МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет» Л.В. Лукина, З.Е. Фомина ИСКУССТВО КАК СРЕДСТВО ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ENGLISH THROUGH ART Учебное пособие Воронеж 2013 2 УДК 802.0:7(07) ББК 85.33:81.2 Англ я 7 Л647 Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков Воронежского филиала Московского гуманитарно-экономического института; М.А. Стернина, зав. кафедрой английского языка естественнонаучных факультетов Воронежского государственного университета, профессор, доктор филологических наук Лукина, Л.В. Л647 ENGLISH THROUGH ART. Искусство как средство изучения английского языка: учеб. пособие / Л.В. Лукина, З.Е. Фомина; Воронежский ГАСУ. – Воронеж, 2013. – 162 с. ISBN 978-5-89040-472-5 Данное учебное пособие разработано в соответствии с государственной молодежной политикой, нацеленной на формирование целостной системы поддержки талантливой молодёжи, обладающей лидерскими навыками, инициативностью и творческим потенциалом. Пособие содержит обширный языковедческий и культурологический материал, который охватывает как собственно языковедческие реалии, так и базовые константы англоязычной культуры и искусства (театр, кино, музыку живопись, архитектуру, фольклор, английский юмор, особенности этикета). Пособие предназначено как для студентов, обучающихся по программе «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации», так и для широкого круга лиц, интересующихся английским языком и вопросами искусства, желающих развивать свои творческие способности, познавать новое и научиться грамотно говорить на английском языке, в т.ч. с корректным английским произношением и четкой дикцией. Ил. 153. Библиогр.: 29 назв. Печатается по решению научно-методического совета Воронежского ГАСУ УДК 802.0:792(07) ББК 85.33:81.2 Англ я7 ISBN 978-5-89040-472-5 © Лукина Л.В., Фомина З.Е., 2013 © Воронежский ГАСУ, 2013 3 ВВЕДЕНИЕ Данное учебное пособие разработано в соответствии с государственной молодежной политикой, целью которой является формирование целостной системы поддержки талантливой молодёжи, обладающей лидерскими навыками, инициативностью и творческим потенциалом. Пособие предназначено для студентов, желающих развивать свои творческие способности, познавать новое, научиться грамотно говорить на английском языке, корректно использовать артикуляцию звуков, владеть красноречивой дикцией, искать и находить новые решения и подходы в сфере профессиональной деятельности. Цель пособия состоит в том, чтобы обучить студентов инновационному методу усвоения английского языка, который предполагает когнитивную опору на базовые элементы актерского мастерства. Предлагаемый метод включает высокий уровень овладения фонетической системой английского языка (интонацией, артикуляцией, мелодикой и т.п.), изучение актуального лексического базиса, усвоение основополагающих грамматических структур английского языка. Результатом реализации нового метода будет выход в сферу свободного коммуникативного общения на английском языке. Реальными станут возможности участия в публичных международных презентациях, представлениях, шоу на английском языке, требующими не только высокой культуры речи, но и ее красивое (корректное) звучание. Пособие содержит необходимые для изучения данного курса материалы теоретического и практического характера: с одной стороны, собственно языковедческие материалы (голос и речь, интонация, фонетика, артикуляция и др.), с другой - культурологические, представляющие собой базис для усвоения лексики английского языка, особенностей ее грамматических (морфологических и синтаксических) структур и т.п. В частности, в пособии содержится культурологическая информация о лучших театрах мира, выдающихся английских, американских и русских драматургах и писателях, актерах и композиторах, о наиболее популярных молодежных направлениях в музыке, о некоторых современных зарубежных мюзиклах, а также тексты английских и американских народных песен. Учебное пособие состоит из общего раздела «Голос и речь в сценическом искусстве» и 8 разделов, нацеленных на развитие навыков и умений, языковых компетенций, качественному усвоению английского языка на основе знакомства с театральным искусством англоязычных стран. Обучение английскому языку по новому методу отражают в пособии следующие разделы: фонетика и интонация как базовые элементы сценического искусства; театр как феномен искусства (культурологические сведения, лексический (профильный) минимум, вопросы, упражнения, темы дискуссий). история театра (культурологические сведения, лексический (профильный) минимум, вопросы, упражнения, темы дискуссий); великие актеры (культурологические сведения, лексический (профильный) минимум, вопросы, упражнения, темы дискуссий); 4 литература и драматургия (культурологические сведения, лексический (профильный) минимум, вопросы, упражнения, темы дискуссий); музыка в театре (культурологические сведения, лексический (профильный) минимум, вопросы, упражнения, темы дискуссий); живопись и сценография (культурологические сведения, лексический (профильный) минимум, вопросы, упражнения, темы дискуссий); театральные этюды (апробация языковых компетенций и навыков). Пособие включает большое количество артикуляционных и лексических упражнений, упражнений на развитие имитационных способностей, которые в игровой форме позволят достаточно быстро освоить интонацию, мелодику и ритм чужого языка, а также английскую разговорную речь. Большое внимание, как отмечено выше, уделено изучению английского языка, в частности языку драматического искусства. INTRODUCTORY PART VOICE IN THE PERFORMING ART Speaking is part of a whole: an expression of inner life. Cicely Berry ГОЛОС И РЕЧЬ В СЦЕНИЧЕСКОМ ИСКУССТВЕ Звук – это плацдарм нашего искусства. Звуком рисуешь видимое слово, звуком чувствуешь, страдаешь, восхищаешься и звуком же рассказываешь о месте действия, о мире, природе, небе, морях и реках. И, конечно же, о людях. Вл. Яхонтов Голос является визитной карточкой человека или, другими словами, его лучшим переводчиком. Голос является естественным продолжением самого человека, его внутреннего «Я». Существует повествование о том, что когда к Сократу привели человека, о котором он должен был высказать свое мнение, то мудрец долго смотрел на него и потом воскликнул: «Да говори же ты наконец, чтобы я мог познать тебя!». Отсюда следует, что, как образно заметил немецкий философ Г.Фихте, «говорит собственно не человек, а в нем говорит его человеческая натура, демонстрирующая нам его внутреннюю сущность». 5 Небезынтересно, что в старой Италии существовал обычай, по которому в паспорте в числе прочих примет человека указывался и тембр его голоса. На большую значимость голоса в коммуникативно-психологическом поведении человека указывал Бернард Шоу, утверждавший, что есть 50 способов сказать слово «да» и 500 оттенков слова «нет». Для актеров, публичных людей (политиков, журналистов и др.) чрезвычайно важна постановка голоса, интонации, речи и т.п. Разработан специальный актерский тренинг по системе К.С. Станиславского, с которым Вы будете ознакомлены в данном пособии. Кроме того, в пособии приводится глава из книги З. Савковой «Искусство оратора», которая позволит вам ознакомиться с практическими приемами голосового тренинга и выполнить игровые упражнения, рассчитанные на то, чтобы акцентировать внимание на выполнение воображаемого или реального действия, а также книга «Голос и актер» Сисели Бери - режиссера, педагога по сценической речи Королевского Шекспировского театра В этом разделе представлена также рекомендуемая литература для более подробного ознакомления с изучаемой проблематикой. «Голос - это оркестр разнообразных инструментов. Оркестр благозвучный, сильный, выдержанный, подвижный, тонкий, один способный передавать малейшие движения внутренней жизни, просто и красиво выражать мысли и чувства человека. В организации восприятия речи оратора слушателями чрезвычайно важно то, как звучит голос выступающего: звучит ли он свободно, мягко, доверительно, на низких топах (низкие тона голоса воспринимаются более благоприятно, они собирают внимание слушающих, настраивают их на восприятие содержания) или, напротив, звучание резкое, напряженное, завышенное по тону или очень тихое, «безопорное», не летящее в зал. И тогда слушателям приходится тратить первые самые ценные минуты общения на то, чтобы «приспособиться», «приноровиться» воспринимать неблагозвучную, часто раздражающую речь говорящего». З. Савкова выделяет три функции голоса. «Первая функция голоса состоит в том, чтобы обеспечить слышимость звучащего со сцены слова». Актеру, оратору и др. необходимо развивать гибкость, подвижность голоса, способность голоса «рисовать мысль». С помощью голоса нужно учиться выражать мысль сказанного и это вторая функция голоса - быть выразителем мысли. В речи говорящего очень важно слышать интонацию повествовательных, вопросительных, побудительных, восклицательных и других предложений интонирование знаков препинания и т.д. И, наконец, если актер хочет, чтобы его речь вызывала «сопереживание у слушателей, он непременно будет развивать средства речевой выразительности. Ибо третья функция голоса - быть проводником чувств». «Ведь именно по интонациям (повышению или понижению голоса, увеличению или уменьшению силы звука, возникновению и характеру пауз, изменению тембральной окраски голоса) слушатель угадывает чувство, которое живет в душе говорящего». 6 Речь, звучащая со сцены «на повышенной звучности» (являясь в этом смысле искусственной) должна сохранять «выразительность естественной р ечи», т.е. обычной разговорной речи. Каким же образом развивать голос, чтобы он, оставался естественным, «был бы звучен и в то же время не терял бы всех тонкостей выявления внутренней жизни говорящего» со сцены? Эффективным методом развития голоса является метод опосредствованного воздействия на работу органов речи с помощью «образа действия». Регулятором поведения говорящего со сцены является образ. Действуя в образе, актер осуществляет произвольное управление мимикой, жестами, движениями, интонациями — всеми элементами речевой выразительности. Таким образом, чтобы мимика, голос, жесты соответствовали исполняемому образу «надо научиться вовлекать в работу свою душевную органическую природу» - пишет К.С. Станиславский. «Неправильное использование голоса приводит к невозможности выразить чувство, ограничивает активность, притупляет выразительность» (Питер Брук). Слишком сильное или слишком слабое акцентирование согласных, глотание гласных и конечных согласных, игнорирование долготы гласных — все это может исказить энергию слова и лишить вашу речь нужного эффекта. Часто от малого зависит многое. Кроме того, вам надо научиться приспосабливаться к особенностям аудитории. «В большом театре или в маленькой студии звуковое выражение вашей мысли и чувства зависит от ясности слова. В большой аудитории требуется большая сила согласных, поэтому нужно будет произносить согласные несколько длиннее обычного. Чем мощнее голос вам необходим, тем большее количество согласных надо интонационно разбить в слове. Если вы увеличите громкость голоса, вы собьете речь, но, если вы увеличите число согласных — речь станет отчетливой» (С.Берри). Советы при работе с текстом начинать проговаривать текст при полном ощущении свободы и при наличии ровного дыхания; акцентировать гласные и согласные; полезно пропеть часть текста или перейти на речитатив; отрывки текста произносить достаточно громко, акцентируя слова; обращать внимание на правильность интонации. Стихи как один из видов голосового тренинга «Хорошие стихи вызывают эхо в говорящем, что пробуждает такие чувства, которые редко вызываются в каждодневной речи» (Питер Брук). Стихотворный ритм вызывает эмоциональный отклик, переживание, что очень важно для проявления различных чувств и в то же время организует о рганизм человека и в частности его голосовой аппарат. И с этой целью полезно использовать для упражнений стихотворный материал. В стихотворных упражнениях по голосу активное участие могут принимать кисти рук. Напри- 7 мер, вы складываете руки, как будто хотите их согреть и на выдохе выпускаете воздух – и получается английский звук «H». Или подносите лист бумаги к губам или свечу, и произносите английский согласный звук «P», если произнесли правильно по-английски, то вылетает воздух и зажженная свеча тухнет, а лист бумаги отклонится в сторону. Кисть руки короткими, резкими движениями бросает жонглерские «шарики», бьют в «барабан», печатают на «пишущей машинке» и т.д. «Эти и подобные движения рук координируются с речью, звучанием отдельных гласных и согласных и их сочетаниями. Движения рук помогают рождению свободно звучащего голоса, придают нужный характер произнесению отдельных звуков речи, слов и фраз». Междометия в постановке голоса Междометия являются краткими словесными сигналами, выражающими чувства и привлекающие внимание. Они выражают множество эмоций – ужас, гнев, страх, восхищение, возмущение, иронию, жалобу, упрек, похвалу, восторг, поощрение и другие. Они естественны по своей природе, так как рождаются неожиданно и помогают находить естественный тон речи. Особенно этому способствуют восклицания, окрашенные приятными эмоциями, эмоциями радостного удивления, восхищения (Yahoo!, Yummy!, Boo!, Oh!) Положительные эмоции раскрепощают мышцы речевого аппарата и рождают свободное звучание голоса. Одно и то же междометие может выражать различные эмоции через различные интонации. Поэтому-то на междометиях хорошо тре-нировать интонацию, голосовые нюансы, выражающие различные чувства. Голосовой тренинг «Голос, правильно поставленный по законам природы, растет и крепнет» - К.С. Станиславский. Для актера голос — продолжение его самого. Дыхание принимает активное участие в речевой деятельности. Оно важно не только для организации верного звучания голоса, но и для разборчивости речи, для выработки четкой дикции. «Задумайтесь о сходстве голоса и скрипки. Качество звука скрипки зависит от правильного использования смычка, качества струн, их натяжки и от качества корпуса. Что касается голоса, то вы зависите от дыхания,— для произнесения звука. Голосовые связки, как и струны скрипки, не находятся под вашим прямым контролем» (С. Бери). Необходимо тренировать частое дыхание. Частые незаметные доборы воздуха, не разрушая смысла фразы, делают звучащее слово наиболее действенным. Тренировать дыхание необходимо в единстве со звучанием и дикцией. Слова обладают собственной энергией, поэтому вам нет необходимости выталкивать их. Выталкивая слова, вы лишаете их значения, искусственно огра- 8 ничиваете их. «Упражнения значат очень многое в жизни театра: для многих актеров тренинг стал дорогой в творчестве» (Питер Брук). Постановка голоса состоит в том, чтобы повысить «коэффициент полезного действия голосового аппарата» и добиться максимума звучности. Однако перед тем как начать работу над голосом, полезно «разогреть» дыхательные мышцы, т. е. подготовить их к речевому действию. Задача тренинга заключается в том, чтобы научиться легко «переключать» дыхание в различные ритмы, диктуемые различными характерами речи. И в качестве фонетической разминки З. Савкова предлагает упражнения, которые в игровой форме помогают настроить артикуляционный аппарат и тренировать голос. А для актера голос — продолжение его самого. Выполняя эти упражнения, не нужно торопиться. Скорость придет сама. 1. «Прыгуны» - алле – гоп! Представьте, что вы цирковые акробаты-прыгуны. Сделав «сальто», выбегаете на арену. Разумеется, «прыжки-перевороты» делаются в воображении. Вместе с тем помогайте себе головой и руками: опустите голову, руки перед грудью делают легкое вращательное движение, как бы имитируя переворот вашего тела. Сопровождайте эти движения междометием «алле!», а на междометии «гоп» руки широко выбрасываются вверх (как это делают прыгуны в цирке) — «Алле - гоп!». Делать все надо артистично, без напряжения. Легко выбрасывайте руки и вслед за ними так же легко «выбрасывайте» звук голоса на междометии «гоп», из наклонного положения возвращайтесь в нормальное (уверенно смотрите на зрителей, гордясь своей ловкостью). Держите темп, з аданный первым прыгуном. Если он ускорил темп, то и все ускоряют. 2. «Пильщики» - С! С! С! Взяли «пилу», проверили, как лежит «бревно на козлах». Начали вдвоем распиливать его: С!С!С!С! Вначале звук «С» отрывистый, короткий, как и движения рук, потому что пила «входит» в древесину. Чем шире амплитуда движения рук, тем длиннее тянущийся звук СССССС... 3. «У зубного врача» Вам поставили пломбу. Просят посидеть несколько минут с открытым ртом. А вам не терпится узнать, когда можно поесть. Не закрывая рот, говорите: Два часа не есть? Ужасно! Я не завтракал напрасно. Есть хочу, как никогда!.. Два часа ждать? Ерунда. Есть характер, воля есть. Раз нельзя — не стану есть. Активная «артикуляция» обеспечивает разборчивость речи. 4. «Гудок» - УУУУ 9 Слитно, как гудок, тяните гласный: УУУУУУУУУ... «Гудок» не громкий, без напряжения голосового аппарата. Затем к гласному «У» прибавляйте другие гласные и выравнивайте их звучание: УУуОуууАуууЭуууИуууЫууу... 5. «Дудочка» - Дуду! Люблю в саду дудеть в дуду: Дуду! Дуду! Дуду! Дуду! И я иду, иду, иду И дую в дудочку — дуду! ДУДУ! Дуду! Дуду! Дуду! Дуду! 6. «Бабушки» - Ах! «Бабушки» подружки сидят на лавочке и ахают по любому поводу: «Ахти! Ахти! Ахтушки!» Разахалися бабушки. «Ахти-ах! Ахти-ах!» «Ах-ах-ах! — скажите, какой хороший!» «Ой-ой-ой! Как страшно!» Передразнивайте беззлобно, весело, как бы успокаивая человека. 7. «Птичий двор» - Уть-уть Приехали на отдых в деревню к бабушке, а рано утром вас разбудил разноголосый хор животных. Вышли на крыльцо, а во дворе кого только нет: и утки, и гуси, и теленок, и цыплята, и курицы, и петух, и кролики, и голуби, и кот здесь же! Вам все это так нравится, хочется всех позвать к себе, разглядеть, погладить. Без остановки зовете всех животных: Уть-уть-уть-уть-уть … Тега-тегатега-тега-тега … Петь-петь-петь-петь-петь … Трусь-трусь-трусь … Гуль-гульгуль-гуль … Кис-кис-кис! и т.д. Тренируйте звучание голоса в различных тонах, так как к каждому животному у вас разное отношение. Одно дело – зовете гуся, другое – крякающих медлительных уток или быстрых цыплят, важно шагающего петуха или боязливых кроликов. 8. «Победительницы» - Ай да! Приветствуйте своих друзей (девушек-гимнасток), победивших на трудных соревнованиях: Ай да Аля! Ай да Уля! Ай да Оля! Ай да Юля! Ай да Эля! Ай да Ия! Спорт — родная вам стихия! Просто чудо-мастера! Браво, девушки! Ура! Слова-приветствия произносите с оттенком восхищения, изумления, гордости. 9. «Шутка» - Ав-ав! 10 Один из вас дрессировщик, а остальные дрессированные собачки разной породы. Вы говорите только «по-собачьи» и радостно выполняете приказы «дрессировщика»: Дрессировщик: Приветствую, друзья! Ав-ав! Группа: Ав-ав! Дрессировщик: Спокойнее. Не напрягаться! По одному мне откликаться! По одному: Ав-ав! Ав-ав! Ав-ав! Ав-ав! Ав-ав! ... (С подтекстом «Я здесь») Дрессировщик: Ну что ж, у вас веселый нрав. На месте – марш! Эй, запевала! Споем, как пели мы бывало! Все «поют»: Ав! Ав-а'в! Ав-ав-ав! Ав-ав-ав! (На мотив маршевой песни и шагают) Дрессировщик: Стой! Поняли, как «лаем», Группа: Ав-ав! Так точно! Ритм марша делает ритмичным дыхание, снимает напряжение. 10. «Звукоподражатель». Спокойную, плавно звучащую речь можно тренировать с помощью упражнения: Свистит ветер: ССССССС... Шумит лес: ШШШШШШШ... Звенит комар: 3333333. Жужжит пчела: ЖЖЖЖЖЖЖ. Ssss! It’s a snake. Zzzz! It’s a bee. Sh! Be quiet! Boo! It’s me! *** Do you like tea and cake? Yummy! Yes! Do you like chips and jam? Yuk! No! *** Five fat sausages Sitting in a pan. Five fat sausages Sitting in a pan. Sizzle! Sizzle! Sizzle! One goes BANG! Four fat sausages 11 Sitting in a pan. Four fat sausages … Three fat sausages … Two fat sausages … One fat sausage … … No fat sausages sitting in the pan! *** I’ve got a little horse. He’s got a little tail And his tail goes swish-swish-swish. He’s a happy little horse, You can tell it by his tail, Swish-swish-swish- swish-swish! I’ve got a little dog He’s got a little tail And his tail goes swish-swish-swish. He’s a happy little horse, You can tell it by his tail, Swish-swish-swish- swish-swish! Bow-wow! I’ve got a little cat She’s got a little tail And her tail goes swish-swish-swish. She’s an angry little cat, You can tell it by her tail, Swish-swish-swish- swish-swish! Miaaw! *** Who’s afraid of big black spiders, Big black spiders, Big black spiders? Who’s afraid of big black spiders? Me, me, me, me, me! I’m not afraid of big black spiders, Big black spiders, Big black spiders. I’m not afraid of big black spiders, No, no, no, not me! 12 Цель упражнений заключается в том, чтобы добиться свободного звучания голоса, найти свой природный тембр. Часто говорящий со сцены, начиная говорить громче, четче, напрягает голосовой аппарат. При напряжении искажается тембр, пропадает благозвучие, эстетика звучащего слова. Кроме того зажатость исполнителя непременно передается слушателям, зрителям, и они либо инстинктивно отключаются от восприятия, либо испытывают усталость к концу выступления. «Напряженность и ограниченность голоса всегда проистекают от недостатка доверия к себе: вы либо чрезмерно усердствуете в том, чтобы что либо изобразить, либо пытаетесь утвердиться в глазах публики» (С. Бери). Иными словами, если вы играете роль со значительной эмоциональной нагрузкой, требующей от вас выражения злости, властности и т.п., и вы начинаете кричать, то зрители вас не будут слушать. Вы должны обнаружить силу вне самого себя, правильную голосовую энергию. «Дабы выработать громкость голоса без мышечного напряжения надо выбрать отрывок текста и читать его в положении лежа. Сначала полежите спокойно, расслабьтесь, подышите, затем приступайте к тексту. Первое время читайте его спокойно, концентрируя внимание на дыхании. Постепенно увеличивайте громкость, не допуская, однако, при этом напряжения и стараясь делать так, чтобы звук не выходил горлом. Если почувствуете напряжение, приостановите упражнение, расслабьтесь и продолжите» (С. Бери). Чтобы совершенствовать голос, необходимо постоянно практиковаться перед большой аудиторией (например, в театре) или перед кинокамерой. Таким образом, вы должны учитывать следующее: 1. Индивидуальные особенности речи. 2. Необходимость приспособить эти особенности к помещению. 3. Правильное положение гласных и согласных. 4. Как донести смысл слова до слушателя. Хорошо, свободно звучащий голос придает уверенность, вызывает творческое самочувствие. Упражнения дадут вам не техничность, а свободу, а ваш голос станет мощнее и гибче. Рекомендуемая литература 1. Т. И. Вaсильевой. Упрaжнения по дикции. - М., ГИТИС, 1988. 2. А.П. Вербовая, О.М. Головина. Искусство сценической речи. Учебное пособие для театральных вузов. - М., 1978. 3. Л. Б. Дмитриев. Основы вокальной методики. - М.: Музыка, 1968. - 437 с. 4. Я. И. Жинкин. Механизмы речи. - М.: Изд-во АН СССР, 1968. - 256 с. 5. Е.А. Ножин. Мастерство устного выступления. Учеб. пособие. – М: Политиздат, 1989. – 256с. 6. А.Т. Рябченко. Функциональные нарушения голоса. - М: Медицина, 1964. – 76 с. 7. З.В. Савкова. Искусство оратора. - ИВЭСЭП, Знание, 2007. - 248 с. 8. З.В. Савкова. Как сделать голос сценическим. - М., Искусство, 1975. 9. З.В. Савкова. Монолог на сцене. - ИВЭСЭП, Знание, 2009. - 116 с. 10. Э.Сарабьян. Актерский тренинг по системе Станиславского. Речь. Слова. Голос. - АСТ, 2010. - 160 с. 11. К. С. Стaнислaвский. Учебник актерского мастерства. Работа над собой в творческом процессе воплощения. – АСТ, 2011. – 384 с. 12. К. С. Станиславский, М.А. Чехов Работа актера над собой. М. А. Чехов. О технике ак- 13 тера. – Артист, Режиссер, Театр, 2008. – 496 с. 13. К. С. Стaнислaвский. Актерский трениниг. - Прайм-Еврознак, 2008. – 480 с. 14. Berry, Cicely. Voice and the Actor. New York: Hungry Minds, Inc., 1973. 15. Exercises in Intonation of Colloquial English. – Высшая школа, 1983. – 312 с. 16. English Phonetics: A Practical Course. – Высшая школа, 2009. – 376 с. 17. Jerome K. Jerome. Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog). Penguin Books Ltd., 2012. – 176 p. 18. Oscar Wilde. Fairy Tales. – КАРО, 2009. – 224 p. Интернет-ресурсы: www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/Linguist/savk/02.php http://ritorikaritorika.narod.ru/book.html http://wiki.answers.com/Q/ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/phonetics.html#v8tR8yF9K4dC4Hjl.99 PART ONE ENGLISH PHONETICS “Phonetics occupies the central place in the scientific study of language.” Roman Jakobson (1896-1982) Фонетика как элемент театрального искусства Английский язык: фонетика, произношение, звуки, ударение и интонация произношения английских звуков (English pronunciation) английская фонетика (Phonetics) ударение (English stress) и интонация (Intonation) в английском языке “It is useful to the historian, among others, to be able to see the commonest forms of different phenomena, whether phonetic, morphological or other, and how language lives, carries on and changes over time.” Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) Голос человека является мощнейшим средством воздействия на окружающих. Правильная дикция, интонация, знание языка и его законов создают наиболее благоприятные условия при коммуникации на английском языке. И наоборот, дефекты произношения, нарушение законов логической речи мешают процессу словесного взаимодействия, искажают его, а то и вовсе делают нево зможным. 14 К. Станиславский говорил, что на расстроенном рояле нельзя передать красоты исполняемой пьесы, как бы ни был талантлив пианист. Для этого необходимо, прежде всего, настроить инструмент. Так и человеку, изучающему иностранный язык нужно, прежде всего, позаботиться о подготовке своего р ечевого аппарата. Для того, чтобы английская речь стала внятной и понятной, необходимо сделать каждый звук точным и красивым в звучании. Речь можно сравнить с красивым ожерельем, в котором все драгоценные камушки должны быть тщательно и правильно обработаны. Только в таком случае ожерелье имеет истинную ценность. Важно помнить, что каждый звук, кроме эстетической нагрузки, отвечает за передачу содержания слова, его значения и смысла. А так как для нас это наиглавнейшая задача, то и произнесением звуков без искажений необходимо заниматься тщательно и упорно. Хорошая дикция означает четкость, ясность произнесения слов и фраз, правильность звучания каждого гласного и согласного, выбор интонации в зависимости от той или иной ситуации. Чистота дикции помогает чтецу и актеру выразительно и точно доносить свои мысли до слушателя. Неясность дикции, наличие какого-либо недостатка отвлекают внимание слушателей от содержания речи. И помните, правильно и красиво говорящий человек – по-настоящему ГАРМОНИЧНАЯ ЛИЧНОСТЬ! Язык возник и существует как средство общения людей, прежде всего в звуковой (устной) форме. Письмо является лишь условным изображением звуковой формы языка. Поэтому для того чтобы овладеть иностранным языком, необходимо прежде всего овладеть его звуковой формой, его фонетическим строем, т.е. системой звуков, словесным ударением и интонацией. Развиваясь на разных концах Европы, английский и русский язык «раз ошлись» достаточно далеко (языки наших соседей – например, украинский или болгарский – разумеется, гораздо ближе к русскому), но, тем не менее, и тот и другой – языки европейские и общего у них больше, чем различий. Из тридцати шести звуков английского языка только четыре не имеют никакого соответствия в русском. Все остальные английские звуки имеют русские аналоги. Многие изучающие английский язык уделяют мало внимания улучшению своего произношения, думая, что звуки чужого языка – это что-то настолько сложное, что нет смысла пытаться их как следует освоить и не остается ничего другого, как заменять их похожими русскими звуками. Это совершенно не так. Вы можете с первых дней занятий начать быстро улучшать свое произношение, если потратите немного времени и разберетесь, как произносятся английские звуки. Кроме того в современном языке существуют разные вариации при произнесении одного и того же звука и внутри одного языка – это уже особенности диалектов. В английском языке количество диалектов несравнимо с диалектическими различиями в русском языке. Это связано с тем, что английский является государственным языком в странах, разбросанных по всему миру (Велико- 15 британии, Ирландии, США, Канаде, Австралии, Новой Зеландии, ЮАР и многих других), в каждой из которых есть свои особенности в произношении. В англоязычных странах нет централизованной системы обучения, поэтому каждая историческая область зачастую сохраняла свои особенности в произношении. Множество национальностей, для которых английский стал основным языком сравнительно недавно (это и американцы, и шотландцы, и валлийцы и ирландцы и многие-многие другие) сохранили какие-то свои особенности в произношении. Более того, в самой Англии чуть не в каждом районе страны есть свои диалекты, вследствие классовых расслоений, отсутствия единой системы образования и других факторов. Органы речи и их работа У всех людей на земле артикуляторный аппарат устроен одинаково, но каждый язык выбирает те или иные положения органов речи для производства звуков. В каждом языке есть свои особенности в звуковом строе, свои способы произношения звуков и фраз. Каждый язык характеризуется определённым укладом органов речи и имеет свои особенности в интонации предложения. В полости рта расположены органы речи: язык, нёбо (твёрдое и мягкое), отделяющее полость рта от носовой полости, зубы и губы. За верхними зубами расположены бугорки, которые называются альвеолами, которые очень важны для правильного английского произношения. Прямо над языком находится нёбо, которое состоит из двух частей: непосредственно за альвеолами находится твёрдое нёбо, а напротив корня языка - мягкоё нёбо. К активным органам речи относятся также голосовые связки. При произнесении глухих согласных голосовые связки не напряжены и раздвинуты. К огда голосовые связки напряжены и сближены, а поток воздуха заставляет их вибрировать, возникает голос, который мы слышим при произнесении звонких согласных и гласных. “Sound has a profound effect on the senses.” Louis Colaianni (1959) Английские согласные звуки В любом языке все звуки произносятся за счет выдыхания воздуха через полость рта. Согласный - это звук, на котором останавливается или задерживается поток воздуха - на губах или языке. Для некоторых согласных необходимо мягкое небо, а положение челюсти всегда имеет большое значение. Когда звуковой поток совершенно останавливается - это взрывной согласный, 16 а если только частично - фрикативный согласный. Кроме того они могут быть звонкими и глухими. Для правильного произношения согласных очень важно точное положение речевого аппарата. Английские согласные произносятся с помощью шести «инструментов» – это язык, губы, зубы, альвеолы, твердое нёбо и мягкое нёбо. Давайте теперь посмотрим на все английские согласные с учетом того где и как они произносятся. ГУБЫ [p] - [b] (put – big) Губы более и напряжены и произносятся со «взрывом». [m] (mouse) Губы более напряжены, чем при произнесении русского аналога. [w] (water) Такого звука в русском языке нет, но научиться его правильно произносить легко. Для его произнесения нужно округлить губы и продуть через это отверстие воздух. ЗУБЫ + ГУБЫ [f] - [v] (foot – love) Речевой аппарат немного больше напряжен, чем при произнесении русских аналогов. ЯЗЫК + ЗУБЫ [θ] – [ð] (theatre – brother) Никакого соответствия этим звукам в русском языке нет. Они называются межзубными согласными, т.е. кончик языка находится между нижними и верхними зубами. Первый звук произносится без голоса, второй – с голосом. ЯЗЫК + АЛЬВЕОЛЫ Это самая большая группа английских согласных и именно эти звуки дают очень сильный русский акцент, если не следить за тем, чтобы произносить их правильно – кончик языка касается альвеол (бугорки за верхними зубами). [t] - [d] (ticket – drama) Звуки произносятся у альвеол, а не у зубов, как их русские аналоги, речевой аппарат более напряжен. [s] - [z] (stage – zoo) Звуки также произносятся у альвеол, а не у зубов, как их русские аналоги. Губы при этом должны быть чуть растянуты, как будто вы слегка улыбаетесь. [l] - [n] (live – never) Звуки, как и все остальные звуки этой группы, произносятся у альвеол. 17 ЯЗЫК + ТВЕРДОЕ НЁБО [r] (role) Для произнесения этого звука необходимо одновременно с выдыханием воздуха поднять спинку языка к твердому нёбу. Английский звук отличает очень мелкая вибрация – он ни в коем случае не должен быть раскатистым. [j] (play) Звук похож на русское [й], но произносится немного дальше от альвеол. Произносится мягче, менее энергично, чем русский аналог. ЯЗЫК + МЯГКОЕ НЁБО [k] - [g] (cost – game) Звуки произносятся задней частью спинки языка у мягкого нёба (то есть, дальней части нёба). [ŋ ] (long) Соответствия в русском языке нет. Для произнесения этого звука воздух проходит наружу через полость носа и нужно коснуться задней спинкой языка мягкого нёба. ЗАДНЯЯ ЧАСТЬ ГОРТАНИ [h] (hair) Органы речи смыкаются не полностью, а оставляют узкий проход - щель для воздуха, звук произносится ненапряженно в самой задней и нижней части гортани. Для произнесения звука надо только выдохнуть воздух. Английские гласные звуки Гласный отличается тем, что поток воздуха свободно проходит через рот и всегда озвучен. В формировании гласного участвуют губы, язык, однако челюсти и положение мягкого неба особо влияют на его качество. Одни гласные называются чистыми, другие - дифтонгами. Одни длинные, другие краткие. Все английские гласные имеют аналоги в русском языке. Английские гласные парные и их можно различать по «открытости» отверстия оставляемого для прохода воздуха. Большинство английских гласных звуков произносится в положении, когда углы губ слегка оттянуты в стороны, а губы не округляются и не выпячиваются. В русском языке ударные гласные более протяжные, чем в английском. [i], [i:], [e], [æ] (ring – people – take – actor) 18 Передние гласные звуки произносятся в самой передней части полости рта и губы растягиваются в стороны. При произнесении звука [æ] челюсть опускается вниз. [u], [a:], [u:], [o:], [o] (put – harm – move – all – not) Задние гласные звуки произносятся в задней части рта. [ә:], [ә], [ ʌ ] (turn – silver – luck) Центральные гласные звуки произносятся при таком положении, когда основная масса языка находится в центре ротовой полости. Дифтонги Дифтонги (или «двугласные», как их еще называют) – это сочетания двух звуков, которые рассматриваются как одна фонетическая единица. В русском языке дифтонгов нет. В английском языке девять дифтонгов: [ju:], [ei], [ɑi], [ɑu], [ɔi], [ɔu], [iә], [ɛә], [uә] (new – make – like – house – boy – home – ear – air – poor) Ударение в дифтонгах всегда падает на первую гласную, а вторая произносится без ударения. Ударения в английском языке Для правильного звучания слова важны не только составляющие его звуки, но и куда падает ударение. Что касается ударений, в английском языке можно выделить три особенности. Во-первых, это наличие двойных ударений (чего нет в русском языке). Вовторых, это изменение ударения в слове в зависимости от того, какой частью речи оно является. И, в-третьих, очень важной особенностью английского языка является четкое произношение именно ударных гласных, в то время как гласные в безударных слогах не должны акцентироваться. В основном слова английского происхождения короткие – в основном односложные, а в словах двухсложных ударение как правило падает на первый слог (есть, конечно, и исключения). Это правило не относится к приставкам (префиксам), на которые ударение чаще всего не падает. В таких словах ударение ставится единственно возможным способом (обычно на первый слог). Когда же слово составляется из двух других, то часто оба слова сохраняют ударение, одно из которых – основное, более сильное, а второе – несколько слабее. Например, слово «представитель» («representative») имеет два ударения: ,repre’sentative (основное ударение обозначается верхним штрихом, а второе – нижним). Фразовое ударение 19 Выделение голосом слов в предложении или во фразе называется фразовым ударением. В русском предложении cлова не выделяются так резко фразовым ударением и оно падает почти на каждое слово; русская речь, по сравнению с английской, производит впечатление более плавной. Конечно, и в русской речи есть слова, которые не выделяются ударением, но их не так много (частицы, союзы, предлоги). Сравните: `Я `стал расс`казывать ей об `этом инци`денте, но `она `так ниче`го и `не поня`ла. I be`gan `telling her about the `incident, but she `didn't under`stand `anything. В английском языке происходит чередование ударных и безударных слогов, что создаёт определённый ритм английской речи. При большом количестве многосложных слов в русской речи и при свободном ударении, ритм русского предложения не столь ясно уловим, как в английской речи. Если же произносить английские предложения, ставя ударения по законам русского языка, то такая английская речь будет звучать как чтение по слогам. Поэтому совершенно необходимо знать особенности фразового ударения в английской речи. В английском предложении ударными являются следующие части речи: существительные The `table is in the `room. прилагательные The picture is `beautiful. числительные Tom is e`leven. наречия Helen speaks English `well. смысловые глаголы I `want to `go to the river today. вопросительные местоимения: what, where, when, why What do you know about it? When will he come home? Why do you look sad? указательные местоимения: this, that, these, those в начале предложения This is a book and that is a note-book. These books are on the desk and those ones are on the shelf. В английском предложении не ударными являются: вспомогательные глаголы What do you do in the evening? 20 модальные глаголы He can speak English very well. глагол to be This is a large house. предлоги We go to the country in summer. частицы We want to see the new film. союзы I like this picture, but my brother likes that photo. артикли I have a beautiful toy. The toy is in the box. личные и притяжательные местоимения She is at home, and he is in the garden. Give me your textbook, please. Вспомогательные и модальные глаголы, а также глагол to be бывают ударными в следующих случаях: в начале общего вопроса: `Is it big? `Do you like it? `Can you do it? в кратких ответах на общий вопрос: `Is it dark here? - Yes, it `is. Do you like it? - Yes, I `do. Can you do it? - Yes, I `can. в кратких отрицательных формах: It `isn't on the table. I `don't like it. I `can't tell you about it. в конце предложения после безударных слов: I don't know where he `is. Но если перед безударным словом в конце предложения или смысловой группы стоит ударное слово, то безударное слово ударение утрачивает: I don't know where `Nick is. I don't think `Kelly can. Логическое ударение Кроме фразового ударения, которое присутствует в предложении постоянно, в английском, как и в русском языке, имеется логическое ударение. Логическое ударение - это выделение посредством ударения какого-либо слова в предложении сильнее всех остальных слов. Логическое ударение используется для противопоставления одного слова другому или для усиления значения слова: Он видел эту картину. - He saw that picture. Выделяя логическим ударением слово "he - он", мы противопоставляем его ме- 21 стоимениям: "она" или "они". В тот день на самом деле шёл дождь. - That day it was raining. Выделяя логическим ударением "was - на самом деле", мы тем самым усиливаем значимость этой фразы в предложении. Так как логическое ударение выходит за рамки обычного фразового ударения, то с его помощью может быть выделено слово в предложении, которое обычно бывает безударным, например личное местоимение, предлог, артикль или вспомогательный глагол. Например: Книга на столе, а не под столом. - The book is on the table not under the table. При произнесении каждого предложения может быть столько вариантов логического ударения, сколько в нём слов. Всё зависит от того, какое слово говорящий хочет выделить, а это, в свою очередь зависит от цели высказывания и ситуации общения. Например: В этом году мы впервые ездили на экс- This year we went on an excursion to курсию в Москву. Moscow for the first time. В этом году мы впервые ездили на экс- This year we went on an excursion to курсию в Москву. Moscow for the first time. В этом году мы впервые ездили на экс- This year we went on an excursion to курсию в Москву. Moscow for the first time. В этом году мы впервые ездили на экс- This year we went on an excursion to курсию в Москву. Moscow for the first time. В этом году мы впервые ездили на экс- This year we went on an excursion to курсию в Москву. Moscow for the first time. В этом году мы впервые ездили на экс- This year we went on an excursion курсию в Москву. to Moscow for the first time. Выделяя то или иное слово при помощи логического ударения, гово рящий вкладывает в предложение каждый раз новое содержание. Произнесите следующие предложения, ставя логическое ударение на выделенное слово в каждом из них: I can do it if you want me to. Я могу это сделать, если вы так хотите. She did refuse to come. Она действительно отказалась придти. He may know the answer. Он, может быть, знает ответ. I said the book, not a book. Я сказал эта книга, а не какая-то книга. The bag is on the table not under it. Сумка на столе, а не под столом. “Our intonations contain our philosophy of life, what each of us is constantly telling himself about things.” Marcel Proust (1871-1922) 22 ENGLISH INTONATION Английская интонация Правильная интонация также имеет большое значение для хорошего владения языком – например, в зависимости от повышения или понижения тона одна и та же фраза может звучать вежливо или грубо. Интонацией выделяются также и важные слова – на них тон речи повышается. В любом языке интонация служит для внешнего оформления предложения. При помощи интонации наш слушатель понимает, является ли предложение повествованием, вопросом, просьбой или восклицанием. Например, предложение "Сегодня тепло" может быть утверждением, вопросом и восклицанием в зависимости от интонации, с которой оно произносится. Интонация также выражает наши эмоции: удивление, раздражение, радость, недовольство и т.д. Каждый язык имеет свою особую, характерную для него интонацию, заметно отличающуюся от интонации других языков. В английском языке интонация играет особенно важную роль вследствие сильно выраженного аналитического характера языка. (В аналитических языках отношения между словами выражаются не при помощи окончаний, как в русском языке, а при помощи служебных слов: предлогов, артиклей, вспомогательных глаголов, а также при помощи интонации.) Предложения делятся на отдельные смысловые группы. Каждая смысловая группа имеет определённую интонацию, которая указывает на завершённость или незавершённость мысли в ней. Обычно только последняя смысловая группа указывает на то, что мысль в данном предложении закончена; в пред ыдущих смысловых группах употребляется интонация, которая говорит о нез авершённости мысли. Например, в предложении: "В июне, июле и августе театр бывает на гастролях" в трёх первых смысловых группах: "В июне, июле и августе" мысль предложения не закончена, и, соответственно, употребляется интонация, которая указывает на это. Английская интонация значительно отличается от русской, как мелодией, так и фразовым ударением. Понижение или повышение голоса на последнем ударном слове в предложении являются двумя основными тонами английской интонации - нисходящим тоном и восходящим тоном. ↘ Нисходящий тон (the Falling Tone) В английском языке нисходящий тон представляет собой постепенное понижение голоса на ударных слогах, (как будто ударные слоги спускаются по лесенке) причём на последнем ударном слове голос довольно резко опускается вниз. В английском предложении первый ударный слог всегда самый высокий по тону, а все последующие ударные слоги на тон ниже предыдущего, причем понижение или подъем голоса происходит только на последнем ударном слоге. 23 Мелодия с понижением тона произносится в тех случаях, когда высказывание закончено или выражается категоричность. Английский нисходящий тон напоминает русскую интонацию настойчивой команды в односложных словах. С нисходящий тон обычно произносятся: законченные повествовательные предложения, выражающие утверждение или категоричное заявление: I study English. Я изучаю английский. I’ll come to your place tomorrow. Я приду к вам завтра. восклицательные предложения: What a nice house! - Какой красивый дом! What a fantastic picture! - Какая фантастическая картина! How interesting! - Как интересно! What a shocking answer! Какой шокирующий ответ! краткие повествовательные предложения (утвердительные и отрицательные): I will come soon. - Я скоро приду. It's difficult to say. - Трудно сказать. I don't know where he is. - Я не знаю, где он. She didn't call me. - Она мне не позвонила. I have a lot of time to spare. - У меня много свободного времени. повелительные предложения, выражающие приказания, распоряжения, категорическую просьбу: Come here! - Иди сюда! Stand there! - Стой там! Leave the dog alone!- Оставь собаку в покое! Do as you are told! - Делай, что тебе говорят! Don't make so much noise! - Не поднимайте столько шума! специальные вопросы, начинающиеся с вопросительных местоимений: What’s this? Что это? When will it be? Когда это будет? How much are the tickets? - Сколько стоят билеты? Why aren't you at work? - Почему ты не на работе? вторая часть альтернативного вопроса: Were you at the cinema or at the theatre yesterday? - Ты был вчера в театре или в кино? первая часть разделительного вопроса: You know him, don't you? - Ты ведь знаешь его, не так ли? You can come to the party, can't you? - Ты ведь можешь придти на вечеринку? His English is limited, isn't it? - Он неважно говорит по-английски, не так ли? 24 вторая часть разделительного вопроса, когда спрашивающий уверен в правильности сообщении первой части и не ждёт никаких дополнительных сведений, а только выражает желание подтвердить, что данное суждение верно: It is warm today, isn't it? - Сегодня тепло, не так ли? The museum is far, isn't it? - Музей далеко, не так ли? приветствия при встрече: Good afternoon! - Добрый день! Good morning! - Доброе утро! How do you do? - Здравствуйте! обращение в начале предложения: Pete, where is your pen? - Петя, где твоя ручка? Alice, come into the room. - Эллис, зайди в комнату. Kelly, can I take your magazine? - Келли, можно взять твой журнал? George, don't be late for work. - Джордж, не опоздай на работу. Ann, will you help me please? - Энн, помоги мне, пожалуйста. приложение в конце предложения: This is my friend, an artist. - Это – мой друг, художник. I want you to meet Jim Crow, an actor. - Я хочу познакомить тебя с Джимом Кроу, актёром. I'd like to see Mr. Dadson, your boss. - Я хотел бы повидать мистера Дэдсона, вашего босса. • придаточное предложение, стоящее перед главным, если последнее предло- жение произносится с восходящим тоном: When you come home, will you call me? - Когда ты придёшь домой, ты позвонишь мне? When you see her, will you tell her to come? - Когда увидишь её, попроси её придти. After you arrive in London, will you call me? - После прибытия в Лондон, ты позвонишь мне? ↗ Восходящий тон (the Rising Tone) Восходящий тон в английском языке – это плавное повышение интонации от предпоследнего ударного слога в предложении до последнего. Он возникает в случае неуверенности, неопределенности, незаконченности или сомнения. C восходящим тоном обычно произносятся: общие вопросы, требующие ответов "да" или "нет: Have you ever been to London? - Ты когда-нибудь был в Лондоне? Can we meet outside the cinema at six? - Мы можем встретиться у кинотеатра в 6? Are you going to leave soon? - Вы скоро собираетесь уходить? 25 распространенное подлежащие: My brother and I went on an excursion. - Мой брат и я ездили на экскурсию. Jim and his sister lived in a small town. - Джим и его сестра жили в небольшом городе. My wife and I went to Italy for our holidays. - Мы с женой ездили в Италию в отпуск. обстоятельство в начале предложения: Last year there was a lot of snow in the streets of our town. - В прошлом году было много снега на улицах нашего города. Late at night there was a knock on the door. - Вчера поздно вечером раздался стук в дверь. Long ago there used to be a big forest here. - Давным-давно здесь бы большой лес. Every weekend he goes to the country. - Каждый выходной он ездит за город. однородные члены предложения, кроме последнего: There are books, exercise books, pens and pencils on the desks. - На партах книги, тетради, ручки и карандаши. This year he's been to Italy, Spain, France and Germany. - В этом году он был в Италии, Испании, Франции и Германии. I have a sister, two brothers and three nephews. - У меня есть сестра, два брата и три племянника. вторая часть разделительного вопроса, если спрашивающий выражает желание получить какую-либо дополнительную информацию: You’ve got this book, haven't you? - У тебя ведь есть эта книга, не так ли? Ann went to Spain last summer, didn't she? - Анна ездила в Испанию прошлым летом, не так ли? You haven't done all the work yet, have you? - Вы ещё не сделали всю работу, не так ли? первая часть альтернативных вопросов: Have you seen this film on TV or at the cinema? - Ты видел этот фильм по телевизору или в кинотеатре? Have you read the book or seen the film? - Вы читали книгу или видели фильм? Is he an actor or a director? - Он актер или режиссер? Would you like tea or coffee for breakfast? - Вы бы хотели чай или кофе на завтрак? вежливые просьбы: Will you lock the door please? - Заприте дверь, пожалуйста. Will you tell me the time, please? - Скажите, пожалуйста, который час? May I use your telephone? - Могу ли я воспользоваться вашим телефоном? 26 Could you show me the way to the station? - Покажите мне, пожалуйста, дорогу на вокзал. слова благодарности, прощания и подобные выражения: Good-bye! - До свидания. See you tomorrow. - До завтра. Thank you. - Спасибо. All right.- Хорошо. придаточные предложения, стоящие перед главным: As soon as I arrive at the hotel, I will let you know. - Как только я прибуду в гостиницу, я дам тебе знать. Unless we hurry, we'll be late for the concert. - Если мы не поторопимся, мы опоздаем на концерт. ↘ ↗ Нисходяще - восходящий тон Нисходяще-восходящий тон часто употребляется в английской разговорной речи для выражения различного рода эмоций от сомнения до дружеского возражения. Это самый эмоциональный тон английского языка. С его помощью выражают и сомнения, и дружеские возражения. При произнесении нисходяще-восходящего тона голос сначала снижается в пределах слога до самого низкого уровня диапазона, а затем постепенно повышается, не достигая, однако, слишком высокого уровня. Нисходяще-восходящий тон используется: если вы хотите уточнить информацию: I think this book is hers. – No, it’s mine. – Я думаю эта книга ее. – Нет моя. Sam is leaving today, isn't he? - Tomorrow. - Сэм уезжает сегодня, не так ли? Завтра. The photos are in the box, aren't they? - In the album. - Фотографии в коробке, не так ли? - В альбоме. если вы хотите дружелюбно возразить кому-то: I am afraid that's not so. - Боюсь, что это не так. That novel is new, isn't it? - Not very. - Этот роман новый, не так ли? - Не очень. That film is interesting, isn't it? - Not very. - Этот фильм интересный, не так ли? Не очень. если вы хотите выразить предположение или сомнение: What colour is her dress? It may be grey. - Какого цвета её платье? Возможно, оно серое. Where are the students? - They may be at the lecture. - Где студенты? - Они, наверное, на лекции. 27 Where is our map? - It may be on the wall. - Где наша карта? - Она, наверное, на стене. если вы хотите подчеркнуть контраст, противопоставление: I have a lot of Russian books, but no French books. - У меня много русских книг, но нет французских. We'd like to visit this museum, but not on Sunday. - Нам бы хотелось посетить этот музей, но не в воскресенье. I’d love to watch TV, but not in the day time- Я бы с удовольствием посмотрела телевизор, но не днём. An Extract from the Book by Jerome K. D. “Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog)” Отрывок из книги Д. К. Джерома «Трое в лодке, не считая собаки» THERE were four of us| - George, | and William Samuel Harris, | and myself, | and Montmorency. We were sitting| in my room, | smoking, | and talking |about how bad we were| - bad |from a medical point of view| I mean, | of course. We were all feeling seedy, | and we were getting| quite nervous about it. Harris said| he felt |such extraordinary fits of giddiness| come over him| at times, | that he hardly knew| what he was doing; | and then George said| that he had fits of giddiness| too, | and hardly knew| what he was doing. With me, | it was my liver| that was out of order. I knew| it was my liver| that was out of order, | because I had just been reading |a patent liver-pill circular, | in which were detailed| the various symptoms| by which a man| could tell| when his liver| was out of order. I had them all. It is a most extraordinary thing, | but I never read| a patent medicine advertisement| without being impelled| to the conclusion| that I am suffering| from the particular disease| therein dealt with| in its most virulent form. The diagnosis| seems |in every case| to correspond| exactly with all the sensations| that I have ever felt. Фонетические комментарии к тексту: Фраза of course, стоящая в конце предложения, является вводной фразой и не получает полного ударения. Местоимение he имеет логическое ударение, тогда как обычно местоимения в английском предложении безударны. В ритмической группе I had just been reading не ударными элементами наряду с местоимением I являются вспомогательные компоненты прошедшего совершенно продолженного времени had been. Обратите внимание на ассимиляцию в середине фраз: detailed the, impelled to. Звук [ d ] произносится не на альвеолах, а при его произнесении кончик языка прикасается к верхним зубам. 28 Текст: Нас было четверо: Джордж, Уильям Сэмюэль Харрис, я и Монморанси. Мы сидели в моей комнате, курили и разговаривали о том, как плох каждый из нас, - плох, я, конечно, имею в виду, в медицинском смысле. Все мы чувствовали себя неважно, и это нас очень тревожило. Харрис сказал, что у него бывают страшные приступы головокружения, во время которых он просто ничего не соображает; и тогда Джордж сказал, что у него тоже бывают приступы головокружения, и он тоже ничего не соображает. Что кас ается меня, то у меня была не в порядке печень. Я знал, что у меня не в порядке именно печень, потому что на днях прочел рекламу патентованных пилюль от болезни печени, где перечислялись признаки, по которым человек может опр еделить, что у него не в порядке печень. Все они были у меня налицо. Странное дело: стоит мне прочесть объявление о каком-нибудь патентованном средстве, как я прихожу к выводу, что страдаю той самой болезнью, о которой идет речь, причем в наиопаснейшей форме. Во всех случаях описываемые симптомы точно совпадают с моими ощущениями. PHONETIC EXERCISES Фонетические упражнения для курса по английскому языку (на материале пословиц, поговорок, стихотворений) Слушание и повторение английских стихов, а также пения песен на английском языке помогут добиться совершенства в английском произношении. Упражнения разделены на две части. Первая часть – пословицы и поговорки. Они могут представить интерес для отработки произношения. Во второй части помещены стихотворения английских авторов. PROVEBS AND SAYINGS ПОСЛОВИЦЫ И ПОГОВОРКИ Долгие гласные [i:] Honey is sweet, but the bee stings - Видит око, да зуб неймет. [a:] He laughs best who laughs last. - Хорошо смеется тот, кто смеется последний. [ :] Better untaught than ill taught. - Недоученный хуже неученого. [u:] A fool and his money are soon parted. - У дурака в горсти дыра. [ :] First come, first served. - Поздно пришел, кости нашел. 29 Краткие гласные [i] Business is business. - Дело есть дело. [e] All is well that ends well. - Все хорошо, что хорошо кончается. [ ] A cat in gloves catches no mice. - Без труда не вытащишь и рыбки из пруда. [ ] Waste not, want not. - Мотовство до добра не доведет. [u] By hook or by crook. - Не мытьем, так катаньем. [ ] Nothing must be done in haste but killing of fleas. - Поспешность нужна только при ловле блох. Дифтонги [ei] Haste makes waste. Поспешишь – людей насмешишь. [ai] Like begets like. Подобное рождает подобное. [ i] There’s no joy without alloy. Нет розы без шипов. [au] Out of sight, out of mind. С глаз долой - из сердца вон. [ u] То know everything is to know nothing. Знать все значит ничего не знать. [i ] He that fears death lives not. Раньше смерти не умрешь. [ ] Where there’s a will, there’s a way. Где хотенье, там и уменье. [u ] What can’t be cured must be endured. - Что о том тужить, чего нельзя воротить. Согласные (взрывные) [p] Practice makes perfect. Повторение – мать учения. [b] Barking dogs seldom bite. Собака, что лает – редко кусает. [t] Better the foot slip than the tongue. Лучше оступиться, чем оговориться. [d] Dog does not eat dog. Ворон ворону глаз не выклюет. [k] Curiosity killed the cat. Любопытной Варваре на базаре нос оторвали. [g] A good beginning makes a good ending. Зачин дело красит. Лиха беда начало. [ ] Such carpenters, such chips. Видно мастера по работе. [ ] A good Jack makes a good Jill. У хорошего мужа и жена хороша. [m] Many men, many minds. Сколько голов, столько умов. [n] No news (is) good news. Отсутствие новостей – хорошая новость. [ ] By doing nothing we learn to do ill. Праздность (безделье) – мать всех пороков. [f] Fight fire with fire. Клин клином вышибают. [v] Live and let live. Сам живи и другим не мешай. [ ] Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Не рискуешь – не добудешь. [ ] It’s neither here nor there. Это ни к селу, ни городу. [s] Score twice before you cut once. Семь раз отмерь, один раз отрежь. [z] Easy does it. Тише едешь, дальше будешь. [ ] Wishes don’t wash dishes. Если бы да кабы во рту росли грибы. [ ] Eat at pleasure, drink with measure. Ешь вволю, пей в меру. [h] Every man has his hobby-horse. У каждого человека есть свой конек. [l] Live and learn. Век живи, век учись. 30 [w] Time works wonders. Время творит чудеса. [r] Little friends may prove great friends. Маленькие друзья иногда оказывают большие услуги. [j] Youth yearns to be old while age yearns to be young again. Казаться старше юноши желают, обратно в юность старые хотят. POEMS AND RHYMES A Cradle Song (by W. Blake) [i:] Sleep, sleep, beauty bright Dreaming over the toys of night. Sleep, sleep: in the sleep Little sorrows sit and weep. The Telephone (by W. Blake) [a:] Friends a hundred miles apart Sit and chatter heart to heart, Boys and girls from school afar Speak to mother, ask papa. Balls (by Alfred H. Miles) [ ] And there are many other balls We find at pleasure’s source – The croquet ball, the hockey ball. The skittle ball, lacrosse, And smaller ball, the marble balls, And bearing balls, of course. [ –u:] I have two legs With which I walk: I have a tongue With which I talk, And with it too, I eat my food 31 and tell If it’s bad or good. [ :] The early bird so I have heard, Catches the worm, and ‘pon my word, I know two chaps and yet a third Could learn a lesson from that bird. [i:] Stop! Look! Listen! Before you cross the street. Use your eyes, use your ears, And then use your feet! Queen Mab’s Chariot (by M. Drayton) [i] Fib, and Tib, and Pink, and Pin, Pick, and Quick, and Jill, and Jin, Tit, and Nit, and Wap, and Wim – The train that wait upon her. *** March, march, head erect Left, right, that’s correct. Alas, Alack! (by W. de La. Mare) [ ] Ann, Ann? Come quick as you can! There’s a fish that talks In the frying-pan. Out of the fat, As clear as glass, He put up his mouth and moaned “Alas” Oh, most mournful, “Alas, alack!” Then turned to the sizzling, And sank him back. *** 32 Wash, hands, wash, Daddy’s gone to plough. Splash, hands, splash, They’re all washed now. Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Will you catch that big fat rat? It is sitting by the ham Just behind the apple jam. Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, That fat rat is very bad. If you catch it, I’ll be glad. I’ll give you some milk for that. The Washing-up Song (by E. Gould) [ ] Sing a song of washing up, Water hot as hot. Cups and saucers, plates and spoons, Dishes such a lot! Work the dish mop round and round, Wash them clean as clean Polish with a dry white cloth, How busy we have been! *** Hickory, dickory, dock! Hickory, dickory, dock! The mouse ran up the clock, The clock struck one, The mouse ran down, Hickory, dickory, dock! The Listening Woods (by Ida W. Benham) [u] I looked at the shadowed mosses, I looked at the nests overhead, I looked at the small brook dreaming Alone in its sandy bed. The Brook (by A. Tennyson) [ ] 33 Grumbling, stumbling, Fumbling all the day, Fluttering, stuttering, Muttering away, Rustling, hustling, Bustling as it flows, That it how the brook talks, Bubbling as it goes. Dust of Snow (by R. Frost) [ ] The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And saved some part Of a day I have rued. Spring Rain [ei] Rain, rain, rain, April rain, You are feeding seed and grain, You are raising plants and crops With your gaily sparkling drops. The Lion (by O. Nash) [ai] Oh, weep for Mr. and Mrs. Bryan! He was eaten by a lion, Following which, the lion’s lioness Up and swallowed Bryan’s Bryaness. (by L. Carroll) [ i] Said the Crab unto the Oyster Do not loiter in this cloister, Join me in a voyage rare, Up into the moist salt air. Noise and turmoil would annoy me, Toil and trouble, too would cloy me, 34 Should I leave this royal cloister Adroitly rejoined the oyster. Autumn Leaves [au] Down down down Red yellow brown *** Autumn leaves tumble down, Autumn leaves crumble down, Autumn leaves bumble down, Flaking and shaking, Tumbledown leaves. No, No, November [i ] Autumn crowns the glowing sphere, Winter’s grasp is full of cheer, You between them, sad and dear, Bind your brows with leafage sere, Saying, “I remember When the year was not a bier” – Ah, woe, November! Good Night (by J. Wallace) [ ] Here’s a Body – there’s a bed! There’s a pillow – here’s a head! There’s a curtain – here’s a light! There’s a puff – and so good night! Outer Space (by R. Frost) [p] But outer space, At least thus far, For all the fuss Of the populace 35 Stays more popular Than populous. [b] Butterfly, butterfly, Where do you fly, So quick and so high In the blue, blue sky? [t], [d], [k] I have a cat His name is Pit; And by the fire He likes to sit Each day I bring him A dish of milk, And smooth his coat That shines like silk. And on my knee He likes to sit For Pit loves me And I love Pit. Come to Dinner Come to dinner, come to dinner, Ding – dong – dell, Ding – dong – dell, Soup, meat and potatoes, Soup, meat and potatoes, Ding – dong – dell. Ding – dong – dell. Golden Hour (by J. Keats) [g] Golden in the garden, Golden in the glen, Golden, golden, golden, September’s here again! Golden in the tree tops, Golden in the sky, 36 Golden, golden, golden September’s passing by. Aunts (by V. Graham) [ ] Children, aunts are not glamorous creatures, As very often their features Tend to be elderly caricatures of your own. Algy Met a Bear (by Ed. Lear) [ ] Algy met a bear, The bear was bulgy, The bulge was Algy. God made the Bees (by L. Bowen) [m] God made the bees, And the bees make honey, The miller’s man does all the work, But the miller makes the money. (by B.R. Hudelson) [n] If many men know What many men know, If many men went Where many men go, If many men did What many men do, The world would be better – I think so; don’t you? [ ] In the spring, In the spring, Sweet and fresh is everything. Winter winds are no more blowing, In the fields all is growing, In the spring, 37 In the spring, Sweet and fresh is everything! To a Butterfly (by W. Wordsworth) [f] I’ve watched you now a full half-hour, Self-poised upon that yellow flower, And, little butterfly! Indeed I know not if you sleep or feed The Tide in the River (by E. Faricon) The tide in the river, The tide in the river The tide in the river runs deep, I saw a shiver, Pass over the river As the tide turned in its sleep. The Golden Legend (by J. Wallace) [ ] A thousand faiths with a common dream A thousand tongues with a common theme A thousand thoughts with a single plan: Peace on earth and goodwill to man! Toast [ ] Here’s health to all those that we love, Here’s health to all those that love us, Here’s health to all those that love them That love those that love us! City (by L. Hughes) [s–z] In the morning the city Spreads its wing Making a song In stone that sings. 38 In the evening the city Goes to bed hanging lights About its head. When a Man’s Busy (by R. Browning) [ ] When a man’s busy, why, leisure Strikes him as wonderful pleasure: Faith, and at leisure is he, Straight away he wants to be busy. Rules and Regulations (by Ed. Lear) [ ] A short direction To avoid dejection By variations In occupations, And prolongation Of relaxation, And combinations Of recreations, And disputation On the state of nation In adaption To your station, By invitations To friends and relations By evitation, Of amputation By permutation In conversation, And deep reflection You’ll avoid dejection. Moral: Behave The Corn-song (by J.G. Whittier) [h] Heap high the farmer’s wintry hoard Heap high the golden corn! No richer gift has autumn poured From out her lavish horn! 39 Clouds [w] White sheep, white sheep On a blue hill. When the wind stops You all stand still. You walk far away When the winds blow White sheep, white sheep. “I’ll Try” and “I Can’t” (by R.L. Stevenson) [l] The little boy who says “I’ll try”, Will climb to the hill-top; The little boy who says “I can’t”, Will at the bottom stop. Rain (by R.L. Stevenson) [r] The rain is raining all around, It falls on field and tree, It rains on the umbrellas here, And on the ships at sea. PART TWO THEATRE IS A WONDERFUL PLACE “Movies will make you famous; Television will make you rich; But theatre will make you good.” Terrence Mann (1951) The theatre is a great means of promoting culture among people. It is often called «the Temple of Art» because it educates, relaxes, entertains and shows us how wonderful the world around us is. There is a great variety of theatres and the most difficult thing for the theatregoers is to decide which theatre to go to. Some theatres 40 are more popular with the public than others and sometimes it is almost impossible to get tickets when a good play is on. If you managed to get tickets, you will enjoy the performance from the very beginning to the end. Theatre has always played an important role in the life of people. People like to go to the theatres to see interesting performances, to enjoy beautiful architecture. A theatrical performance is always a mystery. The 21st century brought great changes into the theatre. Cinema, radio, television, video, the Internet altered the course of the major performing arts and created the new ones. But still there are hundreds of puppet theatres, conservatoires and philharmonics, musical comedy theatres, drama theatres and opera houses where the audiences are excited at the prospect of seeing a play and the actors are most encouraged by the warm reception. But before going to a theatre you should book a ticket at a box-office. The most expensive seats are in the stalls, boxes and dress-circle. The seats in the amphitheatre, the balcony, and the slips are less expensive, they are cheap. At the entrance to the theatre the usher tears your theatre ticket in half. He or she gives you your half back so that you can find your seat by its number. Another usher shows you to your seat and sells a programme that will tell you which parts the actors are playing and how many acts there are in the play. Then you take your seat and may enjoy the play. Words & Expressions: to entertain – развлекать a theatre-goer – театрал, человек, который часто ходит в театр a puppet theatre – кукольный театр reception – прием a box-office – театральная касса stalls – кресла партера boxes – кресла в ложе dress-circle – бельэтаж slips – стоячие места сзади an usher - билетер to take a seat – занять место to enjoy the play – наслаждаться спектаклем Questions: 1. Why is the theatre often called «the Temple of Art»? 2. How does the theatre promote culture? 3. What theatres are popular among the youth? 4. Which seats are the most expensive, less expensive? 5. What changes the 21st century brought into the theatre? Exercise. Make up sentences using following expressions: 41 to like classic music, to want to stage Shakespeare, to take an interest in the theatre, to be fond of Byron, to work on a new role, to be able to read Bernard Shaw in the original, to be full of admiration for, to prefer the theatre to the cinema. GENRES OF THEATRE Theatre is a branch of the per-forming arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, mime, puppets, music, dance, sound and spectacle. There are many different genres of theatre available for us to watch. Whether you want to visit a musical theatre to witness a story told through song, dance and speech or an opera theatre to listen to a story being sung, the choices are unlimited. There are too many genres of theatre to name them all but the main ones that people go to theatres to see are: musical theatre, drama, opera, comedy, tragedy, etc. Musical theatre: Is a theatre where you will hear and see a story told through the performance of singing, speech and dance. Music and theatre have had a close relationship since ancient times. Modern musical theatre is a form of theatre that combines music, spoken dialogue, and dance. Some of the major musical productions that people have been going to see in recent times include musicals such as Cats and The Phantom of the Opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber; My Fair Lady, West Side Story, Hair which have played all over the world. Opera: Is a genre of theatre where a story is told through singing. Opera, a classical art originating in Italy early in the 16th century, takes great stories often from the world’s dramatic literature, and sets them to music. Some of the best known Opera singers today include Italian tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Spanish tenors Placido Domingo and José Carreras. This trio makes up the Three Tenors who are responsible for producing the best selling classical album, 'In Concert' by The Three Tenors. Rock opera: Same style as opera, except that the musical form is rock music. Drama: Is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. Drama was born in the mid-eighteenth century and portrays the trials of ordinary people. Drama refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action". Drama in theatre is performed by actors on a stage before an audience. The tragedy “Hamlet” by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy “Oedipus the King” by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama. Comedy: Is a genre of theatre where humour is used to tell a story. It is a play about ordinary people, written in a style that is amusing, and has a happy ending. Comedy was born in Athens, shortly after tragedy. Tragedy: Is opposed to comedy. Tragedy was born in the sixth century BC, when the Athenians invented theatre. A tragedy is a play about suffering and death of a person 42 of high rank (a king, a mythological hero) who confronts a situation from which there is no escape. In England in Shakespeare’s time, and in France in the age of Corneille and Racine, playwrights adapted the concept of tragedy to their own cultures. Words & Expressions: spectacle – зрелище a performance – представление to portray – изображать a masterpiece - шедевр humour – юмор to amuse – развлекать a playwright - драматург Exercise. Read and translate the words: theatre, genre, art, audience, combination, gesture, mime, unlimited, album, fiction, term, actor, style, concept. Questions: 1. What genres of theatre are there? 2. What genre is the oldest? 3. What theatrical genre do you prefer? And why? 4. What famous playwrights do you know? 5. Have you seen any play by English writer? “The only way to see the value of a play is to see it acted.” Voltaire (1694-1778) VISITING THE THEATRE We are first-year students of the English and Theatre Department. We are busy for 8 or 10 hours almost every day, because we have rehearsals in the afternoon after classes. We have theoretical and special subjects My friend Boris is a beginning actor. He takes part in classroom plays and that’s why he rehearses a lot with his friends. They have rehearsals even on days off. 43 Fred speaks English. He has a very good voice and likes to sing English songs to the guitar. He is going to learn to play the piano. Boris is a great theatre lover. He tries to see the most interesting performances in our city. And he often invites me to go to the theatre with him. I prefer to go to the Drama Theatre. As a rule I go to the evening performances. There are several theatres and a philharmonic hall in our city: the Drama Theatre, the Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Chamber Theatre, the Puppet Theatre, the Young People’s Theatre. They show dramas, tragedies, and comedies, operas and ballets. As a rule we go to the evening performances (usually they begin at 7 p.m.). Not long ago we went to the Opera and Ballet Theatre, we wanted to see the famous ballet «Romeo and Juliet» by S. Prokofiev, the great Russian composer. It was rather difficult to buy tickets and we had to book the tickets beforehand because the performance was a great success with the public. There was a long line at the box-office. But we were lucky and got the tickets. We arrived at the theatre ahead of time and at the entrance we saw some people who had no tickets to get in. These people asked everybody who was passing by for the extra-tickets. They were ready to sit anywhere and enjoy the performance. Having shown our tickets to the usher, we passed through the entrance hall and went to the cloak-room, where we left our hats and coats. I got a programme from the usher to see what the cast was. The leading parts were acted by the talented young dancers. We entered the hall and took our seats in stalls not far from the stage. The house was full. The orchestra pit was next to the stage. That was where the musicians sat and played the music. The performance began after the third bell had rung. At 7 p.m. sharp the lights went out. The conductor appeared and the overture began. After the overture the curtain went up. I was in raptures at what I saw on the stage. From the very first minute I was deeply impressed by everything I saw on the stage and followed the play with the great interest. The setting and dancing were superb. The costumes were fine and the scenery and the music were brilliant. The ballet seemed to me a fairy tale. I could not take my eyes off the stage. During the interval we went to the foyer and looked at the portraits of the singers and dancers of the Theatre on the walls. When the curtain fell at the end of the performance there was a storm of applause. The dancers received call after call and were presented with flowers. The performance was a great success with the public. Words & Expressions: to rehearse – репетировать a theatre lover – театрал a performance – представление, выступление the Chamber Theatre – камерный театр the Puppet Theatre – кукольный театр the Young People’s Theatre – театр юного зрителя to book the tickets – заказать билеты a box-office – театральная касса a cloak-room – раздевалка 44 cast – состав исполнителей an orchestra pit – оркестровая яма a conductor – дирижер a curtain - занавес to be in raptures – быть в восторге, в восхищении setting – художественное оформление спектакля (декорации, костюмы) scenery – декорации Exercise. Match the words. 1. big a. drama 2. box b. opera 3. police c. your hands 4. chat d. show 5. soap e. instrument 6. clap f. hit 7. musical g. piece 8. cloakh. circle 9. dressi. office 10. master j. room AT THE BROADWAY THEATRE Two years ago I was in New York and went to the Broadway show. I have always wanted to see it. The Broadway theatres are famous for their excellent performances. Their productions are always a success and have a very long run. It was “The Phantom of the Opera” by Andrew Lloyd Webber. I was happy because it won the 1988 Award for Best Musical and is now the longest-running show in Broadway history. My friend booked two tickets on-line for a matinee performance. We arrived 15 minutes before the show began and entered the hall. The house was packed. We took our seats in the 5th row. The curtain went up and you became a spectator. The play made a great impression on us. The show lasted two and a half hours. The atmosphere was really magical. All the play, the acting, the staging were beyond any description. The audience couldn’t tear their eyes away from the stage. All the actors had wonderful dresses and the scenery was out of ordinary. The spectators were deeply impressed by the play and the cast. Andrew Lloyd Webber's romantic musical masterpiece is based on gothic novel of life beneath the stage of the Paris Opera House where The Phantom reigns. He passes his time terrorizing the members of the Opera until he falls in love with a chorus girl who he teaches to sing the 'Music of the Night'. 45 Andrew Lloyd Webber's masterpiece combines a quality of music genius with strength of storyline and use of breathtaking theatrical effects that enthralls audiences. The music was amazing. The singing was incredible, and the special effects were outstanding. The actors were magnificent. Their voices are so strong and perfect. We enjoyed the performance very much. I will remember this mysteriously romantic opera for the rest of my life. Many people believe that it's much more convenient to watch a performance on TV at home, because you don't have to bother about the tickets, transport and so on. As for me I think that it is dull and boring. The main part of the theatre and theatrical performance are the atmosphere of a play, scenery and halls. If you see it on TV you only see the movement, and you only waste your time. As for me I go to the theatre to see the emotions, and switch on the TV-set to see news. In conclusion I'd like to say that going to the theatre makes us clever, wellbred, well-educated. It's quite necessary to visit the theatre. Words & Expressions: a matinee performance – дневной спектакль a spectator – зритель to make a great impression – производить большое впечатление staging – постановка to tear eyes away from the stage – оторвать глаза от сцены a masterpiece – шедевр a chorus – хор a storyline – сюжетная линия breathtaking – захватывающий, потрясающий to enthral – покорять, захватывать incredible – невероятный to book tickets on-line – заказать билеты по интернету Questions: 1. How often do you go to the theatre? 2. What theatres are there in your town (city)? 3. What theatre do you prefer to visit? 4. Who do you usually go to the theatre with? 5. How do you usually buy tickets? 6. Where do you prefer to sit in the theatre? 7. What was your best visit to the theatre? a) What did you see? b) What was it about? c) What type of performance was it? d) Did you enjoy it? e) Who do you think is the main audience for this play? Exercise. Make up a story using following expressions: 46 to include into the cast, to get the part, on getting through the role, to rehearse, a partner, to imitate, the director, to be pleased, to appreciate, to be a success, no applause, to come backstage. PHRASE-LIST Performing Arts Какой сегодня балет? Мы хотим заказать два билета. Сколько стоят билеты? Когда начало/конец вечернего (дневного) спектакля? Работает ли кукольный театр? Есть ли сейчас хорошие концерты? Сколько стоит вход? Где можно посмотреть репертуар театра? What would you advise me to see? Что вы советуете посмотреть? The opening night of the play is today. Сегодня премьера спектакля. Who plays the leading role? Кто играет главную роль? Who is the director? Кто режиссер? Who is the playwright? Кто автор пьесы? Please give me a ticket for the showing Дайте мне билет на сегодня today (tomorrow). (завтра). Please give me a seat in the stalls (in a box, Дайте мне билет в партер (в close to the stage). ложу, близко от сцены). How do I get to the dress-circle (the balcony)? Как пройти в бельэтаж (на балкон)? What theatre would you recommend? В какой театр вы советуете пойти? I would like to go to the drama theatre. Мне хотелось бы сходить в драматический театр. I would like to see a comedy. Я хотел бы посмотреть комедию. What performances are on to-night? Какие спектакли сегодня вечером? How many acts are there? Сколько действий в этом спектакле? How long is the interval? Сколько продлится антракт? I would like a programme, please. Программу, пожалуйста. I would like to hear a … concert Я хотел бы послушать концерт …музыки. symphony симфонической chamber music камерной folk music народной organ органной pop music легкой jazz джазовой Who plays the part of the violin? Кто исполняет партию скрипки? Do you like the play (music, scenery)? Вам понравился спектакль (музыка, декорации)? What ballet is on today? We’d like to reserve two tickets. How much are the tickets? When does the evening (matinee) performance begin/end? Is there a puppet theatre on? Are there any good concerts on? How much does it cost to get in? Where can I see the theatre repertoire? 47 This is a very good play (an interesting, a dull, an unforgettable, marvelous) Спектакль очень хороший (интересный, скучный, незабываемый, удивительный) Exercise. Speak about your visit to the theatre. Say a few words about: a) the play you saw; b) the cast; c) the scenery, costumes, music, the performances of the actors, the direction; d) the reaction of the audiences; e) your impression. Conversation Tony: So, what are we doing tonight? Ann: I’m not sure. Tony: Let’s go to the theatre, then. There’s a good comedy on. Ann: I don’t like comedies. I prefer drama. I think comedies are a bit silly. Tony: There is a very good play on at the Drama Theatre. Ann: Sounds good to me. What is it? Tony: “Romeo and Juliet” by W. Shakespeare. Do you like it? Ann: I love it. Tony: Right. We’ll see that, then. Half past six outside the theatre. Ann: I’ll be there. PART THREE “You need three things in the theatre – the play, the actors, and the audience; and each must give something.” Kenneth Haigh (1931) The word theatre means a “place for seeing,” but theatre is more than just a building where plays are performed. Theatre is an art form consisting of works written for the stage and intended to be performed by actors on a stage. Theatre is where playwrights write scripts, directors supervise rehearsals, set des igners and technical crew work behind-the-scenes, and the actors perform on stage. All of these people have an important role in the theatre, but it is not true theatre until an audience is there to experience it. Exactly when theatre began is a mystery. Prehistoric hunters acted out stories 48 about their hunting expeditions. Ancient Egyptians performed sacred songs and danced for their gods in religious ceremonies, but the idea of theatre as dramatic entertainment came later. The first recorded form of European theatre began in Ancient Greece around 600 B.C. with a religious festival to honor Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility. It has been said that a poet named Thespis won a dramatic play competition at the festival. Because he is considered to be the first actor, people sometimes refer to actors as thespians. Thespis also introduced the use of masks in Greek theatre. Masks were designed to show the age and emotion. Women were not allowed to perform, so men wore female masks and played their parts. In Greek theatre, the tragedy is the most admired type of play. In 300 B.C., Romans were inspired by Greek art, culture and theatre and wrote Latin versions of Greek plays. Comedy plays were more popular than tragedies. In the Roman Theatre, slaves served as actors. Unlike Greek theater, women were permitted to appear on stage but they did not play important roles. The Roman Theatre competed for the audiences that attended chariot races, gladiator contests and public executions. This brought about the need for impressive public theatres. For the next two centuries, Romans built about 125 structures. Eventually, plays included stage violence and crude humor. Christians disapproved and closed down all of the theaters. Theatre buildings were not permitted throughout Europe during medieval times, but traveling players, known as minstrels, kept the theatre alive along with acrobats, puppeteers, jugglers and storytellers. They created a stage by raising a simple platform wherever they performed in halls, market places and at festivals. Christians thought this kind of entertainment was a sin, so they started their own kind of theatre. During an 49 Easter Sunday service, priests acted out the meaning of the holy day to help teach people who could not read. These “miracle” plays became so popular that there was not enough room to perform in the church and they moved outside. They were still considered religious events and not entertainment. In the Renaissance period, from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries, an interest in classical Greek and Roman art, culture and theatre returned. Two major theatre design traditions were developed at this time in Italy: the proscenium arch that frames and divides the stage from the audience and the art of painting cloths as backdrops for scenery. Another major influence from this region was the commedia dell’ arte, which means comedy of the profession. This form of theatre was an improvised, quick-witted performance by wandering players. They wore masks to portray a regular cast of characters and made up their lines as they went along. The daughters and wives of the players were some of the first women to perform in theatre. In England, Queen Elizabeth I strongly supported the theatre. During Elizabethan times, as they are known, the most famous playwright in history began his career. Born in 1564, William Shakespeare was an actor and poet, who wrote plays for his company to perform. Many of his plays, such as “Romeo and Juliet,” “Hamlet,” and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” are still performed all over the world today. Kabuki is a form of theatre in Japan that began in the early 1600s and is still performed today. This traditional theatre uses extravagant makeup and costumes, a unique kind of music and an all-male cast. A woman named Okuni created Kabuki Theater, but shortly after it became popular, women were banned from performing. The plays, based on legends, open and close with the sound of wood clapping together. The style of music in Kabuki Theater is named for a three-stringed instrument called a shamisen. The music enhances the actors’ movements and voices, making them almost like dancing and singing. During climactic moments in the play or at the end of a scene, the actor freezes in place, stares and then crosses his eyes. This is called mie. Each Kabuki character wears colorful costumes and has thick makeup that looks like a mask. The colour red on a 50 character’s face signifies a “good” character and blue suggests a “bad” character. All of these elements have made Kabuki Theatre a traditional art form that has entertained audiences for over 400 years. In 1736, the Dock Street Theatre in Charles-Town, South Carolina was the first building in America created solely for theatrical purposes. Nobody knows exactly what happened to the first building, but in 1937, the city of Charleston built a new Dock Street Theatre where the original one was located. Famous Charlestonian DuBose Heyward became the resident writer of the Dock Street Theatre. He is best known for his novel and play by the same name, “Porgy,” a story that portrays Gullah life. The play was performed in New York over 300 times, toured across the country and played in London, England. Heyward is also known for his collaboration with the famous Broadway musical composers, George and Ira Gershwin on “Porgy and Bess,” often called the best American opera ever written. Today, the Dock Street Theatre provides a place for performances by community arts organizations. Community theatre utilizes local talents and resources for productions. Although most of these productions are staged and performed by volunteers who love the theatre, some professional companies pay actors, technical crew and staff. Community theatres, like the Dock Street, are located in many cities and towns in South Carolina and the U.S. Although full-time paying positions may not be available at all community theatres, they provide a place to get hands-on experience “From the start it has been the theatre’s business to entertain people ... it needs no other passport than fun.” Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) EARLY THEATRES The first buildings used for theatrical performances in Britain were amphitheatres intro- 51 duced by the Romans, who copied theatres from ancient Greece. These were semicircular structures, constructed of wood initially and later rebuilt in stone. They were open to the air with banked seating surrounding a raised stage. Medieval theatre was presented on elaborate temporary stages inside great halls, barns, or in the open courtyards of galleried inns. It was from these that Elizabethan timber-framed open-air theatres took their form, such as the Globe in London. They were multi-sided buildings, with a covered platform stage against one side. The aud ience sat or stood in covered galleries around the other sides or in the open courtyard. All the performances took place in daylight. BRITISH THEATRES Until recently the history of the English theatre has been build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There is no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws the odious and pays it's way. Another p eculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is as follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked in advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first served. And ancient time’s plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places. The first theatre in England “The Blackfries” build in 1576, and “The Globe” build in 1599, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention “The English National theatre”, “The Royal Shakespeare Company” and “The Covent Garden”. “Covent Garden” used to be a fashionable promenade - it was, before then, a convent garden - but when it became overrun with flowersellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as “St. James’s Square”. The first “Covent Garden theatre” was built in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuilt exactly a year after. It opened in September 1809, with Shakespeare's “Macbeth”. Since the middle of the last century “Covent Garden” became exclusively devoted to opera. Now “Covent Garden” in busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet. THEATRES IN SHAKESPEARE’S TIME At the time when Shakespeare (1564-1616) was creating his masterpieces the theatres in which they were staged had little in common with the theatres of today. They were usually round in shape, had high walls and no roof. The stage was part of the pit so that the actors could speak in a 52 natural voice. During the performance poor spectators watched it from the pit while the aristocrats sat on the stage just where the action of the play was taking place. An iron fence surrounded the pit. It protected the spectators in the boxes when wild beasts sometimes took part in the performance. The scenery was unusual too. They used simple boards with such inscriptions as “This is the moon”, “Here is the castle of Elsinore”, etc. A trumpeter announced the beginning and the end of a play. The stage had no curtain and when a character died, the other actors carried him off the stage. Questions: 1. What were theatres like when Shakespeare was creating his masterpieces? 2. What was the shape of the theatres? 3. What spectators filled the pit? 4. Where were the aristocrats sitting during the performance? 5. What was the scenery like? 6. How did they announce the beginning and the end of the play? 7. What modern theatres can you name that have no curtain and don’t use any scenery? BRITISH THEATRES TODAY Until recently the history of the English theatre has been build around actors rather then companies. There is no permanent staff in British theatres. A play is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it pays its way. Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is as follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked in advance (bookable), and unbookable ones have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principle: first come - first served. In ancient times plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places. The first theatre in England was built in 1576, and “The Globe”, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare, was built in 1599. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention “The English National Theatre”, “The Royal Shakespeare Company” and “Covent Garden”. “Covent Garden” used to be a fashionable promenade - it was, before then, a convent garden - but when it became overrun with flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive surroundings further west, such as “St. James’s Square”. The first “Covent Garden Theatre” was built in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuilt a year after. It opened in September 1809, with Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”. 53 Since the middle of the last century “Covent Garden” or the Royal Opera House became exclusively devoted to opera. Now “Covent Garden” is busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people from both the Opera Company and the Royal Ballet. You can hear wonderful music and singing from all over the world at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden. Britain is a nation of drama lovers, you’ll never be far from some of the best and most varied theatres in the world. You could start with shows and musicals in London’s historic ‘Theatreland’ where 40 theatres jostle for your attention. Or, if you prefer Shakespeare’s plays, go straight to the glorious Shakespeare’s Elizabethan Globe Theatre on the south bank of the River Thames. His birthplace at Stratford-uponAvon, home to the internationally renowned Royal Shakespeare Company, is also a must-see. London’s West End has some of the best theatres in the world, so tickets can be expensive. There is something for everybody – from a play by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Barbican Theatre, to Agatha Christi’s ‘The Mousetrap’ (this play began in 1952 and thousands of visitors see it every year). London is also home to the Royal Opera House where world-class opera takes place in a beautiful setting. The Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester, housed in a spectacular former Cotton Exchange building, is known for first-rate classic and modern productions. Scotland’s capital is best known for the annual Edinburgh Festivals. The Edinburgh Festival Theatre has the biggest stage of any theatre in Britain. THEATRE IN RUSSIA Theatrical performances were not known in Russia until the second half of the 17th century. First theatres in Moscow are associated with buffoons' performances. In 1659 Russian ambassador Lichachev saw his first play in Florence: most of all he liked rapid change of decorations and wooden horses that were moving like if they were alive. After his return to Russia he suggested to Tsar Aleksey Mikchailovitch (16291676) to build a theatre in the house of Russian diplomat Matveev. In 1676 under the guidance of Matveev theatrical performances were being played in Preobrazenskoe – the summer residence of Tsar Aleksey Michailovitch. For that purpose a special mansion was built. German and some Russian actors worked there. For performances at winter time, in 1673 some place in Kremlin was equipped. In seventeenth century there were some private theatres in Kiev, in Novgorod seminary and at the bishop’s house in Rostov. All dramatic works of that time in terms of it contents could be con- 54 sidered as spiritual performances. The authors of these plays were Saint Dmitry Ro stovsky, monk Semen Polozky. Abbey of Baturinsky cloister Feofan had written some comedy in poetry. After the Aleksey Mikchailovitch death his theatre was closed. In the time of Peter the First government, by the Greek-Slavonic Academy an school theatre was organised. Since 1701 the school theatre’s performances in allegorical form about the tsar’s reforms, Russian army’s deeds and victories had been told. In 1702 at the Red Square a theatrical building was founded. The theatre was supposed for general public that pieces of Moliere, Calderon and others was shown. In 1706 the theatre was closed as well but theatricals continued their life in amateur theatres. As for constant theatre, such one was founded in Yaroslavl just in 1748, but in 1756 under the highest (tsar) order the theatre’s actors were sent to Saint-Petersburg where at the scene of national theatre people managed to see wonderful comedy presented by the best actors of the troupe. By Moscow University in 1757 it was The University theatre opened. Since 1759 till 1761 the students group played. In 1780 a big house was built for the first Russian constant public theatre. Here, in 1783 for the first time was the comedy by D.I. Fonvisin “Nedorosl”. From the second part of eighteenth century the most famous become landowners’ theatres (Sheremetievsky, Yusupovsky) in which peasants played. In 1824 for dramatic troupes the house of merchant Vargin was rebuilt and was called “Maly Theatre”. The plays by Shiller (“Robbers”), Shakespeare (“Gamlet”), Griboedov (“Grief through the Mind”). A new step of the theatre had begun from the pieces of A.N. Ostrovsky gave to the Russian scene a great variety of realistic national works. From the end of 1860, contrary to the monopoly of empire theatres some attempts were undertaken to create private ones. In 1888 “The Society of art and literature”, where young K.S. Stanislavsky made his theatricals, was found. In 1914 A. Tairov and a group of young actors organised Kamerny Theatre the main idea of which was to bring up the actor, being in posses of all theatrical styles: from tragedy to operetta. A lot of new theatres sprang up after the Great October Revolution: Meyerhold Theatre, 3rd Studio of MHT (now it’s known as Vahtangova Theatre), Theatre of Revolution (now called Mayakovsky Theatre), Theatre of Young Spectator and others. A NEW THEATRE WAS BORN In 1898 Stanislavsky and Nemirovitch-Danchenko decided to found a new theatre. They had no company of their own so they invited young actors. Stanislavsky and Nemirovitch-Danchenko took the tragedy “Tsar Feodor Ioanovitch” by Alexey Tolstoy for the first performance. They preferred to stage this play because they wanted to show the historical truth on the stage. The directors wanted to convey the authentic atmos- 55 phere of the 16th century Russia. They did not want any traditional set. So the set designer Simov went to old Russian towns Rostov and Yaroslavl. There he made sketches of old cathedrals, costumes and furniture. The rehearsals began in June 1898 and lasted till October. On the 14th of October 1898 the new Moscow theatre opened. The new theatre with its progressive ideas, its new style of acting and direction had a great effect and the performance made a big impression on the Moscow public. The public liked the acting, the scenery and costumes of the performance very much. Moscow newspapers wrote that a new unique theatre was born. The name of this theatre was the Moscow Art Theatre. Questions: 1. When did Stanislavsky and Nemirovitch-Danchenko found the Moscow Art Theatre? 2. Why did they invite young actors? 3. What play did they choose for the first performance? 4. Why did the artist Simov go to Rostov and Yaroslavl? 5. When did the rehearsals begin? 6. How long did the rehearsals last? 7. What was the reaction of the public and the press? LOOKING FOR NEW WAYS 1. Russia gave the world such outstanding innovators and stage reformers as K. Stanislavsky, E. Vakhtangov and V. Meyerhold. Each of them had his own working method and their achievements have brought them general acclaim. Their systems have played an outstanding role in the development of the 20th century theatre. K. Stanislavsky (1863-1938) – an outstanding stage-director and theorist looked for new ways of scenic expressiveness. Stanislavsky strove to create an authentic atmosphere in the theatre. The Stanislavsky System fought against overacting and clichés. Stanislavsky developed a technique which helped actors to build the inner world of the character portrayed on the stage. Stanislavsky’s “art of adaptation” concerned everything from the actor’s make-up to the inner identification with the character. All over the world actors and directors follow his method. 2. E. Vakhtangov (1883-1922) was stage’s greatest pupil. If Stanislavsky had been reforming the theatre for more than 40 years, Vakhtangov’s creative life lasted only five but very fruitful years. His productions incorporated music, dance, abstract costume, avant-garde sets as well as a detailed analysis of the texts of plays and the psychological motivations of the characters. 56 3. V. Meyerhold (1874-1940) was the famous innovator of new stage laws. He never repeated himself, never stopped experimenting. In contrast to Stanislavsky who wanted the spectators to lose themselves in the atmosphere of the play, Meyerhold wanted the spectators to remember that they were in a theatre, to make them think. Words & Expressions: scenic – сценический, театральный overacting – переигрывать to portray – изображать art of adaptation – искусство перевоплощения Exercise. Match the words with their meanings. 1. actor a) a special building or place for the performance of plays 2. director b) a person who produces works of art (paintings, drawings) 3. theatre c) a writer of plays 4. playwright d) you see this person in plays or films 5. stage e) a person who gives instructions to actors in a play or film 6. artist f) a person who writes music 7. composer g) the raised floor on which plays are performed in a theatre PART FOUR GREAT ACTORS “Acting is a question of absorbing other people’s personalities and adding some of your own experience.” Paul Newman (1925-2008) SIR LAURENCE OLIVIER Sir Laurence Olivier (1907-1989) was an English actor, director and producer. Olivier was the greatest actor in the English-speaking world of the 20th century. He is world famous for his outstanding artistic achievement in the theatre and cinema. He directed stage productions that are considered the most difficult ones in the world repertoire. He created more than 120 stage images. Olivier played a wide variety of roles on stage and screen from Greek tragedies, Shakespeare and comedies to modern American and British drama. Olivier had two Oscar awards (for Best Actor and Best Picture for the film “Hamlet” 1948). 57 He was constantly changing because he wanted to keep the audience awake. He followed the advice given many years ago by Feodor Chaliapin to an actor: “Never do what the audience expects you to do”. Major in acting Laurence Olivier considered: thorough knowledge of the play in which he was performing, artistic imagination, physical, intellectual and spiritual strength and an ability to identify with a role. He could not understand other actors who in the middle of their monologues about passion, power, death were wondering what they would like to have for supper. Olivier said: “If I am going to play a part, first of all, I ask myself what kind of man my character is, and what there is about him that might excite people. And if I could not imagine the entire man, the whole mind of the character, if I didn’t feel I am that man whom I am going to play, I wouldn’t be able to play; I wouldn’t have made an actor.” With such a particular approach to acting it is no wonder that Olivier created many unforgettable characters, among them – Hamlet, Macbeth, Richard III, Doctor Astrov, Julius Caesar and others. To display the character vividly, to make us feel what is happening, using different modulations of the voice, using particular but natural gestures, changing pace and expression, conveying emotion is a very difficult task for an actor. Olivier copes with it splendidly. His ability to take on the essence of the role is the key to his magic on the stage. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Sir Laurence Olivier among the Greatest Male Stars of All Time, at number 14 on the list. (From “Portrait of the Shakespeare Country” by J.C. Trewin) Words & Expressions: thorough knowledge – полное (совершенное) знание to identify (with) – перевоплощаться passion – страсть to excite – волновать an entire man – человек целиком, весь человек made an actor – получился (вышел) актер a particular approach – особенный подход pace – походка to cope (with) – справляться с splendidly – великолепно, блестяще magic – волшебство to take on the essence of a role – перевоплощаться Questions: 1. How many roles did L. Olivier play? 2. What role did he win Oscar award for? 3. What advice did Feodor Chaliapin give to the actor? 4. What was Olivier’s acting approach? 5. What characters did Olivier create? 6. What is the main task for an actor? 58 THE GREAT COMEDIAN Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (1889-1977) was a superior actor of rare gift. He was an English comic actor, film director and composer best known for his work during the silent film era. He became the most famous film star in the world before the end of World War I. Chaplin was a master of pantomime – skilled in acrobatics and dancing, which he had learned in the London music hall. His type of comedy was born in the 16th century in the theatre created by Travelling players. But Chaplin managed to breathe a new life into the old theatre form. His splendid improvisations quickly attracted the attention of American filmmakers. In 1914 he appeared in a great number of short films. His success with the public was truly unique. This gave him opportunities to start his own business. Chaplin showed rare versatility in acting as the producer-director-script writer-musicianleading actor of his own comedies. Three great comedies of the 20th century – “The Kid”, “The Gold Rush” and “The Circus” were created by Chaplin in the golden age of silent film. However Chaplin didn’t give up making films after sound came to the cinema. He was able to produce his masterpieces in the sound age: “City Lights” (1931), “Modern Times” (1936). Charles Chaplin created a great comic tradition. Most of our contemporary comedians keep on perfecting the art that had been developed in the 20’s. Chaplin’s masterpieces will never fade, and they will influence the film comedies. (From “American Cinema”) Words & Expressions: a comedian – актер-комик gift – дар the silent film era – эпоха немого кино skilled – искусный to breathe a new life – вдохнуть новую жизнь versatility - разносторонность a script writer – сценарист “The Gold Rush” – «Золотая лихорадка» the sound age – эпоха звукового кино Questions: 1. How did Chaplin influence the work of contemporary comedians? 2. What was Chaplin’s specific comedy technique? 3. Is it difficult to imitate his comedy technique? 4. What are Chaplin’s masterpieces? 5. Do you like comedies? 6. Have you seen Chaplin’s films? 7. Who is your favourite comedian? 59 MOVIES, MOVIES, MOVIES American movie-makers make about 570 movies each year. 850 new movies are made every year in India. Many people watch American movies around the world. Today the name Hollywood means movies. Before 1910, Hollywood was only a small town near Los Angeles. Movie-makers moved there from New York because they wanted the Californian sun. In 1920, Hollywood was the centre for American movies. In early movies there was no sound. Everything changed in 1927 with ‘The Jazz Singer’. In that movie Al Jolson sang and also spoke, but much of the movie had no sound. After that, people wanted movies with sound. Movies changed in other ways, too. They got bigger and better. Six years after ‘The Jazz Singer’ King Kong fought airplanes in New York City in one of the most famous movies of 1933 ‘King Kong’. For years, almost every star in Hollywood worked for only one movie company. Today, stars can work for different movie companies. In ‘Jurassic Park’ and ‘Titanic’ movie-makers used computers. THE ART OF TRANSFORMATION Johnny Depp (1963) is an American actor, producer and musician. He is perhaps one of the most versatile actors of his day and age in Hollywood. Depp was raised in Florida. He dropped out of school at age 15 in the hopes of becoming a rock musician. He got into acting after a visit to Los Angeles, California, where he met up with the actor Nicolas Cage, who advised him to turn to acting. He made his film debut in ‘A Nightmare on Elm Street’ (1984). In 1990, after numerous roles in teen-oriented films, Depp was firmly established as a leading Hollywood actor with the director Tim Burton movie ‘Edward Scissorhands’, where he played a sad-faced, tragic hero. Depp has played many different characters in his career – a man with hands made of scissors, the captain of a pirate ship and the owner of a chocolate factory. In ‘Edward Sciss orhands’ (1990) Depp plays a shy and very lonely man who has scissors instead of hands. He looks quite frightening with his thin purple lips, pale skin and messy black hair. Still, he is one of the most lovable characters. 60 In ‘The Pirates of the Caribbean’ trilogy (20032007) Depp magically transforms into Captain Jack Sparrow, the cunning but likeable captain of a pirate ship. Sparrow is probably the most famous character that Depp has played. He has a beard, a moustache and long hair and he wears a headscarf. Captain Sparrow is just as nutty as Edward, but a lot funnier, and braver, too. In ‘Charlie and the Chocolate Factory’ (2006), Depp plays Willy Wonka, the owner of a chocolate factory and inventor of many crazy and wonderful inventions. BRAD PITT Brad Pitt was born in 1963 in Oklahoma and raised in Springfield, Missouri. At High School, Pitt was involved in sports, debating, student government and school musicals. When Brad Pitt got a place at the University of Missouri of Journalism with a focus on advertising, he had no idea that some years later he would become one of the most popular American actors. Soon young Brad found that he just wasn’t interested enough in journalism, so he dropped out the university in his final year. He then moved to Los Angeles, California where he had many different jobs such as a fridge deliveryman, a limousine driver before he got his first acting job. After playing a number of small parts, he got the part in the film ‘Thelma and Louise’. Today Pitt is a very successful actor, he travels all over the world and he is also famous for his charity work in third world countries. Words & Expressions: versatile – разносторонний ‘A Nightmare on Elm Street’ – «Кошмар на улице Вязов» teen-oriented films – фильмы для подростков ‘Edward Scissorhands’ – «Эдвард Руки-ножницы» lovable – милый, симпатичный ‘The Pirates of the Caribbean’ – «Пираты Карибского моря» nutty – необычный, ненормальный charity – благотворительность Questions: 1. Why do actors need to change their appearance? 2. Does the appearance reflect the theatre or film character? 3. Who is your favourite actor? Speak about him/her. Follow the plan. a) introduction (name, date of birth, what famous for) b) early years (family, studies, etc.) c) later years (job, achievements) 61 d) your comments/feelings SMOKTUNOVSKY AND ENGLISH In 1964 the film-director Grigory Kozintsev shot the brilliant screen-version of Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” with Innokenty Smoktunovsky in the leading role. The music was composed by the great Russian composer Dmitry Shostakovich. While at work on “Hamlet” Smoktunovsky started to learn English. One day Kozintsev came to his place on some business and saw a strange piece of paper, covered with coloured symbols, on the wall over his desk. Kozintsev thought that it looked like a geographical map. He asked the actor what it was. Smoktunovsky explained to him that he had been stud ying English for a few months already. He told Kozintsev that English grammar was very difficult and he hoped that this table would help him to master it. Smoktunovsky said that he wanted to learn English well enough to be able to read Shakespeare in the original. Words & Expressions: to shoot (shot) – снимать фильм to compose – сочинять, писать (музыку) to master – овладевать, усваивать in the original – в оригинале, на языке оригинала Questions: 1. What is your attitude towards classical art? 2. What makes the role of Hamlet so attractive to all actors? 3. Have you seen the film “Hamlet” with Smoktunovsky in the leading role? 4. What is your opinion of Smoktunovsky’s performance of the role? 5. What do you think of contemporary treatments of Hamlet? 6. When did Smoktunovsky begin to study English? 7. What did the actor say about English grammar? 8. How did Smoktunovsky explain the purpose of his studies? THEATRE TRADITIONS Actors have lots of traditions and superstitions. For example, you don’t say “good luck” to an actor. You say “break a leg”. It’s strange but true. “Good luck” is bad luck. Also, actors never say the name of Shakespeare’s famous play ‘Macbeth’. They always call it ‘The Scottish Play’. In theatres the name Macbeth brings bad luck. A third tradition is about whistling. You must never whistle in a theatre dressing room. Someone who whistles must go out of the room and turn around three times. Only after that, a person can knock on the door and come in again. 62 INTERVIEWING AN ACTOR Correspondent: What is your ambition? Actor: To play Hamlet on the stage. Correspondent: Why do you want to play this role? Actor: I am fond of Shakespeare. I have even started studying English to be able to read Shakespeare in the original. Correspondent: Have you seen Laurence Olivier’s performance of the role? Actor: I have, and ever since I have been dreaming of performing this role myself. I hope that Olivier’s work will help me a lot. His artistic interpretation of Hamlet is very specific and concrete, and it makes me think that there can be other Hamlets. Correspondent: And what do you think about contemporary productions of Shakespeare? Actor: I prefer the productions of Shakespeare in Elizabethan costumes. In my opinion it is hardly possible and permissible (допустимый) to show Shakespeare in modern dress. But I believe that the spirit of poetry should be modern and lifelike to the audiences today. For every new generation classical art has a new sense and meaning. PART FIVE LITERATURE AND DRAMA “The decline of literature indicates the decline of a nation” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) “The real object of the drama is the exhibition of the human character.” Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859) Playwrights create scripts. Like other literary artists, playwrights tell stories through the words and actions of characters. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England’s national poet and the “Bard of Avon”. Though William Shakespeare is recognized as one of literature’s greatest influences, very little is actually known about him. He was born and brought up in Stratford-uponAvon and left for London where he became a profes- 63 sional actor and dramatist. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company. In 1594 he joined other actors in forming a new theatre company. For twenty years he wrote two plays a year for the theatre. In 1599 the company of actors built a new theatre “The Globe”. Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. He wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets and several other poems. His early plays were mainly comedies (A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night, The Two Gentlemen of Verona) and histories (Richard III, Henry V, Edward III and others). He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Shakespeare’s tragedies are for a single star and show the pathos of individual, but his comedies are for a galaxy of constellations and give us a picture of life. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Many of his plays were published in editions during his lifetime. But the First Folio of his dramatic works came out only in 1623, seven years after his death. For 250 years Stratford-upon-Avon must have been doing very well without its own theatre. Charles Edward Flower decided to break with that situation and to maintain a new tradition. He had dreamt of a theatre in Stratford where the plays by Shakespeare could be staged. It was clear to him that the native town of the greatest poet should have its own theatre and in 1877 on the birthday of Shakespeare, the Shakespeare Memorial was founded. The opening play was “Much Ado About Nothing”. Shakespeare’s literary work is usually divided into three periods. The first p eriod of his creative work falls between 1590 and 1600. Shakespeare’s comedies b elong to the first period of his creative work. They all are written in his playful manner and in the brilliant poetry that conveys the spectator to Italy. Some of the first plays of the first period are: “Richard 3” (1592), “The comedy of errors” (1592), “Romeo and Juliet” (1594), “Julius Caesar” (1599), “As you like it” (1599), 1600 - “Twelfth night”. Shakespeare’s poems are also attributed to the first period, “Venus and Ad onis” and “Lucre”, and 154 sonnets. “Venus and Adonis” was the first of Shakespeare’s works that came off the press. The second period of Shakespeare’s creative work was from 1600 to 1608. His famous tragedies appeared at this time. In the plays of this period the dramatist reaches his full maturity. He presents great humans pro blems. His tragedies and historical plays made Shakespeare the greatest humanist of the English Renaissance. Some plays of the second period: 1601 - “Hamlet”, 1604 “Othello”. Shakespeare’s plays of the third period are called the “Romantic dramas”. There is no tragic tension in these plays. This period lasted from 1609 till 1612. Words & Expressions: a playwright – драматург 64 A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Сон в летнюю ночь Much Ado About Nothing – Много шума из ничего Twelfth Night – Двенадцатая ночь histories – исторические хроники a romance – рыцарский роман (в стихах) a galaxy of constellations – плеяда созвездий to retire – уединяться to do without – обходиться без to maintain – учреждать, утверждать Questions: 1. Why did Shakespeare leave Stratford for London? 2. When did Shakespeare produce most of his known works? 3. What were his early plays? 4. When was the First Folio of his dramatic works published? 5. When was the Shakespeare Memorial found in his native town? 6. What plays of Shakespeare have you seen on the stage? 7. What character would you like to play? RICHARD SHERIDAN Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (1751-1816) was an Irish playwright and poet and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He is known for his plays such as The Rivals, The School for Scandal and A Trip to Scarborough. R.B. Sheridan was born in 1751 in Dublin, Ireland, His mother, Frances Sheridan, was a playwright and novelist. His father, Thomas Sheridan, was for a while an actor-manager at the Smock Alley Theatre but, following his move to England in 1758, he gave up acting and wrote a number of books concerning education in London. In London Sheridan began writing for the stage. In 1775, his first play “The Rivals” was produced at London’s Covent Garden Theatre. His most famous play “The School for Scandal” (1777) is considered one of the greatest comedies of manners in English. THE MYTH OF PYGMALION In ancient Greece there lived a sculptor, Pygmalion by name. Once he made a statue of a young woman. The statue was so beautiful that Pygmalion fell in love with it. He wanted the statue to come to life and 65 he asked the gods to help him. But the statue remained silent. Then Pygmalion decided to go to Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love. He asked Aphrodite to make the statue talk. On returning home Pygmalion ran up to his statue, looked at it, and suddenly he saw it move and then he heard it speak. The statue turned into a beautiful woman, and Pygmalion married her. This myth is known to have inspired a number of artists, writers, composers. Words & Expressions: ancient – древний a sculptor – скульптор to come to life – ожить Goddess – богиня turned into – превратиться в to inspire – вдохновлять GEORGE BERNARD SHAW George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) an Irish playwright was born in Dublin, Ireland. In 1876 he moved to London. He wrote regularly. In 1895, he became a music and theatre critic for the Saturday Review and he began writing plays. He decided to write plays in order to illustrate his criticism of the English stage. During his lifetime he wrote more than 60 plays (Caesar and Cleopatra, Widower's Houses, Arms and the Man, The Man of Destiny). Shaw’s play “Pygmalion” (1912), a witty study of phonetics as well as a clever treatment of middle-class morality and class distinction, proved some of Shaw's greatest successes on the stage. It is a combination of the dramatic and the comic means. The play brought Shaw world-wide fame and the reputation of the most brilliant playwright of his time. The role of Eliza has become the most coveted role at the theatre and brought success to a number of outstanding actresses. Bernard Shaw is known to have written “Pygmalion” for Mrs. Patrick Campbell, inspired by her brilliant performance as Ophelia. Mrs. Patrick or Pat, as she was called, was at the height of her fame and was well-known not only in Britain but in Europe as well. She was flattered that Shaw had written the play for her and she thanked him for offering her the leading part. She loved the role of Eliza and was d elighted to play it. B. Shaw directed the play himself. The word-rehearsal lasted eight hours. The premiere of “Pygmalion” was superb and was a great success. The aud ience laughed all the time. At the end the spectators went mad with delight. There were endless curtain-calls, flowers and flattering speeches. 66 The play “Pygmalion” was later made into the film “My Fair Lady”. His screenplay won an Oscar (1938). He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Literature (1925) for his contribution to literature. Words & Expressions: fame – слава to be delighted – быть в восторге a word-rehearsal – прогон superb – великолепный a screenplay – киносценарий a coveted role – желаемая роль to award – награждать MY FAIR LADY Special mention must be made of the musical “My Fair Lady” which was based on the play “Pygmalion”. It was staged in 1954 on Broadway (New York) and was one great success there and abroad. It ran longer and was seen by more people than any other American musical comedy. The show was played at packed theatres all over the world. The success of “My Fair Lady” was tremendous thanks to Alan Lerner who wrote the script and lyrics, and Frederic Loewe, who wrote the splendid music, and certainly to Bernard Shaw, whose play the script was based on. Ten years passed the American Studio Warners Bros released the colour widescreen musical “My Fair Lady”. And again audiences were delighted with its tunes, and Shaw’s 50-year-old play seemed as interesting as it was to our grandfathers. The film was beautifully costumed and creatively set. Audrey Hepburn, as Eliza Doolittle, beautiful and charming, was quite proper. Words & Expressions: to run – идти (о пьесе) packed – переполненный tremendous – грандиозный lyrics – тексты песен 67 to release – выпускать tune - мелодия Questions: 1. Why did B. Shaw decide to write plays? 2. How many plays did he write during his lifetime? 3. What play brought Shaw world-wide fame and the reputation of the most brilliant playwright? 4. When was “Pygmalion” staged on Broadway? 5. Who wrote music for the musical “My Fair Lady”? 6. Have you seen the film “My Fair Lady”? OSCAR WILDE Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) was a popular Irish poet, novelist and dramatist. Wilde’s parents were successful Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. Oscar Wilde studied at university first at Dublin, then at Oxford. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. He tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States of America and Canada on the new “English Renaissance in Art”, and then returned to London where he worked as a journalist. In the early 1890s Wilde became one of London’s most popular playwrights. Today he is remembered for his epigrams, plays and short stories. The most famous works include his only novel ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ (1890), comedies ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ (1895) and ‘An Ideal Husband’ (1899), as well as some excellent short stories like ‘The Happy Prince and Other Stories’ (1888). His short story ‘The Canterville Ghost’ (1887) is about an American ambassador and his family who buy a haunted house. At eleven o’clock the family went to bed, and by half-past all the lights were out. Some time after, Mr Otis woke up because of a noise outside his room. It sounded like the clank of metal. He got up at once, struck a match and looked at the time. It was exactly one o’clock. Mr Otis was quite calm. The strange noise continued, and with it he heard the sound of footsteps. He put on his slippers, took a small bottle out of his dressing case and opened the door. Right in front of him he saw an old man. He looked terrible. His eyes 68 were red. His hair was long and grey. His clothes were old-fashioned and dirty, and there were handcuffs and rusty chains on his wrists and ankles. “My dear sir,” said Mr Otis, “those chains need oiling. Here take this small bottle of lubricant. I will leave it here for you and I will give you more if you need it.” With these words the ambassador put the bottle down on a marble table, and went back to bed, closing the door behind him. Words & Expressions: intellectuals – интеллигенция “English Renaissance in Art” – «Ренессанс английского искусства» ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ – «Портрет Дориана Грея» ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ – «Как важно быть серьезным» ‘An Ideal Husband’ – «Идеальный муж» ‘The Happy Prince and Other Stories’ – «‘Счастливый принц’ и другие сказки» ‘The Canterville Ghost’ – «Кентервильское привидение» an ambassador – посол a haunted house – дом с привидением clank – бряцание Exercise. Use these words to complete the sentences. clank of metal, ambassador, struck a match, haunted house, handcuffs, ghost, rusty chains, lubricant 1. Mr Otis was an … . 2. Mr Otis bought a … . 3. Mr Otis woke up because of the … . 4. Outside his bedroom, he saw a … with … and … . 5. Mr Otis gave the ghost … . Questions: 1. Who was that strange old man? 2. What sounds did Mr Otis hear? 3. Which sentence best describes the picture? 4. What do you think happened afterwards? Continue the story. 5. Have you read any stories by Oscar Wilde? Exercise. Read the story in the characters Choose the character and play the story JOHN JAMES OSBORNE John James Osborne (1929-1994) was an English playwright, screenwriter, actor and critic. The success of his play “Look Back in Anger” (1956) transformed English theatre. 69 He was born in London. His father was an advertising copywriter. He became involved in the theatre when he took a job tutoring a touring company of young actors and soon decided to try his hand at playwriting. The opening night of John Osborne’s first play “Look Back in Anger” in 1956 was called as the “actual birthday of modern British theatre”. The press release for the play called the twenty-six-year-old Osborne “an angry young man”, a phrase that would become a label for a generation. The “angry young men” was a group of mostly working and middle class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s and rejected traditional English society. In a productive life of more than 40 years, Osborne explored many themes and genres, writing for stage, film and TV. Words & Expressions: “Look Back in Anger” – «Оглянись во гневе» a copywriter – автор текста рекламы to try one’s hand at – попробовать свои силы the opening night – премьера the press release – сообщение прессы an angry young man – рассерженный молодой человек BERTOLD BRECHT Bertold Brecht (1898-1956) was a great German poet and playwright. He was an innovator in drama. He is still one of the best loved playwrights since his modern form and progressive views have a great appeal to the audiences. His epic drama gives an analysis of society. He looked upon his art as a force making people think and act for a better life. In his plays the scenery is changed in front of the audiences. The play could be broken into scenes whose subjects are announced in advance on placards or by projection of slides. Songs are used in order to break the continuity of action. The actors address the spectators directly. All these innovations helped Brecht to widen the expressive possibilities of the theatre. Brecht’s heritage is 18 plays, 3 operas, 5 collections of poems and a number of essays on the theatre. Among his best plays which have been staged are “The Threepenny Opera”, “Mother Courage”, “Galileo”. Words & Expressions: appeal – призыв, обращение heritage – наследие 70 “The Threepenny Opera” – «Трехгрошовая опера» “Mother Courage” – «Мамаша Кураж» ANTON CHEKHOV Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), 19th century Russian author, short story writer and playwright, was one of the most popular great Russian writers. His plays are known for their realistic examination of the lives of ordinary Russians. His most famous plays include:“Uncle Vanya”, “The Seagull”, “The Three Sisters” and “The Cherry Orchard”. His plays have secured him a place among the greatest dramatists of all time. According to J. B. Priestley, a popular English writer, dramatist and critic, Chekhov has enriched modern drama as nobody else. Chekhov’s first literary works – short stories and one-act masterpieces including “The Bear” (1888) and “Wedding” (1889) – made him popular. His popularity grew more and more from one masterpiece to another. At last he was ready for the Theatre and the Moscow Art Theatre opened just in time, which made him still more famous. In 1899, Chekhov gave the Moscow Art Theatre a revised version of “Uncle Vanya” (1899). Along with “The Three Sisters” (1901) and “The Cherry Orchard” (1904), this play would go on to become one of the masterpieces of the modern theatre. However, although the Moscow Art Theatre productions brought Chekhov great fame, he was never quite happy with the style that the director Konstantin Stanislavsky imposed on the plays. While Chekhov insisted that his plays were comedies, Stanislavsky's productions tended to emphasize their tragic elements. Still, in spite of their stylistic disagreements, these productions brought widespread acclaim to both Chekhov's work and the Moscow Art Theatre itself. Words & Expressions: to enrich – обогащать popularity – популярность a revised version – исправленная версия widespread acclaim – широкое признание Questions: 1. What are Chekhov’s plays known for? 2. What plays have secured him a place among the greatest dramatists? 71 3. What were Chekhov’s first literary works? 4. What theatre did Chekhov work with? 5. What Chekhov’s plays have you seen on the stage? EUGENE GLADSTONE O'NEILL Eugene Gladstone O’Neill (1888-1953) was the first American dramatist to regard the stage as a literary medium and the only American playwright ever to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1936. His poetically plays were among the first to introduce into American drama techniques of realism earlier associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. O’Neill was born in a Broadway hotel room in New York City. His father was one of 19th century America’s most popular actors. Young Eugene spent much of his early years on national tours with his father. At the age of 24, he held a job as a reporter of the New London Telegraph. In 1912 he began to write plays. Between 1920 and 1943 he completed 20 long plays. O’Neill’s career as a playwright consisted of three periods. His early realist plays utilize his own experiences, especially as a seaman. In the 1920s he rejected realism in an effort to capture on the stage the forces behind human life. His expressionistic plays during this period were influenced by the ideas of philosopher Freidrich Nietzsche, psychologists Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, and Swedish playwright August Strindberg. During his final period O’Neill returned to realism. These later works, which most critics consider his best, depend on his life experi-ences for their story lines and themes. O’Neill saw the theatre as a valid forum for the presentation of serious ideas. He aimed for a contemporary drama that had its roots in the most powerful of ancient Greek tragedies – a drama that could rise to the emotional heights of Shakespeare. For more than 20 years he wrote such masterpieces as “Desire Under the Elms”, “Mourning Becomes Electra”, and “The Iceman Cometh”. Nearly all of his plays involve some degree of tragedy. Words & Expressions: a valid forum – эффективная площадка “Desire Under the Elms” – «Любовь под вязами» “Mourning Becomes Electra” – «Электре подобает траур» “The Iceman Cometh” – «Разносчик льда грядет» 72 TENNESSEE WILLIAMS Tennessee Williams (1911-1983) was an American writer who worked principally as a playwright in the American theatre. He also wrote short stories, novels, poetry, essays, screenplays and a volume of memoirs. His professional career lasted from the mid 1930s until his death in 1983, and saw the creation of many plays that are regarded as classics of the American stage. Williams adapted much of his best known work for the cinema. Williams received virtually all of the top theatrical awards for his works of drama, including several New York Drama Critics’ Circle awards and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for the plays “A Streetcar Named Desire” (1948) and “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” (1955). In 1980 he was honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the President Jimmy Carter and is today acknowledged as one of the most accomplished playwrights in the history of English speaking theatre. Theatre scholar Charlotte Canning said, “There is no more influential 20thcentury American playwright than Tennessee Williams... He inspired future generations of writers and his plays remain among the most produced in the world.” Words & Expressions: “A Streetcar Named Desire” – «Трамвай ‘Желание’» “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” – «Кошка на раскаленной крыше» accomplished – успешный ROBERT BURNS Robert Burns (1759 – 1796) is the great Scottish poet and a lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. He travelled much about Scotland collecting popular songs and wrote his own verses. His poetry was inspired by his deep love for his motherland; for its folklore. His famous poem “My Heart’s in the Highlands” is a hymn to the beauty of Scotland’s nature. 73 My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here, My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe; My heart's in the Highlands, wherever I go. Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North The birth place of Valour, the country of Worth; Wherever I wander, wherever I rove, The hills of the Highlands for ever I love. Farewell to the mountains high cover'd with snow; Farewell to the straths and green valleys below; Farewell to the forrests and wild-hanging woods; Farwell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods. My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here, My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer Chasing the wild deer, and following the roe; My heart's in the Highlands, whereever I go. В ГОРАХ МОЕ СЕРДЦЕ (С. Маршак) В горах мое сердце... Доныне я там. По следу оленя лечу по скалам. Гоню я оленя, пугаю козу. В горах мое сердце, а сам я внизу. Прощай, моя родина! Север, прощай,Отечество славы и доблести край. По белому свету судьбою гоним, Навеки останусь я сыном твоим! Прощайте, вершины под кровлей снегов, 74 Прощайте, долины и скаты лугов, Прощайте, поникшие в бездну леса, Прощайте, потоков лесных голоса. В горах мое сердце... Доныне я там. По следу оленя лечу по скалам. Гоню я оленя, пугаю козу. В горах мое сердце, а сам я внизу! GEORGE GORDON BYRON George Gordon Byron (1788 – 1824) is one of the greatest poets of England, commonly known simply as Lord Byron. At the age of 21 he became a member of the House of Lords. He took part in the movement for the liberation of Italy from Austrian rule. Then he went to Greece to fight for the liberation of that country from Turkish oppression. He is a Greek national hero. Amongst Byron’s best-known works are poems “Don Juan”, “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage”. Words & Expressions: celebrated – прославленный, знаменитый verses – стихи “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” – «Паломничество Чайльд Гарольда» “Don Juan” – «Дон Жуан» CHARLES DICKENS Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) was the most popular English novelist of the Victorian era, and he remains popular. Many of his novels, with their recurrent concern for social reform, first appeared in magazines in serialized form, a popular format at the time. He did some reporting in the House of Commons for newspapers. Being a reporter, he went all over the country, writing stories. He 75 wrote novel after novel – “Pickwick Papers”, “Oliver Twist”, “Little Dorrit”, “Bleak House”. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. PART SIX MUSIC “Music gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination and life to everything.” Plato (424 BC-348BC) “Music expresses that which cannot be put into words and that which cannot remain silent” Victor Hugo (1802-1885) Music is one of the oldest forms of human communication, a human universal to be found in all cultures at all times. Its primary appeal is to the emotions. As hymn, national anthem, love song, or political protest song, music may provoke feelings of patriotism, romance or revolt. The British composer Edward Elgar (18571934) said: “Music is in the air all around us, the world is full of it and it is important that you should take as much of it as you wish.” The next important British composer Frederick Delius (1862-1934) found it essential that music should be the expression of a poetic and emotional nature, and indeed Delius’s music reminds us of the English landscape and its seasons: the freshness of spring, the shotlived brilliancy of summer, the sadness of autumn. Music can be divided into different genres: 1. Art music: classical music and opera. 2. Music written for the score of a play, musicals or films. 3. Ballroom music: tango, pasodoble, cha cha cha and others. 4. Religious music: gospel, Gregorian chant, spirituals, hymns and others. 5. Military music: marches, national anthems and related compositions. 6. Regional and national music: traditional music, folk, work songs, nursery rhymes. 76 MUSICAL CLICHES The old silent Charlie Chaplin comedy films probably wouldn’t be much fun without the music that accompanied them. Later, when films began to have sound, the music stayed because directors use pieces of music and sound to create particular moods and feelings. These are called musical clichés. In horror films and thrillers, loud sounds let you know when something frightening is going to happen. Violin music often accompanies emotional scenes in ro mantic films, and in adventure films they use sharp and fast sounds for action scenes. Some musical clichés introduce specific places. Shots of Hong Kong, for example, often have xylophone music in the background while shots of Paris come with accordion melodies. There are many musical clichés for different types of scenes. So, next time you watch a film, pay attention to the music in the background. You’ll be surprised by how many musical clichés you can spot. Words & Expressions: to accompany – сопровождать a horror film – фильм ужасов a violin – скрипка a shot – кадр background – задний план, фон to spot – увидеть, узнать, определить Questions: 1. Why was music important in old silent Charlie Chaplin comedy films? 2. How did directors use music when films began to have sound? 3. What musical clichés are used in horror films and thrillers? 4. What musical clichés are used in romantic films? 5. What musical clichés are used in adventure films? 6. Which musical clichés remind us of Paris? London? Exercise. Choose a piece of music, find a picture and describe the scene while playing the music extract. Describe musical clichés in your favourite film or play. MUSIC OF THE UNITED KINGDOM The music of the United Kingdom, which is part of British music, refers to all forms of music associated with 77 the United Kingdom since its creation, including music inherited from the states that preceded it. Throughout its history, the United Kingdom has been a major exporter and source of musical innovation, drawing its cultural basis from the history of the United Kingdom, from church music, from Western culture and from the ancient and traditional folk music of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. In the 20th century, influences from the music of the United States became most dominant in popular music. The United Kingdom has one of the world’s largest music industries today, with many British musicians having had an impact on modern music. Folk music of England is a type of traditionally based music, often contrasted with commercial music, for which evidence exists from the later medieval period. It has been preserved and transmitted orally, through print and later through recordings. The term is used to refer to English traditional music and music composed, or delivered, in a traditional style. English folk music has produced or contributed to several important musical genres, including sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It can be seen as having distinct regional and local variations in content and style, particularly in areas more removed from the cultural and political centres of the English state. Cultural interchange and processes of migration mean that English folk music, although in many ways distinctive, has particularly interacted with the music of Scotland, Ireland and Wales. There remains a flourishing sub-culture of English folk music, which continues to influence other genres and occasionally to gain mainstream attention. EDWARD BENJAMIN BRITTEN Edward Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) was an English composer, conductor, and pianist; and one of the central figures of 20th century British classical music. He showed talent from an early age, and first came to public attention with the choral work. With the premiere of his opera Peter Grimes in 1945, he leapt to international fame. For the next fifteen years he devoted much of his compositional attention to writing operas, establishing him as one of the leading 20th century figures in this genre. Britten's interests as a composer were wide-ranging; he produced important music in such varied genres as orchestral, choral, solo vocal, chamber and instrumental, as well as film music. He also took a great interest in writing music for children and amateur performers, and was an outstanding pianist and conductor. He founded a new English-language opera tradition, with works such as “Peter Grimes”, “Billy Budd” (1951), “The Turn of the Screw” (1954) and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” (1960) now established in the international repertoire. 78 Words & Expressions: a conductor – дирижер to come to public attention – привлечь внимание публики choral – хоровой wide-ranging – широкий, обширный chamber – камерный an amateur performer – самодеятельный исполнитель “Peter Grimes” – «Питер Граймс» “Billy Budd” – «Билли Бадд» “The Turn of the Screw” – «Поворот винта» “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” – «Сон в летнюю ночь» a hornpipe – волынка ANDREW LLOYD WEBBER Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948) is an English composer of musical theatre. Lloyd Webber has achieved great popular success in musical theatre. Several of his musicals have run for more than a decade both in the West End (London) and on Broadway (New York City). He was born in London. His father was an organist and composer and his mother was a pianist and violinist. Young Andrew Lloyd Webber learned to play various musical instruments at home and began composing at an early age. Andrew Lloyd Webber shot to fame in 1971 with the opening of his rock opera “Jesus Christ Superstar”. In 1981 he delivered “Cats”, based on poems by T. S. Eliot. In 1986 Andrew Lloyd Webber released his most successful musical, “The Phantom of the Opera”. “The Phantom of the Opera” is the longest running Broadway musical of all time and the most financially successful Broadway show in history. “The Phantom of the Opera” was translated into several languages and was produced in more than twenty countries, using staging, direction, costumes concept and sets design. He has composed 13 musicals, a song cycle, a set of variations, two film scores, and a Latin Requiem Mass. He has also gained a number of honours, including a knighthood in 1992 from the British Government for services to Music, three Grammy Awards, an Academy Award. Several of his songs have been widely recorded and were hits outside of their parent musicals, notably “The Music of the Night” from The Phantom of the Opera, “I Don’t Know How to Love Him” from Jesus Christ Superstar, “Don’t Cry for Me, 79 Argentina” and “You Must Love Me” from Evita, and “Memory” from rock-opera Cats. Andrew Lloyd Webber is arguably the most successful composer of our time. He is best known for stage and film adaptations of his musicals “Jesus Christ Superstar” (1971), “Cats” (1994), “Evita” (1997), and “The Phantom of the Opera” (1986). Andrew Lloyd Webber is currently working on his new opera titled “Master and Margarita” based on the novel by Mikhail A. Bulgakov. Words & Expressions: to achieve great success – добиться большого успеха a musical - мюзикл a violinist – скрипач to compose – сочинять (музыку) score – партитура, музыка к спектаклю (фильму) MUSIC OF THE UNITED STATES The United States of America is often said to be a cultural melting pot consisting of numerous ethnic groups. Many of these peoples have kept alive the folk traditions of their homeland, often producing American styles music. American music can be traced back to specific origins. Elements of foreign music arrived in the United States include West African music through slavery, and Irish music through immigration. By the 19th century, African American folk traditions were well-known and widespread, and African American musical techniques and instruments became a part of American music through spirituals and slave songs. African American musical styles became an integral part of American popular music through blues, jazz, rhythm and blues, and then rock and roll, soul and hip hop. Folk music in the US is varied across the country’s numerous ethnic groups. The Native American tribes play their own varieties of folk music, most of it spiritual in nature. African American music includes blues and gospel. West African music brought to the USA by slaves and mixed with Western European music. During the colonial era, English, French and Spanish styles and instruments were brought to America. By the early 20th century, the United States had become a major center for folk music from around the world, including Ukrainian and Polish music, Jewish music and several kinds of Latin music. Traditional instrumentations use the flute and many kinds of percussion instruments, like drums, rattles and shakers. 80 The thirteen colonies of the original United States were all former English possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk and pop ular music. Americans listen to all kinds of music. Many people like country music. The centre of country music is Nashville, Tennessee. The most famous singer of the 1950s was Elvis Presley. His music was new and exciting. All of Elvis’s songs from 1956 to 1958 were number one. Today people like to watch music on MTV (Music Television) started in the United States in 1981. GEORGE GERSHWIN George Gershwin (1898-1937) was an American composer and pianist. Gershwin’s compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known. Among his best known works are the orchestral compositions “Rhapsody in Blue” and “An American in Paris”, as well as the opera “Porgy and Bess” (1935). George Gershwin was born in Brooklyn, the second of four children from an immigrant family of Ukrainian father and a Russian mother. Gershwin studied piano. He began his career as a song plugger, but soon thereafter started composing his own pieces. He moved to Paris where he began to compose “An American in Paris”. After returning to New York City, he wrote opera “Porgy and Bess”. Gershwin called it a “folk opera”. “Porgy and Bess” is now considered one of the most important American operas of the twentieth century. Gershwin moved to Hollywood and composed numerous film scores until his death in 1937. Gershwin’s compositions have been used in numerous films and on television, and several became jazz standards recorded in many variations. Countless singers and musicians have recorded Gershwin songs. Today he remains one of America’s most beloved popular musicians. Words & Expressions: a melting pot – плавильный котел a spiritual – спиричуэл (негритянская духовная песня) a flute – флейта percussion instruments – ударные инструменты a drum – барабан a rattle – трещотка to span – охватывать a song plugger – включатель песни Questions: 81 1. What British composers do you know? 2. Music of what British composers have you heard? 3. What is the folk musical instrument of Scotland? 4. Who is one of the most successful British composers of musicals? 5. What musicals of Webber have you seen? 6. What genres does American folk music include? 7. What American composers do you know? TCHAIKOVSKY IN NEW YORK Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 – 1893) was a Russian composer whose works included symphonies, concertos, operas, ballets and chamber music. Some of these are among the most popular concert and theatrical music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, which he bolstered with appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. One of these appearances was at the inaugural concert of Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1891. In April 1891 Tchaikovsky went to the USA. He was invited to inaugurate the newly-built concert hall in New York – the largest in America – Carnegie Hall. Tchaikovsky was the first Russian composer who was offered a tour in America. On coming there Tchaikovsky was surprised to learn that he was very popular in America. American musicians were happy to play under his baton not only because Tchaikovsky was considered to be a great composer but because he was also a talented conductor. On the 5th of May, the day of the inauguration of Carnegie Hall, Tchaikovsky seemed to be excited. The hall was too big; the richly-dressed audience packed the hall. The music of Beethoven, Berlioz and Tchaikovsky was on the programme of the concert. When the audience saw Tchaikovsky come on to the stage there was a storm of applause, the public warmly greeted the famous composer. The ceremonial march he conducted sounded solemn and victorious. After the concert people surrounded the composer, they did not want to let him go. The concert had a great success. The newspapers reported: “The greatest concert hall in America was inaugurated by the greatest of the living composers.” Today you can also listen to music at Carnegie Hall, on 57th Street and Seventh Avenue. Words & Expressions: to bolster with appearances – содействовать появлению to inaugurate – открывать to play under one’s baton – играть под руководством 82 an inauguration – торжественное открытие warmly greet – тепло приветствовать solemn – торжественный Questions: 1. When did Tchaikovsky go to New York? 2. Why did he go there? 3. Did any other Russian composer happen to be invited to America at that time? 4. Why were American musicians happy to play under his baton? 5. How did Tchaikovsky feel on the day of the inauguration? 6. What music was on the programme? 7. Did the concert have a success? THE PROMS Do you like classical music? Every summer in London there are two months of special concerts at the Royal Albert Hall. These are the ‘Proms’. Sir Henry Wood started the Proms (short for ‘promenade’ concerts) in the nineteenth century. Now they’re a tradition in British musical life. A lot of young people go to the Proms. They buy cheap tickets and stand up for the concerts. They are the ‘promenaders’. There are seats too, but the tickets for those cost more. The music at the Proms comes from some of the best singers and orchestras in the world. And on the last night there’s a big party at the Royal Albert Hall. People bring flags, balloons and paper hats. The orchestra plays popular classical music and at the end everyone sings “Rule Britannia”. “Music can change the world.” Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) MUSIC AND YOUTH CULTURE 83 Youth music is associated with many youth subcultures, such as punks, emos, ravers, metalheads and Goths. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism attached to clothing, music, and other visible affections by members of the subculture, and also the ways in which these symbols are interpreted by members of the culture. The famous comedian Bill Cosby once said, “Nothing separates the generations more than music.” Youth music is the most creative and contested location on the cultural landscape. Until 1950’s the idea of a separate youth culture did not exist. The way that young people dressed was almost the same as their parents. They were not a separate group with its own values and customs. There was no ‘youth culture’ (values and norms) in the early 1950's. Of course young people and children played their own games but there was no-one who said “I am a punk”, or ‘I am a rapper’. The 1950’s and the 1960’s were a period of freedom for young people, simply because everything was so new. Youth culture was invented in the 1950’s with the development of rock and roll. Some youth groups or ‘gangs’ (1950’s-1970) decided make their own small countries (societies in Britain). In the late 1950’s a musical trend called Skiffle emerged in Britain. It was a kind of folk music played by a small group, usually one guitar and percussion instruments to keep a rhythm. In the South of England young people listened to easy listening songs sung by people such as Cliff Richard, who is a favourite of the English Queen. But in port towns such as Liverpool, a ‘music culture’ was very different. This was influenced by the import of American music into the ports. In the North teenagers loved Rhythm ‘N Blues and Rock ‘N Roll, not the easy listening music of the South. American Blues music, the music of black people, was not famous in America at first but became famous in Britain first. It was imported to Britain, where it became popular. Then the Americans heard music from their own country and it became popular in America as well. In Liverpool music youth groups played was a mix of the American and English music traditions. At that time also many young people appeared who wanted everything to change and wanted to change everything and they rejected the values of British society. “Rock music in its lyrics often talks ahead of the time about what’s going on in the country” Edmund G. Brown (1938) In the second half of the 20th century Great Britain became the world centre of pop music. Such outstanding groups as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, Deep Purple brought undying fame to the music of the British Isles. The Beatles was one of the most popular groups, first performing in 1959 in Liverpool. The names of the four Beatles – John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr – soon became 84 popular all over the world. The musicians wrote words and music and their songs were about love, friendship, good and bad times. Among their best songs are “Let It Be”, “Yesterday”, “Strawberry Fields Forever”, “Yellow Submarine”, “Hey Jude”, “Come Together”, “Love Me Do”, “Michelle”, “All You Need Is Love”, “Lady Madonna”, “Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da” and many others. “Music is the medicine of the breaking heart.” Leigh Hunt (1784-1859) The ‘anything goes’ culture of the 1960’s was promoted by the hippies. The hippy values were a reaction to ‘money’ and ‘normality’. These values were peace and love. The music was The Beatles, The Who, Led Zeppelin, Jimmy Hendrix. By the late 70s and early 80s, youth subculture began to change. There were fewer new groups, and the age of ‘retro’ had begun. ROCK & ROLL Rock and Roll evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to the rest of the world. The typical rock and roll band consisted of a rhythm guitar, lead guitar, bass guitar, and a drummer, with the piano or saxophone as a fifth instrument or a replacement for the lead guitar. Rock and roll, due to its worldwide popularity had far reaching influences, affecting the lifestyle, fashion, attitudes, and language of generations from the late 1940s to the present. Rock & Roll started in the late ’40s and early ‘50s as a fusion of the music genre popular for the era; gospel, folk, blues, country and western, and jazz. “A jazz musician is a juggler who uses harmonies instead of oranges.” JAZZ Benny Green (1963) Jazz is an American music style which originated around the beginning of the 20th century in 85 African American communities in the south from a mix of African and European music traditions. Jazz has branched out into a variety of styles, from Dixieland from the early 1910s, big band swing in the ‘30s and ‘40s, be-bop in the mid ‘40s, a variety of Latin jazz fusion such as Afro-Cuban and Brazilian jazz from the ‘50s and ‘60s, jazz-rock fusion from the ‘70s and later developments such as acid jazz, and it continues, (like all forms of music), to be in a constant state of evolution. The brass and reed instruments used in marching bands and dance bands b ecame the basic instruments of jazz. New York is a wonderful city for jazz. You can hear the best jazz at the Blue Note at 131 West Third Street, or at Birdland at 2745 Broadway. Sometimes you can hear a rock concert at Madison Square Garden, at Eighth Avenue and 33rd Street. In London you can listen to some of the best jazz musicians at Ronnie Scott’s Club in Frith Street, or at 100 Club, Oxford Street. PUNK The term “Punk Rock” was coined to give a name to the unpolished and sometimes unskilled garage bands of the ‘60s, as they burst onto the scene. Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. It was a rebellion against the seemingly stagnant content that Rock and Roll appeared to be suffering from at the time. REGGAE Reggae had its birth in Jamaica in the ‘60s and is a mix of Caribbean style with strong African overtones and influenced by early Rhythm and Blues. Bob Marley, who brought Reggae into the mainstream is probably the most known of all the Reggae artists. The music style is similar to Folk, Blues and Country only in that it deals with the same issues of poverty, politics, love, and the shortfalls of society in general. The songs are a cry for the poor who grew up in the shanty towns and are struggling for survival. The simple musical structure, and sincerity of the lyrics has helped increase the popularity of Reggae, and its worldwide spread is evidence of that, despite a humble beginning on a small island with limited resources. 86 HEAVY METAL Heavy Metal is rock having aggressive, driving rhythms, and highly amplified guitars using distortion and overdrive, and frequently having a dark theme. It evolved from traditional Rock and Roll, and blues, with a twinge of classical in the mix. Starting in the late ‘60s early ‘70s it became a powerful driving force in the music scene. The advent of more complex electronic effects was well put to use by the Heavy Metal musicians. The heavy approach to the traditional blues sound gave rise to much experimentation with the guitar to produce a louder, more discordant sound. The Guitar is probably the most important instrument in Heavy Metal, not only driving the music along, but at times becoming the focal point around which all else is focused. The style of drumming began to change dramatically to produce a heavier, more aggressive sound that was needed to keep up with the highly charged music, and of course to be heard above the amplified guitars. HIP HOP Hip Hop began as a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latino Americans. Hip Hop's four main elements are Rapping, DJing, graffiti writing, and break dancing. Other elements include beat boxing, hip hop fashion, and slang. Since first emerging in the Bronx, the lifestyle of hip hop culture has spread around the world. When hip hop music began to emerge, it was based around DJs who created rhythmic beats. This was later accompanied by “rapping” (a rhythmic style of chanting). An original form of dancing, and particular styles of dress, arose among followers of this new music. BEATBOXING Beatboxing is a mainly percussive vocal form in which various technical effects of hip hop DJs are imitated. It primarily involved the art of producing drum beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using one’s mouth, lips, tongue, and voice. It may also involve singing, vocal imitation, and the simulation of horns, strings, and other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture, being one of the ‘ele- 87 ments’, although it is not limited to hip-hop music. Words & Expressions: percussive – ударный a drum – барабан vocal imitation – имитация голоса horns – духовые инструменты strings – струнные инструменты Questions: 1. What are the main youth cultures in your country? 2. Are youth cultures a normal part of growing up? 3. Do youth cultures give young people a sense of identity? 4. What are your personal experiences of youth cultures? 5. What kind of music do you prefer (classical, pop, rock, etc.)? 6. Do you play any musical instrument? “Music makes the people milder and gentler, more moral and more reasonable” Martin Luther (1483-1546) MUSIC GENRES OF THE YOUTH Music is universal and this is the absolute truth. Good music is able to connect people from different parts of the globe. There are some song genres that are popular among the youth today: 1. Pop songs – every youth from the US to UK to Asia love pop songs. They really enjoy the catchy beat, lyrics and even the singers. The lyrics of the song can be easily learnt. Since people always hear the songs to the radio, to YouTube and other music streaming sites they get to memorize it already. It is truly amazing how you can sing pop songs today. 2. RnB – this genre is perfect for people who love upbeat music. This is something in between ballad and dance music, something that is enough to make people feel groovy. Music of the popular RnB artists is very popular in bars where people go to relax and drink and of course to hear good music. Listening to RnB mus ic can be very relaxing plus a young people can even relate to the lyrics of the songs. If he or she is heartbroken or in love they will surely find a song that will suit their mood. 3. Love songs – mushy songs with dramatic lyrics are still popular among youth today. They look for songs that they can relate to and they keep on listening to this song over and over. People who are heartbroken are fond of listening to love 88 songs to reminisce about the love that they once had. It is also possible that people love listening to love songs to be inspired to find the love that they are waiting for. These are three of the most popular song genres for youth today. However, there are lots of other genres like rap, rock, alternative, country and even Christian songs which are all great to listen to. With this, we can really say that music makes the world a happier place to live in. Words & Expressions: a raver – рейвер (человек, принадлежащий рейв-культуре, ведущий богемный образ жизни) value – ценность to emerge – появляться percussion instruments – ударные инструменты undying fame – неумирающая (вечная) слава normality – норма, стандарт to evolve – развивать, раскручивать a lead guitar – соло гитара a drummer – барабанщик to branch out – разветвляться, делиться brass instruments – медные духовые инструменты reed instruments – язычковые музыкальные инструменты to burst onto the scene – прорваться на сцену a rebellion – бунт, мятеж mainstream – основное направление sincerity – искренность an amplified guitar – гитара с усилителем upbeat – радостный, оптимистичный Questions: 1. What are the main influences on young people’s music tastes? 2. How do young people use music to express identities and emotions? 3. To what extent can today’s youth and their music seem radical and progressive? 4. How is the ‘special relationship’ between music and youth culture played out in everyday leisure, education and work places? 5. What kind of music do you prefer to listen? 6. What is your favourite composer (music group, singer)? Exercise. Chose the correct word. 1. John likes hard pop/rock music. 2. This song has got very clever vocals/lyrics. 3. The guitar player does a great solo/tune in the middle of this song. 4. Tom listens to heavy rap/metal music. 5. They have just signed a big recording interview/contract with Sony. 6. I would love to see the band in a live interview/performance. 7. I like reality/soap shows. 89 8. I’m going to see U2 live/show tonight in concert. 9. I’m sure this musical will become a huge success/effect. Exercise. Speak about your favourite band or musician. My favourite band’s … . They’re from … . They play … . Their music … . I like them because … . My favourite album is … . I’ve heard them live … . My favourite band is Ojos de Brujo. They’re a Spanish group from Madrid. They play a mix of hip hop and flamenco music. Ojos de Brujo’s name means ‘Wizard Eyes’ in English. I love them because their music makes you feel alive. The drums, guitars and bass in the music have a fantastic rhythm that makes you want to dance. The lead singer’s voice is fantastic. I’m seeing them live this weekend. I can’t wait. Traditional Musical Instruments: Bagpipes The bagpipe is a very old musical instrument. The Romans were playing bagpipes in the first century AD. From there it travelled through European countries and reached Scotland. The bagpipe is a wind instrument usually made from sheepskin. It has got four parts; a pipe called a chanter with finger holes, a bag that fills with air, a blowpipe that the player blows through and up to six tubes called drones coming out of the bag. Bagpipes are loud and take a lot of skill to play. In the past, Scottish armies played them in battles to scare the enemy. Today, the army still uses them. You can also hear them at Scottish festivals and celebrations. Words & Expressions: a bagpipe – волынка (музыкальный инструмент) a wind instrument – духовой инструмент a chanter – чантер (трубка волынки, на которой играют мелодию) a bag – мешок (резервуар для воздуха) a blowpipe – вдувалка (трубка, через которую надувают воздух в волынку) drones – дроны (басовые трубы волынки) Exercise. Which of the following sentences are true about bagpipes? 1. The Romans used bagpipes before the Scottish. 2. It is a wind musical instrument. 3. They use plastic to make it. 90 4. It has got five parts. 5. Bagpipes are easy to play. 6. The Scottish used them in battles. Exercise. Write a short text about a traditional musical instrument from your country or any other country. Use the text about Bagpipes as a model. GLASTONBURY FESTIVAL Every year the Glastonbury Festival takes place over three days in Somerset, England. It is the largest greenfield music and performing arts festival in the world. Those who are lucky enough to get tickets can enjoy live performances by some of the top bands in the world. There is always a great variety of music including pop, rock, rap and jazz. There are also dance, comedy, circus and theatre performances to enjoy. Almost everyone stays for the whole weekend. Festival-goers usually camp in tents in fields next to the site. Tickets usually cost around &150 for the weekend. Most of the money raised goes to charities. So you have fun, and at the same time, you help a worthy cause. Questions: 1. Have you ever heard about the Glastonbury Festival? 2. What greenfield music festivals do you know? 3. Is there a similar festival in your country? 4. Where does it take place? 5. How often does it take place? 6. How long does it last? Exercise. You friend suggests going to a greenfield music festival. Ask about: where it takes place what you can see there how long it lasts where you can stay INSOMNIAC ‘Insomniac’ (2007) is an album by the Spanish pop star Enrique Iglesias. Enrique is a talented singer who is popular with young people all around the world. He has a great voice, powerful music and exciting lyrics, so expect him to be around for a long time! The most popular song from the album is ‘Do You 91 Know’. This fantastic album is full of catchy tunes. It includes three songs in Spanish as well as an excellent ballad, ‘I Miss You’. The album is sure to be at the top of the music charts for months! Words & Expressions: insomniac – человек, страдающий бессонницей voice – голос lyrics – слова песни catchy tune – притягательная мелодия charts – шкала популярности в мире поп-музыки Questions: 1. Which is your favourite type of music (rock, pop, jazz, classical, rap, funk, soul, heavy metal)? 2. Who is your favourite singer? 3. What can you say about his/her voice? 4. What songs does he/she perform? 5. What is his/her most popular album? Exercise. Which of the words below refer to music? to films? singer script acting plot sound effects lyrics music charts cast role special effects songwriter top ten musical instruments top band catchy tunes latest album Exercise. Which adjectives does the critic use to describe: the singer the singer’s voice the singer’s music the lyrics the tunes the album 92 Exercise. Think of your favourite CD and then write the review. Singer (band) Album Most popular song Album also includes Album is sure Rating “The history of a people is found in its songs.” George Jellinek (1919-2010) BRITISH SONGS There are thousands of traditional songs in England. Many of them tell stories about British history. 1. “Auld Lang Syne” is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and set to the tune of a traditional folk song. It is well known in many Englishspeaking countries and is often sung to celebrate the start of the New Year. The song's title may be translated into English as “old long since”, or “long long ago”, “days gone by”, “old times”. Singing the song on New Year's Eve very quickly became a Scots custom that soon spread to other parts of the British Isles. AULD LANG SYNE Scottish Song (Words by R. Burns) 1. Should auld acquaintance be forgot, And never brough to min’? Should auld acquaintance be forgot, And days of lang syne? CHORUS: For auld lang syne, my dear, For auld lang syne. We’ll tak’ a cup o’ kindness yet, For auld lang syne. 2. And surely ye’ll be your pint stout As surely I’ll be mine! And we’ll tak’ a cup o’ kindness yet, For auld lang syne. CHORUS 93 3. We twa ha’e run about the braes, And pu’d the gowans fine But we’ve wander’d mony a weary foot, Sin’auld lang syne. CHORUS 4. We twa ha’e paidl’t in the burn, Frae mornin’ sun till dine; But seas between us braid ha’e roar’d Sin’auld lang syne. CHORUS 5. And here’s a hand my trusty freen’, And gie’s a hand o’thine, And we’ll tak’, a right gude willy waught For auld lang syne. CHORUS Scottish words 1) auld = old 2) lang syne – старина, былые дни 3) tak’ = take 4) twa = two 5) ha’e = have 6) brae – склон холма 7) gowan – маргаритка 8) mony = many 9) sin’ = since 10) frae = from 11) braid = broad 12) freen’ = friend 13) gie’s = give us 14) gude willy waught = a hearty drink – хорошая выпивка 15) ye’ll = you’ll 16) stout = a kind of jug with a handle – кружка с ручкой 17) to paidle – переходить вброд 18) o’ = of 19) a burn – ручеек Перевод С. Я. Маршака 1. Забыть ли старую любовь И не грустить о ней? Забыть ли старую любовь И дружбу прежних дней? Припев: За дружбу старую – 94 До дна! За счастье прежних дней! С тобой мы выпьем, старина, За счастье прежних дней. 2. Побольше кружки приготовь И доверху налей Мы пьем за старую любовь, За дружбу прежних дней. Припев. 3. С тобой топтали мы вдвоем Траву родных полей, И не один крутой подъем Мы взяли с юных дней. Припев. 4. Переплывали мы не раз С тобой через ручей. Но море разделило нас, Товарищ юных дней. Припев. 5. И вот с тобой сошлись мы вновь. Твоя рука – в моей. Я пью за старую любовь, За дружбу прежних дней. Припев. 2. Robert Shaftoe was an eighteenth-century British Member of Parliament (MP), who was the subject of a famous North East English folk song. The song relates the story of how he broke the heart of Bridget Belasyse, when he married Anne Duncombe in Yorkshire. Bridget Belasyse is said to have died two weeks after hearing the news, although other sources claim that she died a fortnight before the wedding of tuberculosis. BOBBY SHAFTOE English Folksong 1. Bobby Shaftoe’s gone to sea, Silver buckles on his knee; He’ll come back and marry me, Bonny Bobby Shaftoe. Bobby Shaftoe’s bright and fair, Combing down his yellow hair, He’s my ain for ever mair, Bonny Bobby Shaftoe. 95 2. Bobby Shaftoe’s tall and slim, He’s always drest so neat and trim, The lasses they all keek at him! Bonny Bobby Shaftoe. Bobby Shaftoe’s gettin’ a bairn For to dangle on his airm, In his airm and on his knee, Bonny Bobby Shaftoe. 3. Bobby Shaftoe’s been to sea, Silver buckles on his knee; He’s come back and married me, Bonny Bobby Shaftoe. 1) buckle – пряжка 2) bright – веселый 3) to comb down one’s hair – причесываться, зачесывая волосы 4) to dangle – качать Scottish words ain = own mair = more keek = look airm = arm bairn = child 3. “Charlie is My Darling” is a well-known song about the times when Prince Charles Edward Stewart, the young Chevalier or Young Pretender, raised the Jacobite Uprising on August 19, 1745. The campaign lasted through the winter but in 1746 he was back in Scotland and was defeated on April 16, 1746. Beginning with the line “Twas on a Monday morning, right early in the year”, it celebrates the Jacobite movement. CHARLIE IS MY DARLING Scottish Folksong 1. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier! ‘Twas on a Monday morning, Right early in the year, That Charlie came to our town, The young Chevalier. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. 2. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, 96 O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. As he came marching up the street, The pipes play’d loud and clear, And a’the folk cam’runnin’ out, To meet the Chevalier. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. 3. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. We’ Hieland bonnets on their heads, And claymores bright and clear, They cam’to fight for Scotland’s right And the young Chevalier. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. 4. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. They’ve left their bonnie Hieland hills, Their wives and bairnies dear, To draw the sword for Scotland’ Sord, The young Chevalier. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. 5. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. O there were many beating hearts: And many hope and fear, And many were the pray’rs put up For the young Chevalier. O Charlie is my darling, my darling, my darling, O Charlie is my darling, the young Chevalier. Scottish words Hieland = Highland – Шотландия Hieland bonnet – шотландская мужская шапочка claymore = sword – меч Sord = sward – земля 4. “Cockles and Mussels” (also known as “Molly Malone” or “In Dublin’s Fair City”) is a popular song, set in Dublin (Ireland), which has become the unofficial anthem of Dublin City. The song tells the fictional tale of a beautiful fishmonger who plied her trade on the streets of Dublin, but who died young, of a fever. While many such “Molly” 97 Malones were born in Dublin over the centuries, no evidence connects any of them to the events in the song. Nevertheless, in 1988 the Molly Malone statue in Grafton Street was opened in Dublin. And June 13 was proclaimed to be “Molly Malone day”. COCKLES AND MUSSELS Irish Song 1. In Dublin’s fair city, where the girls are so pretty, I first set my eyes on sweet Molly Malone As she wheel’d her wheel-barrow Thro’ streets broad and narrow Crying: “Cockles and Mussels! Alive, alive, oh!” CHORUS: “Alive, alive, oh! Alive, alive, oh!” Crying: “Cockles and Mussels! Alive, alive, oh!” 2. She was a fishmonger but sure ‘twas no wonder For so were her father and mother before. And they each wheeled their barrow Thro’ streets broad and narrow. Crying: “Cockles and Mussels! Alive, alive, oh!” CHORUS 3. She died of a fever And no one could save her And that was the end of sweet Molly Malone. Her ghost wheels her barrow, Crying: “Cockles and Mussels! Alive, alive, oh!” CHORUS 1) cockle – съедобный моллюск 2) mussel – двустворчатая раковина, мидия 3) Dublin – г. Дублин 4) Molly Malone – Молли Мэлон (женское имя) 5) ‘twas = it was – сокращение для сохранения размера 5. “I Saw Three Ships Come Sailing By” (also known as “On Christmas Day in the Morning”) is a traditional and popular Christmas carol from England. The origins of “I saw three ships” are unknown but it is believed to be an English carol from the Victorian era. The theme for the song is extremely optimistic. 98 I SAW THREE SHIPS COME SAILING BY English Folksong 1. I saw three ships come sailing by, Sailing by, sailing by; I saw three ships come sailing by, On New Year’s Day in the morning. 2. And what do you think was in them then? In them then, in them then; And what do you think was in them then; On New Year’s Day in the morning. 3. Three pretty girls were in them then, In them then, in them then; Three pretty girls were in them then, On New Year’s Day in the morning. 4. And one could whistle, and one could sing, The other could play on the violin; Such joy there was at the wedding, On New Year’s Day in the morning. 6. “Home, Sweet Home” is a song that has remained well-known for over 150 years. The American actor and dramatist John Howard Payne wrote the song in 1822 that became widely popular in the United States, Great Britain, and the Englishspeaking world. The song’s melody was composed by Englishman Sir Henry Bishop HOME, SWEET HOME English Song (Words by J. Howard Payne) 1. ‘Mid pleasures and palaces though I may roam Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home. A charm from the sky seems to hallow us there Which, seek thro’ the world is ne'er met with elsewhere. CHORUS: Home, home, sweet, sweet home, There’s no place like home, There’s no place like home. 2. I gaze on the moon as I tread the drear wild, And feel that my mother now thinks of her child, As she looks on that moon from our own cottage door Thro’ the woodbine, whose fragrance shall cheer me no more CHORUS 99 3. How sweet ‘tis to sit ‘neath a fond father’s smile, And the caress of a mother to soothe and beguile. Let others delight mid new pleasures to roam, But give me, oh, give me, the pleasures of home. CHORUS 4. To thee I’ll return overburdened with care The heart’s dearest face will smile on me there No more from that cottage again will I roam Be it ever so humble there’s no place like home. 7. “Land of My Fathers” (“Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau”) is the national anthem of Wales. It is amongst the finest anthems of the world and a song steeped in history. The words of the Welsh National Anthem were written by Evan James and the tune was composed by his son James in 1856. “Land of My Fathers” became the first national anthem to be sung at the start of a sporting event. Now there are many English Translations of the song. LAND OF MY FATHERS Welsh Song (Words by Evan James) 1. Oh, land of my fathers, the land of the free, The home of the Felyn so soothing to me, Thy noble defenders were gallant and brave, For freedom their heart’s life they gave. CHORUS: Wales, Wales, Sweet are thy hills and dales Till death be pass’d my love shall last My longing, my yearning for Wales. 2. Though Eden of bards and birthplace of song, The sons of thy mountains are valiant and strong The voice and they streamlets is soft to the ear, Thy hills and thy valleys, how dear. CHORUS 3. Tho’ slighted and scorned by the proud and the strong, The language of Cambria still charms us in song; The Awen survives, nor have envious tales Yet silenced the harp of dear Wales. CHORUS 1) Felyn = harp – арфа 2) Eden – Эдем, рай 100 3) Cambria – поэтическое название Уэльса 4) Awen = Muse – муза 8. “My Bonnie” is a traditional British folk song. It remains popular in Western culture. The origin of the song is unknown, though it is often suggested that the subject of the song may be Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie). It is believed to have come originally from the north of England during the 18th century. The song has since spread all over the world. There are numerous versions of the song and one of well-known is by the Beatles. MY BONNIE British traditional song 1. My Bonnie is over the ocean, My Bonnie is over the sea, My Bonnie is over the ocean, Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me. CHORUS: Bring back, bring back, Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me, to me. Bring back, bring back, Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me. 2. Oh, blow ye winds over the ocean, Oh, blow ye winds over the sea, Oh, blow ye winds over the ocean, And bring back my Bonnie to me. CHORUS 3. Last night as I lay on my pillow, Last night as I lay on my bed, Last night as I lay on my pillow, I dreamed that my Bonnie was dead. CHORUS 4. The winds have blown over the ocean, The winds have blown over the sea, The winds have blown over the ocean, And brought back my Bonnie to me. FINAL CHORUS: Brought back, brought back, Oh, brought back my Bonnie to me, to me. Brought back, brought back, Oh, brought back my Bonnie to me. 101 9. “O, No, John” (also known as “The Spanish Merchant’s Daughter”) is an English folk song. It is a conversation between a man and a woman. O, NO, JOHN! English Folksong 1. On yonder hill there stands a creature, Who she is I do not know. I’ll go and court her for her beauty; She must answer Yes or No! O, no John! No John! No John! No! 2. My father was a Spanish captain Went to sea a month ago. First he kissed me, then he left me – Bid me always answer No. O, no John! No John! No John! No! 3. Oh madam in your face is beauty, On your lips red roses grow. Will you take me for your lover, Madam, answer Yes or No! O, no John! No John! No John! No! 4. O Madam, I will give you jewels; I will make you rich and free, I will give you silken dresses. Madam, will you marry me? O, no John! No John! No John! No! 5. O Madam, since you are so cruel, And that you scorn me so, If I may not be your lover, Madam will you let me go? O, no John! No John! No John! No! 6. Then I will stay with you forever, If you will not be unkind. Madam, I have vowed to love you, Would you have me change my mind? O, no John! No John! No John! No! 7. O hark, I hear the church bells ringing, Will you come and be my wife? Or dear madam, have you settled, To live single all your life? O, no John! No John! No John! No! 102 Перевод С. Болотина и Т. Сикорской 1. Жила в селе красотка Мэй Она была мне всех милей. Но лишь хочу обнять ее, Она в ответ твердит свое: – Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет! 2. – Ах, Джон, отец мой был моряк, Всю жизнь проплавал он в морях. Он мне оставил свой завет – Всегда твердить мужчинам: нет. – Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет! 3. – Послушай, Мэй, любовь моя, Тебе купил колечко я, Но ты за это, мой дружок, Хоть поцелуй меня разок. – Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет! 4. – Ну, если так, тогда прощай, Тогда одна сиди, скучай. Я пережить готов беду – Без поцелуя прочь уйду. – Ах, нет. Джон, нет, Джон, нет, Джон, нет! 10. “There Was an Old Woman” is an English folk song from a collection of nursery rhymes which are often published as Mother Goose Rhymes. Mother Goose is an imaginary author. Mother Goose is generally depicted in literature and book illustration as an elderly country woman in a tall hat and shawl, but is sometimes depicted as a goose. THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN English Folksong 1. There was an old woman as I've heard tell She went to market her eggs for to sell, She went to market all on a market day And she fell asleep on the King’s highway. 2. There came by a pedlar whose name was Stout, He cut her petticoats all round about He cut her petticoats up to her knees, Which made the old woman to shiver and freeze. 3. When this little old woman first did awake She began to shiver and she began to shake 103 She began to wonder and she began to cry "Lauk a mercy on me, this is none of I!” 4. “But if it be I, as I hope it be I’ve a little dog at home, and he’ll know me If it be I, he’ll wag his little tail And if it be not I, he’ll loudly bark and wail.” 5. Home went the little woman all in the dark Up got the little dog and he began to bark He began to bark, so she began to cry, “Lauk a mercy on me, this is none of I!” her eggs for to sell = to sell eggs Lauk a mercy on me = Lord have mercy on me – Боже милосердный! this is none of I = this is not I Перевод С. Я. Маршака 1. Старушка шла продавать молоко. Деревня от рынка была далеко. Устала старушка и, кончив дела, У самой дороги вздремнуть прилегла. 2. К старушке веселый щенок подошел, За юбку схватил и порвал ей подол. Погода была в это время свежа. Старушка проснулась, от страха дрожа. 3. Проснулась старушка и стала искать Домашние туфли, свечу и кровать. Но, порванной юбки ощупав края, Сказала: «Ах, батюшки, это не я! 4. Пойду-ка домой. Если я это я, Меня не укусит собака моя. Она меня встретит, визжа, у ворот, А если не я, – на куски разорвет». 5. В окно постучала старушка чуть свет, Залаяла громко собака в ответ. Старушка присела, сама не своя, И тихо сказала: «Ну, значит, – не я!» 11. “There’s a Hole in My Bucket” is a well-known humorous song. The song in its best-known form is referenced in 1949. The song is used an infinite-loop motif. To fix the leaky bucket, you need straw. To cut straw, you need an axe. To sharpen the axe, you need a stone. To wet the 104 stone, you need water. However, when the song asks how to get the water, the answer is “in a bucket”. It is a dialogue between the energetic wife named Liza, and the tired husband Henry. The German-American versions have Henry as the stupid questioner, and Lisa as the common-sense woman. THERE’S A HOLE IN MY BUCKET Popular Folk Song from Britain Liza: Henry! Fetch me some water! Henry: 1. There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza, There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, a hole. Liza: 2. Then fix it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, Then fix it, dear Henry, dear Henry, fix it. Henry: 3. With what shall I fix it, dear Liza, dear Liza? With what shall I fix it, dear Liza, with what? Liza: 4. With a straw, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, With a straw, dear Henry, dear Henry, a straw. Henry: 5. The straw is too long, dear Liza, dear Liza, The straw is too long, dear Liza, too long. Liza: 6. Then cut it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, Then cut it, dear Henry, dear Henry, cut it. Henry: 7. With what shall I cut it, dear Liza, dear Liza? With what shall I cut it, dear Liza, with what? Liza: 8. With an axe, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, With an axe, dear Henry, dear Henry, an axe. Henry: 9. The axe is too dull, dear Liza, dear Liza, The axe is too dull, dear Liza, too dull. Liza: 10. Then sharpen it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, Then sharpen it, dear Henry, dear Henry, sharpen it. 105 Henry: 11. With what shall I sharpen it, dear Liza, dear Liza? With what shall I sharpen it, dear Liza, with what? Liza: 12. With a stone, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, With a stone, dear Henry, dear Henry, a stone. Henry: 13. The stone is too dry, dear Liza, dear Liza, The stone is too dry, dear Liza, too dry. Liza: 14. Then wet it, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, Then wet it, dear Henry, dear Henry, wet it. Henry: 15. With what shall I wet it, dear Liza, dear Liza? With what shall I wet, dear Liza, with what? Liza: 16. With water, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, With water, dear Henry, dear Henry, with water. Henry: 17. In what shall I get it, dear Liza, dear Liza? In what shall I get it, dear Liza, in what? Liza: 18. In a bucket, dear Henry, dear Henry, dear Henry, In a bucket, dear Henry, dear Henry, in a bucket. Henry: 19. There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza, There’s a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, a hole. 12. “Greensleeves” is a traditional English folk song. It was published in the 16th century. There is a belief that “Greensleeves” was composed by Henry VIII for his lover and future queen consort Anne Boleyn. Perhaps her rejection to King Henry’s attempts to seduce her may be referred to in the song. However, Henry did not compose “Greensleeves”, which is probably Elizabethan in origin and is based on an Italian style of composition that did not reach England until after his death. One possible interpretation of the lyrics is that Lady Green Sleeves was a promiscuous young woman and perhaps a bawd. At the time, the word “green” had sexual connotations, most notably in the phrase “a green gown”, a reference to the way that grass stains might be seen on a lady’s dress if she had made love outside. 106 In Nevill Coghill's translation of The Canterbury Tales, he explains that “green” (for Chaucer’s age) was the colour of lightness in love. GREENSLEEVES English Folk Song 1. Alas, my love, you do me wrong, To cast me off discourteously. For I have loved you well and long, Delighting in your company. CHORUS: Greensleeves was all my joy, Greensleeves was my delight, Greensleeves was my heart of gold, And who but my Lady Greensleeves. 2. I have been ready at your hand To grant whatever you would crave, I have both waged life and land, Your love and goodwill for to have. CHORUS 3. Your vows you’ve broken, like my heart, Oh, why did you so enrapture me? Now I remain in a world apart But my heart remains in captivity. CHORUS 4. If you intend thus to disdain, It does the more enrapture me, And even so, I still remain A lover in captivity. CHORUS 5. My men were clothed all in green, And they did ever wait on thee; All this was gallant to be seen, And yet thou wouldst not love me. CHORUS 6. Thou couldst desire no earthly thing, But still thou hadst it readily. Thy music still to play and sing; And yet thou wouldst not love me. CHORUS 107 7. Well, I will pray to God on high, That thou my constancy mayst see, And that yet once before I die, Thou wilt vouchsafe to love me. CHORUS 8. Ah, Greensleeves, now farewell, adieu, To God I pray to prosper thee, For I am still thy lover true, Come once again and love me. CHORUS Перевод С. Я. Маршака 1. За что, за что, моя любовь, За что меня сгубила ты? Неужто не припомнишь вновь Того, кого забыла ты? Твоим зеленым рукавам Я жизнь без ропота отдам. Я ваш, пока душа жива, Зеленые рукава! 2. Я для тебя дышал и жил, Тебе по капле отдал кровь, Свою я душу заложил, Чтоб заслужить твою любовь. Твоим зеленым рукавам Я жизнь без ропота отдам. Я ваш, пока душа жива, Зеленые рукава! 3. Я наряжал тебя в атлас От головы до ног твоих, Купил сверкающий алмаз Для каждой из серег твоих. Твоим зеленым рукавам Я жизнь без ропота отдам. Я ваш, пока душа жива, Зеленые рукава! 4. Купил я красные чулки, 108 Расшитые узорами, Купил тебе я башмачки Нарядные, с подборами. 6. Купил гранатовую брошь, Браслета два для рук твоих. Таких браслетов не найдешь Ты на руках подруг твоих. 7. Из серебра купил ножи, Позолотил их заново. У самой знатной госпожи Такого нет приданого. 8. Тебе прислал я слуг своих В твоем дому прислуживать. В зеленый шелк одел я их, И в галуны, и в кружево, 9. Чтоб на руках тебя несли Они порой ненастною, Чтоб не коснулась ты земли Подошвою атласною. 10. Весь день твой услаждают слух И музыка и пение. Но ты меня, мой милый друг, Отвергла тем не менее. 11. Одну надежду я таю, Что, как ты жестока ни будь, Любовь несчастную мою Вознаградишь когда-нибудь! 12. Пусть ты глуха к моим мольбам, Мучительница милая, Твоим зеленым рукавам Послушен до могилы я. Твоим зеленым рукавам Я жизнь безропотно отдам. Зеленые, словно весною трава, Зеленые рукава! 109 13. “For He’s A Jolly Good Fellow” is a song which is sung to congratulate a person on a significant event, such as weddings, anniversaries, retirements, birthdays, the birth of a child, or the winning of a championship sporting event. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, “For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow” is the second-most popular song in the English language, following “Happy Birthday to You” and followed by “Auld Lang Syne”. It is frequently used instead of “Happy Birthday to You”. FOR HE’S A JOLLY GOOD FELLOW Popular English Social Song British version For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, (pause) CHORUS: And so say all of us. And so say all of us, And so say all of us! For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he's a jolly good fellow, (pause) CHORUS American version For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, (pause) CHORUS Which nobody can deny. Which nobody can deny, Which nobody can deny! For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, For he’s a jolly good fellow, (pause) CHORUS 14. “The Twelve Days of Christmas” is an English Christmas carol. The Twelve Days of Christmas are the twelve festive days starting Christmas Day (25 December). This period is also known as Christmastide. The Twelfth Day of Christmas is 5 January, with the celebrations of Christmas traditionally ending on Twelfth Night, the close of the Christmas festivities. In the song 12 Christmas presents are given. On each of the twelve days of Christmas a new gift is added to those already given on all the previous days. The song was first published in England in 1780. 110 “The Twelve Days of Christmas” is a cumulative song, meaning that each verse is built on top of the previous verses. There are twelve verses, each describing a gift given by “my true love” on one of the twelve days of Christmas. In each verse the singer names the new present and repeats in reverse order the list of all the presents. The singer always begins with the last present and ends with the first one. The song was not English in origin, but French, though it is considered an English carol. “The Twelve Days of Christmas” is a cumulative song, meaning that each verse is built on top of the previous verses. There are twelve verses, each describing a gift given by "my true love" on one of the twelve days of Christmas. In this song the tempo increases from verse to verse. The last verse is sung at top speed. TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 1. On the first day of Christmas my true love sent to me: A Partridge in a Pear Tree 2. On the second day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 3. On the third day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 4. On the fourth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 5. On the fifth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 111 6. On the sixth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 7. On the seventh day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Seven Swans a-Swimming, Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 8. On the eighth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Eight Maids a-Milking, Seven Swans a-Swimming, Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 9. On the ninth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Nine Ladies Dancing, Eight Maids a-Milking, Seven Swans a-Swimming, Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 10. On the tenth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: 112 Ten Lords a-Leaping, Nine Ladies Dancing, Eight Maids a-Milking, Seven Swans a-Swimming, Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 11. On the eleventh day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Eleven Pipers Piping, Ten Lords a-Leaping, Nine Ladies Dancing, Eight Maids a-Milking, Seven Swans a-Swimming, Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree 12. On the twelfth day of Christmas my true love sent to me: Twelve Drummers Drumming, Eleven Pipers Piping, Ten Lords a-Leaping, Nine Ladies Dancing, Eight Maids a-Milking, Seven Swans a-Swimming, Six Geese a-Laying, Five Golden Rings, Four Colly Birds, Three French Hens, Two Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree! 1) partridge – серая куропатка 2) turtle dove – kind of pigeon noted for cooking 3) French hen – red-legged French partridge 113 4) colly = black 5) a-Laying – laying eggs 6) a-Leaping – jumping 7) piper – bagpipe player 15. “Amazing Grace” (в переводе с английского «Изумительная благодать Господня»; в русской интерпретации «О, благодать») is a Christian hymn written by English poet and clergyman John Newton (1725–1807), published in 1779. “Amazing Grace” is one of the most recognizable songs in the English-speaking world. Its message is the forgiveness is possible regardless of the sins people commit and that the soul can be delivered from despair through the mercy of God. Newton wrote the words from personal experience. He was pressed into the Royal Navy and became a sailor, participating in the slave trade. One night a terrible storm battered his vessel so severely that he became frightened enough to call out to God for mercy, a moment that marked the beginning of his spiritual conversion and he began studying theology. In 1764 Newton became curate and began to write hymns with poet William Cowper. “Amazing Grace” was written in 1773. In 1835 in the United States “Amazing Grace” was joined to a tune named “New Britain” to which it is most frequently sung today. Author Gilbert Chase writes that “Amazing Grace” is “without a doubt the most famous of all the folk hymns”. Jonathan Aitken, a Newton biographer, estimates that it is performed about 10 million times annually. AMAZING GRACE Amazing grace! How sweet the sound That saved a wretch like me! I once was lost, but now am found; Was blind, but now I see. ’Twas grace that taught my heart to fear, And grace my fears relieved; How precious did that grace appear The hour I first believed! Through many dangers, toils and snares, I have already come; ’Tis grace hath brought me safe thus far, And grace will lead me home. The Lord has promised good to me, His Word my hope secures; He will my Shield and Portion be, As long as life endures. 114 Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail, And mortal life shall cease, I shall possess, within the veil, A life of joy and peace. The earth shall soon dissolve like snow, The sun forbear to shine; But God, who called me here below, Will be forever mine. When we’ve been there ten thousand years, Bright shining as the sun, We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise Than when we’d first begun. 16. “My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose” is one of the most famous songs that Robert Burns wrote and first published in 1794. Burns wrote it as a traditional ballad, four verses of four lines each. Burns referred to it as a “simple old Scots song which I had picked up in the country.” The lyrics of the song are simple but effective. “My luve's like a red, red rose/That’s newly sprung in June” describe a love that is both fresh and long lasting. David Daiches in his work describes Burns as “the greatest songwriter Britain has produced” for his work in improving traditional Scots songs including “Red, Red Rose” which he described as a “combination of tenderness and swagger.” Burns worked for the final ten years of his life on projects to preserve trad itional Scottish songs for the future. A RED, RED ROSE (Words by Robert Burns) O my Luve's like a red, red rose That’s newly sprung in June; O my Luve's like the melodie That’s sweetly play'd in tune. As fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luve am I: And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a’ the seas gang dry: Till a’ the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi’ the sun: I will luve thee still, my dear, While the sands o’ life shall run. 115 And fare thee weel, my only Luve And fare thee weel, a while! And I will come again, my Luve, Tho’ it were ten thousand mile. Перевод Д. Тим 1. Любовь моя – как роза с цветущего куста! Без фальши и без позы как песенка проста! Сколь ты собой прекрасна верна любовь моя, и смерти неподвластна, хоть высохнут моря! Пусть высохнут все воды, рассыплется гранит!.. Пусть жизнь считает годы, душа любовь хранит! Иду вслед за судьбою, но знай, что в бурю, в штиль, чтоб снова быть с тобою пройду сто тысяч миль! 2. Прекрасней красных свежих роз цветёт любовь во мне! Звучит мотивом сладких грёз в настроенной струне! Сколь ты сверкаешь красотой – в любви столь крепок я! Любовь к тебе – всегда со мной, хоть высохнут моря! Пусть высохнут моря вокруг, сотрутся камни гор, любовь останется, мой друг, она прочней всего! 116 И не прощаюсь я теперь! Вернусь к тебе опять – хоть десять тысяч миль, поверь, пришлось бы прошагать! “You learn a lot about people when you listen to the songs that mean something to them.” Author Unknown AMERICAN SONGS The first European settlers in America were English speaking. They brought their language, their customs and their skills. They also brought their songs. Many American folk songs are identical to British songs in arrangements, but with new lyrics. AngloAmerican traditional music also includes a variety of ballads, humorous stories, and disaster songs regarding mining, shipwrecks and murder. 1. “Jingle Bells” is one of the best known and commonly sung winter songs in the world. Jingle Bells, one of the most famous American Christmas songs, was originally written for Thanksgiving. The author and composer of Jingle Bells was a minister James Lord Pierpoint who composed the song in 1857 for children celebrating his Boston Sunday School Thanksgiving. The song was so popular that it was repeated at Christmas. A traditional Christmas is captured in the lyrics of Jingle Bells and the sound effects using the bells have become synonymous with the arrival of Father Christmas or Santa Claus to the delight of children of all ages. The word “jingle” means a certain kind of bell. The narrator takes a ride with a girl and loses control of the sleigh. He falls out of the sleigh and a rival laughs at him. And he gives advice to a friend, who then picks up some girls, finds a faster horse, and takes off at full speed. JINGLE BELLS 1. Dashing through the snow, in a one-horse open sleigh, O'er the fields we go, laughing all the way. Bells on Bobtail ring, making spirits bright, 117 What fun it is to ride and sing a sleighing song tonight! CHORUS: Jingle bells, jingle bells, jingle all the way. Oh! What fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh! Jingle bells, jingle bells, jingle all the way. Oh! What fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh! 2. A day or two ago, I thought I’d take a ride, And soon Miss Fannie Bright was sitting by my side. The horse was lean and lank, misfortune was his lot. He got into a snowdrift bank – and we? We got upsot! CHORUS 3. So now the moon is bright, enjoy it while you’re young. Invite your friends tonight to sing this sleighing song. Just get a bob-tailed nag and give him extra feed. Then hitch him to an open sleigh – and crack! You’ll take the lead! CHORUS o’er = over Bobtail – a nickname for a horse with a short or “bobbed” tail upsot – the past tense of upset nag = horse 2. “Billy Boy” is a Protestant song from Glasgow. It originated in the 1930s as the song of a Glasgow street gang led by Billy Fullerton. It is associated in particular with Rangers football club. It is also sung by supporters of other football clubs, using slightly different lyrics. In the New World a woman’s work was essential for her family’s survival. For the first two hundred years of American life, almost everything that the family ate or wore was produced at home. Women helped to plow the fields, plant seeds and pick crops. They made wheat or corn into flour and made the flour into bread. Women made clothes. A girl who learned to cook and sew well became a valuable wife. In the song, Billy’s mother questions him about the girl he plans to marry. Like a mother in any country, she wants her son to find a wife who is polite (“Did she ask you to come in?”), attractive (“How tall is she?”), skillful at housekeeping (“Can she bake a cherry pie?” “Can she make a feather bed?”) and young (“How old is she?”). In answering his mother, Billy is joking speaking about the qualities of the girl he wants to marry. BILLY BOY 1. Oh, where have you been, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Oh, where have you been, charming Billy? I have been to seek a wife, she’s the joy of my life, She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother. 118 2. Did she ask you to come in, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Did she ask you to come in, charming Billy? Yes, she asked me to come in, there’s a dimple in her chin, She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother. 3. Can she bake a cherry pie, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Can she bake a cherry pie, charming Billy? She can bake a cherry pie, quick as you can wink an eye. She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother. 4. Can she make a feather bed, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Can she make a feather bed, charming Billy? She can make a feather bed, while a-standing on her head, She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother. 5. How tall is she, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, How tall is she, charming Billy? She is tall as any pine, and as straight as a pumpkin vine, She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother. 6. How old is she, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, How old is she, charming Billy? She is sixty times eleven, twenty-eight and forty-seven, She’s a young thing and cannot leave her mother. seek = look for young thing – a youthful, innocent quality dimple – in the chin or cheek quick as you can wink an eye – as quick as a wink (a wink is a rapid closing and opening of one eye) feather bed – a mattress filled with feathers ( a feather bed was a luxury) a-standing on her head – the prefix “a-” was used with present continuous verbs pumpkin vine – a round, orange vegetable that grows on the ground with a very crooked vine 3. “Oh, My Darling, Clementine” is an American western folk ballad, written by Percy Montrose. The song is about the California gold rush of 1849. A sad lover sings about his darling, the daughter of a miner in California Gold Rush. He loses her in a drowning accident, though he consoles himself towards the end of the song with Clementine’s little sister. Another theory is that the song is from the view of Clementine’s father, and not a lover. The song was made popular by Mexican miners during the Gold Rush. 119 OH, MY DARLING, CLEMENTINE 1. In a cavern, in a canyon, excavating for a mine, Lived a miner Forty-Niner, And his daughter, Clementine CHORUS: Oh, my darlin’, oh, my darlin’, Oh, my darlin’, Clementine! You are lost and gone forever Dreadful sorry, Clementine. 2. Light she was and like a fairy, And her shoes were number nine. Herring boxes without topses Sandals were for Clementine. CHORUS 3. Drove she ducklings to the millpond, Every morning just at nine; Stubbed her toe against a splinter, Fell into the foaming brine. CHORUS 4. Ruby lips above the water Blowing bubbles soft and fine. But alas, she was no swimmer, And I lost my Clementine! CHORUS 5. And the miner, Forty-Niner, He began to peak and pine Thought he oughter join his daughter – Now he’s with his Clementine. CHORUS 6. How I missed her, how I missed her, How I missed my Clementine – Till I kissed her little sister, And forgot my Clementine! CHORUS to peak and pine – угасать, чахнуть 4. “We Shall Overcome” is a protest song that became a key anthem of the US civil rights movement.The lyrics of the song are derived from the refrain of a gospel song by Charles Albert Tindley. The song was published in 1947 as “We Will Overcome”. Pete Seeger, Joan Baez and other famous folksingers in the early 1960s, sang the song at folk festivals and concerts and helped make it widely known. The song quic kly became the Civil Rights movement’s unofficial anthem. 120 This song is often sung in a circle, with the members of the group crossing their arms and holding the hands of the people on either side of them. It is a song of solidarity, hope and determination. WE SHALL OVERCOME 1. We shall overcome, We shall overcome, We shall overcome someday. CHORUS: Oh, deep in my heart I do believe We shall overcome someday! 2. We shall live in peace, We shall live in peace, We shall live in peace someday. CHORUS 3. We’ll walk hand in hand, We’ll walk hand in hand, We’ll walk hand in hand someday. CHORUS 4. We shall all be free, We shall all be free, We shall all be free someday. CHORUS shall – used for special emphasis, it shows stronger determination than will deep in my heart = from the bottom of my heart I do believe – do is added for emphasis hand in hand = as friends Перевод С. Болотина и Т. Сикорской ВСЕ ПРЕОДОЛЕЕМ 1. Все преодолеем, Все преодолеем, В мире нет преград для нас! Припев: В сердце своем Верим и ждем – К цели мы придем в свой час! 121 2. Страх для нас неведом, Страх для нас неведом, Смерть грозила нам не раз. Припев 3. Правда – наша сила, Правда – наша сила, Это стяг в борьбе для нас! Припев 4. Мы сплотимся в дружбе, Мы сплотимся в дружбе, Люди всех цветов и рас! Припев 5. Мы хотим свободы, Мы хотим свободы, Пламень гнева не угас! Припев 5. “What a Wonderful World” is a song written by Bob Thiele and George David Weiss. It was first recorded by Louis Armstrong and released as a single in 1968. Thiele and Weiss were both prominent in the music world (Thiele as a producer and Weiss as a composer). The song has a hopeful, optimistic tone with regard to the future, with reference to babies being born into the world and having much to look fo rward to. The song was not initially a hit in the United States, but there was a major success in the United Kingdom. The song was the biggest-selling single of 1968 in the UK. WHAT A WONDERFUL DAY (Words by Bob Thiele) 1. I see trees of green, Red roses too I see them bloom, For me and you CHORUS: And I think to myself, what a wonderful world 2. I see skies of blue, and clouds of white The bright blessed day, the dark sacred night CHORUS 3. The colours of the rainbow so pretty in the sky Are also on the faces of people going by I see friends shaking hands, saying “How do you do?” They're really saying “I love you”. 122 4. I hear babies cryin’, I watch them grow They’ll learn much more than I’ll ever know FINAL CHORUS: And I think to myself, what a wonderful world Yes I think to myself, what a wonderful world Oh Yeah! Перевод А. Дюка Прекрасный мир 1. Я вижу зелёные листья деревьев и красные лепестки роз, Вижу как они цветут для тебя и меня И я понимаю, Что этот мир полон чудес. 2. Я вижу белые облака на голубом небе, Ясный солнечный день, Тёмную тихую ночь. И я думаю про себя: Что за волшебный мир! 3. Все цвета радуги Играют на небе И на лицах Прохожих Я вижу как друзья пожимают руки, Спрашивая «Как дела?» Подразумевая: «Я люблю тебя». 4. Я слышу как плачут маленькие дети, Вижу, как они растут, И научатся они гораздо большему, Чем то, что я знаю и умею сейчас. И я думаю о том, Что этот мир полон чудес, Да, я думаю о том, Какой всё же это прекрасный мир! 123 PART SEVEN PAINTING AND THEATRE DESIGNING “A picture is a poem without words.” Horace (65-8 BC) There are a lot of kinds of art. The examples of classical art are masterpieces of painting and sculpture which are admired by people at picture galleries and museums. Art plays an important role in the people’s life. It aids the people’s understanding of their culture. Tastes should be developed through images of high artistic culture. Every artist tries to develop his own style of painting to differ from other ones. There are many styles of painting in art: a portrait, a still life, a landscape, a seascape and etc. An artist has the skill to combine form and colour into harmonious entity. There are some of the more common genres of art that artists use in their paintings and drawings. History Painting deals with classical, mythological, literary and religious events throughout history and often carries symbolic messages about good and evil. The paintings usually are large and intended for display in public places such as churches, spacious rooms or gallery walls. 2. Portrait Painting deals with the creation of any portrait, an artistic representation of a person. Students master this skill, spending years first drawing from plaster casts, then copying artists’ portraits before finally working with live models. Artists can made small-scale portraits and full-length portraits. Sitters are often fashionably dressed. 124 3. Genre Painting deals with scenes from everyday life. Genre paintings contain people, animals, touches of still-life, bits of landscape (although interior scenes are more common) or any combination thereof. They are occasionally humorous. 4. Landscape Painting covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, forests, etc. Landscapes require no human figures. Types of Landscape Paintings also include cityscapes, seascapes and waterscapes. Most landscapes are painted in a horizontal format, meaning the length of the canvas is greater than its height. 5. Still Life Painting covers the depiction of mostly inanimate objects, which may be either natural food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, musical instruments, and so on). Words & Expressions: painting – живопись to aid – помогать, способствовать an artist – художник history painting – историческая живопись to display – выставлять, демонстрировать portrait painting – портретная живопись a representation – изображение, образ a sitter – модель genre painting – жанровая живопись landscape – пейзаж a canvas – холст still life – натюрморт 125 Exercise. What is art for? Rank the following purposes in order of importance, then speak about your ranking. to make people think and stimulate debate to be beautiful and attractive to look at to entertain and make people laugh to show the skill of the artist to cause a positive or negative emotional reaction in the viewer to reflect society/life to make money Questions: 1. What sort of paintings do you like? 2. Do you have a favourite artist or painter? 3. Do you like other forms of art, e.g. sculpture, photography? 4. What sort of art don’t you like? 5. What art gallery or a work of art have you enjoyed? 6. Speak about exhibition you have seen or heard about. “Painting is just another way of keeping a diary.” Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) FROM THE HISTORY OF BRITISH PAITING British painting reached its heyday in the 18th and early 19th century. Beginning with Hogarth, a school of painting appeared that could be identified as characteristically British. The one hundred years between 1750-1850 witnessed the development of the three art forms: portraiture, landscape and genre that became the hall- 126 marks of British painting. However, up to the third quarter of the 18th century portraiture was practically the only form of painting in Britain, as the Englishman’s standard of living had become very high and those who had achieved success wished they could be remembered for posterity. This demand for portraits was most successfully met by a gifted painter – Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), who insisted that English artists should develop the Grand Style of painting. When the Royal Academy was founded in 1768, Reynolds became its President. He tried to combine portraiture with historical painting. Reynolds also taught that everything in the picture should look natural. One more world-known English artist of the 18th century Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) introduced another type of painting into English art – landscape. His dreamlike landscapes heralded the great English school of landscape painting. Gainsborough was passionately fond of music and he filled his house with all kinds of musical instruments, which he could play rather well. He considered them to be the most beautiful works of human skill. 127 One of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting was J. M. W. Turner (1775-1851). He is commonly known as “the painter of light”. Turner was interested in optical effects produced by light under varying conditions. (From “British Painting” by Hereward Lester Cooke) The greatest landscapist John Constable (17761837) is one of the creators of landscape painting in the style of the 19th century, where atmospheric conditions serve as the subject matter of painting in a setting familiar to the artist. He insisted that art should be based on observation of nature on the one hand and feeling on the other. In 1816 Constable wrote: “Painting is a science which should be considered as a branch of natural philosophy, of which pictures are but the experiments”. Words & Expressions: heyday – расцвет portraiture – портретная живопись a hallmark – отличительный признак posterity – потомство dreamlike – сказочный, фантастический to herald – возвещать observation - наблюдение watercolour – акварель subject matter – содержание картины a setting – окружающая обстановка Questions: 1. What is your favourite genre of painting? 2. Pictures of what artist do you like best: old or modern? 3. What picture has impressed you greatly? 4. What do you know about the artist? 5. When was it created? 6. What is the mood of the picture? 7. What is your initial reaction to it? 128 AN AMERICAN STYLE OF PAINTING Painting began in this country in the 17th century when America was a colonial dependency of the Old World, and the earliest American pictures, when compared to European works, can be recognized only by their provincialism. But gradually as settlements grew into towns, as political independence was finally achieved, a national school is distinguishable. Yet, the parenthood of Europe remained, until George Bellows broke the tradition, and significant American artist Copley, West, Stuart, Whistler, Sargent showed that there was a style in this country which was different from European painting. George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925) was an American realist painter, known for his depictions of urban life in New York City. He was affected by the geographical position of the country, physically separated from the central tradition of Western Art. On the whole the American style compared to European painting seems naïve, brusque, even awkward. But the impulse toward art in the country, from colonial times to the present day, is so strong that the American school produced works of genius distinguished in the tradition of Western painting for their honesty, their sincerity and their hard grasp of fact. (From “Great American Paintings” by John Walker) 129 “A great artist can paint a great picture on a small canvas.” Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) PABLO PICASSO Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and stage designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is widely known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles that he developed and explored. Pablo Picasso could not sit without doing something – at dinner he drew on the table-cloth, sculpted different forms from bread. His day began with sketching or drawing something. Picasso often worked while guests were present; sometimes he left them after saying some words. He could work all night and the next morning the painting was finished. In painting Picasso forgot everything. Before going to bed he often watched a late movie or boxing, sketching forms with the sound switched out. Words & Expressions: influential – влиятельный to sculpt – лепить to sketch – делать набросок Questions: 1. Why did Picasso draw and sculpt even during his dinner? 2. What did his day begin with? 3. What did he usually do before going to bed? 4. What did Picasso do when guests were present? 5. Have you seen any pictures by Picasso? 6. What is your impression? ISSAC LEVITAN There are many brilliant landscape-painters in Russian art. We all love Shishkin’s forests, Polenov’s charming views of Russian nature, Savrasov’s fresh and optimistic landscapes and many others. But Levitan is unique. 130 Isaac I. Levitan (1860-1900) was a classical Russian landscape-painter who advanced the genre of the “mood landscape”. When you stand before his lovely canvases you forget that just a few steps away there is a big city full of movement, where people are hurrying here and there, where cars are speeding along the streets. And you are alone with Beauty, alone with Russia. Levitan’s landscapes are full of loneliness and sadness. His art is like the music of Tchaikovsky and Rakhmaninov. It is lyrical and melancholic. His palette is not bright. It is soft and gentle. The names of his pictures reflect the feeling of hopeles sness and sadness, for example, “Eternal Peace”, “Golden Autumn”. Words & Expressions: a landscape-painter – пейзажист a view – пейзаж “mood landscape” – «пейзаж настроение» loneliness – одиночество palette – палитра Questions: 1. What Russian landscape-painters do you know? 2. What genre did Levitan advance? 3. What are his landscapes full? 4. What can you say about the palette of his pictures? 5. Have you seen Levitan’s landscapes? 6. What museums are Levitan’s paitings exhibited? THEATRE AND STAGE DESIGN The design industry is part of the creative and cultural industries. The design industry includes craft, cultural heritage, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts. Of all people working in the design industry 7% are in stage or set design. 131 Theatre design or scenography is the design of the space in which a performance takes place. Theatre designers create stage pictures, i.e. they design the space, costumes, props for a performance. Some designers deal only with set or costumes, particularly if it is a very large scale production such as an opera, but designers generally create designs for both. Designers also use their skills in areas such as creative events, parades, opening ceremonies, pop concerts etc. The designer will need varied skills – drawing, painting, construction, sewing, budgeting and promotion. The designer also needs to have an understanding of the text and of the human figure in space. STAGE DESIGNER Stage designers are responsible for the visual concept of a theatre production. They realise a design style for sets, locations, graphics, lighting, camera angles and costumes working closely with the director and producer. Stage designers are also called production or set designers. Production designers need to be creative and imaginative, have a high level of design skill and creative vision. They need to be good at communicating with people. The work of a set, production or stage designer begins at the start of the production planning process, and ends on the opening night. A stage designer creates the design ideas, but usually delegates the practical work to others. The work could include: studying scripts and discussing ideas with the director communicating your ideas to costume, make-up, and lighting designers researching the right historical, contemporary or futuristic details for the production creating effective designs within the available budget using computer-aided design (CAD) building scale models estimating costs and preparing a production schedule overseeing set building and decoration making any adjustments needed during rehearsals. 132 The production of plays usually involves contributions from a playwright, a director, a cast of actors, and a technical production team that includes a scenic or set designer, lighting designer, costume designer, sound designer, stage manager and production manager. Depending on the production, this team may also include a composer, a dramaturge, a video designer and a fight designer. The technical aspects of theatrical production are described collectively as “stagecraft”. This includes, but is not limited to, the construction and rigging of scenery, the hanging and focusing of lighting, the design of costumes, make-up, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound. Stagecraft may be implemented by any number of workers, from a single person (who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, sound, and organizes the cast) to hundreds of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, wigmakers, and the like. This modern form of stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and includes a vast range of history and tradition. Scenic design (also known as scenography, stage design, set design or production design) is the creation of theatrical scenery. Scenic designers have traditionally come from a variety of artistic backgrounds. The “stage picture” is the physical appearance of the stage for a play, whether in rehearsal or performance. The stage picture should express good principles of design and use of space. It should be visually appealing for the audience or should express the show’s concept. The scenic designer is responsible for creating an environment for the production and scale models of the scenery. Nowadays scenic designers are often responsible not only for scenic design but costume, lighting, sound and multi-media design for performance and are referred to as theatre designers or production designers. Words & Expressions: (theatre) stage (set) design – сценография (сценическое оформление спектакля) cultural heritage – культурное наследие performing arts (e.g. dance, drama) – исполнительское искусство visual-arts (e.g. painting, sculpting, photography) – изобразительное искусство props (properties) – театральное имущество (опора), необходимое для спектакля (мебель, посуда, телефон и т.д.) a large scale production – крупномасштабная постановка skills – навыки, умения, практический опыт drawing – рисование painting – живопись sewing – шитье a production schedule – производственный план to oversee – наблюдать, следить a dramaturge – драматург a fight designer – постановщик сцен борьбы stagecraft – сценическое (технические аспекты театрального производства) 133 rigging of scenery – оснащение сцены focusing of lighting – фокусировка освещения recording and mixing of sound – запись и микширование звука make-up – грим a stagehand – рабочий сцены a wigmaker – изготовитель париков Questions: 1. What does the design industry include? 2. How many people work in stage design? 3. What does it mean ‘theatre design’? 4. What does a theatre designer deal with? 5. What does the work of a stage designer include? 6. People of what occupations take part in the production of plays? 7. What does the stagecraft include? 8. Who does a scenic designer work with? 9. How would you describe the set of the play which you have seen recently? FAVORSKY AS A STAGE DESIGNER Vladimir Favorsky (1886-1964) is a brilliant graphic artist and book illustrator. He has not done a great deal as an artist of the theatre. But what he has done in the theatre is quite unusual. His principles in the theatre design were different from the generally accepted ones. He was against the pretty accuracy of the décor. Favorsky believed in the power of the theatrical convention, in the specific quality of the language of the stage. The best of Favorsky’s works for the stage was the Moscow Art Theatre production of “Twelfth Night”. On taking up the play he became the master of the whole area of the stage, the artist was responsible for the visual aspect of the play. Favorsky constructed a revolving set which was a ‘skeleton’ for the décor of every scene. He first used the system of painted panels which not only showed the place of action but were artistically noteworthy. In working on “Twelfth Night” Favorsky found an uninterrupted rhythmic connection between the changes of the set and the unfolding of the action of the play. Changes of scenery in a production are tiring for the audience and interrupt the rhythm of the play. Favorsky transformed these interludes into pleasant musical rest. “Twelfth Night” was extremely beautiful in colouring. He chose pure and vivid concentrations of colour for his costumes. This concentration expressed something of the lyric feeling of Shakespeare’s original. 134 In all the plays Favorsky designed, including Lope de Vega’s “A Dog in the Manger” (for the Mayakovsky Theatre), Pushkin’s “Boris Godunov” and “Little Tragedies”, he continued to reject the canons of naturalistic decoration. Artistic achievement in the theatre is not possible without having absolute harmony between the director and the artist. The theatre of today is in great need of talented, original artistic personalities. And it may be that they are needed in the sphere of decoration and design more than in any other sphere. Words & Expressions: a revolving set – вращающаяся сцена scene – сцена (место действия в пьесе) scenery – декорации “A Dog in the Manger” – «Собака на сене» Questions: 1. What is V. Favorsky most famous for? 2. What are his innovations in the theatre design? 3. What were his principles of stage design? 4. What was he against in this sphere? 5. What were Favorsky’s most successful productions? 6. Is it possible to have a success in the theatre without harmony between the director and the artist? 135 PHOTOGRAPHY Photography is a very powerful medium and a very difficult craft. Excellent photos don’t only display some facts — they tell stories, awake feelings and manage to share with the audience the emotions a photographer experienced when clicking the shot button. Taking excellent pictures is hard as you need to find a perfect perspective and consider the perfect timing. To achieve brilliant photography you need practice and patience. However, it is worth it: the results can be truly stunning. Paintings are considered the art form, but what about photography? The Frenchman Henri Cartier-Bresson, possibly the most famous photographer in the 20th century, emphasised the difference between painting as art and photography as art. In 1957, he told ‘The Washington Post’ that “There is a creative fraction of a second when you are taking a picture. Your eye must see a composition or an expression that life itself offers you, and you must know with intuition when to click the camera. That is the moment the photographer is creative.” He is, of course, referring to the absolutely unique moment, never to be repeated, when the exposure is taken. A further characteristic of photography, unlike painting, is that more can be captured in a photograph than was intended by the photographer. Fine details, unexpected and often invisible to the naked eye, can be revealed. The photograph ‘does not lie’ because it has not passed through the brain of the photographer. This is completely different from the brain processes of the painter, who decides what he is going to paint, how he will make the subject interesting and how he is going to paint it. Some critics of photography claim that modern cameras reduce photo-taking to an automatic process. They say, “Just point and shoot. The camera does the rest. You will get a good photo.” However, those who see photography as an art form say that the critics are wrong. They say that the camera cannot decide between an ordinary photo and a really excellent, cleverly composed photo. Millions of photographs are taken every year but very few are considered art. Words & Expressions: photography - фотографирование craft – ремесло, профессия stunning – ошеломляющий to take a picture – фотографировать to click the camera – щелкнуть затвор фотоаппарата to shoot – снимать Questions: 1. Do you take photographs? Why? 136 2. Do you prefer colour or black and white photographs? 3. Do you think photography is an art form? 4. What is the difference between photography and paintings? 5. Do you have a favourite photographer? 6. Why do you think people visit photo exhibitions? 7. Describe one of the best photographs you have taken or you have seen. Exercise. Which of the following do you consider to be art? Explain your reasons. some graffiti on a wall a tattoo on someone’s body a holiday photograph a pile of bricks in an exhibition a comic book a painting of a bowl of fruit an advertisement for a product a firework display Conversations Jane: I know you are fond of painting. What interesting exhibitions did you visit last year? Monica: So Jane, I didn’t get to see as many exhibitions as I’d hoped to last year. I only went to a couple. I saw the Matisse exhibition. It was fantastic – so inspiring. I was really impressed by it. Jane: I didn’t get to see that, but I heard it was something special. I also heard the Monet one was excellent, but I didn’t see it. Monica: No, neither did I. The only other one I got to was the Pop Art exhibition which didn’t really live up to my expectations. How about you? Did you see it? Jane: No, I didn’t actually, but the reviews weren’t very good. Monica: You didn’t miss much at all. And the entrance fee was expensive. 137 Jane: Oh, I’ll tell you what I really liked – the Rembrandt exhibition at the start of the year. It was excellent, although it was really packed. I ever had to queue up for half an hour. It was one of the best exhibitions I’ve ever seen. But I think the other thing I really enjoyed last year was the portrait photos exhibition. And what are you going to see next year? What’s on that looks interesting? Monica: The ‘Tomorrow Now’ exhibition in January looks fab! If it’s anything like the exhibition I saw in Moscow last summer it should be wonderful. I’d really recommend it. Jane: What about the Cynthia Marlow exhibition? Monica: Oh, let’s give that a miss – she’s boring. Jane: OK, then. *** Maria: John, you are interested in contemporary art. What do you recommend to see? John: I recommend the Savanna Charles exhibition. She’s an American sculptor living in London. Maria: What is she? I mean, what sort of thing does she do? John: Difficult to describe really. She’s got such an original style. She makes huge figures out of glass, aluminium and other metals. They’re mostly exhibited in large halls or open spaces. They’re amazing. Absolutely breathtaking. Maria: Sounds interesting. What’s she best known for? John: She did something called ‘Spiderwoman’. It was exhibited recently at the Rockefeller Centre in New York. It’s over 30 metres high. I also can suggest a young artist Alberto Cassini. He’s from Argentina, about 28, living in Florence at present. He’s an abstract painter, a bit similar to Kandinsky, but with his own style. Maria: OK, tell me a bit about his style. John: Well, the shapes on the canvas have a lot of movement and drama, like Kandinsky. But Alberto Cassini likes darker colours, and he doesn’t use as many geometric shapes. His best-known work is called ‘Chaos’. Maria: I’d like to look at a few photos of his work. John: By all means, I’ve bought some along for you to see. *** Marta: I enjoy taking photos and I’d like to know about the work of famous photographers. Paul: Well, how about Ingrid Tauber, a young German photographer? Marta: Tell me about her. Paul: She’s based in Hamburg. Married, husband also a photographer. Marta: What sort of photos does she take? Paul: She’s fascinated by faces. So she takes lots of photos of people’s faces, showing different emotions, happiness, sadness, loneliness, despair, that sort of thing. People of all ages, anyone, not just celebrities. 138 Marta: I think I’ve seen some of her photos in a magazine. It seems to me her most famous photo called ‘Homeless Woman’. Paul: Yes, it’s a compilation of about 50 shots of a very old woman, showing all kinds of emotions. It’s incredibly moving. Marta: OK, I must look at more of her work. *** Jim: I can suggest very interesting artist John Leach. By the way, he’s British, a graffiti artist; you can see his work all over Europe. Erica: A graffiti artist, now that would be interesting. What sort of stuff does he do? Is it very abstract? Jim: Not at all. He does murals, usually images of war, starving children, crowds out of control, that sort of thing. There are a lot of walls in Berlin, Paris and Amsterdam covered with his art. Erica: What’s his most famous mural, or should I say, piece of graffiti? Jim: When he went to Brazil, he did an astonishing piece of graffiti in one of their cities, maybe Rio or São Paulo. It’s over 20 metres long, let’s see, it’s called ‘Battleground’, you must have seen it on postcards. Erica: Yes, it rings a bell. Presentation Hello everyone, I’m going to talk to you now about Marta Villanueva, one of my favourite artists. First, I’ll give you a few basic facts about her. Then, I’ll talk about her style of painting. After that, I’ll mention some reviews she’s received. Finally, I’ll describe what she’s like as a person. I’ve got some photos of her work. You can look at them. On other thing, please feel free to interrupt me at any time, if you have questions. OK, I take it not many of you have heard of Marta Villanueva. Right? Well, it doesn’t surprise me really, but she is an up-and-coming artist, and she’s exciting. Let me give you a few facts about her: she’s Portuguese, 28 years old, living and working in Paris. She’s married to a French businessman. At the moment, she paints in her spare time. She’s got a full-time job working in a United Nations organisation. By the way, she speaks fluent Portuguese, English, Spanish and French – quite a linguist. Right, I’ve told you a bit about her, I’ve given you a few basic facts. So, moving on now to her style of painting; she paints mainly landscapes and cityscapes, using bright colours and light and shade to create the mood of her paintings. Her paintings are really beautiful. Many of her landscapes and scenes of everyday life remind me of Monet and some of the other French impressionist painters. OK, that’s all I have to say about her style. What do the critics say about her? Well, ‘Art World’, a magazine you all know, described her as “an artist worth watching”. And the ‘Modern Art Review’ said recently, “Her colours are amazing. They explode from the canvas. Collectors are beginning to take a great interest in Marta Villanueva”. Need I say more? 139 Well, now let’s go on to her personality. She’s charming, modest and sociable, and she can talk about a wide range of subjects. She’s extremely knowledgeable, not just about art. To conclude now. Let me remind you of my main points. Marta Villanueva’s paintings are eye-catching and colourful. There is a lot of interest in her work. Exercise. Describe a work of art that you really like. Say something about the artist, and say why you like it. Prepare a presentation of the artist you like or you are interested in, using the example giving above. PART EIGHT THEATRICAL SKETCHES SMALL TALK ENGLISH SOCIAL ETIQUETTE The English are said to be reserved in manners, dress and speech. They are famous for their poli-teness, selfdiscipline and especially for the sense of humour. Basic politeness (please, thank you, excuse me) is expected. In England, people will be kinder to you when you are polite and respect local people and customs. The English people are typically unde-monstrative and of few words, so it is important to be aware of expected behaviour so you are not accidentally offensive. Ho w to G re e t S o meone English people are quite reserved when greeting one another. A greeting can be a bright ‘Hello’ ‘Hi’ or ‘Good morning’, when you arrive at work or at school. A handshake is the most comm0n form of greeting among the English and British people and is customary when you are introduced to somebody new. It is only when you meet friends, whom you haven’t seen for a long time, which you would kiss the cheek of the opposite sex. In Britain one kiss is generally enough. Formal Greetings The usual formal greeting is a ‘How do you do?’ and a firm handshake, but with a lighter touch between men and women. An appropriate response to an introduction is "Pleased to meet you". If you want to introduce yourself to someone, extend you hand for a handshake and say “Hello, I am... .” Hugging is only for friends. ‘How do you do?’ is a greeting not a question and the correct response is to repeat ‘How do you do?’ You say this when shaking hands with someone. 140 First person “How do you do?” Second person “How do you do?” ‘How are you?’ is a question and the most common and polite response is “I am fine thank you and you?” First person “How are you?” Second person “I am fine thank you and you?” ‘Nice to meet you’ – Nice to meet you too. (Often said whilst shaking hands) Delighted to meet you – Delighted to meet you too. Pleased to meet you – Pleased to meet you too. Glad to meet you – Glad to meet you too. Good Morning / Good Afternoon / Good Evening Informal Greetings ‘Hi’ – Hi or Hello Morning / Afternoon / Evening How’s you? – Fine thanks. You? Thank you / thanks / cheers They sometimes say ‘cheers’ instead of ‘thank you’ and instead of ‘good bye’ , what they are really saying is ‘thanks and bye’. N a me s T he y M a y C a ll Yo u You may be called by many different ‘affectionate’ names, according to which part of the England you are visiting. Do not be offended, this is quite normal. For example, you may be called dear, dearie, flower, love, chick, chuck, me duck, me duckie, mate, son, ma’am, madam, miss, sir, or treacle, according to your sex, age and location. The ‘affectionate’ name ‘duck’ is thought to come from the Anglo-Saxon word ‘ducis’ which was meant as a term of respect; similar to the Middle English ‘duc’, ‘duk’ which denotes a leader, commander, general; from which comes the title ‘Duke’. Ho m e V is its When being entertained at someone's home it is nice to take a gift for the host and hostess. A bottle of wine, bunch of flowers or chocolates are all acceptable. A high level of importance is placed on being punctual for both professional and social occasions. Even being a few minutes late is considered impolite. If you are invited to someone’s house for dinner at half past seven, they will expect you to be there on the dot. An invitation might state ‘7.30 for 8.00’, in which case you should arrive no later than 7.50, within the time period indicated on the invitation. If you are unable to keep an appointment, it is expected that you call the person you are meeting. You should arrive: At the exact time specified – for dinner, lunch, or appointments with professors, doctors, and other professionals. Any time during the hours specified for teas, receptions, and cocktail parties. 141 A few minutes early: for public meetings, plays, concerts, movies, sporting events, classes, church services, and weddings. When you accept a dinner invitation, tell your host if you have any dietary restrictions. He or she will want to plan a meal that you can enjoy. The evening meal is the main meal of the day in most parts of Britain. Food may be served in one of several ways: “family style” (passing the serving plates from one to another around the dining table); “buffet style” (guests serve themselves at the buffet); and “serving style” (the host fills each plate and passes it to each person). Guests usually wait to eat until everyone at their table has been served before they begin to eat. Food is eaten with a knife and fork and dessert with a spoon and fork. If at someone’s home, you shouldn't ask for more unless your host offers it by asking, “Would you like some more?” or, “Would you like seconds?” Possible answers include “Yes please”, “Just a little bit, please”, or to say no, it is best to say something like “That was lovely, but I'm full, thank you”. Invitations It is wise to telephone before visiting someone at home. If you receive a written invitation to an event that says ‘RSVP’, you should respond to let the person who sent the invitation know whether or not you plan to attend. Never accept an invitation unless you really plan to go. You may refuse by saying, ‘Thank you for inviting me, but I will not be able to come.’ If, after accepting, you are unable to attend, be sure to tell those expecting you as far in advance as possible that you will not be there. A thank-you note or telephone call after the visit is also considered polite and is an appropriate means to express your appreciation for the invitation. Dress Everyday dress is appropriate for most visits to people’s homes. You may dress more formally when attending a holiday dinner or cultural event, such as a concert or theatre performance. E a ting The British generally pay a lot of attention to good table manners. They eat continental style, with fork in the left hand and the knife in the right (or the other way round if you are left handed). At the top of your plate will be a dessert spoon and dessert fork. The food they don’t eat with a knife, fork or spoon include sandwiches, crisps, corn on the cob, and fruit. You may eat chicken and pizza with your fingers at a barbecue, finger buffet or informal setting. Otherwise always use a knife and fork. When eating bread, break off a piece of bread before buttering. On formal dining occasions it is good manners to take some butter from the butter dish with your bread knife and put it on your side plate (for the bread). If you want something ask for the item to be passed. 142 It is OK to pour your own drink when eating with other people, but it is more polite to offer pouring drinks to the people sitting on either side of you. If you’ve accidentally taken too much food and you cannot possibly eat it all, say: “I’m sorry, but it seems that my eyes are bigger than my stomach” or “I’m sorry. It was so delicious but I am full”. The main thing is not to offend your host. Always say ‘thank you’ when served something. Afternoon Tea The English afternoon tea is traditionally served between 4 and 6 p.m. This is not a drink, but a small meal consisting of tea served with scones, tea sandwiches and pastries. When eating a scone, use a knife to cut the scone into two halves. Put jam on each side. Eat the top and bottom halves separately; do not try to make them into a sandwich. Afternoon tea is not common today because most adults are at work during this time. However, you can have an afternoon tea at one of the many tea rooms in England. Ordering Food in a Pub “Could you explain what ____ is please?” “Could you tell me what the soup of the day is, please?” “Could you tell me today's specials, please?” In a restaurant, it is normal to pay for your food by putting your money on the plate the bill comes on. Asking For the Bill “May I have the bill, please?” If the bill says "service not included", it is usual to add about 10% to the bill. In some restaurants, a 10% service charge is automatically added to the bill. ENGLISH BUSINESS ETIQUETTE Conservative dress is very important for both men and women. Whether you’re inter-viewing for a professional jobs or a restaurant position. Dark suits, usually black, blue, or gray, are quite acceptable. 143 Men’s shirts should not have pockets; if they do, the pockets should always be kept empty. Additionally, men should wear solid or patterned ties, while avoiding striped ties. Men wear laced shoes, not loafers. Businesswomen are not as limited to colours and styles as men are, though it is still important to maintain a conservative image. It is unwise to rush the English into making a decision. A simple handshake is the standard greeting (for both men and women) for bus iness occasions. Privacy is very important to the English. Therefore asking personal questions or intensely staring at another person should be avoided. Eye contact is seldom kept during British conversations. To signal that something is to be kept confidential or secret, tap your nose. Personal space is important in England, and one should maintain a wide physical space when conversing. A smiling face is a welcoming face. Smile a lot, respect the people and their customs and you will be treated with respect. The English like to form orderly queues (standing in line) and wait patiently for their turn e.g. boarding a bus. If someone is blocking your way and you would like them to move, say ‘excuse me’ and they will move out of your way. It is very good manners to say “please” and “thank you”. It is considered rude if you don't. You will notice in England that we say “thank you” a lot. If you accidentally bump into someone, say “sorry”. Men and women both hold open the door for each other. It depends on who goes through the door first. ENGLISH WEATHER The English say ‘Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather’. It happens because the weather changes more often than in other countries. The English weather on the whole is not good. English weather is very changeable: a fine morning may change into a wet afternoon and evening. British winters are mild and springs are cool because of the winds that blow from the Atlantic Ocean. In spring sunshine and showers follow each other so often during the day that an umbrella or a raincoat is absolutely necessary in England. Summer is the hottest season in England. It's time for holidays, when people go to the seaside for sunbathing and swimming. As for autumn it isn't so nice. It's a season of winds. Days of sunny and warm weather in September is called Indian summer. In winter in England it sometimes rains and sometimes it snows. It isn’t cold in winter and they don't get much snow. Spring flowers start to bloom from February. 144 No conversation ever starts in England without a comment on the weather. It is almost a formality. “How do you do?”, “Nice day today, isn’t it?”, “Isn’t it hot today?”, “Isn’t it a beastly day?”, “Shocking weather, isn’t it?” These remarks are often used when speaking about the weather: What’s the weather like today? - Какая сегодня погода? How’s the weather? - Как погода? Is it cold outside? / Is it cold out? – На улице холодно? Is it hot outside? / Is it hot out? - На улице жарко? It’s not too cold. It’s not too hot. – Не очень холодно (жарко). It’s getting colder. It's getting warmer. – Холодает (теплеет). Do you know the weather forecast? They said it might get windy at night. What’s the temperature? It’s pretty warm, 20 degrees Celsius. Nice weather (хорошая погода) Beautiful weather, isn’t it? It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? Nice morning today, isn’t it? Yes, it is. / It sure is. How nice the weather is today! The weather is fine. The weather is good today. The sky is clear, the sun is shining. Bad weather (плохая погода) Terrible weather, isn’t it? What a terrible day! Yes. / It sure is. It is cold, isn’t it? / Cold, isn’t it? The weather is bad today. The wind is blowing, and it is getting colder. It’s terrible outside. The snow is melting, and the roads are slippery. It looks like rain. It looks as if it is going to rain. I got caught in the rain yesterday. I was wet to the skin. I got wet to the skin. I hope it would get warmer soon. I love it when it’s warm like this! The sun is shining It's drizzling The wind is blowing It's raining 145 It's pouring = It’s bucketing. It's hailing It's snowing (The snow is falling.) It's thundering Sweltering = It’s sweltering. or It’s a sweltering day. Warm = It’s warn. or It’s a warm day. Freezing = It’s freezing or It’s a freezing day. Cold = It’s cold. or It’s a cold day. CONVERSATIONS: A: What beastly weather! It is simply pouring! B: It is. And I’ve got wet through. A: I’ve seen on Internet that there will be a heat spell later this week. B: Oh, I don’t mind the rain. It is quite pleasant to walk with a good raincoat on. A: And you call this July! Where is the summer? B: Oh, we had it last Thursday after dinner. *** Fred: It's so cold, I can’t stop shivering! I hate winter! Bob: Oh, it’s not so bad. I mean, it could be worse. Fred: Well, what’s winter like in New York? It must be better than here in London. Bob: Actually, it’s worse! Not only is it colder with more snow, but winter lasts longer as well. Fred: That sounds terrible. People there must be happy when February comes around. They can really look forward to spring. Bob: Actually, February is the worst month of the winter. And we usually have 146 snow in March, often in April too. In a very bad winter, we can even have snow in May! Fred: Oh, that’s terrible! How can people live there? Bob: Believe it or not, many people look forward to winter. Fred: That’s hard to believe. Who would be so crazy? Bob: People who love to ski or ice skate would be so crazy. For them, winter is the best season of the year. Fred: I guess I can understand their feelings. Maybe I should learn to ski or ice skate. Bob: I used to ice skate a lot when I was younger. Is there any place we can go ice skating in London? Fred: I know of one ice skating rink, in the shopping centre. There’s a rink right in the middle! People skate in the basement, while people on the first floor can watch them from above. Bob: Maybe we should go there once, just to try it. Words & Expressions: mild — умеренный (о погоде, климате и т. п.) cool — прохладный, свежий shower — сильный ливень an umbrella — зонт a raincoat — плащ weather forecast — прогноз погоды to sunbath — загорать на солнце Indian summer — бабье лето foggy — туманный gloomy — мрачный to freeze (froze, frozen) — замерзать, покрываться льдом drizzle – мелкий дождь, моросить hail – град it is bucketing – дождь льет как из ведра sleet – дождь со снегом thunder – гром sweltering – душный, знойный beastly weather – отвратительная погода spell – короткий промежуток времени to shiver – дрожать от холода Questions: 1. What do the English say about their weather? 2. What people do in summer? 3. What is your favourite season? 4. What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow? on Sunday? next week? e.g. I think it’ll be hot next week. (cool, sunny, rainy, warm, lovely, fine, damp, foggy, windy, cold, wet) 147 ENGLISH HUMOUR Charlie Chaplin, Peter Sellers, Benny Hill, John Cleese and Rowan Atkinson as Mr. Bean are examples of famous international comedians and all of them are British. Humour and laughter are very important to the British. A traditional image of British person for many foreigners is a conventional and reserved person, who doesn’t usually show any emotion. However they use humour to solve problems. And the British use humour and irony in situations which might seem very strange for other cultures. Professors giving serious lectures at the University often start off with a joke to get people relaxed and interested. Business people mix humour and statistics when making important presentations. Even priests tell jokes in church. English humour often difficult for foreigners to understand. Jokes are related to culture. They often refer to people and places that are only familiar to British themselves. Another thing that makes a verbal humour difficult for foreigners is a play of words. Jokes often depend on words that sound the same but have different meaning. And there are a lot of them in English. FUNNY STORIES AND JOKES Math, Physics, & Philosophy Dean, to the physics department, “Why do I always have to give you guys so much money, for laboratories and expensive equipment and stuff. Why couldn’t you be like the math department - all they need is money for pencils, paper and wastepaper baskets. Or even better, like the philosophy department. All they need are pencils and paper.” Sherlock Holmes and Watson Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson went on a camping trip and pitched a tent. After a good meal and a bottle of wine they lay down for the night, and went to sleep. Some hours later, Holmes awoke his faithful friend. “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.” Watson replied, “I see millions and millions of stars.” “What does that tell you?” Holmes questioned. Watson pondered for a minute. “Astronomically, it tells me that there are millions of galaxies and potentially billions of planets. Astrologically, I observe that Saturn is in Leo. Horologically, I deduce that the time is approximately a quarter past three. Theologically, I can see that God is all powerful and that we are small and insignificant. Meteorologically, I suspect that we will have a beautiful day tomorrow. What does it tell 148 you?” Holmes was silent for a minute, and then spoke. “Watson, you retard. It tells me that some bastard has stolen our tent!” Genie in the Lamp A man was walking along a California beach and stumbled upon an old lamp. He picked it up and rubbed it and out popped a genie. The genie said “OK. You released me from the lamp. This is the 4th time this month and I’m getting a little sick of these wishes so you can forget about three. You only get one wish! The man sat and thought about it for a while and said, “I’ve always wanted to go to Hawaii, but I’m scared to fly and I get very seasick. Could you build me a bridge to Hawaii so I can drive over there to visit?” The genie laughed and said, “That’s impossible! Think of the logistics of that! How would the supports ever reach the bottom of the Pacific? Think of how much concrete, how much steel!! No, think of another wish!” The man said OK and tried to think of a really good wish. Finally, he said, “I’ve been married and divorced four times. My wives always said that I don’t care and that I’m insensitive. So, I wish that I could understand women . . . know what they're thinking about . . . know why they're crying, know what they really want . . . know how to make them truly happy . . .” The genie said, “You want that bridge with two lanes or four?” Magician A magician was working on a cruise ship in the Caribbean. The audience would be different each week, so the magician allowed himself to do the same tricks over and over again. There was only one problem: The captain’s parrot saw the shows each week and began to understand how the magician did every trick. Once he understood he started shouting in the middle of the show: “Look, it’s not the same hat.” “Look, he is hiding the flowers under the table.” The magician was furious but couldn’t do anything; it was, after all, the captain’s parrot. One day the ship had an accident and sank. The magician found himself floating on a piece of wood in the middle of the ocean with the parrot, of course. They stared at each other with hate, but did not utter a word. This went on for a day and another and another. After a week the parrot said: “OK, I give up. Where's the boat?” Lippy Parrot On reaching his plane seat, a man is surprised to see a parrot strapped into the seat next to him. The man asks the stewardess for a cup of coffee and the parrot squawks, “And why don’t you get me a whisky, witch”. The stewardess, flustered by 149 the parrot’s outburst, brings back a whisky for the parrot but forgets the man’s cup of coffee. As the man nicely points out the omission of his coffee to the stewardess, the parrot downs his drink and shouts, “And get me another whisky, you ugly girl.” Vis ibly shaken, the stewardess comes back with the parrot’s whisky but still no coffee for the man. The man decides that he is going to try the parrots approach, “I’ve asked you twice for a cup of coffee witch, I expect you to get it for me right now so I don’t have to see that disgustingly face of yours any more!” Next thing they know, both the man and the parrot are wrenched up and thrown out of the emergency exit by two burly stewards. Plunging downwards to the ground, the parrot turns to the man and says, “For someone who can’t fly, you sure are a lippy idiot.” *** A wealthy businessman was walking down the street when he was accosted by a particularly dirty and shabby-looking homeless man who asked him for a couple of dollars for dinner. The businessman took out his wallet, extracted two dollars and asked, “If I gave you this money, would you buy some Whisky with it instead?” “No, of course not. I had to stop drinking years ago,” the homeless man replied. “Would you use it to gamble with instead of buying food?” “No, I never gamble” the homeless man said. “I need everything I can get just to stay alive.” “Would you spend the money on a golf course instead of food?” “Are you NUTS!” replied the homeless man. “I haven’t played golf for 20 years!” “Well,” continued the businessman, “I’ve decided not to give you the two dollars after all. Instead, I’m going to take you home for a dinner cooked by my wife.” The homeless man was astounded. “Won’t your wife be furious with you for doing that? I know I’m pretty dirty, and I probably smell bad too.” “Don’t worry about that,” replied the businessman. I just want her to see what a man looks like who’s given up Whisky, gambling and golf.” *** LADY (in theatre): Pardon me, sir, does my hat bother you? GENTLEMAN (behind): No, but it bothers my wife. She wants one like it. *** “God! I left my wallet under the pillow. What shall I do?” “Your maid is an honest woman, isn't she?” “But she will give it to my wife!” *** TEACHER: What do you know about the Dead Sea? 150 PUPIL: Dead? I didn't even know it was ill. *** DINER: Waiter! Will my hamburger be long? (TIME) WAITER: No. It will be round and flat, sir. (SIZE) *** PASSENGER: Guard! How long will the next train be? (TIME) GUARD: About six carriages, sir. (LENGTH) *** What is the longest word in the English language? ‘Smiles’. Because there is a mile between its first and last letters! SMALL TALK When you first meet someone it can be difficult to know how to start a conversation, especially if your first language is not English. Topics for small talk: Introductions: “Hello. May I introduce myself? My name is Mark.” Travel: “Did you manage to find here OK?” or “Did you have a good journey?” Family: “How is your family?” (only if you already know about the person’s family) Hospitality: “Can I get you something to eat or drink?” The weather: “It's a lovely day today, isn't it?” Holidays: “Are you going anywhere this weekend?” or “Are you going anywhere on holiday this year?” Nature: “The garden looks lovely, doesn't it?” Pets: “What a lovely dog. What is his name?” General news: “What do you think about the recent floods?” (avoid gossip and politics) Films: “Have you seen the film Bridget Jones’s Diary?” Television: “Did you see The X Factor last night?” Music: “What sort of music do you like?” Books: “Have you read any good books recently?” (only if you know the person likes reading) Sport: “Have you been watching Wimbledon?” (British people, especially men, enjoy talking about football) Hobbies: “What do you enjoy doing in your spare time?” 151 Business: “How's your business going?” (only if you know the person has a business) Studies: “What are you studying?” (only ask if you know the person is a student) Work: “What sort of work do you do?” Food: “I had a lovely Chinese meal last night - do you like Chinese food?” General matters about the person you are talking to: “Have you lived in this area long?” General matters on subjects that you know that interests the person you are talking to: cars, film stars etc Topics are best avoided for small talk: Be careful when you talk about some topics, especially with people that you’ve only just met, people who are older than you, people who appear to have strong religious or political views, or people who may have some personal problems. Be cautious if you discuss these subjects: Age: “How old are you?” Appearance or weight: “You seem to have put on some weight.” Personal gossip about somebody you know. Jokes that might offend. Money: “How much do you earn?” Previous or current relationships: “Do you have a girlfriend?” Politics: “Who did you vote for at the last election?” Religion: “Do you believe in God?” Criticisms or complaints: “Why is British food so bad?” PROJECTS 1. Cover Design The topic of this textbook is English & Art. Design your own cover (picture) to express your ideas about the topic. 2. Festivals Calendar Research festivals in your region or country (e.g. Platonov Festival in Voronezh). Divide them into categories, e.g. music, theatre, film, painting. You may subdivide these categories, e.g. into different styles of music. 152 3. Film Project Choose a book (or a your actors and direcand on a poster. story) to turn into a play. Choose tor. Present your ideas in a script 4. Theatre: Your Choice Choose a play in the theatre. Find out as much as you can about it, genre, actors. Present your information in the best form (poster, advertisement, etc.). 5. Personal Entertainment Do a survey among your friends. What are their favourite forms of entertainment? Are these “watching”, or “doing”? Find a way to present the information in pictures, graphs or tables. 6. Playwright Presentation Choose a playwright you like. Prepare a presentation about the dramatist’s live, works. 153 APPENDIX 1 GLOSSARY OF LEXICAL UNITS FREQUENT IN THEATRE AND ART DISCOURSE English-Russian Variant act – действие, акт (в опере, драме) acting cue – сигнал актеру выходить на сцену actor (actress) – актер (актриса) ancient art – античное искусство applaud – аплодировать applause – аплодисменты applied art – прикладное искусство announcement – анонс art – искусство artist – художник artistic – художественный art photography – фотоискусство artistry – мастерство audition – пробы актера на роль auditorium – аудитория, зрительный зал backstage – кулисы backdrop – (декорационный) задник balcony – балкон ballet – балет be successful – иметь успех bell – звонок benefit performance – бенефис blackout – выключение света на сцене book – экземпляр окончательного варианта сценария со всеми пометками box – ложа box-office – театральная касса “Break a leg!” – Ни пуха ни пера broadcast – трансляция cameraman – оператор canvas – холст cast – состав исполнителей 154 center stage – часть сцены, где проходит основное действие пьесы chamber music – камерная музыка character – действующее лицо choir – хор choir master – хормейстер cinema (movie) theatre – кинотеатр city scene – городской пейзаж classical music – классическая музыка cloakroom – гардероб colourful – колоритный contemporary – современный cold reading – первое чтение сценария актерами colouring – колорит comedy – комедия compose music – сочинять музыку composer – композитор concert – концерт concert hall – концертный зал conductor – дирижер costume – костюм costume director – художник по костюмам cue – реплика актера curtain – занавес curtain call – выход актеров на поклон в конце представления curtain time – время начала спектакля dance – танец dancer – танцовщик debut – дебют decorative art – декоративное искусство designing – оформление diction – дикция directing – режиссура director – режиссер drama – драма drama theatre – драматический театр draw – рисовать drawing – рисунок dress-circle – бельэтаж dress rehearsal – последняя репетиция перед премьерой (в костюмах) enjoy – получать (огромное) удовольствие ensemble – ансамбль evening performance – вечерний спектакль 155 finale – финал fine art – изобразительное искусство first cast – первый состав folk art – народное творчество folk music – народная музыка Foley artist – человек, создающий звуковые эффекты, с помощью различных предметов full house – аншлаг genre – жанр gifted – одаренный go on tour – гастролировать guitar – гитара interval – антракт jazz – джазовая музыка keyboard instruments – клавишные инструменты landscape – пейзаж landscape painting – пейзажная живопись leading role – главная роль lighting – освещение lighting designer – осветитель listen to an opera – слушать оперу make-up – грим masterpiece – шедевр matinee – дневной спектакль memorable – запоминающийся modern art – современное искусство musical – музыкальный спектакль musician – музыкант offstage – за сценой, за кулисами open-air theatre – открытый (летний) театр open the house (to) – впускать зрителей в зрительный зал до начала спектакля opening night – премьера opening of the season – открытие сезона opera-glass – бинокль opera house – оперный театр orchestra – оркестр 156 orchestra stalls – партер (передние ряды) original – оригинал paint – заниматься живописью painting – живопись, картина palette – палитра percussion instruments – ударные инструменты perform - выступать performance – исполнение, представление, спектакль performer – исполнитель pianist – пианист piano – фортепьяно picture – картина place, seat – место play – пьеса playwright – драматург plot – сюжет portrait – портрет portraiture – портретная живопись poster – плакат production values – стоимость постановки promising – многообещающий props (properties) – театральное имущество (опора), необходимое для спектакля (мебель, посуда, телефон и т.д.) puppet theatre – кукольный театр quick change – быстрая смена костюма rehearsal – репетиция rehearse - репетировать repertoire – репертуар restorer – реставратор role – роль row – ряд run-through – репетиция-прогон (без остановок) scene – сцена (акта) scene of the action – место действия scenery – декорация score – партитура screen – экран script – сценарий sculpture – скульптура seascape – морской пейзаж 157 self-portrait – автопортрет sensational – нашумевший set (setting) – декорация set (stage) designer – художник-оформитель show – выставлять, шоу singer – певец sketch – набросок, делать наброски soloist – солист song – песня sound designer – человек, который подбирает музыку для пьесы spectator – зритель stage – сцена; ставить спектакль stage a play – ставить пьесу stage crew – рабочие сцены staging – постановка спектакля still life – натюрморт stringed instruments – струнные инструменты success – успех symphonic music – симфоническая музыка take the stage – выходить на сцену talented – талантливый theatre – театр ticket – билет tragedy – трагедия unique – уникальный unusual – незаурядный usher – билетер violin – скрипка watch a performance (a ballet) – смотреть спектакль (балет) water-colour – акварель wind instruments – духовые инструменты wings – кулисы work of art – произведение искусства APPENDIX 2 158 RECOMMENDED READING REFERENCES 1. A Practical Guide to Stage Lighting (second edition) / Steven Louis Shelley. Focal Press, 2009. 2. Dictionary of the Theatre: terms, concepts, and analysis / Patrice Pavis. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. 3. Everything about Theatre! The Guidebook of Theatre Fundamentals / Robert L. Lee, Theodore O. Zapel. USA, 1996. 4. Shakespeare’s Theatre / Andrew Langley, June Everett. Oxford, 2000. 5. Sound and Music for the Theatre: The Art & Technique of Design (third edition) / Deena Kaye, James LeBrecht. USA, 2009. 6. Theatrical Design and Production: An Introduction to Scene Design and Construction, Lighting, Sound, Costume, and Makeup / Michael Gillette. McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2012. 7. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre / [edited by] Martin Banham. Cambridge University Press, 1995. 8. The Handbook of Techniques for Theatre Designers / Colin Winslow. Crowood Press, 2011. 9. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre & Performance / edited by Dennis Kennedy. Oxford University Press, 2003. 10. The Oxford Illustrated History of Theatre / John Russell Brown. Oxford, 2001. 11. The Performing Arts: A Guide to the Reference Literature / Linda Keir Simons, 1994. ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ 159 Учебное пособие «Искусство как средство изучения английского языка» предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по программе в сфере культуры и дополнительного образования, а также для всех студентов, желающих развивать свои творческие способности, разносторонние интеллектуальные интер есы, что полностью соответствует задачам молодежной государственной политики, нацеленной на развитие креативного потенциала личности. Новый метод, предлагаемый в пособии, предполагает активное развитие не только собственно когнитивных способностей, но и разнообразных психофизических возможностей обучаемых (их моторики, постановки голоса, жестов и т.п.). Метод предполагает активное включение (при изучении английского языка) эмоционального потенциала обучаемых, особенностей их психофизической организации и т.д. Важно подчеркнуть, что новый метод, представляя собой комплексное и четко систематизированное изучение английского языка, реализуется в познавательно-игровой форме и базируется на двух взаимосвязанных составляющих: языкознании и сценическом искусстве, где первое является целью, а второе экспериментальной платформой. Несомненно, что языковой тренинг на базе сценического искусства позволит одновременно познакомить студентов с мировой культурой, историей театра, литературой и драматургией, музыкой и живописью, что будет способствовать не только культурному росту обучаемых, который является одной из актуальных преференций существования современной молодежи в поликультурном обществе, но и качественной многопрофильной подготовке студентов неязыковых вузов. Пособие содержит обширный культурологический материал по вопросам литературы и искусства, конкретные разделы знакомят студентов с английской фонетикой и интонацией, молодежной культурой и музыкой, а также с различными аспектами современного английского этикета и юмора и предназначено как для студентов, обучающихся по программе «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации», так и для широкого круга лиц, интересующихся английским языком, искусством и культурой. Интересно познавать английскую лексику через сценические образы персонажей английских пьес, сказок и легенд, используя народные и современные английские песни, стихи и танцы! Мы желаем вам успехов и уверены, что у вас все получится, нужно только приложить немного усилий и терпения! А улыбки и восторженные взгляды, зрительские овации и осмысленная английская речь – это верх похвалы для любого артиста! С уважением авторы пособия CONTENTS Introduction (Введение) …………………………………………… 3 160 Introductory Part “Voice in the Performing Art” …………….. Part One “English Phonetics” …………………………………… English Intonation ………………………………………………….. An Extract from the Book by Jerome K. D. “Three Men in a Boat”.. Phonetic Exercises …………………………………………………. Proverbs and Sayings ………………………………………………. Poems and Rhymes ………………………………………………… Part Two “Theatre is a Wonderful Place”… ……………………. Genres of Theatre …………………………………………………... Visiting the Theatre ………………………………………………… At the Broadway Theatre …………………………………………... Phrase-List Used in Theatre ……………………………………….. Part Three “History of the Theatre”…………………………….. Early Theatres ……………………………………………………… British Theatres Today ……………………………………………... Theatre in Russia …………………………………………………… Part Four “Great Actors” ……………………………………….. Movies, Movies, Movies …………………………………………… Theatre Traditions ………………………………………………….. Interviewing an Actor ……………………………………………… Part Five “Literature and Drama” ……………………………… William Shakespeare ………………………………………………. The Myth of Pygmalion ……………………………………………. Oscar Wilde ………………………………………………………... Part Six “Music” …………………………………………………. Music of the United Kingdom ……………………………………... Music of the United States …………………………………………. The Proms ………………………………………………………….. Music and Youth Culture …………………………………………... Music Genres of the Youth ………………………………………… Traditional Musical Instruments: Bagpipes ………………………... Glastonbury Festival ……………………………………………….. British Songs ……………………………………………………….. American Songs ……………………………………………………. Part Seven “Painting and Theatre Designing” ………………….. From the History of British Painting ………………………………. An American Style of Painting …………………………………….. Theatre and Stage Design ………………………………………….. Photography ………………………………………………………... Conversations ………………………………………………………. Presentation ………………………………………………………… Part Eight “Theatrical Sketches” ……………………………….. English Social Etiquette ……………………………………………. English Business Etiquette …………………………………………. 4 13 21 27 28 28 30 39 40 42 44 45 47 50 52 53 56 58 61 61 62 62 64 67 75 76 79 82 82 87 89 90 92 116 123 125 128 130 135 136 138 139 139 142 161 English Weather ……………………………………………………. English Humour ……………………………………………………. Small Talk ………………………………………………………….. Projects …………………………………………………………….. Appendix 1. Glossary of Lexical Units Frequent in Theatre and Art Discourse …………………………………………………………… Appendix 2. Recommended Reading ……………………………… Conclusion (Заключение) …………………………………………. 143 147 150 151 153 158 159 162 Учебное издание Людмила Владимировна Лукина Зинаида Евгеньевна Фомина ИСКУССТВО КАК СРЕДСТВО ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА Учебное пособие Отпечатано в авторской редакции Подписано в печать 13.11.2013 Формат 60 x 84 ⅛. Усл.-печ.л. 10,0. Уч.-изд.л. 10,1. Бумага писчая. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 494. __________________________________________________________________ Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной литературы и учебно-методических пособий Воронежского ГАСУ 394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84.