etc.)
Pension age is 65.
The Englishman prefers his own house to an apartment in a block of
flats. Traditionally, it is a two-storey house with a lawn in front of it and a
garden behind it. Everyone knows the saying: “An Englishman’s home is
his castle” and it is true.
About 80 per cent of British people live in houses. About 67 per cent
of the people in Britain own their own houses or flats. Most of the rest live
in rented accommodation.
In towns, there are three main types of houses: detached, semidetached and terraced. A detached house, standing on its own plot of land,
is usually more expensive than the others. A semi-detached house (also
called a semi) is similar, but shares one wall with its neighbour, which is its
“mirror image”. It is usually smaller than a detached house. Most of these
houses have two storeys, with two rooms and a kitchen downstairs and the
bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs. A terraced house is one of a row of
houses, often built in blocks of four or more and sometimes extending the
entire length of a street.
50
Bungalows (single-story detached houses) are popular, especially with
elderly people because there are no stairs to climb.
Topics for discussion:
The British at Home
Social Class Make-Up
Ways of Life
Housing
***
LECTURE 9: ECONOMY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
Main Branches of Industry
Industrial Centres
Foreign Trade
Britain is a highly developed industrial country with the market
economy. It has heavy and light engineering. The country is the fourth
largest exporter of manufactured goods. The most important British
manufacture is machinery, tools, bridges, ships.
Industry is concentrated in the north and midlands of England.
London is one of the largest city in Europe and a world centre for business
and finance, the country’s largest port and a cultural centre.
Birmingham is the Britain’s second largest city and its engineering
centre. Sheffield is the centre of the steel industry. It produces airplanes,
motor-cars, electric machinery, and agricultural machinery.
51
Manchester is the world’s leading producer of cotton goods. The wool
industry, England’s oldest large trade is located in Leeds. Liverpool is the
second after London, largest port.
The United Kingdom’s economic prosperity is dependent on its foreign
trade. Leading exports are machinery, road vehicles, aircraft, chemicals,
iron and steel. Leading imports are meat, fruit and vegetables, metals and
wood.
The United Kingdom is a state with the mixed economic system where
production is controlled by both the Government and the private producers.
The characteristic feature of British industry is the production of high
quality expensive goods requiring skilled labour.
Topics for discussion:
Mixed Economic System
Branches of Industry
Leading Exports and Imports
Video (DVD): Britain London Wales Scotland («Британия Лондон Уэльс
Шотландия»)
***
LECTURE
10:
POLITICAL
KINGDOM
The British Monarchy
The UK Government
Parliament
Political Parties
STRUCTURE
OF
THE
UNITED
52
The monarchy is the most ancient institution in the United Kingdom.
The monarch now is the Queen Elizabeth II. In law the monarch is the head
of the executive power, a part of the legislative power, the head of the
judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the crown and
the head of the Church of England. In practice, as a result of a long
evolutionary process, these powers have changed. Today the Queen acts
only on the advice of her Ministers which she cannot constitutionally
ignore.
One of the most important of these powers is the duty of appointing the
Prime Minister. No Bill can become law until it receives the Royal Assent.
Nobody but the Queen can summon or dissolve Parliament. The Prime
Minister must inform the Queen of all decisions.
Queen Elizabeth II was born in 1926. Being the elder daughter of King
George VI, she succeeded to the throne on the death of her father in 1952.
She was married in 1947 to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The Queen’s
heir is Charles, Prince of Wales, born in 1948.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a
parliamentary monarchy. The power of the British monarch is limited by
Parliament. The organs of government in the United Kingdom are:
the highest legislative system consists of the Queen and Parliament
and is the supreme authority of the state;
the highest executive system consists of the Cabinet of Ministers who
are responsible for initiating and directing national policy.
The highest legislative power belongs to Parliament which consists of two
chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The main
function of Parliament is law-making.
The Government is formed by the party that wins the election and
obtains the majority of seats in the House of Commons. The second largest
53
party becomes the official Opposition with its own leader and the Shadow
Cabinet.
The Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has a majority in the
House of Commons. He (or she) appoints ministers and forms the Cabinet,
consisting of 20 ministers. Each Member of the Cabinet is a minister
responsible for a government department. All the affairs of the state are
conducted in the name of the Queen (or King), but it is the Prime Minister,
who is the ruler of the country. He (or she) is responsible for every measure
submitted to Parliament.
Any Member of Parliament (M.P.) may introduce a Bill. The Bill is
brought before the House of Commons for the first reading. When the
second reading takes place, the Member who has introduced the Bill makes
his speech, explaining new law. Other Members may support or oppose the
Bill. After the third reading the Bill goes before the House of Lords. If the
Lords agree to the Bill, it will be placed before the Queen for signature. The
Bill becomes an Act of Parliament.
Parliament in Britain is an ancient institution dating from the
beginning of the 13th century. It consists of the House of Lords and the
House of Commons. The House of Commons is elected at a general
election. There are at present 651 members of the House of Commons, who
are elected every five years. Members of the House of Commons receive a
salary for their parliamentary work.
The House of Lords or the Upper House is composed of Church of
England bishops and archbishops, peers who have inherited titles and peers
who are appointed for life. Today one-third of the Lords are company
directors. They include bankers, steel magnates, and industrialists of all
kinds. The Lords can only reject a Bill once.
At one end of the Chamber the Throne stands. In front of the throne
there is the Woolsack, where the Lord Chancellor sits as Speaker of the
House of Lords.
54
Though Britain is a multiparty democracy its political scene is
dominated by two-party system: one party in power, the other in opposition.
The Conservative and Liberal Parties are the oldest and until the end of
the 19th century they were the parties elected to the House of Commons.
At present the main political parties are the Conservative and Labour
Parties. The Labour Party is the ruling party nowadays; the Conservative
Party is the Opposition to the Labour Party. The two-party system has
evolved since the 18th century when conflicting groups within Parliament
formed opposing parties known as Tories and Whigs.
The Conservative Party often called the Tory Party, started in the 17th
century. The party defends the interests of big business, industry and
landowners. The party represents those who believe in private enterprise as
opposed to state-owned enterprises.
The Labour Party was established at the beginning of the 20th
century. It was set up by the Trade-Unions and small socialist groups. This
party is more democratic. The Labour Party is the party of social justice,
though its emphasis is less on equality than on the achievement of
wellbeing and opportunity for all members of society.
Topics for discussion:
Parliamentary Monarchy
The Highest Legislative Power
The Highest Executive Power
The Main Political Parties
***
LECTURE 11: BRITISH MASS MEDIA
55
British Press
Radio and Television
The Internet
Mass Media has become an important part of the Britons life. There
are four types of Mass Media: Radio, Television, the Press and the Internet. In
Britain the mass media has three functions: information, discussion and
representation.
The Britons are one of the biggest newspaper reading nations in the
world. And maybe because of this, there are lots of various papers in the
UK. There are about 130 daily and Sunday newspapers, over 2 thousand
weekly and 7 thousand periodical publications in this country. The daily
circulation of some newspapers in the United Kingdom is over 15 million
copies.
The important role of the press in Britain is in forming public and political
opinion and to be an instrument for controlling and criticizing government. It is
often called “The Fourth Power”. To get more information most Britons read
two different types of newspapers, National and Regional papers.
All British newspapers are of two types: broadsheets or quality papers and
tabloids or popular papers. The quality papers are mainly published for educated
people. They include the latest news and comments, articles written by
professionals concerning business, politics, arts or sport reviews, etc. in a formal
style. The major daily broadsheets in the UK are the Times, the Guardian, the
Independent, the Daily Telegraph, the Financial Times and some others. The
Sunday papers are the Observer, the Sunday Times, the Sunday Telegraph and
others.
The Popular Papers provide sensational news and scandals. They use big
headlines and colour pictures to attract readers. These papers are of lower
56
standards, use everyday English, and the reading public comes from the middle
and working class. Such popular papers are the Sun, the Daily Mirror, etc.
All the main news comes first of all from the world known News Agency
“Reuters”.
All newspapers in the UK are mostly owned by large publishing
companies or individuals. Rupert Murdoch is one of them and he owns 30 % of
Britain’s national press.
Radio and television are very important media for the “spread of
information”. British broadcasting has been based on the principle that it is a
public service.
Three public bodies are responsible for TV and radio in Britain:
The BBC (the British Broadcasting Corporation – TV and radio).
The ITC (Independent Television Commission – BBC TV services
including cable and satellite).
The Radio Authority – BBC radio.
The BBC was founded in 1922 and is directed by the Government. It has certain
obligations: it must be politically neutral and commercially independent. That
means, it is not allowed to broadcast commercials.
BBC World is a popular international channel that offer good quality news
programmes. In the company, the journalists are experienced writers that
produce programmes of a high standard. However, there are alternative news
channels which people watch because they want a less traditional or non-western
view on world events.
The British Broadcasting Corporation runs 4 national radio stations, two
national TV networks (BBC 1 and BBC 2) and a number of local radio stations.
The main television channel the BBC 1, have programmes of general interest,
like entertainment, sports, news and current affairs. The BBC 2 transmits more
specialized programmes like documentaries, serious plays and films. The BBC
programmes are not financed by advertising and it gets money from licence fees,
57
sales of programmes, recordings and publications. The BBC documentary
presentations are known as “high-standard-productions” worldwide.
The second broadcasting authority the Independent Broadcasting Authority
(IBA) was set up to coordinate independent television and radio stations. The
IBA owns Channel 4 and 5, which are financed by commercial advertising. The
British also receive programmes by cable and satellite television.
Today the Internet offers more variety than other means of mass media. One
World is an Internet site which has stories about the developing world and
human rights, rather than the usual stories about politics and business. The
writers for this company are often local people who write the stories for free.
This non-professional journalism is increasing and it certainly offers more
choice.
Topics for discussion:
British Quality Press
Popular TV Channels
The Internet Information Sites
***
LECTURE 12: THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS
The End of the British Empire
The Union of Nations
In the 19th century Britain became the largest colonial power in the
world. Large territories in North America, Africa, the whole continent of
Australia, New Zealand, India and a lot of islands in the Atlantic Ocean got
58
under the British rule. Thus, gradually, in the course of centuries, the huge
British Empire came into being.
After World War I and II, as a result of national liberation movement,
the British Empire fell apart.
But economic, cultural and political ties of former colonies with Britain
were too strong and a new organisation was established: the British
Commonwealth of Nations. It includes 49 independent states which were
formerly parts of the British Empire. The Queen is the official head of the
Commonwealth. Leaders of members of Commonwealth meet for a
conference every two years in London.
Topics for discussion:
The History of the Union of Nations
The End of the British Empire
***
LECTURE 13: LONDON – THE CAPITAL OF THE UNITED
KINGDOM
A Glimpse of London’s Past
The City
The Royal London
The West End: Westminster
The East End and the Docklands
The Best-Known Streets
Places of Interest
59
London is the capital of the UK, its political, economic and commercial
centre. It is the biggest and busiest port of Britain. Modern London is
situated on the both sides of the river Thames. Its population is 10 million
people. Greater London now covers 1600 sq. km.
London is a very old city. Two thousand years ago the early Britons
established a settlement on the north bank of the Thames. The old Britons
gave the town the name, Llyndin, which means a lonely port.
In the first century Britain was conquered by the Romans and Llyndin
became Londinium. The Romans made it a large and rich city with good
streets, beautiful palaces, shops and villas.
In the fifth century the Romans left Britain. The Saxon hordes and the
Danes rushed to Londinium and ruined the town. During 400 years the city
was in ruins.
In the 9th century the Saxon kings began to rebuild the ruined city. Two
miles west from it, another centre, Westminster Abbey was founded.
In 1066 William the Conqueror settled in Londinium which became
London – the capital of Norman Britain. The Normans brought with them
Latin and French civilization. They built palaces, churches and cathedrals.
Westminster Abbey founded by the Saxons, was finished by the Normans
and William the Conqueror was the first king to be crowned there. Since
then, for 1000 years, all English monarchs have been crowned and many of
them are buried in Westminster Abbey.
By the 17th century London had become a busy, rich and crowded city.
Lots of ships came to London daily. On one of them, together with some
goods, the Great Plague had arrived in London. In 1665 a few months
nearly 100,000 people died, about 1/5 of the population. Many people left
the city and escaped to the villages. A year after the Plague, in 1666,
another misfortune came down. It was the Great Fire. The Great Fire ended
the plague in London, but it destroyed much of the city. Three thousand
60
houses made of wood were in flames. Nearly all the churches were
destroyed in the flames, including the great building of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
A heavy rain fell and London was saved. The fire cleared away the Plague
and the old and dirty houses. And a new London, the city of stone and
bricks with better houses, wider streets and squares was built; and people
returned to it.
In 1829 the London buses first came on the streets of London. Seven
years later, in 1836, the first railway came to London. A locomotive,
constructed by George Stephenson, started running from London to
Greenwich.
In 1870 the first Tube Railway in the world was opened. The total
length of modern underground in London is 250 miles.
The main parts of London are: Westminster, the City, the West End, the
East End.
The City is the oldest part of London. The Romans formed a settlement
there 2000 years ago. Now the City is a financial and business centre of
London. It contains the Royal Exchange, the Stock Exchange, and the Bank
of England. During the daytime a million people work there, but less than
8000 people live there.
The most important building in London is
Buckingham Palace, the official residence of the Queen. It stands in St.
James’s Park. St. James’s Park is one of ten so-called royal parks situated in
or near London. These parks officially belong to the Crown, but are open to
the public free of charge. Each park has its own character. Hyde Park was
originally a hunting forest and is still popular with horse-riders. Regent’s
Park is now the home of London Zoo, and an open-air theatre. There are
royal palaces, royal parks and colourful ceremonies.
61
The West End is the richest part of London. It is
the area of the largest department stores, cinemas and hotels. There are 40
theatres, concert halls, and many museums including the British Museum.
Piccadilly Circus is the heart of the West End and the centre of the night life
in London. In the middle of the Square there is the fountain with the statue
of God of Love. The main shopping streets are Oxford and Regent Streets.
Big department stores are situated there. The most expensive department
store is Harrods, the symbol of high-class living. People say you can buy
everything in Harrods, including wild animals – they have a Zoo which will
sell you lion cubs as well as more common pets such as dogs, cats.
Trafalgar Square was built at the beginning of the 19th century to
commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Nelson’s statue stands on the
top of a column in the middle of Trafalgar Square. At Christmas a huge
Christmas tree is there, which is sent to Britain from Norway every year.
Behind Nelson’s Column is the building of the National Gallery, a rich art
gallery.
Westminster occupies Westminster Palace or the
Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral. The
Houses of Parliament, the political centre of London, occupy a building on
the left bank of the Thames. It was built in the 11th century. The present
Houses of Parliament were built in 1834. This structure is an example of
Gothic architecture. At two corners of the building there are two great
towers. One of them is the clock tower Big Ben. Westminster Abbey stands
opposite the Houses of Parliament. This church has stood there since Saxon
times. Since the 13th century British monarchs and many other famous
people are buried there.
62
The East End is an industrial part of London,
including factories, docks. The East End was formerly unattractive, but now
changing because of the introduction of new industries and very expensive
housing. The British Airways London Eye, a large structure was built to
celebrate the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.
This observation wheel offers wonderful views of London.
The street Whitehall stretches from Parliament Square to
Trafalgar Square. In Whitehall are all the important ministers: the Foreign
Office, the Ministry of Defence, the Home Office.
Downing Street 10 is the home of the Prime Minister. Fleet Street is
the street where most newspapers have their offices.
The earliest historical monument of English
architecture is the Tower of London. For many centuries the Tower has
been a fortress, a royal palace, a prison, and a Zoo. Among the numerous
prisoners were kings of England, France and Scotland. Thomas More, the
greatest humanist, was executed there. Now the Tower of London is a
museum. The Tower is guarded by Beefeaters, dressed up in traditional
medieval clothes.
St. Paul’s Cathedral – the seat of the Bishop of London, is the
Christopher
Wren’s
masterpiece.
Its
building
lasted
for
35
years.
Christopher Wren, “the architect of London”, and Admiral Nelson were
buried there.
63
Another place of interest in London is the Albert Hall a huge concert
hall.
Characterizing the main parts of London, people often say that the City
is “the money” of London, the West End – “the goods” of London and the
East End – “the hands” of London.
Topics for discussion:
The History of London
Its Importance in the Life of Britain
Places of Interest
Task:
Prepare presentation about London’s Places of Interest
Video (DVD): London (Travel Channel) («Открываем Лондон»);
London (Travel Channel);
London (Chill Culture) («Лондон»)
***
LECTURE 14: EDUCATION IN BRITAIN
British Schools
Higher Education in Britain
British Universities
World-known Educational Centres
Education in Britain is divided into three stages: primary, secondary
and higher.
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Most children start school at the age of 5. And the Primary school lasts
till 11 years. Secondary education begins at 11 and lasts till 16. At the age
of 16 students take exams to get General Certificate of Education.
There are three types of secondary schools: comprehensive schools,
grammar schools and modern schools. Children study there according to
their abilities. The majority of secondary schools are Comprehensive
schools and they are open to children of all types of ability. Grammar
schools provide an academic course. They prepare students for colleges and
universities. Modern schools give a limited education, pupils get training in
woodwork, metalwork, sewing, typing and cooking there.
Education is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5
and 16. At 16 years those students who are going to enter the university
they study for two more years to pass “A” level exams (Advanced Level).
There are 50 universities and 350 colleges and institutes of higher
education in Britain. There are no state universities in Britain. They have
own independent government.
The oldest and the most famous are Oxford and Cambridge Universities
which were founded in the 12th and the 13th centuries. Students go to large
lectures, but most of the work takes place in tutorials: lessons in groups of
10 when the students discuss their work with the lecturer. 25% of the
student population go on to the higher education.
Over 90% of full-time students receive grants and scholarships to assist
with their tuition, cost of living, books, transport. Students often work
during the holidays to earn money.
Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their A-level results.
Undergraduate courses normally take 3-4 years of full-time study and
lead to a Bachelor degree in Arts, Science or Education (BA, BSc, BEd).
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There are various postgraduate one or two-year research courses leading
to degree of Master of Philosophy (PhM), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is
awarded for some original research in Arts or Sciences.
In 1971 the Open University was started for adults who do not have
these qualifications. It conducts learning through correspondence and
Internet.
The Redbrick Universities are divided into faculties, e.g. faculty of Arts,
faculty of Science, faculty of Social and Economic Studies. These
Universities draw many of their students from their locality.
Oxford and Cambridge (Oxbridge) are the oldest and the most
prestigious
centres.
universities in the UK and two world-known educational
There are at a distance of some 70 miles from London. Both
Universities represent fine architecture of Norman, Gothic, Renaissance,
Classic art. There are about 40 colleges in Oxford and 30 in Cambridge.
The construction of each college is connected with a name of some king
or queen of England or with some prominent people of the country. Each
college has its own name and traditions. Among the oldest colleges in
Oxford
is
University College (1249).
The most famous
college in
Cambridge is King’s College (founded by Henry VI in 1440).
For centuries Oxbridge Universities were for men. Only in 1871 the first
college for women was opened in Cambridge.
Nowadays Oxford University is a sort of federation of 23 colleges for
men and five for women. All these colleges include twelve thousand
students. Oxford is situated on the bank of the river Thames and its
population is 125 thousand people.
Cambridge University comprises 19 colleges for men and three for
women.
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Cambridge University has always had a high reputation in the field of
Science and Mathematics; Oxford University – in Classical Studies and the
Humanities.
Topics for discussion:
Types of Higher Schools in Britain
Oxbridge
***
LECTURE 15: MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
The National Health Service
General Practitioner
The Main Groups of the NHS
Cloning
Discovery of Penicillin
The National Health Service (NHS) of Great Britain has been found over
50 years ago (1948). The British health care system is divided into state and
private sectors. The state sector represented by the British National Health
Service is financed by the state from taxes. British citizens who work are obliged
to pay a certain amount of money to the National Health Service. But a large part
of the money comes not from payment but from taxes.
It was designed to provide equal basic health care, free of charge, for
everybody in the country. Every citizen of Great Britain has equal access to all
necessary medical services – regardless of their financial status. Therefore, basic
medical services are guaranteed to all residents of the UK. Medical treatment by
a doctor is for free. Extra payments are charged for dental treatment as well as
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glasses but many people, such as children, pregnant women, pensioners and
adults on low incomes are exempt from payment.
When a person falls ill he/she first visits his/her General Practitioner
(GP). GPs provide the first diagnosis in the case of illness, give advice and may
prescribe a suitable course of treatment or arrange for the patient to see a
specialist. The specialist decides whether the patient needs hospital treatment
and if he does whether he should be treated at the local hospital or at a
specialized hospital.
The services provided by the NHS fall into three main groups:
1. The hospital and specialists services.
2. The general practitioners (GPs) services. This includes the family doctor
service, the dental service, the eye service and some other services.
3. The local authorities’ health and welfare services.
In February 1997 the world was stunned by the news that a British
embryologist Ian Wilmut and his research team had successfully cloned a lamb
named Dolly from an adult sheep. Scientists have debated the implications of
human and non-human cloning extensively.
Penicillin was the first effective antibiotic. It was discovered by Alexander
Fleming, who was a brilliant medical researcher at St Mary’s Hospital, London.
He was careless, and his laboratory was often untidy. In 1928, after returning
from holiday, he noticed a glass dish that had some mould growing on it. His
analysis of this and its effect on the bacteria in the dish led to the discovery of
penicillin. This paved the way for the treatment of infectious disease. Fleming
continued his research.
In 1945 Alexander Fleming shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine with Ernst Chain, who worked out how to isolate and concentrate
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penicillin. Fleming’s accidental discovery marks the start of modern antibiotics.
Penicillin has saved 200 million lives.
Topics for discussion:
The National Health Service in Britain
Discoveries in Medicine
***
LECTURE 16: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Environment and Ecology
Water and Air Pollution
Green Belts
All of us live as one large family on one small planet called the Earth.
Ecology is the science of how living things are related to their environment.
Many Britons are concerned about their ecology today. They are concerned
about
protecting
the
environment
from pollution,
overcrowding,
and
destruction of natural resources.
Environmental protection is an international problem of great importance
and Great Britain pays much attention to it. There are nearly 500, 000
protected buildings and 7000 conservation areas of architecture of historical
interest in Britain. The Government supports the work of the voluntary sector
in preserving the national heritage.
Total emissions of smoke in the air have fallen by 85 per cent since 1960.
Most petrol stations in Britain stock unleaded petrol, in order to reduce
environmental pollution. The Government is committed to the control of
gases emission, which damages the ozone layer.
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In Scotland the River purification authorities are responsible for water
pollution control.
They also contribute to the greenhouse effect, which leads to global
warming and a rise in sea levels. Britain stresses the need for studying the
science of climate change.
Green belts are areas where land should be left open and free from urban
sprawl. The Government attaches great importance to their protection.
National parks cover 9 per cent of the total land area of England and Wales.
The National Rivers Authority protects island waters in England and Wales.
Great Britain takes care of its environment both for themselves and for the
next generations.
Topics for discussion:
Ecological Problems in Britain
Protection of Architectural and Historical Buildings
Task:
Prepare presentation about protection of architecture.
***
LECTURE 17: BRITISH CULTURE
English Theatres
Music in Britain
British Museums
British Art Galleries
70
In 1576 the first theatre was built in London. In 1599 “the Globe” the
theatre closely connected with the name of Shakespeare appeared in
England. It was a round summer theatre with a sign on the main door “All
the world is a stage”. According to the theatrical tradition of that time all
the parts were played by men. This theatre was not only for the rich but for
the poor people as well. William Shakespeare’s tragedies, comedies and
poems were of great success.
The Theatre Royal was opened in 1663. King Charles II was the first
British king who attended a public theatre and was present at the
performance.
The Covent Garden Theatre was built in 1732. It is one of the few
well-known opera houses in the world. The famous Italian singer Caruso
and the great Russian singer Shalyapin sang here many times. There you get
the best of everything – a first rate orchestra, famous conductors, celebrated
singers and dancers.
There are several hundred local musical societies in England; most of
them are choral societies. Andrew Lloyd Webber is one of the outstanding
contemporary English composers. He is famous for his rock-based works.
Lloyd Webber’s most popular musicals include the rock opera “Jesus Christ
Superstar” (1971), “Cats” (1981) which became the longest-running musical
in the history of British theatre, “The Phantom of the Opera” (1986) and
others.
In the second half of the 20th century Great Britain became the world
centre of pop music. Such outstanding groups as the Beatles, the Rolling
Stones, Pink Floyd, Deep Purple brought undying fame to the music of the
British Isles.
The Beatles was one of the most popular groups, first performing in
1959 in Liverpool. The names of the four Beatles – John Lennon, Paul
McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr – soon became popular all
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over the world. The musicians wrote words and music and their songs were
about love, friendship, good and bad times.
Concerts of the leading symphony orchestras, numerous folk and pop
music groups are held in the Royal Albert Hall. The programmes include
new and contemporary works as well as classics. Among them are
symphonies and other pieces of music composed by Benjamin Britten, the
famous English musician.
In Britain, as in other countries, museums developed from private
collections. The first and oldest public museum in the country was the
Ashmolean Museum, founded in 1683 by Elias Ashmole in Oxford
University. It houses a collection of archeological and classical rarities.
Victoria and Albert Museum, opened in 1857, was named after Queen
Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert. The museum includes a collection
of fine and applied art of all countries and periods and a large library.
The British Museum, light-grey building, like a Greek temple, is one of
the world’s greatest treasure-stores. It was opened in 1753. Today the
Museum has two departments – the Museum of Mankind and the National
History Museum. The Museum of Mankind contains a vast collection of
ancient works of art (including marbles from the Parthenon).
The British Museum has one of the largest libraries in the world. It has
a copy of every book that is printed in the English language, so there are
more than six million books there.
The National Art Gallery, situated in Trafalgar Square of London, is
one of the greatest museums of art in the world. The Gallery was founded in
1824 when King George IV urged the government to purchase a collection
of 38 paintings including six of Hogarth.
Nowadays
the
Gallery
holds
the
British
national collection of
paintings, as well as the collection of many foreign painters.
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The Tate Gallery contains a national collection of British art from the
16th century to the present day. It was opened in 1897 with the financial
support of Sir Henry Tate, a sugar merchant, who also gave the Gallery a
collection of 65 paintings. It houses superb Constable and Turner paintings.
Topics for discussion:
British Drama Theatre Today
Music and Musicians
The Main Museums
Art Galleries
Video (DVD): British Museum
***
LECTURE 18: BRITISH NATIONAL TRADITIONS
Habits and Customs
Royal Ceremonies
Holidays and Festivals in Britain
Every country and every nation has its own holidays, customs and
traditions. The British people are very proud of their traditions and
carefully keep them up, because many of them are associated with the
history and cultural development of the country.
The British people are great lovers of gardens, dogs and horses. Their
devotion to animals and gardening is a tradition. Gardening is one of the
most popular hobbies in the country and English people are described as a
nation of flower-growers. There are flower-shows and vegetable-shows,
with prizes for the best exhibits.
73
Though Britain does not often produce world-famous sportsmen the
British people are sport-lovers and taught the rest of the world organised
games. Many kinds of sports were born in Britain: cricket, football, tennis,
golf, boat-racings, horse-racings and some others. Golf was first played in
Scotland in the 15th century; cricket was first played in England in the 16th
century. The first team sports such as football, rugby and hockey were first
played in British Public Schools. The rules for all these games were also
written in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The British people are the world’s greatest tea drinkers. They drink a
quarter of all the tea grown in the world each year. Tea is the national
beverage. In a British home there is the early morning cup of tea, tea at
breakfast, tea at 11 o’clock in the morning, tea at lunch, then tea after
lunch; there is tea for tea, tea for supper and then the last thing at night is
tea. An invitation to tea is a common way of keeping in touch with friends
and relatives. Besides tea, there is thin bread and butter with jam, meat or
fish paste and some home-made or bought cakes. On special occasion the
family may go out to tea – to a tea-shop or a café and order high tea, which
is a fairly substantial meal.
If you have spent a night or a weekend in somebody’s house you have
to write a letter, if possible at once when you get back, a so-called breadand-butter letter. It would be considered very bad manners not to observe
this custom.
The British cannot claim to be a nation of good cooks. But Britain has
some excellent traditional food: lamb from Wales, shellfish and fresh
salmon from Northern Ireland, fresh or smoked fish from Scotland, cheese
from England and Wales.
Many traditional ceremonies have been preserved since old times.
Changing of the Guard is one of the most popular Royal ceremonies. It
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takes place at Buckingham Palace every day at 11.30. The ceremony always
attracts a lot of spectators.
The Ceremony of the Keys at the Tower is another very interesting
tradition. This Ceremony dates back 700 years and has taken place every
night since that time. At 9.53 p.m. the Chief Warder of the Tower of
London lights a candle lantern and goes, accompanied by his Escort,
towards the Bloody Tower. In his hand he carries the keys, with which he
locks the West Gate and then the Middle Tower. Then the Chief Warder and
his Escort return to the Bloody Tower, where they are stopped and the
sentry asks, “Who goes there?” The Chief Warder answers, “The keys”. The
sentry demands, “Whose keys?” “Queen’s Elizabeth’s keys”, replies the
Chief Warder. The Chief cries, “God preserve Queen Elizabeth”. “Amen”,
answers the Guard and Escort.
A number of ravens have their home at the Tower. There is a
superstition that when the ravens fly away, the Tower and the British
Empire will fall down. Because of this superstition the wings of the ravens
are regularly clipped.
Most people in Britain have three weeks of paid holiday per year.
Besides, there are bank holidays. The term “bank holidays” dates back to
the 19th century when the Bank Holiday Acts declared certain days on
which banks were to be closed. On these days shops, post-offices and
factories are also closed. British “bank holidays are New Year’s Day, Good
Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday, Summer Bank
Holiday, Christmas Day and Boxing Day. Most of bank holidays are of
religious origin, but now they are simply days on which people relax and
make merry.
Christmas (the 25th of December) is the most widely celebrated and
merry of all bank holidays. On Christmas Eve offices close at one o’clock,
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but the shops stay open late. Christmas trees are decorated. Stockings are
hung over the end of the bed.
On Christmas Day many people go to churches, open their Christmas
presents, and eat a Christmas dinner of roast turkey and Christmas pudding.
Many people watch the Queen’s Christmas broadcast on TV.
Boxing Day (the 26th of December) is the day of visiting friends, of
giving Christmas boxes (small presents in boxes) or gifts of money to their
servants by the rich. On Boxing Day, Christmas boxes are given to the
postman, milkman, who delivers milk to the house and to others rendering
services throughout the year. Formerly a Christmas box was a box or a
package containing a Christmas present. Today, it is customary to say to the
milkman or the postman, “Here is your Christmas box,” and to hand him a
present of money instead of a box.
In England New Year is not as widely observed as Christmas. At
midnight on New Year’s Eve when Big Ben is chiming everybody join
hands and sing Robert Burn’s poem “Auld Lang Syne” (“The good old
days”).
In Scotland early in the morning many people go from house to house
to wish their neighbours “Happy New Year”. Good or bad luck on this day
depends on the first-footer. To symbolize good luck the first visitor carries a
piece of coal and a glass of water.
Good Friday is the Friday before Easter when the church marks the
death of Christ. On this day people eat hot cross-buns – small sweet rolls
marked on top with a cross.
Easter is the greatest religious holiday in the UK. Many Britons attend
the church services. On Easter people give each other chocolate Easter eggs.
May Day Bank Holiday (the first Monday after May 1) is a celebration
of the coming of spring. Different outdoor events are held, and May-queen,
the most beautiful girl of the celebration, is selected.
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Spring Bank Holiday (the last Monday in May) and Summer Bank
Holiday (the last Monday in August) are days for excursions. People go to
some seaside resort for a bathe or a game on the beach.
Since 1864 every year the anniversary of the birth of William
Shakespeare is celebrated at Stratford-upon-Avon. A long procession goes
to the Birthplace of the poet, and then to his tomb in the church. In the
Festival season from April to September the British and a lot of foreigners
come to Stratford and enjoy the performances of Shakespeare’s plays.
The famous annual Edinburgh International Festival of Music and
Drama attracts artists and audiences from all over the world. In late August
and September more than 100,000 music and drama lovers from all parts of
the world come to Edinburgh. The Festival programmes include music,
opera, ballet, drama, films.
Topics for discussion:
Everyday Life Traditions
Bank Holidays
Festivals in Britain
Task:
Prepare presentation about: a) National Celebrations; b) Festivals; c) Ceremonies
***
LECTURE 19: FAMOUS BRITONS
Historical Figures
British Scientists and Inventors
British Writers
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King Alfred the Great (849 – 899) is considered the first of England.
He is remembered for two important things: saving his land from
destruction by the invading Danes, and his dedication to education. Being
well-educated, he brought peace to England and restored the centres of
learning. He knew Latin, could read and write Latin and English. He
translated the passages from the Bible into English.
Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603), the third of Henry VIII’s children to
succeed him on the throne, was the ruler after her half-sister Mary’s death.
She was the last of the Tudor monarchs. Elizabeth I received an excellent
education. She knew Latin, Greek, spoke French and Italian. She tried to
stop religious struggle between the Protestants and the Catholics. During
Elizabeth’s reign England became a great sea power.
The Elizabethan age was one of the greatest periods of English
literature. W. Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser created their great works at
that time. Elizabeth’s court became a centre of culture for English
musicians, poets, scholars and artists.
Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) is one of the famous political figures in
the history of Great Britain. The king of England Charles I wanted to rule
over England
without Parliament.
He needed money for wars, but
Parliament refused to give it. In 1642 Charles I tried to arrest some
members of Parliament, but could not do it. Members of Parliament decided
to fight against the king. The leader was Oliver Cromwell, who trained the
soldiers. The Parliamentary army won a victory and the king’s army was
defeated in the battle near the town of York in 1644. In 1649 Charles I was
beheaded.
The Parliamentary government came to power and proclaimed England
a republic. Cromwell got the title of Lord Protector and ruled the country.
But later he became a dictator. The English Republic, the first republic in
Europe, did not justify the hopes of the people and after Cromwell’s death
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in 1660 the newly elected Parliament invited Charles II, the son of the
executing king, to occupy the English throne.
Horatio Nelson (1758 – 1805) was a naval commander. During the wars
against France in the 1790s he took part in many sea battles and lost his
right arm and the right eye.
Nelson sailed from England for the last time in 1805, as the
Commander-in- Chief of the British fleet to meet France and Spain at Cape
Trafalgar. At this battle Nelson was wounded and died a few hours after
that. But he won the great victory.
Admiral Nelson is Britain’s national hero. A tall column crowned with
his statue stands in Trafalgar Square in London, in memory of this great
man.
Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) is the longest-reigning monarch in
English history. She came to the throne in 1837 and reigned until her death
in 1901.
Victoria married her German cousin, Prince Albert, but he died at the
age of forty-two in 1861. She could not get over her sorrow at his death and
for a long time refused to be seen in public.
She wrote a book “Our life in the Highlands”, it was published in 1868.
It was Queen’s diary of her life with Prince Albert and her family. By her
book Victoria touched people’s hearts. And she became very popular.
Winston Churchill (1874 – 1969), the Prime Minister of Britain, led
the British people from the danger of defeat to victory during the Second
World War. He joined the Conservative Party and was taking an active part
in Britain’s political life.
During the 1945 elections he was defeated by the Labour Party, which
ruled until 1951. Sir Winston Churchill regained his power in 1951 and led
Britain again until 1955.
He spent most of his last years writing and painting. He was given the
Nobel Prize for literature in 1953.
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Margaret Thatcher (1925) became the first woman in European history
to be elected the Prime Minister. She won three terms.
In the 1959 elections she won a seat in Parliament. In 1974 she became
the leader of the Conservative Party. When the Conservatives won a victory
in the 1979 general elections, Thatcher became the Prime Minister.
As
the
Prime
Minister
she
limited
government
control,
giving
individuals greater independence from the state. She became known as the
Iron Lady because of her strict control over her Cabinet and the country’s
economic policies.
Elizabeth II (1926) is the longest-reigning British monarch since Queen
Victoria, who occupied the throne for over 63 years, whiles her ancestor
Elizabeth I reigned for 44 years.
In 1952 at the age of 25 after the death of her father king George VI she
became the Queen of the UK.
Elizabeth has great interest in horses and riding. Elizabeth became the
42nd Sovereign of England, but only its 6th Queen. Elizabeth’s reign has
been marked by vast changes in the lives of her people and in the power of
her nation. The UK became a member of the European Economic
Community in 1973 and the European Union in 1993.
Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician,
astronomer, natural philosopher, and theologian who is considered by many
scholars and members of the general public to be one of the most influential
people in human history. He devoted all his life to scientific experimentation.
His greatest discovery was the Law of Universal Gravitation.
In 1703 he was elected the President of the Royal Society. He was
buried in Westminster Abbey.
Adam Smith (1723 – 1790), the great economist and philosopher, a pioneer
of political economics, was born in Scotland. In 1751 he was appointed the
professor of logic at Glasgow University. In 1776 Smith moved to London,
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where he published his work “The Wealth of Nations”. It covered such concepts
as the division of labour, the function of markets, and so on. Adam Smith “the
father of modern economics” became famous for the first modern work of
Economics.
James Watt (1736 – 1819), the greatest Scottish inventor and mechanical
engineer, made several discoveries. While working at the University of
Glasgow, Watt became interested in the technology of steam engines. His
improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by
the Industrial Revolution. He invented a copying machine. It was used for about
100 years. James Watt introduced the term “horse power”. The power unit, the
watt, is named in his honour.
George Stephenson
(1781 – 1848) was an English civil engineer and
mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use
steam locomotives. The English call him the "Father of Railways". He was the
first man who put a steam engine on wheels. And in 1825 the first railway in
England was built.
Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) made a lot of experiences, and
produced several new kinds of optical glasses. He founded the theory of
electric
and
magnetic
fields
and
made
great
contribution into
the
development of electro-magnetic theory of light.
Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871) was an English mathematician,
philosopher, inventor, and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a
programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in
the London Science Museum. Considered a “father of the computer”, Babbage is
credited with inventing the first mechanical computer.
Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937) was a great British chemist and
physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. He showed that
the atom is made up of smaller parts and that its structure is very complex.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 “for his investigations
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into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive
substances”.
Alexander Graham Bell (1847 – 1922) was a scientist, inventor and
engineer. In 1876 he invented the first practical telephone. He developed his own
technique for teaching the deaf to speak, invented a wireless phone and other
useful things.
In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell became one of the founding members of the
National Geographic Society.
William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) was an English poet and playwright,
widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's
pre-eminent dramatist. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and left for London
where he became a professional actor and dramatist. In 1594 he joined other
actors in forming a new theatre company. For twenty years he wrote two plays a
year for the theatre. In 1599 the company of actors built a new theatre “The
Globe”. He is often called England's national poet and the “Bard of Avon”. He
wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets and several other poems.
Robert Burns (1759 – 1796) is the great Scottish poet and a lyricist. He is
widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide.
He travelled much about Scotland collecting popular songs and wrote his own
verses. His poetry was inspired by his deep love for his motherland; for its
folklore. His famous poem “My Heart’s in the Highlands” is a hymn to the
beauty of Scotland’s nature.
My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here,
My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe;
My heart's in the Highlands, wherever I go.
Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North
The birth place of Valour, the country of Worth;
Wherever I wander, wherever I rove,
The hills of the Highlands for ever I love.
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Farewell to the mountains high cover'd with snow;
Farewell to the straths and green valleys below;
Farewell to the forrests and wild-hanging woods;
Farwell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods.
My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here,
My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer
Chasing the wild deer, and following the roe;
My heart's in the Highlands, whereever I go.
George Gordon Byron (1788 – 1824) is one of the greatest poets of
England, commonly known simply as Lord Byron. At the age of 21 he became a
member of the House of Lords.
He took part in the movement for the liberation of Italy from Austrian rule.
Then he went to Greece to fight for the liberation of that country from Turkish
oppression. He is a Greek national hero.
Amongst Byron's best-known works are poems Don Juan, Childe Harold’s
Pilgrimage.
Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist and poet. His
novels and poetry are still read, and many of his works remain classics of both
English-language literature and of Scottish literature.
His novels devoted to Scottish history. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob
Roy, the Lady of the Lake. The book Ivanhoe deals with the struggle between
the Normans and the Saxons.
Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) was the most popular English novelist of
the Victorian era, and he remains popular. Many of his novels, with their
recurrent concern for social reform, first appeared in magazines in serialised
form, a popular format at the time.
He did some reporting in the House of Commons for newspapers. Being a
reporter, he went all over the country, writing stories. He wrote novel after novel
– Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, Little Dorrit, Bleak House.
He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
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Topics for discussion:
The Outstanding Historical Figures
Famous British Writers
Task:
Prepare presentation about: a) British poets and their poems; b) British inventors
and their discoveries.
***
PART EIGHT
ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES
LECTURE 20: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Introducing the USA
The Naming of America
American History
Formation of the USA
The Growth of Big Business
Britain, the United States of America, Australia, Canada, Ireland and
New Zealand are large English speaking countries. They are situated in
various parts of the Globe and differ in many ways.
Each country has its own history, national holidays, traditions and
customs. But they have a common language, English, the language of the
people who left Britain to settle in new countries.
From the British Isles the English language spread all over the world,
that’s why we can say that the United Kingdom is the major English
speaking country.
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The United States of America (also referred to as the United States, the
U.S., the USA, the States, or America) is a federal constitutional republic
comprising fifty states and a federal district. It is the fourth largest country in the
world after Russia, Canada and China. It was formed in 1776.
For the people in Europe (Old World), America was a New World. Until
the 15th century there were three parts of the world: Europe, Asia and Africa.
After the voyages of Amerigo Vespucci along the coasts of what are today
known as South and Central America the fourth part of the world be named after
the explorer “America”. Vespucci participated as observer in several voyages
that explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502.
Christopher Columbus, an Italian sea captain, who had sailed to many
European and African ports, wanted to find a sea route to Asia and believed
that Asia could be reached by sailing west from Europe across the Atlantic
Ocean. In 1492 Columbus and his three ships sailed from Spain. They sailed
for six weeks and suddenly saw an island. The Spanish was sure that the
island was in the East Indies, near Asia, and they called the people of the
island the Indians. The islands Columbus found were in the Caribbean Sea,
between North and South America, now called the West Indies. After
crossing the Atlantic
Ocean by Columbus, explorers from different
countries made voyages to America.
In the 17th century for years English ships sailed along the coast of
what is now the eastern United States. In 1606 three small ships set sail
from England and headed for North America. In 1607 they started a
settlement and named it Jamestown for King James I of England. The
colony faced a lot of problems: hunger, living in a wilderness; the ruling of
the colony belonged to the Virginia Company which did not give the
colonists freedom to do what they wanted. In 1624 the English king took
control of the colony away from the Virginia Company. A governor ruled
the colony in the king’s name, but the settlers elected their representatives
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to help make laws for the colony. This self-government was very important
for the further history of the USA.
The first black colonists – 20 Africans – were brought to Jamestown in
1619 by a Dutch ship. The first black colonists had to work for an owner for
a certain number of years and then be given their freedom. However, in
1661 black people in Virginia were sold as slaves.
In 1620 the ship Mayflower with 102 passengers left England for
America. They were Pilgrims, members of the radical wing of the Puritan
movement, who were looking for a land where they could live in their own
way, free from persecution. They came to America for religious reasons.
The Pilgrims called their colony Plymouth. They suffered terribly through
the cold winter. Nearly half of them died. Finally, with the help of friendly
Indians, the Pilgrims were able to build houses and raise food crops. To
show how they felt about the Indians’ help, they invited the Indians to share
their first Thanksgiving feast.
In 1630 more colonies were started. Colonial towns and cities were
centres of trade and government. The large farms grew food. Nine out of
every ten people lived on farms or in small villages. Settlers needed new
places; they moved to the west into the Indians’ hunting grounds, cleared
trees and built log cabins. The Indians burned their cabins and crops, hoping
to stop the settlements. This Native American population was greatly reduced.
At that time Britain was the most powerful country in the world. Tensions
between American colonials and the British led to the war that became known as
the American Revolution
or the War for Independence fought from 1775
through 1781. George Washington of Virginia was chosen to be the army’s
commander. The rebellious states defeated the British Empire in the American
Revolution. After six long years of the War a peace treaty was signed. In the
treaty, Great Britain agreed that the thirteen colonies would be independent. The
new nation was called the United States.
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The United States was founded by thirteen British colonies located along
the Atlantic seaboard. On July 4, 1776, they issued the Declaration of
Independence. The Declaration said that “these United Colonies are free and
independent states”. The Declaration was mostly written by Thomas Jefferson.
The purpose of the government, he said, was to protect the rights of the people.
Jefferson wrote in the Declaration, “All men are created equal”, all men have
certain rights. Those rights include “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”.
In each state a new plan of government was written. The plans were called
constitutions. The new nation had problems that needed to be handled by a
strong government.
After the Revolution, George Washington was troubled by the weakness of
the new government. He and his friends decided to convene a meeting in
Philadelphia. Long debates were caused by differences in opinions. People from
the large and the small states had different ideas about the system of
representation of members in Congress. It was accepted that Congress should be
divided into two parts. In one part, called the Senate, each state would have two
votes. In the second part, called the House of Representatives would be set
according to the number of people in each state. Congress would make laws for
the nation. The President would see that the laws were obeyed. The new
Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787. Today the United States uses
this Constitution. The first election for President was held in 1788. George
Washington was elected the President.
At that time New York was the nation’s capital. In 1801 Washington, D.C.,
was a new capital. The United States grew rapidly. By 1820, ten new states had
been formed. The first half of the 19th century saw the rise of factories and thus
the beginning of mass production, the growth of businesses and the inflow of
immigrants. Immigrants, mostly the Europeans, kept moving to the new nation.
The 1850s were years for railroad building.
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North and South grew apart in other ways. The North had more industry.
The South was mostly farms. In 1854 a new political party, called the
Republican Party, started the discussion that slavery must not be allowed. The
Democrats wanted to allow slavery. In 1860, the Republicans Abraham Lincoln
won the election.
Disputes between the agrarian South and the industrial North over the
expansion of the institution of slavery provoked the American Civil War of the
1860s. The North's victory led to the end of legal slavery in the United States.
For both North and South, the Civil War was long and hard. More than half a
million soldiers lost their lives.
Five days after the war ended, Abraham Lincoln was shot in the theatre by
an actor. The nation gained peace but has lost a great President.
The Civil War helped transform the nation’s economy and the way of life.
The years after the war are called Reconstruction. The most important effect of
the war was the end of slavery. Slavery was abolished everywhere in the United
States. Blacks were promised the same rights as whites. About four million black
slaves had been freed by the war. But the ex-slaves had no money to live and to
buy a farm. By the early twentieth century in the South states blacks and whites
were separated in schools, parks, trains, hospitals, and other public places.
The time from 1870 to 1890 was the time of the last Indian wars. Some
Indian leaders wanted to live at peace with the newcomers, and they signed
treaties, agreeing to stay on land set aside for them – in the so-called
reservations. But the treaties were ignored by settlers who wanted land or were
looking for gold and silver.
At the end of the 19th century new businesses got started. More people
had extra money to invest trying to make a profit. Giant corporations were
formed. Companies sold stock and people invested in stock becoming
stockholders. Thomas Edison invented a practical light bulb. Edison formed an
electric power company to sell his inventions. It had a station that supplied
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electricity for homes, businesses, and street lights. Soon one city after another
started to put in electric power. Edison’s power company later became General
Electric.
By 1900 most of the steel used in the country was made in Andrew
Carnegie’s steel empire. John D. Rockefeller got control of most of the country’s
oil business. In the 1920s America became a nation on wheels. Almost every
family was buying a car. The most popular car was the model, made by Henry
Ford. A new idea in American business was the producing cars (and other
goods) on the assembly line at Ford’s factories.
In 1867 the Senate approved buying Alaska from Russia. The price was a
little over seven million dollars. Alaska became an American state.
Theodore Roosevelt, who became the President in 1901, was one of the most
popular Presidents in American history. People called him Teddy or TR. A
popular toy, the Teddy Bear, was named for him. Theodore Roosevelt had an
idea to build a canal through the narrow land that connects North and South
Americas for expanding the US power. With such a canal, the United States
Navy could move more easily between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The
canal was planned across Panama. In 1914 the work was complete, and the
Panama Canal was open to ship traffic.
The World War I confirmed the country's status as a military power. It
emerged from the World War II as the superpower with nuclear weapons. The
United States had lost 300,000 members of its armed services in the World War
II, there had been no fighting or bombing in North America. So, the United
States was in much better position than the Soviet Union and other countries
fighting with Germany.
The country accounts for two-fifths of global military spending and is a
leading economic, political, and cultural force in the world.
Topics for discussion:
The Native Americans
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The First Europeans who went to America
The Role of Slavery in the Development of the Nation
The War for Independence
A New Constitution
Political Parties
The Role of Immigration in the history of America
Task:
Prepare presentation about any American State.
***
LECTURE 21: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TODAY
Geographical Situation
The System of Government
The American Capital
New York, the country’s largest city
Public Holidays and Other Special Days
The United States of America lies in the central part of the North
American continent, where its forty-eight states are, with the Atlantic Ocean
to the East, the Pacific Ocean to the West, Canada to the North, and Mexico
to the South. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent. The state
of Hawaii is in the mid-Pacific. The country’s total area is over 9 million sq.
km.
The USA is washed by 3 oceans – the Arctic, the Pacific and the
Atlantic. There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are the
Mississippi (called “the father of waters”), the Missouri and some others.
The US also has many lakes, with the Great Lakes included.
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The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera. Due to
the large territory, the climate conditions are rather different.
The USA is rich in various mineral resources: oil, gas, coal, and
different metals.
The United States is one of the most highly developed industrial powers
in the world. Its main industrial branches comprise aircraft, rocket,
automobile, radio-engineering, textile, electronics, chemical and others.
The U.S. economy is the world's largest national economy, with an
estimated 2009 GDP of $14.3 trillion (a quarter of nominal global GDP).
The Americans are made up from nearly all nations and races of the
world. Due to immigrants its population is now over 300 million. The USA
is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations.
Officially the country comprises 50 states and one District Columbia. The
states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its
own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. There are many large cities
in the country: New York, Chicago, San-Francisco, Los-Angeles, Boston,
Detroit and some others.
The official language of the state is English. More than eighty languages are
now spoken in the USA. Spanish is the second most common language, after
English.
The main national symbol of the country is its flag called “Stars and
Stripes”, having 50 white stars on the dark blue field and 13 white and red
stripes. The 13 stripes typify the original 13 States; the 50 stars represent the 50
States.
The USA is a federal state headed by the President. The legislative power
belongs to the Congress consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House
of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House of
Representatives – the population. The chairman of the House of Representatives,
the Speaker, is elected by the House. The executive power belongs to the
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President and his Administration – the Vice President and the Cabinet of
Ministers. The President (any natural-born citizen over 34) is elected for a term
of four years and can only be re-elected for one more term. The President, the
Cabinet cannot be members of Congress.
There are several political parties in the USA. The largest and most
influential of them are the Republican Party, symbolized by a donkey, and the
Democratic Party, symbolized by an elephant.
Washington is the capital of the USA. It is situated in
the Federal District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac River.
The city was named after its founder – the first American President George
Washington. It became the capital of the USA in 1800.
The USA capital is not very large. But it is the most important city of the
country; its political, cultural and administrative centre.
Washington is one of the most unusual and beautiful cities in the country.
There are no skyscrapers in the US capital. The Capitol, where the Congress sits,
is the highest building in the city. There is a law against building structures
higher than the Capitol. The Capitol is the centre of the city. It is situated on
Capitol Hill, the highest point in the city. Not far from the Capitol there is the
Congress Library – the largest nation’s library. It includes three buildings.
The White House is the official residence of the US Presidents. Every
President except Washington lived and worked there. The White House has now
132 rooms.
There are also many beautiful parks, squares, monuments and memorials in
the American capital. The most known of them are the Lincoln Memorial, the
Washington Monument. There are five Universities in it.
There are several museums and galleries in the city. The most attractive of
them is the Smithsonian Complex consisting of 18 museums, among them the
Museum of American History, the Natural History Museum, the National
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Gallery of Fine Arts, the Air and Space Museum and others. The Smithsonian
Institution was established as a result of a gift from an Englishman James
Smithson who never saw America in his life and left his fortune to the USA.
The Arlington National Cemetery is the nation’s famous burial ground. It is
the site of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
New York, the country’s largest city, is popularly
called the “Big Apple”. New York City, the most populous city in the United
States, is known for its status as a financial, cultural, transportation, and
manufacturing centre and for its history as a gateway for immigration to the
United States. It is located on a large natural harbour on the Atlantic coast.
New York was founded as a commercial trading post by the Dutch in 1624.
The settlement was called New Amsterdam until 1664 when the colony came
under English control. New York served as the capital of the United States from
1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790.
The Statue of Liberty, standing at the entrance of New York harbour, greets
everybody who comes to New York by sea.
The first skyscraper was put in 1888. It had only thirteen stories. The
Empire State Building has 102. It was opened in 1931.
The World Trade Centre had 110. Its crash in 2002, September 11, will
forever remain the symbol of tragedy for the country.
Rockefeller Centre is an architectural ensemble of a number of skyscrapers,
houses offices, theatres, music halls. The 39-storey skyscraper of the United
Nations Organization is situated on the bank of the East River.
Broadway, the longest street in the city, is a major center of the world's
entertainment industry. The famous Wall Street is known for its banks,
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companies, big offices governing financial life of the nation and the world. The
New York Stock Exchange and the American Stock Exchange are both in the
Wall Street area.
New York City is the home for world-class Columbia University.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 by a group of
financiers, industrialists, and art collectors. The Museum’s collection of
American art is the most comprehensive in the world. The Central Park is
considered New York’s greatest piece of architecture. It was opened in 1876.
The park is the green space within an urban area.
Most of those who were born and live now in the USA are energetic,
enterprising, pragmatic and too talkative. They are often simply fixed at making
money and career. Almost all of them adore various receptions and banquets.
The Americans are really interested only in their own country, and their own
success. They are very proud of their country.
Holidays commonly celebrated in America include the group of
celebrations known as the Big Six:
New Year's Day, Memorial Day,
Independence Day, Labour Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas.
The first settlers came to America from various parts of the Globe and they
brought with them their national traditions and holidays.
New Year’s Day is one of the greatest national holidays. At midnight most
Americans go outside, ring bells or blow automobile horns and set off fireworks.
At home they exchange presents and good wishes. The Americans gather in
homes or in restaurants or other public places the night before to enjoy food and
beverages and to wish each other a happy and prosperous year ahead.
Memorial Day, celebrated on the 30th of May, is a great national holiday.
On this day the Americans honour all those who gave their lives in the past wars,
holding memorial services in churches and cemeteries. This holiday is also
marked with parades and sports competitions.
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One of the greatest holidays in the USA is Independence Day celebrated on
the 4th of July. On this day, in 1776, the declaration of Independence was signed
and the country became an independent state. The holiday is usually marked
with parades and fireworks. Most people go to picnics to the countryside.
Labour Day is a holiday of recreation. It is marked on the first Monday in
September to honour all the working people of the country.
Thanksgiving Day is a favourite national holiday, celebrated on the last
Thursday in November, to honour the first settlers. It is a great family holiday
when the Americans have their traditional dinner with a fried turkey.
Christmas Day is the most important religious holiday celebrated on the
25th of December to glory the birth of Jesus Christ. It is also a joyful family
holiday; people exchange presents and enjoy themselves. Because it is a
religious day, it is not an official holiday. But most businesses are closed and
most workers have the day off. They attend special church services.
At Christmas time for most stores there is a sharp increase in sales.
Christmas shopping is a major activity of many Americans in December. Gifts
are given to children, members of the family and close friends. Some people
bake cookies or other special food treats for friends and neighbors. Many
businesses give their workers a Christmas “bonus” – gifts of extra money – to
show appreciation for their work. The decorating of homes for Christmas is very
common. Most Americans who observe the holiday have a Christmas tree in
their homes. This may be a real evergreen tree or an artificial one. The tree is
decorated.
Easter is a religious holiday marked in memory of the Resurrection of Jesus
Christ. The Americans attend the church services on this day. They exchange
gifts and give chocolate eggs, rabbits and chicks to children. Many households
organise Easter egg hunts, in which children look for dyed eggs hidden around
the house or yard. The President of the United States even has an annual Easter
egg hunt on the lawn of the White House the day after Easter, known as “Easter
Monday”.
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The federal holiday Veteran's Day is celebrated on the 11th of November to
honour all the nation’s veterans, both living and dead.
Lincoln’s Birthday is marked on the 12th of February to honour the 16th
President of the US, Abraham Lincoln, who managed to keep the nation together
and free the slaves.
Washington’s Birthday is marked on the 22d of February to commemorate
the first President of the USA, George Washington, who led the American Army
to victory in the War for Independence and who was called “the Father of the
Nation”.
Some other US holidays are not national holidays; they include St.
Valentine's Day, Halloween and April Fools’ Day. St. Valentine’s Day is
marked on the 14th of February as a holiday of love and friendship in honour of
St. Valentine, all sweethearts’ patron. Halloween is celebrated on the 31st of
October, on the eve of All Saints’ Day. On this day most Americans just have a
good time and make merry.
Topics for discussion:
Geographical Survey of the USA
The Main Parties
The Capital of the Country
Sightseeing in New York
Traditions
Task:
Prepare presentation about: a) the outstanding historical figures; b) famous
American writers.
Video (DVD): New York (Chill Culture) («Нью-Йорк»)
***
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LECTURE 22: INTRODUCING CANADA
The Discovery of Canada
The Union of Canada
Canada Today
People and Languages
The Main Cities
Culture and Traditions
Canada is the world’s second largest country that occupies the northern
part of the North American continent.
Originally the country was inhabited by the Aboriginal people, who are
known in Canada as “the First Nation” (10 000 years ago). The word
“Canada” originated from “Kanata” that means “a settlement or a village”.
A thousand years ago men from Norway called Norsemen, voyaged to
the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, and when they returned home they told
of visiting the land. It may have been the United States or Canada, but one
thing is certain – they discovered America five centuries before Columbus.
500 years later John Cabot, Italian explorer, living in England, sailed
from England to the shores of Canada, seeking a new way to China. Cabot
was disappointed with the rocky coast which he found and returned to
England. In the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and
settled, along the Atlantic coast.
In the first half of the 18th century fighting between the British and French
colonies in North America was started. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in
North America in 1763 after the Seven Years’ War. Britain became dominant in
Canada.
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In 1867 the three colonies were united under the British North America
Act as the dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and
territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This
widening autonomy was culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed
the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada’s land territory is 9, 9 million sq. km. Its coasts are washed by the
Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. There are many plains and mountains on its
territory. It is also a country of lakes and rivers. The Niagara River and the fall at
Niagara are well-known all over the world.
The population of Canada is about 33 million. The capital of the country is
Ottawa. The country consists of ten provinces and two territories.
Canada is a federative state within the British Commonwealth of Nations. It
is governed as a parliamentary democracy and the formal head of the state is
Queen of the UK Elizabeth II. The Federal Parliament consists of the Senate and
the House of Commons. The Prime Minister, the leader of the party holding the
majority in the House of Commons, is responsible for the policy conducted by
the Canadian Government.
One of the world’s highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified
economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade. The
country is known for its rich resources of metal ores, oil and gas. Forests are the
greatest wealth of Canada. The major industries of the country include machinebuilding, hydro-electric, automobile and ship-building. The country agriculture
is highly mechanized. It produces wheat, meat and dairy products. Fishing
industry occupies an important place in the country economy.
The population consists of either Anglo-Canadian or French-Canadian
descendants with about 34% of the population of British origin, about 26% of
French origin and also about 26% of other European origin. Canada is a
bilingual nation, there are two official languages: English and French. 61% of
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the population speak English as their native, 24% speak French. Quebec,
Canada’s largest province, its first settlers were French, and now French
language is spoken most often here.
Ottawa, the capital of the country, is situated on the
hills along the Ottawa River in the Western Ontario. Ottawa is an important
political and cultural centre of the country. In 1854 Ottawa was chosen as the
seat of government because it stood at the crossroads of French and Englishspeaking Canada.
The neo-Gothic Parliament buildings look like the Houses of Parliament in
London. Ottawa has a green-belt within the city that provides recreation areas
for walking, bicycling and for skiing in winter. Every spring, millions of tulips
bloom, a gift from Queen Juliana of the Netherlands to the people of Canada for
sheltering her and her family during World War II.
The largest Canadian cities are Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Quebec and
some others.
Canada’s largest city is Montreal, which is built around a mountain on a
green island. It is a seaport, one of the most important in Canada. Montreal is a
beautiful city with its parks, avenues and streets. You may visit old Notre
Basilica, the Olympic Stadium and Botanical Gardens.
Toronto is the capital of the province of Ontario and the second city in
Canada. The University of Toronto is the largest in Canada and is noted for its
high academic learning.
Canada has become a cultural mosaic in which immigrant groups have
been able to retain much of their ethnic culture. But in general, the way of life,
family structure, cuisine, and dress of the Canadian people are closer to those of
the United States than to those of Britain or France.
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The Canadians enjoy sports and other recreational activities. Winter sports
are widely enjoyed by the Canadians, including ice hockey, ice skating, and
downhill skiing. From spring recreational activities include fishing, hunting,
hiking, golf, and water sports.
Canada’s national holiday is Canada Day marked on July 1. It
commemorates the formation of the Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. It is
celebrated with parades, fireworks, and the singing of the national anthem, O
Canada.
Topics for discussion:
Sketches on History
Geographical Survey of Canada
A Bilingual Nation
Video (DVD): Canada («Канада 1000 мест, которые стоит посетить»)
***
LECTURE 23: INTRODUCING AUSTRALIA
Geographical Survey
Sketches on History
Australian Population
Modern Australia
The City of Sydney
The Isle of Beauty
Australia is the only country in the world which occupies the territory of an
entire continent. Australia is an island that separates the Indian and the Pacific
Oceans. The territory of the country comprises the continent of Australia, the
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island of Tasmania and some smaller islands. The country’s official name is
Commonwealth of Australia. The total area is about 8 million square kilometres.
The country consists of six states and two territories. The largest state is
Western Australia. The major cities are Sydney, Melbourne, and Canberra.
The word “Australia” means “southern land”. The continent is south of the
Equator, so the seasons are opposite: summer is from December to February,
winter from June to August.
There are several rivers in the country but they are not large. Australia is rich
in energy and mineral resources such as iron, coal, zinc, copper, oil, nickel, gold
and natural gas. It is the world’s largest exporter of coal and diamonds.
The isolation of the country from the rest of the world for many centuries has
resulted in the development of Australian flora and fauna, found nowhere else.
The symbols of Australia are its native animals: the kangaroo and the emu.
The first landing by Europeans took place in 1606. More than a century
and a half later an expedition headed by the British explorer James Cook added
the land to the possessions of the British Crown.
Due to the War of Independence, the convicts could no longer be transported
to the American colonies and penal settlements were established in Australia. So
in 1788 over thousand English convicts and guards arrived there. For the
following half century the deportation of convicts to Australia continued.
The discovery of gold in 1851 marked the increasing of the population as a
result of immigration. The transportation of convicts stopped. The economic and
political effects of the gold rush were considerable. New settlers demanded a
distribution of lands. The struggle between squatters and small farmers started.
Development of trade unions began and they gained considerable rights. In
1870s the Australian workers were the first in the world to gain an eight-hour
working day.
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The natural conditions of the country encouraged the development of sheep
breeding and grain growing. A great number of sheep stations were established
there.
In 1901 the separate colonies in Australia merged together and became the
States of the Commonwealth of Australia, which acquired the status of a
dominion of Great Britain.
In the beginning of the 20th century, in Australia’s economy there was
expansion of exports of wheat, meat, sugar and fruits.
In 1986 the Australian Act gave the country full independence from Britain
while it is still retaining its Commonwealth membership and the British Queen
Elizabeth II is the official head of the state.
Australia is one of the least populated countries in the world. Its population
is 20 million. The Australian population is subdivided into “the original
Australians” (known as the Aborigines), “the old Australian” and “the new
Australian”.
The word “aborigines” means “first inhabitants”. The Aboriginals’ ancestors
are believed to have migrated to the Australian continent from South-East Asia
at least 40,000 years ago. They were engaged in hunting and food gathering.
During the colonization period a great many of the Aborigines were killed by the
white men or were driven to the most unsuitable soils.
“The Old Australians” are people of Anglo-Saxon or Irish descent, born in
Australia and speaking English as their native tongue. The descendants of
convicts, guards, free settlers, landowners and pioneers made up this layer of the
population of Australia.
“The New Australians” are post-war immigrants from various countries,
mostly European. Now there are many nations in Australia speaking different
languages, with English being the official language.
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Australia is an independent federative state within the British
Commonwealth of Nations. It is a parliamentary state. The legislative power
belongs to the Federal Parliament consisting of two Chambers: the Senate (or the
Upper House) and the House of Representatives (the Lower House). The
Government is headed by the Prime Minister. The main political parties
represented in the Australian Parliament are the Labour party, the Liberal party,
the National party and some others.
The main industries include steel, oil, gas, chemical, motor vehicles,
electronics, food, paper, textile and light engineering. Agriculture is the main
occupation in Australia. It produces about 2/3 of the rural production exported .
Sheep-breeding and cattle-farming are also highly developed.
Australian sea beaches as well as the country’s climate provide year-round
opportunities for recreation and outdoor activities. Picnics and back-yard
barbecues are popular.
Australia Day, marked on 26 January, has been celebrated by the state since
1988.
Canberra is Australia’s National Capital. Today it is an
important political and cultural centre of the country. The Australians celebrate
the Capital’s Day on the third Monday in March. The Day is marked with a great
festival where people can enjoy Canberra’s beauty. As a national capital where
Parliament first set Canberra was established in 1927. The capital is a beautifully
planned modern city with thousands of trees and shrubs. It is often called “the
Garden city of Australia”. Canberra is arranged around the artificial lake. Its
notable sights are the National Gallery, the Parliament House, the National
Botanic Garden devoted to the unique Australian flora, the Commonwealth
National Library, the Australian War Memorial. The Australian National
University, which stands in the north of the city, was founded in 1946.
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Sydney is the largest and the oldest city in Australia, the city
of hills, built around the shores and ocean views everywhere. It was the site of
the first settlement in Australia.
The world-famous Sydney Opera House looks like waves when they break
on the beach. It was designed by the Danish architect Jorn Utson. The famous
Harbour Bridge is also very impressive. Within the famous Aquarium of Sydney
there is the tunnel through the transparent walls of which visitors can see huge
ocean fishes and even sharks.
Melbourne is the financial and cultural heart of the country. Melbourne is the
centre of the Melbourne Cup, a horse race; and the Australian Open tennis
tournament.
Tasmania is a beautiful, wild island – the sixth state of
Australia. Agriculture is its main industry, but 6 per cent of its land is devoted to
national parks. Tasmania’s coasts are unusual. The eastern coast is pretty and
green, while the western one is wild. Tasmania is called “the Isle of Beauty”,
“the Isle of Mountains”, “the Apple Island”, and one more name Tasmania has
been given is “Holiday Island”.
Topics for discussion:
Geography and Climate
Early Australia
Australia Today
The Places of Interest
***
LECTURE 24: NEW ZEALAND
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Geographical Survey
Some Facts from the History
New Zealand Today
Demographic Information
Major Cities
New Zealand is an independent state within the British
Commonwealth of Nations. It is sometimes called “Britain of the Pacific”. New
Zealand, an island country, is bordered by the Tasman Sea on the west and the
South Pacific on the east. Its nearest neighbour is Australia, some 1,900 km to
the northeast. The country consists of 3 large isles (the North Island, the South
Island and Stewart Island) and many small isles. Its territory is over 268 000 sq.
km.
The word “New Zealand” means “the land of the long white clouds”; this
name was given to the country by Māoris because of its active volcanoes. The
country also has some other slang names: the Kiwiland, the Māoriland.
New Zealand is a beautiful mountainous country, the Southern Alps being
the highest mountains in the country. There are many lakes, rivers and waterfalls
in New Zealand. The climate is warm. It rains almost all the year round, creating
favourable conditions for the country agriculture.
The scenery of New Zealand includes the beautiful lake districts, natural forests
and snow-capped mountains. During its long isolation New Zealand developed a
distinctive flora and fauna dominated by birds. Some 84% of the country’s
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native plants are found nowhere else. Many of them are protected by law.
Today’s forests are dominated by evergreen beech and conifers.
The natural resources are not very rich: timber, gas, coal, iron ore, building
materials and fast rivers with hydro-electric stations. But the country produces
quite enough various goods both for its own needs and for export.
The Māoris, a Polynesian people, are the aborigines of New Zealand. The
Dutch were the first Europeans to arrive, in 1642, but the area remained
unknown until the arrival of James Cook in 1769. New Zealand became
officially British colony in 1840. In 1856 the country gained the status of a selfgoverning colony and obtained control over its internal affairs. In 1907 it was
granted the new status of a dominion within the British Empire. In 1947 New
Zealand became independent and an independent member of the British
Commonwealth of Nations.
The country participated in several wars, including World War I and II.
Economically, New Zealand has been dependent on the export of
agricultural products, especially to Britain, for much of the 20th century. The
entry of the United Kingdom into the European Economic Community (EEC) in
the early 1970s, however, forced New Zealand to expand its trade relations with
other nations, and also develop its industrial sector.
Today New Zealand is a developed country. The chief industries are
transport equipment, textiles and food processing, oil refining and some others.
New Zealand’s system of government is the Constitutional Monarchy. The
formal head of the country is the British Queen Elizabeth II that is represented
by the Governor General. The highest legislative power belongs to the country
Parliament consisting of one House – the House of Representatives. The
executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers. The Prime Minister
heads the Cabinet and is responsible for the policy that is conducted by the
Government.
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The main political parties represented in the country Parliament are the
Labour Party and the National Party of New Zealand.
The New Zealanders spend most of their spare time at home, and are mostly
content with newspapers, TV and their hobbies. They like the simple sort of life,
delight in gardening, keeping hens. They like sports, particularly those played
out of doors. Rugby football and horse racing are popular spectator sports.
Climbing, skiing and other winter sports are also very popular.
In numerous galleries and museums Māori art is displayed and it is familiar
to the public.
The principal ethnic majority are the Whites who account for 82 % of the
population and are of European descent while 9% are Māori. Many Māoris have
left the land and work in various industries. But the most part are still
countrymen, working in sheep and dairy farms for white landowners.
The population of New Zealand is over 3 million people. The official
language is English. Māori, which is still a living language of the Polynesian
group, is spoken among the Māori population.
The major cities of the country are Auckland and
Wellington, the capital. New Zealand’s largest city is Auckland. It is the leading
commercial and industrial city. It is the biggest sea port in the country.
Wellington is the capital city, the main political, commercial, cultural and
industrial centre of New Zealand, the country government’s seat.
In 1839 a British officer bought the site of Wellington from the Māoris; he
got it in exchange for blankets and some other unimportant things. In 1840 the
first settlers arrived and called their settlement Britannia. By 1842 there were
3,700 colonists in the settlement and Britannia had become Wellington.
Built largely on hills, with deep harbour water reaching almost to their feet,
Wellington is an attractive city.
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Wellington is the world’s most southern capital. It was named after the first
Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, the British General and statesman who
was the British Prime Minister. It is also called “the Top Town” of the country.
The capital’s attractions include the National Art Gallery and the National
Portrait Gallery, the National Cricket Museum and the Museum of New Zealand.
The country’s animals are represented in Wellington’s Zoo.
Topics for discussion:
Geographical Peculiarities of the Country
The stages of the formation of new Zealand’s state
The Linguistic Situation in New Zealand
Major Cities and Regions where they are situated
Task:
Prepare presentation about any English-speaking country.
***
PART NINE
BRITISH SONGS
LECTURE 25: MUSIC OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
The History of British Music
Folk Music of England
British Songs
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The music of the United Kingdom, which is part of British music, refers
to all forms of music associated with the United Kingdom since its creation,
including music inherited from the states that preceded it.
Throughout its history, the United Kingdom has been a major exporter and
source of musical innovation, drawing its cultural basis from the history of the
United Kingdom, from church music, from Western culture and from the ancient
and traditional folk music of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. In
the 20th century, influences from the music of the United States became most
dominant in popular music. The United Kingdom has one of the world’s largest
music industries today, with many British musicians having had an impact on
modern music.
Folk music of England is a type of traditionally based music, often
contrasted with commercial music, for which evidence exists from the later
medieval period. It has been preserved and transmitted orally, through print and
later through recordings. The term is used to refer to English traditional music
and music composed, or delivered, in a traditional style. English folk music has
produced or contributed to several important musical genres, including sea
shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It can be seen as having distinct
regional and local variations in content and style, particularly in areas more
removed from the cultural and political centres of the English state. Cultural
interchange and processes of migration mean that English folk music, although
in many ways distinctive, has particularly interacted with the music of Scotland,
Ireland and Wales. There remains a flourishing sub-culture of English folk
music, which continues to influence other genres and occasionally to gain
mainstream attention.
There are thousands of traditional songs in England. Many of them tell
stories about British history.
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1. “Auld Lang Syne” is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and
set to the tune of a traditional folk song. It is well known in many Englishspeaking countries and is often sung to celebrate the start of the New Year. The
song's title may be translated into English as “old long since”, or “long long
ago”, “days gone by”, “old times”.
Singing the song on New Year's Eve very quickly became a Scots custom
that soon spread to other parts of the British Isles.
AULD LANG SYNE
Scottish Song
(Words by R. Burns)
1. Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And never brough to min’?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And days of lang syne?
CHORUS:
For auld lang syne, my dear,
For auld lang syne.
We’ll tak’ a cup o’ kindness yet,
For auld lang syne.
2. And surely ye’ll be your pint stout
As surely I’ll be mine!
And we’ll tak’ a cup o’ kindness yet,
For auld lang syne.
CHORUS
3. We twa ha’e run about the braes,
And pu’d the gowans fine
But we’ve wander’d mony a weary foot,
Sin’auld lang syne.
CHORUS
4. We twa ha’e paidl’t in the burn,
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Frae mornin’ sun till dine;
But seas between us braid ha’e roar’d
Sin’auld lang syne.
CHORUS
5. And here’s a hand my trusty freen’,
And gie’s a hand o’thine,
And we’ll tak’, a right gude willy waught
For auld lang syne.
CHORUS
Scottish words
1) auld = old
2) lang syne – старина, былые дни
3) tak’ = take
4) twa = two
5) ha’e = have
6) brae – склон холма
7) gowan – маргаритка
8) mony = many
9) sin’ = since
10) frae = from
11) braid = broad
12) freen’ = friend
13) gie’s = give us
14) gude willy waught = a hearty drink – хорошая выпивка
15) ye’ll = you’ll
16) stout = a kind of jug with a handle – кружка с ручкой
17) to paidle – переходить вброд
18) o’ = of
19) a burn – ручеек
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Перевод С. Я. Маршака
1. Забыть ли старую любовь
И не грустить о ней?
Забыть ли старую любовь
И дружбу прежних дней?
Припев:
За дружбу старую –
До дна!
За счастье прежних дней!
С тобой мы выпьем, старина,
За счастье прежних дней.
2. Побольше кружки приготовь
И доверху налей
Мы пьем за старую любовь,
За дружбу прежних дней.
Припев.
3. С тобой топтали мы вдвоем
Траву родных полей,
И не один крутой подъем
Мы взяли с юных дней.
Припев.
4. Переплывали мы не раз
С тобой через ручей.
Но море разделило нас,
Товарищ юных дней.
Припев.
5. И вот с тобой сошлись мы вновь.
Твоя рука – в моей.
Я пью за старую любовь,
За дружбу прежних дней.
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Припев.
2. Robert Shaftoe was an eighteenth-century British Member of Parliament
(MP), who was the subject of a famous North East English folk song.
The song relates the story of how he broke the heart of Bridget Belasyse,
when he married Anne Duncombe in Yorkshire. Bridget Belasyse is said to have
died two weeks after hearing the news, although other sources claim that she
died a fortnight before the wedding of tuberculosis.
BOBBY SHAFTOE
English Folksong
1. Bobby Shaftoe’s gone to sea,
Silver buckles on his knee;
He’ll come back and marry me,
Bonny Bobby Shaftoe.
Bobby Shaftoe’s bright and fair,
Combing down his yellow hair,
He’s my ain for ever mair,
Bonny Bobby Shaftoe.
2. Bobby Shaftoe’s tall and slim,
He’s always drest so neat and trim,
The lasses they all keek at him!
Bonny Bobby Shaftoe.
Bobby Shaftoe’s gettin’ a bairn
For to dangle on his airm,
In his airm and on his knee,
Bonny Bobby Shaftoe.
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3. Bobby Shaftoe’s been to sea,
Silver buckles on his knee;
He’s come back and married me,
Bonny Bobby Shaftoe.
1) buckle – пряжка
2) bright – веселый
3) to comb down one’s hair – причесываться, зачесывая волосы
4) to dangle – качать
Scottish words
ain = own
mair = more
keek = look
airm = arm
bairn = child
3. “Charlie is My Darling” is a well-known song about the times when
Prince Charles Edward Stewart, the young Chevalier or Young Pretender, raised
the Jacobite Uprising on August 19, 1745. The campaign lasted through the
winter but in 1746 he was back in Scotland and was defeated on April 16, 1746.
Beginning with the line “Twas on a Monday morning, right early in the
year”, it celebrates the Jacobite movement.
CHARLIE IS MY DARLING
Scottish Folksong
1. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier!
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‘Twas on a Monday morning,
Right early in the year,
That Charlie came to our town,
The young Chevalier.
O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
2. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
As he came marching up the street,
The pipes play’d loud and clear,
And a’the folk cam’runnin’ out,
To meet the Chevalier.
O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
3. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
We’ Hieland bonnets on their heads,
And claymores bright and clear,
They cam’to fight for Scotland’s right
And the young Chevalier.
O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
4. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
They’ve left their bonnie Hieland hills,
Their wives and bairnies dear,
To draw the sword for Scotland’ Sord,
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The young Chevalier.
O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
5. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
O there were many beating hearts:
And many hope and fear,
And many were the pray’rs put up
For the young Chevalier.
O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling,
O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier.
Scottish words
Hieland = Highland – Шотландия
Hieland bonnet – шотландская мужская шапочка
claymore = sword – меч
Sord = sward – земля
4. “Cockles and Mussels” (also known as “Molly Malone” or “In Dublin’s
Fair City”) is a popular song, set in Dublin (Ireland), which has become the
unofficial anthem of Dublin City.
The song tells the fictional tale of a beautiful fishmonger who plied her
trade on the streets of Dublin, but who died young, of a fever. While many such
“Molly” Malones were born in Dublin over the centuries, no evidence connects
any of them to the events in the song.
Nevertheless, in 1988 the Molly Malone statue in Grafton Street was
opened in Dublin. And June 13 was proclaimed to be “Molly Malone day”.
COCKLES AND MUSSELS
Irish Song
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1. In Dublin’s fair city, where the girls are so pretty,
I first set my eyes on sweet Molly Malone
As she wheel’d her wheel-barrow
Thro’ streets broad and narrow
Crying: “Cockles and Mussels!
Alive, alive, oh!”
CHORUS:
“Alive, alive, oh!
Alive, alive, oh!”
Crying: “Cockles and Mussels!
Alive, alive, oh!”
2. She was a fishmonger but sure ‘twas no wonder
For so were her father and mother before.
And they each wheeled their barrow
Thro’ streets broad and narrow.
Crying: “Cockles and Mussels!
Alive, alive, oh!”
CHORUS
3. She died of a fever
And no one could save her
And that was the end of sweet Molly Malone.
Her ghost wheels her barrow,
Crying: “Cockles and Mussels!
Alive, alive, oh!”
CHORUS
1) cockle – съедобный моллюск
2) mussel – двустворчатая раковина, мидия
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3) Dublin – г. Дублин
4) Molly Malone – Молли Мэлон (женское имя)
5) ‘twas = it was – сокращение для сохранения размера
5. “I Saw Three Ships Come Sailing By” (also known as “On Christmas
Day in the Morning”) is a traditional and popular Christmas carol from England.
The origins of “I saw three ships” are unknown but it is believed to be an
English carol from the Victorian era. The theme for the song is extremely
optimistic.
I SAW THREE SHIPS COME SAILING BY
English Folksong
1. I saw three ships come sailing by,
Sailing by, sailing by;
I saw three ships come sailing by,
On New Year’s Day in the morning.
2. And what do you think was in them then?
In them then, in them then;
And what do you think was in them then;
On New Year’s Day in the morning.
3. Three pretty girls were in them then,
In them then, in them then;
Three pretty girls were in them then,
On New Year’s Day in the morning.
4. And one could whistle, and one could sing,
The other could play on the violin;
Such joy there was at the wedding,
On New Year’s Day in the morning.
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6. “Home, Sweet Home” is a song that has remained well-known for over
150 years. The American actor and dramatist John Howard Payne wrote the song
in 1822 that became widely popular in the United States, Great Britain, and the
English-speaking world. The song’s melody was composed by Englishman Sir
Henry Bishop.
HOME, SWEET HOME
English Song
(Words by J. Howard Payne)
1. ‘Mid pleasures and palaces though I may roam
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home.
A charm from the sky seems to hallow us there
Which, seek thro’ the world is ne'er met with elsewhere.
CHORUS:
Home, home, sweet, sweet home,
There’s no place like home,
There’s no place like home.
2. I gaze on the moon as I tread the drear wild,
And feel that my mother now thinks of her child,
As she looks on that moon from our own cottage door
Thro’ the woodbine, whose fragrance shall cheer me no more
CHORUS
3. How sweet ‘tis to sit ‘neath a fond father’s smile,
And the caress of a mother to soothe and beguile.
Let others delight mid new pleasures to roam,
But give me, oh, give me, the pleasures of home.
CHORUS
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4. To thee I’ll return overburdened with care
The heart’s dearest face will smile on me there
No more from that cottage again will I roam
Be it ever so humble there’s no place like home.
7. “Land of My Fathers” (“Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau”) is the national
anthem of Wales. It is amongst the finest anthems of the world and a song
steeped in history. The words of the Welsh National Anthem were written by
Evan James and the tune was composed by his son James in 1856. “Land of My
Fathers” became the first national anthem to be sung at the start of a sporting
event. Now there are many English Translations of the song.
LAND OF MY FATHERS
Welsh Song
(Words by Evan James)
1. Oh, land of my fathers, the land of the free,
The home of the Felyn so soothing to me,
Thy noble defenders were gallant and brave,
For freedom their heart’s life they gave.
CHORUS:
Wales, Wales,
Sweet are thy hills and dales
Till death be pass’d my love shall last
My longing, my yearning for Wales.
2. Though Eden of bards and birthplace of song,
The sons of thy mountains are valiant and strong
The voice and they streamlets is soft to the ear,
Thy hills and thy valleys, how dear.
CHORUS
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3. Tho’ slighted and scorned by the proud and the strong,
The language of Cambria still charms us in song;
The Awen survives, nor have envious tales
Yet silenced the harp of dear Wales.
CHORUS
1) Felyn = harp – арфа
2) Eden – Эдем, рай
3) Cambria – поэтическое название Уэльса
4) Awen = Muse – муза
8. “My Bonnie” is a traditional British folk song. It remains popular in
Western culture. The origin of the song is unknown, though it is often suggested
that the subject of the song may be Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince
Charlie). It is believed to have come originally from the north of England during
the 18th century. The song has since spread all over the world.
There are numerous versions of the song and one of well-known is by the
Beatles.
MY BONNIE
British traditional song
1. My Bonnie is over the ocean,
My Bonnie is over the sea,
My Bonnie is over the ocean,
Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me.
CHORUS:
Bring back, bring back,
Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me, to me.
Bring back, bring back,
Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me.
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2. Oh, blow ye winds over the ocean,
Oh, blow ye winds over the sea,
Oh, blow ye winds over the ocean,
And bring back my Bonnie to me.
CHORUS
3. Last night as I lay on my pillow,
Last night as I lay on my bed,
Last night as I lay on my pillow,
I dreamed that my Bonnie was dead.
CHORUS
4. The winds have blown over the ocean,
The winds have blown over the sea,
The winds have blown over the ocean,
And brought back my Bonnie to me.
FINAL CHORUS:
Brought back, brought back,
Oh, brought back my Bonnie to me, to me.
Brought back, brought back,
Oh, brought back my Bonnie to me.
9. “O, No, John” (also known as “The Spanish Merchant’s Daughter”) is
an English folk song. It is a conversation between a man and a woman.
O, NO, JOHN!
English Folksong
1. On yonder hill there stands a creature,
Who she is I do not know.
I’ll go and court her for her beauty;
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She must answer Yes or No!
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
2. My father was a Spanish captain
Went to sea a month ago.
First he kissed me, then he left me –
Bid me always answer No.
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
3. Oh madam in your face is beauty,
On your lips red roses grow.
Will you take me for your lover,
Madam, answer Yes or No!
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
4. O Madam, I will give you jewels;
I will make you rich and free,
I will give you silken dresses.
Madam, will you marry me?
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
5. O Madam, since you are so cruel,
And that you scorn me so,
If I may not be your lover,
Madam will you let me go?
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
6. Then I will stay with you forever,
If you will not be unkind.
Madam, I have vowed to love you,
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Would you have me change my mind?
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
7. O hark, I hear the church bells ringing,
Will you come and be my wife?
Or dear madam, have you settled,
To live single all your life?
O, no John! No John! No John! No!
Перевод С. Болотина и Т. Сикорской
1. Жила в селе красотка Мэй
Она была мне всех милей.
Но лишь хочу обнять ее,
Она в ответ твердит свое:
– Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет!
2. – Ах, Джон, отец мой был моряк,
Всю жизнь проплавал он в морях.
Он мне оставил свой завет –
Всегда твердить мужчинам: нет.
– Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет!
3. – Послушай, Мэй, любовь моя,
Тебе купил колечко я,
Но ты за это, мой дружок,
Хоть поцелуй меня разок.
– Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет!
4. – Ну, если так, тогда прощай,
Тогда одна сиди, скучай.
Я пережить готов беду –
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Без поцелуя прочь уйду.
– Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет!
10. “There Was an Old Woman” is an English folk song from a
collection of nursery rhymes which are often published as Mother Goose
Rhymes. Mother Goose is an imaginary author. Mother Goose is generally
depicted in literature and book illustration as an elderly country woman in a tall
hat and shawl, but is sometimes depicted as a goose.
THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN
English Folksong
1. There was an old woman as I've heard tell
She went to market her eggs for to sell,
She went to market all on a market day
And she fell asleep on the King’s highway.
2. There came by a pedlar whose name was Stout,
He cut her petticoats all round about
He cut her petticoats up to her knees,
Which made the old woman to shiver and freeze.
3. When this little old woman first did awake
She began to shiver and she began to shake
She began to wonder and she began to cry
"Lauk a mercy on me, this is none of I!”
4. “But if it be I, as I hope it be
I’ve a little dog at home, and he’ll know me
If it be I, he’ll wag his little tail
And if it be not I, he’ll loudly bark and wail.”
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5. Home went the little woman all in the dark
Up got the little dog and he began to bark
He began to bark, so she began to cry,
“Lauk a mercy on me, this is none of I!”
her eggs for to sell = to sell eggs
Lauk a mercy on me = Lord have mercy on me – Боже милосердный!
this is none of I = this is not I
Перевод С. Я. Маршака
1. Старушка шла продавать молоко.
Деревня от рынка была далеко.
Устала старушка и, кончив дела,
У самой дороги вздремнуть прилегла.
2. К старушке веселый щенок подошел,
За юбку схватил и порвал ей подол.
Погода была в это время свежа.
Старушка проснулась, от страха дрожа.
3. Проснулась старушка и стала искать
Домашние туфли, свечу и кровать.
Но, порванной юбки ощупав края,
Сказала: «Ах, батюшки, это не я!
4. Пойду-ка домой. Если я это я,
Меня не укусит собака моя.
Она меня встретит, визжа, у ворот,
А если не я, – на куски разорвет».
5. В окно постучала старушка чуть свет,
Залаяла громко собака в ответ.
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Старушка присела, сама не своя,
И тихо сказала: «Ну, значит, – не я!»
11. “There’s a Hole in My Bucket” is a well-known humorous song. The
song in its best-known form is referenced in 1949.
The song is used an infinite-loop motif. To fix the leaky bucket, you need
straw. To cut straw, you need an axe. To sharpen the axe, you need a stone. To
wet the stone, you need water. However, when the song asks how to get the
water, the answer is “in a bucket”. It is a dialogue between the energetic wife
named Liza, and the tired husband Henry. The German-American versions have
Henry as the stupid questioner, and Lisa as the common-sense woman.
THERE’S A HOLE IN MY BUCKET
Popular Folk Song from Britain
Liza: Henry! Fetch me some water!
Henry:
1. There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza,
There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, a hole.
Liza:
2. Then fix it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
Then fix it, dear Henry, dear Henry, fix it.
Henry:
3. With what shall I fix it, dear Liza, dear Liza?
With what shall I fix it, dear Liza, with what?
Liza:
4. With a straw, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
With a straw, dear Henry, dear Henry, a straw.
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Henry:
5. The straw is too long, dear Liza, dear Liza,
The straw is too long, dear Liza, too long.
Liza:
6. Then cut it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
Then cut it, dear Henry, dear Henry, cut it.
Henry:
7. With what shall I cut it, dear Liza, dear Liza?
With what shall I cut it, dear Liza, with what?
Liza:
8. With an axe, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
With an axe, dear Henry, dear Henry, an axe.
Henry:
9. The axe is too dull, dear Liza, dear Liza,
The axe is too dull, dear Liza, too dull.
Liza:
10. Then sharpen it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
Then sharpen it, dear Henry, dear Henry, sharpen it.
Henry:
11. With what shall I sharpen it, dear Liza, dear Liza?
With what shall I sharpen it, dear Liza, with what?
Liza:
12. With a stone, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
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With a stone, dear Henry, dear Henry, a stone.
Henry:
13. The stone is too dry, dear Liza, dear Liza,
The stone is too dry, dear Liza, too dry.
Liza:
14. Then wet it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
Then wet it, dear Henry, dear Henry, wet it.
Henry:
15. With what shall I wet it, dear Liza, dear Liza?
With what shall I wet, dear Liza, with what?
Liza:
16. With water, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
With water, dear Henry, dear Henry, with water.
Henry:
17. In what shall I get it, dear Liza, dear Liza?
In what shall I get it, dear Liza, in what?
Liza:
18. In a bucket, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry,
In a bucket, dear Henry, dear Henry, in a bucket.
Henry:
19. There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza,
There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, a hole.
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12. “Greensleeves” is a traditional English folk song. It was published in the
16th century. There is a belief that “Greensleeves” was composed by Henry VIII
for his lover and future queen consort Anne Boleyn. Perhaps her rejection to
King Henry’s attempts to seduce her may be referred to in the song. However,
Henry did not compose “Greensleeves”, which is probably Elizabethan in origin
and is based on an Italian style of composition that did not reach England until
after his death.
One possible interpretation of the lyrics is that Lady Green Sleeves was a
promiscuous young woman and perhaps a bawd. At the time, the word “green”
had sexual connotations, most notably in the phrase “a green gown”, a reference
to the way that grass stains might be seen on a lady’s dress if she had made love
outside.
In Nevill Coghill's translation of The Canterbury Tales, he explains that
“green” (for Chaucer’s age) was the colour of lightness in love.
GREENSLEEVES
English Folk Song
1. Alas, my love, you do me wrong,
To cast me off discourteously.
For I have loved you well and long,
Delighting in your company.
CHORUS:
Greensleeves was all my joy,
Greensleeves was my delight,
Greensleeves was my heart of gold,
And who but my Lady Greensleeves.
2. I have been ready at your hand
To grant whatever you would crave,
I have both waged life and land,
Your love and goodwill for to have.
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CHORUS
3. Your vows you’ve broken, like my heart,
Oh, why did you so enrapture me?
Now I remain in a world apart
But my heart remains in captivity.
CHORUS
4. If you intend thus to disdain,
It does the more enrapture me,
And even so, I still remain
A lover in captivity.
CHORUS
5. My men were clothed all in green,
And they did ever wait on thee;
All this was gallant to be seen,
And yet thou wouldst not love me.
CHORUS
6. Thou couldst desire no earthly thing,
But still thou hadst it readily.
Thy music still to play and sing;
And yet thou wouldst not love me.
CHORUS
7. Well, I will pray to God on high,
That thou my constancy mayst see,
And that yet once before I die,
Thou wilt vouchsafe to love me.
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CHORUS
8. Ah, Greensleeves, now farewell, adieu,
To God I pray to prosper thee,
For I am still thy lover true,
Come once again and love me.
CHORUS
Перевод С. Я. Маршака
1. За что, за что, моя любовь,
За что меня сгубила ты?
Неужто не припомнишь вновь
Того, кого забыла ты?
Твоим зеленым рукавам
Я жизнь без ропота отдам.
Я ваш, пока душа жива,
Зеленые рукава!
2. Я для тебя дышал и жил,
Тебе по капле отдал кровь,
Свою я душу заложил,
Чтоб заслужить твою любовь.
Твоим зеленым рукавам
Я жизнь без ропота отдам.
Я ваш, пока душа жива,
Зеленые рукава!
3. Я наряжал тебя в атлас
От головы до ног твоих,
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Купил сверкающий алмаз
Для каждой из серег твоих.
Твоим зеленым рукавам
Я жизнь без ропота отдам.
Я ваш, пока душа жива,
Зеленые рукава!
4. Купил я красные чулки,
Расшитые узорами,
Купил тебе я башмачки
Нарядные, с подборами.
6. Купил гранатовую брошь,
Браслета два для рук твоих.
Таких браслетов не найдешь
Ты на руках подруг твоих.
7. Из серебра купил ножи,
Позолотил их заново.
У самой знатной госпожи
Такого нет приданого.
8. Тебе прислал я слуг своих
В твоем дому прислуживать.
В зеленый шелк одел я их,
И в галуны, и в кружево,
9. Чтоб на руках тебя несли
Они порой ненастною,
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Чтоб не коснулась ты земли
Подошвою атласною.
10. Весь день твой услаждают слух
И музыка и пение.
Но ты меня, мой милый друг,
Отвергла тем не менее.
11. Одну надежду я таю,
Что, как ты жестока ни будь,
Любовь несчастную мою
Вознаградишь когда-нибудь!
12. Пусть ты глуха к моим мольбам,
Мучительница милая,
Твоим зеленым рукавам
Послушен до могилы я.
Твоим зеленым рукавам
Я жизнь безропотно отдам.
Зеленые, словно весною трава,
Зеленые рукава!
13. “For He’s A Jolly Good Fellow” is a song which is sung to congratulate
a person on a significant event, such as weddings, anniversaries, retirements,
birthdays, the birth of a child, or the winning of a championship sporting event.
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, “For He’s a Jolly Good
Fellow” is the second-most popular song in the English language, following
“Happy Birthday to You” and followed by “Auld Lang Syne”. It is frequently
used instead of “Happy Birthday to You”.
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FOR HE’S A JOLLY GOOD FELLOW
Popular English Social Song
British version
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow, (pause)
CHORUS:
And so say all of us.
And so say all of us,
And so say all of us!
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he's a jolly good fellow, (pause)
CHORUS
American version
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow, (pause)
CHORUS
Which nobody can deny.
Which nobody can deny,
Which nobody can deny!
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow,
For he’s a jolly good fellow, (pause)
CHORUS
14. “The Twelve Days of Christmas” is an English Christmas carol. The
Twelve Days of Christmas are the twelve festive days starting Christmas Day
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(25 December). This period is also known as Christmastide. The Twelfth Day of
Christmas is 5 January, with the celebrations of Christmas traditionally ending
on Twelfth Night, the close of the Christmas festivities. In the song 12 Christmas
presents are given. On each of the twelve days of Christmas a new gift is added
to those already given on all the previous days. The song was first published in
England in 1780.
“The Twelve Days of Christmas” is a cumulative song, meaning that each
verse is built on top of the previous verses. There are twelve verses, each
describing a gift given by “my true love” on one of the twelve days of
Christmas. In each verse the singer names the new present and repeats in reverse
order the list of all the presents. The singer always begins with the last present
and ends with the first one.
The song was not English in origin, but French, though it is considered an
English carol.
“The Twelve Days of Christmas” is a cumulative song, meaning that each verse
is built on top of the previous verses. There are twelve verses, each describing a
gift given by "my true love" on one of the twelve days of Christmas. In this song
the tempo increases from verse to verse. The last verse is sung at top speed.
TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS
1. On the first day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
A Partridge in a Pear Tree
2. On the second day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
3. On the third day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
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Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
4. On the fourth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
5. On the fifth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
6. On the sixth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
7. On the seventh day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
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Seven Swans a-Swimming,
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
8. On the eighth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Eight Maids a-Milking,
Seven Swans a-Swimming,
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
9. On the ninth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Nine Ladies Dancing,
Eight Maids a-Milking,
Seven Swans a-Swimming,
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
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10. On the tenth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Ten Lords a-Leaping,
Nine Ladies Dancing,
Eight Maids a-Milking,
Seven Swans a-Swimming,
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
11. On the eleventh day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
Eleven Pipers Piping,
Ten Lords a-Leaping,
Nine Ladies Dancing,
Eight Maids a-Milking,
Seven Swans a-Swimming,
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree
12. On the twelfth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me:
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Twelve Drummers Drumming,
Eleven Pipers Piping,
Ten Lords a-Leaping,
Nine Ladies Dancing,
Eight Maids a-Milking,
Seven Swans a-Swimming,
Six Geese a-Laying,
Five Golden Rings,
Four Colly Birds,
Three French Hens,
Two Turtle Doves
and a Partridge in a Pear Tree!
1) partridge – серая куропатка
2) turtle dove – kind of pigeon noted for cooking
3) French hen – red-legged French partridge
4) colly = black
5) a-Laying – laying eggs
6) a-Leaping – jumping
7) piper – bagpipe player
15. “Amazing Grace” (в переводе с английского «Изумительная благодать
Господня»; в русской интерпретации «О, благодать») is a Christian hymn
written by English poet and clergyman John Newton (1725–1807), published in
1779. “Amazing Grace” is one of the most recognizable songs in the Englishspeaking world. Its message is the forgiveness is possible regardless of the sins
people commit and that the soul can be delivered from despair through the
mercy of God.
Newton wrote the words from personal experience. He was pressed into
the Royal Navy and became a sailor, participating in the slave trade. One night a
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terrible storm battered his vessel so severely that he became frightened enough
to call out to God for mercy, a moment that marked the beginning of his spiritual
conversion and he began studying theology. In 1764 Newton became curate and
began to write hymns with poet William Cowper. “Amazing Grace” was written
in 1773. In 1835 in the United States “Amazing Grace” was joined to a tune
named “New Britain” to which it is most frequently sung today.
Author Gilbert Chase writes that “Amazing Grace” is “without a doubt the
most famous of all the folk hymns”. Jonathan Aitken, a Newton biographer,
estimates that it is performed about 10 million times annually.
AMAZING GRACE
Amazing grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me!
I once was lost, but now am found;
Was blind, but now I see.
’Twas grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears relieved;
How precious did that grace appear
The hour I first believed!
Through many dangers, toils and snares,
I have already come;
’Tis grace hath brought me safe thus far,
And grace will lead me home.
The Lord has promised good to me,
His Word my hope secures;
He will my Shield and Portion be,
As long as life endures.
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Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail,
And mortal life shall cease,
I shall possess, within the veil,
A life of joy and peace.
The earth shall soon dissolve like snow,
The sun forbear to shine;
But God, who called me here below,
Will be forever mine.
When we’ve been there ten thousand years,
Bright shining as the sun,
We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise
Than when we’d first begun.
16. “My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose” is one of the most famous songs that
Robert Burns wrote and first published in 1794. Burns wrote it as a traditional
ballad, four verses of four lines each. Burns referred to it as a “simple old Scots
song which I had picked up in the country.”
The lyrics of the song are simple but effective. “My luve's like a red, red
rose/That's newly sprung in June” describe a love that is both fresh and long
lasting. David Daiches in his work describes Burns as “the greatest songwriter
Britain has produced” for his work in improving traditional Scots songs
including "Red, Red Rose" which he described as a “combination of tenderness
and swagger.”
Burns worked for the final ten years of his life on projects to preserve
traditional Scottish songs for the future.
A RED, RED ROSE
(Words by Robert Burns)
O my Luve's like a red, red rose
That’s newly sprung in June;
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O my Luve's like the melodie
That’s sweetly play'd in tune.
As fair art thou, my bonnie lass,
So deep in luve am I:
And I will luve thee still, my dear,
Till a’ the seas gang dry:
Till a’ the seas gang dry, my dear,
And the rocks melt wi’ the sun:
I will luve thee still, my dear,
While the sands o’ life shall run.
And fare thee weel, my only Luve
And fare thee weel, a while!
And I will come again, my Luve,
Tho’ it were ten thousand mile.
Перевод Д. Тим
1.
Любовь моя – как роза
с цветущего куста!
Без фальши и без позы как песенка проста!
Сколь ты собой прекрасна верна любовь моя,
и смерти неподвластна, хоть высохнут моря!
Пусть высохнут все воды,
рассыплется гранит!..
Пусть жизнь считает годы, душа любовь хранит!
Иду вслед за судьбою,
но знай, что в бурю, в штиль,
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чтоб снова быть с тобою пройду сто тысяч миль!
2.
Прекрасней красных свежих роз
цветёт любовь во мне!
Звучит мотивом сладких грёз
в настроенной струне!
Сколь ты сверкаешь красотой –
в любви столь крепок я!
Любовь к тебе – всегда со мной,
хоть высохнут моря!
Пусть высохнут моря вокруг,
сотрутся камни гор, любовь останется, мой друг, она прочней всего!
И не прощаюсь я теперь!
Вернусь к тебе опять –
хоть десять тысяч миль, поверь,
пришлось бы прошагать!
***
LECTURE 26: MUSIC OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The History of American Music
Folk Music of the USA
American Songs
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The United States is often said to be a cultural melting pot consisting of
numerous ethnic groups. Many of these peoples have kept alive the folk
traditions of their homeland, often producing American styles music.
American music can be traced back to specific origins. Elements of foreign
music arrived in the United States include West African music through slavery,
and Irish music through immigration.
By the 19th century, African American folk traditions were well-known and
widespread, and African American musical techniques and instruments became a
part of American music through spirituals and slave songs. African American
musical styles became an integral part of American popular music through blues,
jazz, rhythm and blues, and then rock and roll, soul and hip hop.
Folk music in the US is varied across the country’s numerous ethnic
groups. The Native American tribes play their own varieties of folk music, most
of it spiritual in nature. African American music includes blues and gospel. West
African music brought to the USA by slaves and mixed with Western European
music. During the colonial era, English, French and Spanish styles and
instruments were brought to America. By the early 20th century, the United
States had become a major center for folk music from around the world,
including Ukrainian and Polish music, Jewish music and several kinds of Latin
music.
Traditional instrumentations uses the flute and many kinds of percussion
instruments, like drums, rattles and shakers.
The Thirteen Colonies of the original United States were all former English
possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk
and popular music.
The first European settlers in America were English speaking. They brought
their language, their customs and their skills. They also brought their songs.
Many American folk songs are identical to British songs in arrangements, but
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with new lyrics. Anglo-American traditional music also includes a variety of
ballads, humorous stories, and disaster songs regarding mining, shipwrecks and
murder.
1. “Jingle Bells” is one of the best known and commonly sung winter
songs in the world.
Jingle Bells, one of the most famous American Christmas songs, was
originally written for Thanksgiving. The author and composer of Jingle Bells
was a minister James Lord Pierpoint who composed the song in 1857 for
children celebrating his Boston Sunday School Thanksgiving. The song was so
popular that it was repeated at Christmas. A traditional Christmas is captured in
the lyrics of Jingle Bells and the sound effects using the bells have become
synonymous with the arrival of Father Christmas or Santa Claus to the delight of
children of all ages.
The word “jingle” means a certain kind of bell. The narrator takes a ride
with a girl and loses control of the sleigh. He falls out of the sleigh and a rival
laughs at him. And he gives advice to a friend, who then picks up some girls,
finds a faster horse, and takes off at full speed.
JINGLE BELLS
1. Dashing through the snow, in a one-horse open sleigh,
O'er the fields we go, laughing all the way.
Bells on Bobtail ring, making spirits bright,
What fun it is to ride and sing a sleighing song tonight!
CHORUS:
Jingle bells, jingle bells, jingle all the way.
Oh! What fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh!
Jingle bells, jingle bells, jingle all the way.
Oh! What fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh!
2. A day or two ago, I thought I’d take a ride,
And soon Miss Fannie Bright was sitting by my side.
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The horse was lean and lank, misfortune was his lot.
He got into a snowdrift bank – and we? We got upsot!
CHORUS
3. So now the moon is bright, enjoy it while you’re young.
Invite your friends tonight to sing this sleighing song.
Just get a bob-tailed nag and give him extra feed.
Then hitch him to an open sleigh – and crack! You’ll take the lead!
CHORUS
o’er = over
Bobtail – a nickname for a horse with a short or “bobbed” tail
upsot – the past tense of upset
nag = horse
2. “Billy Boy” is a Protestant song from Glasgow. It originated in the 1930s
as the song of a Glasgow street gang led by Billy Fullerton. It is associated in
particular with Rangers football club. It is also sung by supporters of other
football clubs, using slightly different lyrics.
In the New World a woman’s work was essential for her family’s survival.
For the first two hundred years of American life, almost everything that the
family ate or wore was produced at home. Women helped to plow the fields,
plant seeds and pick crops. They made wheat or corn into flour and made the
flour into bread. Women made clothes. A girl who learned to cook and sew well
became a valuable wife.
In the song, Billy’s mother questions him about the girl he plans to marry.
Like a mother in any country, she wants her son to find a wife who is polite
(“Did she ask you to come in?”), attractive (“How tall is she?”), skillful at
housekeeping (“Can she bake a cherry pie?” “Can she make a feather bed?”) and
young (“How old is she?”). In answering his mother, Billy is joking speaking
about the qualities of the girl he wants to marry.
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BILLY BOY
1. Oh, where have you been, Billy Boy, Billy Boy,
Oh, where have you been, charming Billy?
I have been to seek a wife, she’s the joy of my life,
She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
2. Did she ask you to come in, Billy Boy, Billy Boy,
Did she ask you to come in, charming Billy?
Yes, she asked me to come in, there’s a dimple in her chin,
She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
3. Can she bake a cherry pie, Billy Boy, Billy Boy,
Can she bake a cherry pie, charming Billy?
She can bake a cherry pie, quick as you can wink an eye.
She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
4. Can she make a feather bed, Billy Boy, Billy Boy,
Can she make a feather bed, charming Billy?
She can make a feather bed, while a-standing on her head,
She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
5. How tall is she, Billy Boy, Billy Boy,
How tall is she, charming Billy?
She is tall as any pine, and as straight as a pumpkin vine,
She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
6. How old is she, Billy Boy, Billy Boy,
How old is she, charming Billy?
She is sixty times eleven, twenty-eight and forty-seven,
She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
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seek = look for
young thing – a youthful, innocent quality
dimple – in the chin or cheek
quick as you can wink an eye – as quick as a wink (a wink is a rapid closing and
opening of one eye)
feather bed – a mattress filled with feathers ( a feather bed was a luxury)
a-standing on her head – the prefix “a-” was used with present continuous verbs
pumpkin vine – a round, orange vegetable that grows on the ground with a very
crooked vine
3. “Oh, My Darling, Clementine” is an American western folk ballad,
written by Percy Montrose. The song is about the California gold rush of 1849.
A sad lover sings about his darling, the daughter of a miner in California
Gold Rush. He loses her in a drowning accident, though he consoles himself
towards the end of the song with Clementine’s little sister.
Another theory is that the song is from the view of Clementine’s father, and not
a lover. The song was made popular by Mexican miners during the Gold Rush.
OH, MY DARLING, CLEMENTINE
1. In a cavern, in a canyon, excavating for a mine,
Lived a miner Forty Niner,
And his daughter, Clementine
CHORUS:
Oh, my darlin’, oh, my darlin’,
Oh, my darlin’, Clementine!
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You are lost and gone forever
Dreadful sorry, Clementine.
2. Light she was and like a fairy,
And her shoes were number nine.
Herring boxes without topses
Sandals were for Clementine.
CHORUS
3. Drove she ducklings to the millpond,
Every morning just at nine;
Stubbed her toe against a splinter,
Fell into the foaming brine.
CHORUS
4. Ruby lips above the water
Blowing bubbles soft and fine.
But alas, she was no swimmer,
And I lost my Clementine!
CHORUS
5. And the miner, Forty-Niner,
He began to peak and pine
Thought he oughter join his daughter –
Now he’s with his Clementine.
CHORUS
6. How I missed her, how I missed her,
How I missed my Clementine –
Till I kissed her little sister,
And forgot my Clementine!
CHORUS
to peak and pine – угасать, чахнуть
150
4. “We Shall Overcome” is a protest song that became a key anthem of
the US civil rights movement. The lyrics of the song are derived from the refrain
of a gospel song by Charles Albert Tindley. The song was published in 1947 as
“We Will Overcome”.
Pete Seeger, Joan Baez and other famous folksingers in the early 1960s, sang
the song at folk festivals and concerts and helped make it widely known. The
song quickly became the Civil Rights movement’s unofficial anthem.
This song is often sung in a circle, with the members of the group crossing
their arms and holding the hands of the people on either side of them. It is a song
of solidarity, hope and determination.
WE SHALL OVERCOME
1. We shall overcome,
We shall overcome,
We shall overcome someday.
CHORUS:
Oh, deep in my heart
I do believe
We shall overcome someday!
2. We shall live in peace,
We shall live in peace,
We shall live in peace someday.
CHORUS
3. We’ll walk hand in hand,
We’ll walk hand in hand,
We’ll walk hand in hand someday.
CHORUS
4. We shall all be free,
151
We shall all be free,
We shall all be free someday.
CHORUS
shall – used for special emphasis, it shows stronger determination than will
deep in my heart = from the bottom of my heart
I do believe – do is added for emphasis
hand in hand = as friends
Перевод С. Болотина и Т. Сикорской
ВСЕ ПРЕОДОЛЕЕМ
1. Все преодолеем,
Все преодолеем,
В мире нет преград для нас!
Припев:
В сердце своем
Верим и ждем –
К цели мы придем в свой час!
2. Страх для нас неведом,
Страх для нас неведом,
Смерть грозила нам не раз.
Припев
3. Правда – наша сила,
Правда – наша сила,
Это стяг в борьбе для нас!
Припев
4. Мы сплотимся в дружбе,
Мы сплотимся в дружбе,
Люди всех цветов и рас!
Припев
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5. Мы хотим свободы,
Мы хотим свободы,
Пламень гнева не угас!
Припев
5. “What a Wonderful World” is a song written by Bob Thiele and George
David Weiss. It was first recorded by Louis Armstrong and released as a single
in 1968. Thiele and Weiss were both prominent in the music world (Thiele as a
producer and Weiss as a composer). The song has a hopeful, optimistic tone with
regard to the future, with reference to babies being born into the world and
having much to look forward to. The song was not initially a hit in the United
States, but there was a major success in the United Kingdom. The song was the
biggest-selling single of 1968 in the UK.
WHAT A WONDERFUL DAY
(Words by Bob Thiele)
1. I see trees of green,
Red roses too
I see them bloom,
For me and you
CHORUS:
And I think to myself, what a wonderful world
2. I see skies of blue, and clouds of white
The bright blessed day,
the dark sacred night
CHORUS
3. The colours of the rainbow so pretty in the sky
Are also on the faces of people going by
I see friends shaking hands, saying “How do you do?”
153
They're really saying “I love you”.
4. I hear babies cryin', I watch them grow
They’ll learn much more than I’ll ever know
FINAL CHORUS:
And I think to myself, what a wonderful world
Yes I think to myself, what a wonderful world
Oh Yeah!
Перевод А. Дюка
Прекрасный мир
1. Я вижу зелёные листья деревьев и
красные лепестки роз,
Вижу как они цветут для тебя и меня
И я понимаю,
Что этот мир полон чудес.
2. Я вижу белые облака на голубом небе,
Ясный солнечный день,
Тёмную тихую ночь.
И я думаю про себя:
Что за волшебный мир!
3. Все цвета радуги
Играют на небе
И на лицах
Прохожих
Я вижу как друзья пожимают руки,
Спрашивая «Как дела?»
Подразумевая: «Я люблю тебя».
154
4. Я слышу как плачут маленькие дети,
Вижу, как они растут,
И научатся они гораздо большему,
Чем то, что я знаю и умею сейчас.
И я думаю о том,
Что этот мир полон чудес,
Да, я думаю о том,
Какой всё же это прекрасный мир!
***
PART TEN
SEMINARS
SEMINAR 1: BRITISH CULTURAL STUDIES
High Culture and Sub-cultures
Cultural Symbols and Images
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
a) Concept of “culture”
b) The subject of Cultural Studies
c) A cultural artifact
d) Privacy as a key cultural notion (kitchen, housing)
e) English kitchens in the past
155
f) Private and public aspects
g) English food
Task Two:
Test your Knowledge
British Studies Quiz
1. MP is a
a. speaker
b. Mayor of the city
c. member of the House of Commons
2. Frontbenchers are
a. theatre goers
b. Cabinet members
c. football fans
3. Life peers are
a. respectable politicians
b. peers, whose life is special
c. peers who didn’t inherit the title
4. The Sun is a
a. popular radio programme
b. the best selling tabloid
c. broadsheet
5. A public school is a
a. private school
b. comprehensive school
c. college
6. Gothic is a
a. style of architecture
b. German aeroplane
c. rude, uncivilized
156
7. Puritan is
a. scrupulous in language
b. free from pollution
c. English Protestant
8. A broadsheet is a
a. large sheet of paper
b. newspaper
c. bed covering
9. Oxbridge is
a. two oldest English universities
b. bridge over the river Ox
c. modern university
10. Gaelic is
a. of France
b. of Scots
c. vegetable
***
SEMINAR 2: THE FORMATION OF THE BRITISH NATION
The Celtic Origins of Britain
Britain and the Roman Invasion
Britain and English: Historical and Cultural Aspects
The British Multinational Society of Today As the Product of
History
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
a) The origin of the name “Britain”
b) The old native capital (Celtic, pre-Roman)
c) The Roman period in the history of Britain
d) The main branches of economy in Roman Britain
157
e) Bilingual society in Roman Britain
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of Roman Britain terms and dates:
1. Caesar’s raids of Britain –
2. The Roman conquest of Britain –
3. The revolt of Boudicca –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
British Early Days History Quiz
1. The Celtic tribes came to Britain from
a. Germany
b. France
c. Ireland
2. The most famous prehistoric monument in Britain is
a. Mayburgh Henge
b. Stonehenge
c. Knowlton Henge
3. The Romans first came to Britain in
a. 55 BC
b. 43 AD
c. 66 AD
4. The Romans ruled Britain for
a. 367 years
b. 467 years
c. 567 years
5. The Romans brought to Britain the skills of
a. fighting
b. reading and writing
158
c. business
6. In the fifth century the territory of England was settled by
a. the Angles
b. the Normans
c. the Celts
***
SEMINAR 3: THE PERIOD OF INVASION
The Anglo-Saxon England
King Alfred, the First King of England
Medieval Britain
The Norman Conquest
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
a) Anglo-Saxon England historical period
b) The languages of the Anglo-Saxons
c) The native British population and the Anglo-Saxon invasion
d) Anglo-Saxon culture
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of Anglo-Saxon England terms and dates:
1. The centres of learning in the 7th – 8th centuries in England –
2. The kingdom of Alfred the Great –
3. Wars abroad and at home –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
British Medieval History Quiz
1. The Anglo-Saxons gave the largest part of Britain the name
159
a. England
b. Ulster
c. Fife
2. The King Alfred got the name
a. Great
b. Lion-heart
c. Conqueror
3. After the Norman Conquest in 1066 the official language in England was
a. Latin
b. Norman
c. French
4. The struggle between the family of Lancaster and the family of York was
named
a. the Hundred Years War
b. the Wars of the Roses
c. the World War
5. The 100 Years’ War was between England and
a. France
b. Germany
c. Russia
6. The longest reigning British monarch was in the time of
a. Edward III
b. Queen Elizabeth I
c. Queen Victoria
7. The British Empire covered about a
a. quarter of Earth’s total land area
b. third of Earth’s total land area
c. half of Earth’s total land area
***
SEMINAR 4: BRITAIN AS AN OFF-SHORE ISLAND
160
The United Kingdom
England
Scotland
Wales
Northern Ireland
Insular Mentality and Its Origin
The Interdependence of Class and Language in Britain
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
a) Survey of the UK
b) Outline of the four parts of Britain
c) National Symbols
d) National historical sights and places of interest
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of the United Kingdom terms:
1. The Scottish national dress –
2. Native languages in Scotland and Wales today –
3. National Scottish drinks –
4. Snowdonia –
5. The Severn –
6. Cardiff –
7. Edinburgh –
8. Swansea –
9. Thistle –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
British Land Quiz
161
1. The UK is separated from Ireland by
a. the Irish sea
b. the English Channel
c. the North sea
2. Pas de Calais is the French name for
a. the English Channel
b. the Strait of Dover
c. the Irish sea
3. On the British Isles there are
a. two states
b. three states
c. four states
4. The patron saint of England is
a. St. Patrick
b. St. George
c. St. David
5. The flower symbolizing England is
a. thistle
b. daffodil
c. rose
6. Snowdon is
a. the highest mountain
b. the deepest lake
c. the largest city
7. The capital of Wales is
a. Belfast
b. Cardiff
c. Edinburgh
162
8. Symbols of England are
a. thistle, St. Andrew’s Cross and the blue colour
b. daffodil, the Dragon and the red colour
c. rose, St. George’s Cross and the white colour
9. Ulster is
a. the name of an ancient kingdom
b. the Catholic part of Northern Ireland
c. a part of Highlands
10. The highest peak in Great Britain is
a. Snowdon in Wales
b. Scafell Pike in England
c. Ben Nevis in Scotland
***
SEMINAR 5: THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF BRITAIN
Charles I, Parliament and the Foundations of English Legal System
The British Monarchy as a cultural-historical symbol
Central and Local Governments in Britain
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
a) The revolt of Parliament
b) The historical foundations of the English legal system
c) The English Church
d) Public Institutions of Britain
e) The system of education in Britain as the product of its history and
culture
f) British mass media
163
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of the United Kingdom legal system terms:
1. British Government –
2. The Constitutional Monarchy –
3. Religion in Britain –
4. Higher education in Britain –
5. The British Commonwealth of Nations –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
British Legal System Quiz
1. The British Parliament consists of
a. two chambers
b. three chambers
c. four chambers
2. General elections to the House of Commons are held every
a. four years
b. five years
c. six years
3. The leader of the Government is
a. the Secretary of State
b. the Prime Minister
c. the Chancellor
4. The official religion of Britain is
a. Islam
b. Christianity
c. Hinduism
5. The Church of England was separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the
16th century by
164
a. Henry VIII
b. Alfred the Great
c. Oliver Cromwell
6. The British Parliament is often called
a. Buckingham Palace
b. Westminster
c. Westminster Abbey
7. The Government of the UK is formed by the party which wins most seats in
a. the House of Commons
b. the House of Lords
c. the Cabinet
8. The head of the Church of England is
a. the Queen
b. the Archbishop of Canterbury
c. the Prime Minister
9. Oxford and Cambridge Universities consist of a number of
a. colleges
b. high schools
c. faculties
***
SEMINAR 6: CULTURE AND ART OF BRITAIN
Artistic and Cultural Life in Britain
British Drama and Theatre in the Past and at Present
Youth culture in Britain today
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
165
a) British Drama Theatre
b) Music and musicians
c) Art Galleries
d) Body Culture and Sports in Britain
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of British Culture terms:
1. Westminster Abbey –
2. St. Paul’s Cathedral –
3. The Tower of London –
4. The Art of Acting –
5. Covent Garden –
6. The Tate Gallery –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
British Culture Quiz
1. The first public theatre appeared in London in 1576 was called
a. the Coliseum
b. the Royal Theatre
c. the Globe
2. The name of the foremost English novelist whose books describe life in
Victorian England and show how hard it was for the poor and children is
a. Henry James
b. Thomas Hardy
c. Charles Dickens
3. The Tate Gallery, which houses a big collection of British art, began
a. with a gift of 65 paintings from the sugar magnate
b. with the purchase by the government of 38 paintings belonging to a rich
merchant
166
c. with the material from the expeditions of Captain Cook
4. The architect of St. Paul’s Cathedral was
a. Sir Charles Barry
b. Sir Christopher Wren
c. John Nash
5. The national Scottish musical instrument is
a. the harp
b. the violin
c. the bagpipes
6. The composer of the rock opera “Jesus Christ Superstar” is
a. John Lennon
b. Andrew Lloyd Webber
c. William Gilbert
7. Today Covent Garden is
a. the Drama Theatre
b. the Opera House
c. fruit and vegetable market
8. The 1960s musical “British Invasion” into the US was led by
a. the Rolling Stones
b. the Beatles
c. the Who
***
SEMINAR 7: BRITISH ECONOMY AND THE WAY OF LIFE
British Economy in the Past and at Present
Industrial Centres
British Everyday Life and Habits
Holidays and Customs
Task One:
167
Speak on the following points:
a) Main industrial cities in Britain
b) Gross Domestic Product of Britain
c) My home is my castle
d) Popular English hobbies
e) Bank holidays
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of British Economy terms:
1. Exporters of industrial goods –
2. Wool industry –
3. Shipbuilding –
4. Mineral resources –
5. Sheffield –
6. Manchester –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
British Economy Quiz
1. The first country entered the Industrial Revolution was
a. France
b. Britain
c. Spain
2. The British currency is the
a. euro
b. pound sterling
c. mark
3. The founder of Free Market Economics is
a. John Lock
b. John Meinard Keynes
168
c. Adam Smith
4. In the 19th century Britain became the economic superpower and was called
a. “the factory of the world”
b. “the workshop of the world”
c. “the workforce of the world”
5. The process of moving state-owned industries into the private sector is one of
the characteristics of the policy of
a. Thatcher
b. Major
c. Blair
6. One of the most popular hobbies in Britain is
a. playing soccer
b. gardening
c. collecting stamps
7. Big crowds gather to welcome New Year celebration in
a. Hyde Park
b. Trafalgar Square
c. Covent Garden
8. In Scotland, the first visitor to enter the house on New Year’s morning is
called
a. the First Friend
b. the Newcomer
c. the First Foot
9. December 24th, the day before Christmas Day, is called
a. Christmas time
b. Christmas dinner
c. Christmas Eve
10. A traditional dish served at Christmas is
a. an apple pie
b. turkey
169
c. cheese
11. Every February 14, millions of people send
a. Valentine boxes
b. Valentine cards
c. Valentine buns
***
SEMINAR 8: ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES IN BRIEF
The USA: History and Culture
Canada – Bilingual Culture
Australia and New Zealand
Task One:
Speak on the following points:
a) British Empire and its former colonies
b) The role of immigration in the life of America
c) The War for Independence
d) Canada as a bilingual nation
e) Flora and fauna of Australia and New Zealand
Task Two:
Make up a glossary of English Speaking countries terms:
1. American Constitution –
2. The Native Americans –
3. George Washington –
4. The Smithsonian Complex –
5. Thanksgiving Day –
170
6. The gold rush in –
7. Sydney Opera House –
8. Tasmania –
Task Three:
Test your Knowledge
English Speaking Countries Quiz
1. The United States of America is a
a. parliamentary monarchy
b. federal republic
c. monarchy
2. The first American settlers sailed to America in the ship
a. Mayflower
b. Aurora
c. Santa Maria
3. On the 4th of July the Americans celebrate
a. the end of the Civil War
b. the Moon landing
c. the issue of Declaration of Independence
4. The main industry of Washington is the
a. government industry
b. heavy industry
c. cotton industry
5. The capital of Australia is
a. Sydney
b. Canberra
c. Melbourne
6. The first Englishman who came to Australia was
a. Captain James Cook
b. Admiral Nelson
171
c. Captain Drake
7. The biggest state in the USA is
a. New York
b. Alaska
c. Michigan
8. The first President of the USA was
a. Abraham Lincoln
b. George Washington
c. Thomas Jefferson
9. The US present constitution was proclaimed in
a. 1820 in New York
b. 1763 in Boston
c. 1787 in Philadelphia
10. Nowadays the head of the state and government in the USA is the
a. Prime Minister
b. President
c. Secretary of State
11. The US Congress consists of
a. one house
b. two houses
c. three houses
12. The greatest wealth of Canada are
a. forests
b. flowers
c. minerals
13. The word “Australia” means
a. northern mountains
b. southern land
c. eastern forest
14. The national emblem of New Zealand is
172
a. kangaroo
b. kiwi bird
c. coala
***
PART ELEVEN
SUPPLEMENT
Topics for the Written Work
on the Subject “Cultural Studies of English Speaking Countries”
for the Third-Year Students
1. Britain: General Survey.
2. Britain and British Institutions To-day.
3. Scotland. The Lake District.
4. Twentieth Century London.
5. The Thames and Some History.
6. The London House.
7. Covent Garden.
8. British Arts.
9. Sculpture and Painting.
10. Artists and Their Pictures.
11. National Gallery.
12. The British Cinema.
13. Music and Ballet.
14. Modern British Composers.
15. Pop Culture.
16. Regional Accents.
17. The English Heritage.
173
18. The British: Institutions and People.
19. The British Monarchy.
20. Oxbridge.
21. Education in Victorian England.
22. English Food and Drink.
23. Religion in Today’s Britain as the Product of Its History.
24. The Legal System.
25. The Reign of Queen Elizabeth.
26. Privacy in Britain.
27. Class and Language.
28. Language and Culture.
29. Social and Economic System.
30. Anglo-Saxon England.
31. The Invaders and Their Settlements.
32. Towns in Roman Britain.
33. The Roman Conquest.
34. Economy during the Roman Period.
35. Celtic Roots.
36. Advertising Industry.
37. The Formation of the British Nation.
38. Everyday Life and Habits.
39. Youth Culture.
40. Festivals and Ceremonies.
41. National Character.
42. Bank Holidays.
43. Political Parties.
44. Famous Historical Figures of Britain.
45. Famous British Scientists and Inventors.
46. Famous British Writers.
47. Sport in Britain.
174
48. British Commonwealth of Nations.
49. The USA: General Survey.
50. Geographical Situation of the USA.
51. American History. Early Explorations.
52. The First Europeans in America.
53. The War for Independence.
54. The Constitution and the First Election for President.
55. Public Holidays and Other Special Days.
56. American English.
57. New England.
58. Middle Atlantic States.
59. The Southern States.
60. The Midwest.
61. The Western States.
62. The Pacific States.
63. The US Congress.
64. Political Parties.
65. Canada: General Survey.
66. Canadian History.
67. The Discovery of Canada.
68. Foreign Relations and Home Policy.
69. The Prairie Provinces.
70. The Most Western Province.
71. Canada’s North.
72. Culture and Recreation.
73. Australia: General Survey.
74. Geography and History of Australia.
75. Early Australia.
76. Australia in the 20th Century.
77. Six States and Two Territories.
175
78. The City of Sydney.
79. Australian English.
80. Culture and Recreation.
81. New Zealand: General Survey.
82. History and Geography of New Zealand.
83. Cities and Provinces.
84. Plant and Animal Life.
85. Population and Languages.
86. India: General Survey.
87. Historical Profile.
88. National Symbols.
89. Geography and Climate.
90. Cities and Towns.
91. Languages and People.
92. Cultural Life and Recreation.
93. South Africa: General Survey.
94. Geography and History.
95. Early History: Arrival of Europeans.
96. British Rule.
97. Economy.
98. Languages.
99. People and Their Religions.
100. Ways of Life and Recreation.
***
THE SAMPLES OF THE DESIGN WRITTEN WORK
Образец № 1
THE COVER PAGE OF THE WRITTEN WORK
176
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования
Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет
Кафедра иностранных языков
Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации
Курсовая работа
«Язык и культура»
по дисциплине
Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные страны
Выполнил Иванов И. В.,
студент 3 курса
Научный руководитель
к.ф.н., доцент Лукина Л.В.
Воронеж 2011
Образец № 2
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The State Higher Educational Establishment
Voronesh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering
177
The Chair of Foreign Languages
Translator in the field of professional communication
Project on Cultural Studies
«Language and Culture»
Made by Ivanov I.V., a 3rd year student
The scientific supervisor
Associate Professor Lukina L.V.
Voronezh 2011
Образец № 3
THE SAMPLE OF ABSTRACT
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the crucial problem …
The paper is aimed to show…
The paper deals with…
Authors explain the role of …
Some other problems connecting with…
Образец № 4
THE SAMPLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Abstract………. …………………………………… ……………….3
Survey . ………………….…………………………………………..
The Relationship of Language and Culture……………… ... ………
Analysis of Language…………………………... …………………..
178
Aspects of Communication……………………………………….....
Nature, Culture, Language…………………………………………..
Communities of Language Users……………………………………
References …………………………………………………...
Образец № 5
THE SAMPLE OF REFERENCES
References
1. Claire Kramsch. Language and Culture. – Oxford University Press, 2003.
2. Herbert Jay Lander. Language and Culture. – Oxford University Press,
1998.
3. Duranti, Alessandro. Linguistic Anthropology. - Cambridge University
Press, 1997.
СТРУКТУРА КУРСОВОЙ РАБОТЫ
1. Титульный лист на русском языке с указанием темы (образец № 1).
2. Титульный лист на английском языке (образец № 2).
3. Abstract (аннотация на английском языке, составленная студентом
по материалу курсовой работы), (образец № 3).
4. Table of Contents (содержание на англ. языке), (образец № 4).
5. Текст курсовой работы на английском языке (15 – 20 стр.).
6. References (используемая литература на англ. языке), (образец № 5).
Правила оформления курсовой работы
по дисциплине «Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные страны»
для студентов 3 курса
При оформлении текста курсовой работы следует учитывать, что
открывается работа титульным листом, где указывается полное название
ведомства, университета, факультета, а также кафедра, тема реферата,
179
фамилии автора и руководителя, место и год написания. Следующим
является титульный лист на английском языке. На следующей странице
помещается оглавление с точным названием каждой главы и указанием
начальных страниц.
Объем курсовой работы составляет 15-20 страниц в печатном варианте.
Поля страницы: левое – 3 см., правое – 1,5 см., нижнее – 2 см., верхнее – 2
см. Текст печатается через 1,5 интервала. Текст курсовой работы
набирается в текстовом редакторе Microsoft Word, рекомендуется
использовать шрифт Times New Roman, размер шрифта – 14.
Каждая часть курсовой работы (аннотация, введение, главная часть,
заключение и т.д.) начинается с новой страницы.
После заголовка, располагаемого посредине строки, не ставится точка.
Не допускается подчеркивание заголовка и переносы в словах заголовка.
Страницы курсовой работы нумеруются в нарастающем порядке, начиная с
третьей страницы. Номера страниц ставятся вверху в середине страницы.
Титульный лист курсовой работы включается в общую нумерацию, но
номер страницы на нем не проставляется.
Курсовая работа выполняется на английском языке.
Курсовая работа должна соответствовать следующей структуре:
1. титульный лист;
2. содержание (план);
3. аннотация;
4. введение и обоснование выбора темы курсовой работы;
5. основная часть (может включать подзаголовки);
6. заключение;
7. список использованной литературы.
Список использованной литературы должен быть оформлен в соответствии
с требованиями ГОСТа к оформлению к библиографии:
180
1. Голицынский Ю.Б. Великобритания / Ю.Б. Голицынский. – СПб.: КАРО,
2006. – 480 с.
2. Collie I., Martin A. What’s it Life? Life and Culture in Britain Today /
I.Collie, A.Martin. – Cambridge University Press, 2000.
3. Dictionary of English Language and Culture. – Longman, 2005. – 1620 p.
Студент готовит Summary (краткий, устный обзор курсовой работы на
английском языке) и защищает ее на занятии.
***
Presentation Tasks
Prepare presentation about:
1) The most mysterious monument of the British past.
2) How the Romans equipped their towns.
3) What else except civilization the Romans brought to the British Isles.
4) How Elizabeth I settled the problem of disagreement between the Catholics
and Protestants.
5) Francis Drake – the most famous English seamen that caused trouble to
Spanish ships in the Atlantic Ocean.
6) Capitals and cities of the United Kingdom.
7) London’s Places of Interest.
8) Protection of architecture in Britain.
9) British National Celebrations; Festivals; Ceremonies.
10) British poets and their poems.
11) British inventors and their discoveries.
12) Any American State.
13) The outstanding historical figures.
14) Famous American writers.
15) Any English-speaking country.
***
181
ВОПРОСЫ К ЗАЧЕТУ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ
«ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ. АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ СТРАНЫ»
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 3 КУРСА
1. Cultural Studies. Cultural Symbols and Images.
2. The UK: country, people, names.
3. The National Symbols.
4. Multinational Society.
5. The Formation of the British Nation: an Outline of History.
6. The Early Days of Britain.
7. The Period of Invasions (The Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norman Invasions).
8. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire.
9. Geographical Position, climate and population of Britain.
10. Parts of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland).
11. The Economy of Britain.
12. The Political Structure of the United Kingdom. The British Monarchy.
13. Political Parties.
14. The British Commonwealth of Nations.
15. London the Capital of the UK. History. Places of Interests.
16. Education in Britain. Higher Education. Oxbridge. Redbrick Universities.
17. British Culture. Museums.
18. Famous Britons.
19. Geographical and Historical Survey of the USA.
20. American Government and American People.
21. American Culture.
22. Public Holidays and Other Special Days.
23. Canada.
24. Australia.
25. New Zealand.
***
ВОПРОСЫ К ЭКЗАМЕНУ
182
ПО ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЮ
1. Cultural Studies. Cultural Symbols and Images.
2. High Culture and Sub-cultures.
3. The UK: country, people, names.
4. The National Symbols of the UK.
5. The Formation of the British Nation: an Outline of History.
6. The Early Days of Britain.
7. The Period of Invasions (The Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norman Invasions).
8. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire.
9. Geographical Position, climate and population, the official language of
Britain.
10. Parts of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland).
11. The Economy of Britain.
12. The Political Structure of the United Kingdom. The British Monarchy.
13. The British Commonwealth of Nations.
14. Family Life and Human Relations.
15. London the Capital of the UK. History. Places of Interests.
16. Education in Britain. Higher Education. Oxbridge. Redbrick Universities.
17. British Culture. Museums. National Traditions.
18. British Mass Media.
19. Famous Britons.
20. Geographical and Historical Survey of the USA. The Growth of Big
Business.
21. The United States of America Today. New York and Other Country’s
Largest Cities.
22. American Culture. Public Holidays and Other Special Days.
23. Introducing Canada.
24. Australia in the 20th Century. Tasmania – the Isle of Beauty.
25. History and Geography of New Zealand.
183
***
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие «Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные страны»
предназначено
для
студентов,
занимающихся
по программе
дополнительной квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной
коммуникации» и составлено в соответствии программой по данному
курсу.
Цель пособия – познакомить студентов с основными фактами
истории, географии, политической и образовательной системами,
культурой, традициями и основными достопримечательностями
Великобритании и других англоязычных стран (США, Канады, Австралии,
Новой Зеландии).
Пособие содержит необходимые для изучения данного курса
теоретический и практический материалы: лекции, планы семинарских
занятий, практические задания, темы презентаций, тексты народных песен,
контрольные вопросы и тесты для самостоятельной оценки качества
освоения дисциплины.
Учебное пособие состоит из 11 разделов, включающих 26 лекций,
посвященных предмету Лингвострановедение, историко-культурным
знаниям о прошлом и настоящем англоязычных стран:
цели и задачи Лингвострановедения;
определение понятия «Культура»;
высокая культура и субкультура;
общественные институты; символы и стереотипы;
культура и традиции англоязычных стран;
народная музыка и песни Британии и США;
и 8 семинарских занятий, в которых представлены задания и тесты по
основным лекционным темам для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы, а
также для контроля знаний студентов. Каждый раздел, посвященный
семинарскому занятию, включает ключевые вопросы по лекционной теме.
Все занятия, как лекционные, так и семинарские, рекомендуется
проводить в классе, оборудованном компьютерами, видео- и
аудиоаппаратурой.
На данный курс отводится 104 часа лекционных занятий и 17 часов
семинарских. Изучение курса завершается зачетом.
Самостоятельная работа студентов объемом 20 часов предполагает:
изучение материала лекции (Lecture) по предлагаемым
проблемам с последующим их обсуждением на семинарских
занятиях;
выполнение представленных в данном учебном пособии в
разделе (Seminar)
практических заданий и тестов,
184
обеспечивающих
закрепление
и
углубление
знаний,
полученных на лекциях;
подготовку студентами сообщений, докладов и презентаций;
в конце курса написание курсовой работы на английском языке
по одной из предложенных тем.
По окончании работы над курсом студент должен знать факты
истории и культуры англоязычных стран (Великобритании, Соединенных
Штатов, Канады, Австралии, Новой Зеландии), уметь извлекать
культурную информацию, пользуясь современными средствами
коммуникации (Интернетом, электронной почтой, спутниковым
телевидением и др.) и адекватно переводить ее на язык родной культуры.
Мы надеемся, что пособие «Лингвострановедение. Англоязычные
страны» позволит студентам одновременно с овладением английским
языком познакомиться с жизнью Великобритании и других англоязычных
стран, лучше понять их образ жизни, а также будет полезно при чтении
литературы, просмотре фильмов на английском языке и во время поездкок
по этим странам, проявляя уважение и терпимость к представителям
«другой» культуры.
***
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1. Артемова
А.Ф.
Великобритания.
Книга
для
чтения
по
страноведению. – М.: АСТ: Восток-Запад, 2006. – 499 с.
2. Михайлов Н.Н. American Cultural Studies. – М.: «Академия», 2008. –
288 с.
3. Нестерова Н.М. Страноведение: Великобритания. – Ростов н/Д :
Феникс, 2006. – 368 с.
4. Письменная О.А. Information on English-speaking countries. - К.: НАУ,
2003. 72 с.
5. Письменная О.А. Information on Great Britain. - К.: НАУ, 2003. - 86 с.
6. Письменная О.А. Information on the United States. - К.: НАУ, 2003.- 90
с.
7. Письменная О.А. Windows on the English-speaking World. – К.: ООО
«ИП Логос», 2004. – 544 с.
185
8. Радовель В.А. Страноведение: Великобритания. – Ростов н/Д :
Феникс, 2005. – 320 с.
9. Чернов
Г.В.
Англо-русский
лингвострановедческий
словарь.
Американа. – М., 1996.
10. A Dictionary of Modern Britain. Penguin, 1991.
11. A Glimpse of English Speaking Countries. М., 1969.
12. An A to Z of British Life. Dictionary of Britain. Adrian Room. Oxford,
1995. 476 pp.
13. Britain in Brief. M.: Prosveschenie, 1993.
14. British Festivals. СПб.: Питер Пресс, 1996.
15. Bromhead P. Life in Modern Britain. Longman Group UK Ltd, 1992. 153
pp.
16. Burlakova V.V. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland (Geography). L., 1970.
17. Cannon J., Griffiths R. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British
Monarchy. 1988.
18. David McDowall. An Illustrated History of Britain. Longman, 1995. 188
pp.
19. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2005.
20. England. History, Geography, Culture. Kiev, 1976.
21. Hewitt K. Understanding Britain. Oxford: Nizhnyi Novgorod, 1999. 198
p.
22. Hewitt K. Understanding British Institutions. Oxford: Nizhnyi Novgorod,
1999. 253 p.
23. Garwood Ch., Gardani G., Peris E. Aspects of Britain and the USA.
Oxford, 1997. 96 pp.
24. Joy M. High days and Holidays. London, 1981.
25. Khimunina T., Konon N., Welsh I. Customs, Traditions and Festivals of
Great Britain. M.: Prosveschenie, 1984.
26. London. Thomas Benacci LTD, 2002. – 64 p.
186
27. McDowell D. An Illustrated History of Britain. Longman, 1995. 260 p.
28. National Geographic Guide to America’s Historic Places. Washington,
D.C., 1996. 383 pp.
29. O’Driscoll J. Britain. Oxford University Press, 1995.
30. Stacey A. Visiting India. London, 1986. 192 pp.
31. USA in Brief. М.: Оникс, 2000. 95 с.
32. www.bbc.co.uk
33. www.britannia.com
34. www.britannica.com
35. www.ireland-fun-facts.com
36. www.royal.gov.uk
37. www.touruk.co.uk
38. www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Ввудение
Cultural Studies
British Studies Quiz
Part One
British Cultural Studies
Part Two
Britain: General Survey
Part Three
The UK Factfile
3
4
6
10
18
187
Part Four Lectures
Lecture 1: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
Lecture 2: History of Britain
Lecture 3: The Middle Ages
Lecture 4: The New Monarchy
Part Five Revision
Lecture 5: The Period of Invasions
Part Six Britain in the 17 th – 19th centuries
Lecture 6: The Rise and Fall of the British Empire
Part 7 Present-Day Britain
Lecture 7: The Land (Physical Background)
Lecture 8: Family Life and Human Relations
Lecture 9: Economy of the United Kingdom
Lecture 10: Political Structure of the United Kingdom
Lecture 11: British Mass Media
Lecture 12: The British Commonwealth of Nations
Lecture 13: London – the Сapital of the United Kingdom
Lecture 14: Education in Britain
Lecture 15: Medicine and Health Care System
Lecture 16: Environmental Protection
Lecture 17: British Culture
Lecture 18: British National Traditions
Lecture 19: Famous Britons
Part Eight English Speaking Countries
Lecture 20: The United States of America
Lecture 21: The United States of America Today
Lecture 22: Introducing Canada
Lecture 23: Introducing Australia
Lecture 24: New Zealand
Part Nine British Songs
Lecture 25: Music of the United Kingdom
1. “Auld Lang Syne” Scottish song
2. “Bobby Shaftoe” English folksong
3. “Charlie is My Darling” Scottish folksong
4. “Cockles and Mussels” Irish song
5. “I saw Three Ships Come Sailing by” English folksong
6. “Home, Sweet Home” English song
7. “Land of My Fathers” Welsh song
8. “My Bonnie” British song
9. “O, No, John!” English folksong
10. “There Was an Old Woman” English folksong
11. “There’s a Hole in My Bucket” British folksong
12. “Greensleeves” English folksong
13. “For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow” English song
22
25
29
32
36
38
40
44
49
50
54
56
57
62
65
67
68
71
75
82
88
95
98
103
107
108
111
112
114
116
117
118
119
120
123
125
128
133
188
14. “The Twelve Days of Christmas”
15. “Amazing Grace”
16. “My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose”
Lecture 26: Music of the United States of America
1. “Jingle Bells”
2. “Billy Boy”
3. “Oh, My Darling, Clementine”
4. “We Shall Overcome”
5. “What a Wonderful World”
Part Ten Seminars
Seminar 1: British Cultural Studies
Seminar 2: The Formation of the British Nation
Seminar 3: The Period of Invasion
Seminar 4: Britain as an Off-Shore Island
Seminar 5: The Legal System of Britain
Seminar 6: Culture and Art of Britain
Seminar 7: British Economy and the Way of Life
Seminar 8: English Speaking Countries in Brief
Part Eleven Supplement
Topics for the Written Work
The Samples of the Design Written Work
Структура курсовой работы
Правила оформления курсовой работы
Presentation Tasks
Вопросы к сдаче зачета
Вопросы к сдаче государственного экзамена
Заключение
Список литературы
Учебное издание
Людмила Владимировна Лукина
134
138
140
143
144
145
147
149
151
153
155
157
159
161
164
166
168
171
175
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
189
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ. АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ СТРАНЫ
CULTURAL STUDIES
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов, обучающихся по программе дополнительного образования
«Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации»
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