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1651.Иностранный язык для научного общения. Английский учеб.-метод. пособие для самостоят

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Сибирский федеральный университет
Магистратура
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ НАУЧНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
Учебно-методическое пособие
для самостоятельной работы
Электронное издание
Красноярск
СФУ
2013
1 УДК 811.111(07)
ББК 81.432.1я73
И683
Составитель: Алмабекова Ольга Алексеевна
И683 Иностранный язык для научного общения. Английский: учебнометодическое пособие для самостоятельной работы [Электронный
ресурс] / сост. О. А. Алмабекова. – Электрон. дан. – Красноярск: Сиб.
федер. ун-т, 2013. – Систем. требования: PC не ниже класса Pentium I;
128 Mb RAM; Windows 98/XP/7; Adobe Reader V8.0 и выше. – Загл. с
экрана.
Учебно-методическое пособие содержит материалы для организации и
выполнения самостоятельной работы. Направлено на закрепление умений письма
статей и документов различной направленности, характерных для научной
коммуникации. Развитие умений критического чтения мышления и письма
способствует интеграции коммуникативных умений чтения и письма, а также
переносу информации из оригинальных англоязычных источников и учебных
умений в практику научного общения в рамках изучения маркетинга и
менеджмента, а также проведения научных исследований и презентации их
результатов в письменном виде.
Предназначено для студентов магистратуры направления 080200.68
«Менеджмент» программ подготовки 080200.68.06 «Маркетинг», 080200.68.07
«Управление развитием бизнеса», 080200.68.08 «Инновационный менеджмент».
УДК 811.111(07)
ББК 81.432.1я73
© Сибирский
федеральный
университет, 2013
Учебное издание
Подготовлено к публикации ИЦ БИК СФУ
Подписано в свет 26.03.2013 г. Заказ 595.
Тиражируется на машиночитаемых носителях.
Издательский центр
Библиотечно-издательского комплекса
Сибирского федерального университета
660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Тел/факс (391)206-21-49. E-mail rio@sfu-kras.ru
http://rio.sfu-kras.ru
2 ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
ВВЕДЕНИЕ .............................................................................................................. 4
PART 1. WRITING FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES .............................................. 8
Unit 1 ..................................................................................................................... 8
Unit 2 ..................................................................................................................... 9
Unit 3 ................................................................................................................... 10
Unit 4 ................................................................................................................... 11
Unit 5 ................................................................................................................... 13
Unit 7 ................................................................................................................... 19
Unit 8 ................................................................................................................... 20
Unit 9 ................................................................................................................... 21
Unit 10 ................................................................................................................. 23
PART 2. MODELS AND SAMPLES OF LETTERS
AND OTHER MATERIALS FOR SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION .............. 26
PART 3. ACADEMIC PHRASEBANK ................................................................. 39
SOURCES ............................................................................................................... 60
3 ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Cамостоятельная работа по иностранному языку для научного общения
нацелена на формирование и развитие у студентов магистратуры
компетенций, позволяющих применять иноязычные речевые и умения, а
также знания английской грамматики и лексики для успешной
коммуникации в ситуациях самостоятельного изучения английского языка,
применения этих знаний и умений на практике как во время обучения в
условиях вуза, так и при проведении научных исследований.
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие для самостоятельной
работы разработано в соответствии с типовой программой по иностранным
языкам для неязыковых специальностей магистратуры. Оно предназначено
для студентов магистратуры по направлению «Менеджмент» со средним и
высоким уровнем владения английским языком, продолжающих изучать
английский язык в рамках университетской программы.
В основе данного издания лежит идея интегрированного изучения
лексики и взаимосвязанного развития иноязычных коммуникативных
навыков чтения, говорения и письма. Предложенные учебные материалы
представляют собой тексты и задания рефлексивного и проблемноориентированного характера.
В методическом плане пособие описывает структуру и содержание
самостоятельной работы, а также предлагает методы работы с разными ее
видами. По содержанию пособие в основном ориентировано на
формирование и развитие умений письма для научного общения, поскольку
это самый трудоемкий и затратный повремени вид работы, и основная его
часть выполняется студентами дома.
Структурно пособие разделено на три части. Первая часть состоит из 10
юнитов по два на каждый раздел в пособии для практических занятий.
Каждый юнит представляет собой текст информативного характера и задания
к нему, имеющие проблемную и практическую ориентацию. Во второй части
предложены модели
различных видов научной корреспонденции и
структуры для самостоятельного написания писем и других жанров научного
общения. Третья часть представляет собой банк наиболее частотных
выражений научного характера, сгруппированных по функциям для удобного
и легкого использования студентами магистратуры при написании аннотаций,
статей и тезисов по тематике индивидуального научного исследования на
английском языке.
4 Методика организации самостоятельной работы
Значение самостоятельной работы в курсе обучения иностранному
языку, нельзя переоценить, поскольку именно она позволяет сделать процесс
формирования иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции непрерывным и
развивать у обучающихся потребность в постоянном самообразовании.
Эффективной может быть только правильно организованная и оперативно
контролируемая самостоятельная работа.
Для успешного управления самостоятельной работой необходимы:
- учебные материалы для самостоятельной работы, адаптированные к
потребностям курса иностранного языка на уровне магистратуры;
- готовность преподавателя постоянно направлять и оценивать
самостоятельную работу;
- умение студентов выбирать адекватные способы и приемы
самостоятельной работы и оценивать результаты своего труда.
При организации самостоятельной работы студентов магистратуры
необходимо нацеливать их на регулярное выполнение домашних заданий –
повторение пройденного лексического и грамматического материала, чтение
специальных текстов и письменное выполнение заданий научного характера.
Условиями эффективности самостоятельной работы является ее правильная
методическая организация, при
которой на занятиях в аудитории
преподаватель дает четкую инструкцию к домашнему заданию, а также
мотивирующее к изучению содержание и форма самостоятельной работы.
Домашние задания по самостоятельной работе могут выполнять
следующие функции:
- повторение, расширение или углубленное изучение материала,
пройденного на уроке (домашние упражнения)
- практическое применение языковых или речевых умений в реальных
ситуациях бытовой или профессиональной коммуникации (проекты по темам
курса)
- практическое применение языковых или речевых умений для
расширения знаний по направлению подготовки (поиск и извлечение
информации при чтении иностранных источников, использование
полученной информации для создания докладов на конференции и т.п.)
- развитие творческих и рефлексивных умений (анализа, синтеза,
классификации, оценки)
- укрепление междисциплинарных связей (выполнение проектной
работы)
- усиление автономии студентов (привлечение к созданию учебных
материалов, иллюстративного и информационного сопровождения).
Самостоятельная работа составляет 63 % учебных часов, то есть 208
часов всего объема времени, предназначенного для изучения предмета.
5 Для создания условий эффективного выполнения самостоятельной
работы преподаватель знакомит студентов с разнообразными источниками
дополнительной информации, структурой и стратегиями выполнения задания.
Для повышения автономии студентов, создаются условия для
самостоятельного выбора источников, оценки достоверности и актуальности
информации, формы предъявления творческой работы.
Организация самостоятельной работы по иностранному языку для
научного общения подразумевает внедрение мультимедийных технологий,
сети интернет. Широкий доступ к информации лингвострановедческого и
специального содержания на иностранном языке способен повысить
мотивацию студентов к изучению иностранного языка, стимулировать
творческий подход к формированию коммуникативных умений, позволит
индивидуализировать способ получения необходимых знаний.
Самостоятельная работа существует в 2 видах взаимодействия –
индивидуальном и групповом. Подготовка к самостоятельной работе и ее
предъявление проходит индивидуально, но такие ее формы, как выполнение
учебных и научных проектов, требуют групповой организации и
предъявления самостоятельной работы. Согласно субъект-субъектной модели
учебного процесса и личностно-ориентированному обучению, и
преподаватель и студент берут на себя ответственность за результаты
подготовки и выполнения самостоятельной работы.
Структура и содержание самостоятельной работы
Таблица 1
Описание каждого вида самостоятельной работы:
объем в часах (зачетных единицах)
ВИД УЧЕБНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Самостоятельная работа:
Всего
зачетных
(
)
5,6(208)
9 сем
10 сем
11 сем
2(72)
1,7(60)
1,9(66)
1,63(58) 1,33(46)
0,1(4)
0,1(4)
1,53(52)
0,1(4)
подготовка к практическим занятиям
работа с аудио и видеоматериалами
4,49(156)
0,3(12)
чтение научных журналов
0,3(12)
0,1(4)
0,1(4)
0,1(4)
работа с Интернет-ресурсами
0,51(18)
0,17(6)
0,17(6)
0,17(6)
Подготовка к практическим занятиям (ППЗ) проводится к каждому
занятию и предполагает активизацию лексических и грамматических навыков
в упражнениях, широко представленных в учебном пособии, а также
выполнении заданий на письмо для научного общения.
6 Задания для аудирования выдаются преподавателем, и студенты могут
прослушивать тот же самый материал, который они слушали в аудитории,
либо дополнительные источники, имеющиеся в наличии в ресурсном центре.
Просмотр видеоматериалов приходится на 4 и 12 недели семестров.
Здесь есть риск выполнения задания не по образцу, так как студент имеет
полную свободу действий в отличие от регламента аудиторного ПВ. Однако в
самостоятельном ПВ гораздо шире возможности для выполнения творческих
заданий.
Работа с интернет-ресурсами дает возможность формировать и
развивать автономию студента и умения критического мышления, а также
предполагает выход из аудитории на выполнение заданий практической
значимости. Интернет ресурсы могут использоваться как справочные или в
качестве текстового или иллюстративного материала для выполнения заданий
и развития умений поиска информации или ее оценки. Список интернетресурсов находится в учебной программе.
Тренировка умений устного и письменного общения научного и
профессионального характера (писем по эл. почте, деловых писем, факсов)
происходит на занятиях, но выполнение заданий в полном объеме
производится самостоятельно, при подготовке домашнего задания.
Коммуникативные умения тренируются на аудиторных занятиях, в то
же время теоретический материал в виде пояснений и примеров к разным
жанрам
письма для научного общения приводится в настоящих
методических рекомендациях и изучается при подготовке к практическим
занятиям.
Для создания прочной лексической базы и развития основных
коммуникативных навыков: чтения и устного общения, рекомендуется
работать с темами в той последовательности, в которой они представлены в
программе. Для определения оптимального объёма материала для
самостоятельной работы для каждого занятия необходимо брать во внимание
количество часов и уровень подготовки группы.
Требование индивидуализации работы студентов учтено в определении
видов, содержания и объема тренировочных работ, разной степени сложности
речевых заданий и заданий для самостоятельной работы, но в то же время
подготовка
проектов или тематических вечеров, конференций на
иностранных языках осуществляется под руководством преподавателя и
самостоятельно.
Применение технических средств, информационных ресурсов и
средства представления материалов позволяет организовать и выполнять
самостоятельную работу более эффективно. Подготовка к практическим
занятиям, входной контроль (тестирование), промежуточный контроль
(тестирование) невозможно без компьютера и/или Интернет.
При определении итоговой оценки за курс иностранного языка оценка
самостоятельной работы студентов должна составлять не менее 60%.
7 PART 1
WRITING FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES
Unit 1
Task 1 Read the text about thesis and find the thesis in the text from the unit Initial
contacts across cultures in your Student book.
Thesis
The most important part of any argument is the thesis (also called a claim, a
position, and a central argument). A thesis will usually do one of three things: make
a judgment about something, offer a solution or recommendation, or explain
something. Let's take a look at some examples:
• Adding a "multiracial" category to the U.S. Census would be harmful to
the African-American community.
• Electronic invasion of privacy endangers American families.
• Distance learning is good for students and institutions, but it may not be
good for faculty.
These statements make judgments about the value of certain actions. But
with these topics, as with many others, a thesis could also make recommendations:
• The United States Census should add a "multiracial" category to the next
census survey.
• Internet users should never send personal information, such as credit card
numbers, social security numbers, or even home addresses, through the internet.
• In order to be effective, distance learning programs should provide
opportunities for interaction among students and between students and faculty,
technical Support, and easy, flexible access.
Or a thesis could present an argument that explains why something has
happened or (what it means, like this:
• The call for the addition of a "multiracial" category to the U.S. Census
shows that Americans are getting tired of strict racial divisions and becoming more
aware of how complex racial identity can be.
• Privacy problems on the internet are inevitable because of the technical
format, human nature, and the realities of contemporary life.
• Distance learning works well for today's college students, who may be
working full time, raising families, returning to college after years in the work
force, or unable to afford to go to school in the traditional way.
Task 2. After reading think about the essay you are going to write. Make a thesis
according to the rules given below. Be ready to support your choice.
8 Unit 2
Task 3. Read the text to figure out how you can try to formulate your thesis in
different ways and supply your thesis with more information to develop your main
idea.
Planning Your Argument
In planning an argument, the first step is to define your thesis or central
argument. While you could present almost any topic with almost any kind of thesis
statement, some topics lend themselves better to one kind of statement than
another. Think about the sources you've been reading. What kind of arguments do
they offer: evaluation, recommendation, or explanation? You probably want to
make a similar kind of argument, though you'll present your own opinion, not
someone else's.
Once you know what kind of statement you want to make, you need to figure
out where you stand. One of the best ways to do this is free writing. Just sit down
and start writing about your topic. Don't worry about grammar or even writing
complete sentences. If you start running out of steam, refocus by asking yourself
"What do I think about this issue?" This kind of writing, the kind in which you
focus on the ideas rather than on how you're phrasing things, can help you sort out
your own opinions from all the things you've been reading.
Now that you know where you stand, spend some time working on your
thesis statement. Try different ways of phrasing it. Test it out on some friends to
see if it's clear. You might try using it as the starting point for some more free
writing. If the thesis statement you've developed works well to get you started
writing about your topic, that's good. If you find yourself going off in another
direction, though, you might want to rephrase your thesis.
But an argument requires more than a good thesis. You also need to provide
supporting ideas and evidence. Keep your audience in mind as you develop your
supporting arguments. What do they know about your topic? What do they think
about it? What kinds of ideas and evidence will they find most persuasive and
interesting? What questions would they ask, and would they challenge any part of
what you have to say? From there, you can create a rough outline, listing your main
supporting ideas, the evidence you want to use to explain those ideas, and any
questions or challenges you need to answer in order to persuade your readers.
It's important to start with your ideas and audience, not with your sources. If
you start with sources, it's easy to fall into the trap of writing a paper that mostly
summarizes what other people think. To avoid this, start planning your essay by
listing your supporting ideas. Under each idea, list the information you need to
provide in order to explain the idea. Some of this information will be evidence from
your outside sources, but some of it could be stories of your own experience or
explanations of why you think something is important.
9 You should also consider including a section in which you discuss the
opposing position and explain why you disagree with it. This can be tricky, because
you don't want to sound like you're being disrespectful or snide. You do want to
show your reader why your position is better, and you may need to show the pitfalls
of the other side in order to do this.
Creating a rough outline can help you in a couple of ways. First, it can help
you figure out what kind of research you still need to do. You may notice sections
of your argument that need more support, and you'll see that some parts of your
argument already have plenty of evidence. Second, the rough outline can be your
guide as you start writing. Sometimes, writers feel stuck when they face an empty
page or blank computer screen, but an outline can help you remember what you
meant to write. It can also help you keep your writing organized, since it will help
you remember what ideas and evidence goes where.
Task 4 After reading, do some freewriting on the theme you have chosen according
to the rules you have been presented. Reflect on the type of the essay you are
writing – is it descriptive, analytical, or has a chronological structure? Should it
summarize the sources or contain your own opinion or compare different opinions?
Make a draft outline of the paper.
Unit 3
Task 5. Read the text and learn how to choose and structure arguments to support
you thesis. In the text for the unit Negotiations Across Cultures in your Student
book find the thesis and analyze the arguments.
Supporting Ideas and Evidence
Thesis is supported by more specific arguments and evidence that will
support those comments. For instance, you could support an argument about the
value of distance by using the following ideas:
Today's college students need access to education at times and places that
are convenient to them, so distance learning may work better than traditional
courses. Students need to work on school projects at different paces since their
schedules are not steady. Distance learning can allow them to do this. Students
who have already been in the work force are well prepared to work independently,
and individualized education will work better for them. Distance learning could be
more affordable for schools and students than traditional methods.
Some of these ideas would be supported by examples and evidence. Some of
the evidence could be facts and statistics, but most arguments also need other kinds
of supporting information. After all, if an issue could be resolved simply by looking
10 at facts, people wouldn't be arguing about it. Usually, supporting evidence includes
ideas and quotes from experts, examples of cases related to your topic, and ideas
from people who are affected by it. For example, the distance learning argument
could be supported by information about what today's college students are like,
descriptions of distance learning programs, quotes from reports/articles by
educators researchers, and quotes from students.
Evidence doesn’t work by itself, though. A good argument will explain how
each piece of evidence relates to the argument and why the evidence is valuable
and credible. For supporting idea in an argument, the following pieces should
appear:
Supporting idea (Distance learning allows students to fit college into their
busy schedules).
Explanation of the idea (Why are students' lives so busy? Why is it easier to
fit distance learning into a busy schedule than it is to fit traditional courses?)
Evidence (quotes from students about their schedules, statistics on the
number of Students working full-time, descriptions of how distance learning
programs are set up).
Explanation of the value of the evidence (information on the people you're
quoting, comments about what the increasing number of non-traditional students
means, explanation of how distance learning is more convenient).
Pay attention to how the articles and books you're reading make their
arguments. Try to create an outline for the arguments you read, identifying their
thesis and the main supporting ideas. Look closely at the supporting ideas and
evidence, and ask yourself how well they work. Practicing with this can help you
become more aware of how arguments work.
Task 6 Write a short paragraph containing the thesis and the supporting arguments
for the chosen theme. Be ready to present it in class with explanation about the type
of the article.
Unit 4
Task 7 Read the text to find out about making definitions. Why we need to be able
to make definitions of key words for our academic writing?
Writing Definitions
Definitions occur frequently in many types of scientific writing because it is often
necessary to define certain operations, substances, objects or machines.
When you define anything the first part of the definition should be general. The
details should be left until later. In other words, the thing to be defined should be
11 described first in terms of its general class, then in terms of particular properties,
qualities, uses or origins. This could be expressed as:
T + G + (da + dc +…+ dn)
where T equals the thing to be defined
where = equals "be"
where G equals a general class word
where da, db, etc. are the details which distinguish T from the other numbers of G.
(From Writing Scientific English)
Here is an example:
Epiphyte (T) is the plant (G) that grows upon another plant (da), but is
neither parasitic on it (db) nor rooted in the ground (dc).
i.e. T = G + da +db +dc
Although there are several possible ways of writing definitions in English, here are
two ways which are much commoner than the others:
Formula I
An (x/y) is a/an.. .general class word + wh- word…
where x is a countable noun.
where у is an uncountable noun.
Here are some examples:
An x/y is a/an class word wh- word
A robot is a machine which can be programmed to performed specific mechanical
functions in the manner of a man.
An expert is an AI computer which is designed system to represent human
expertise in a particular domain.
Jet stream is a narrow wind which occurs in the current earth's atmosphere above
the lower troposphere and flows towards the east at speeds of between 60-125
km/h.
Gunpowder is an explosive which consists of a mixture of potassium nitrate,
sulphur, and charcoal.
Points to remember:
1. "the" is not used with the subject because definitions are general statements.
2. It is possible to use a reduced relative clause.
In a reduced passive relative clause bath the "wh-word" and "be" are omitted.
e.g. An expert system is an AI computer program designed to represent
human expertise in a particular domain.
In a reduced active relative clause the "wh-word" is omitted and the verb is
changed to a present participle (verb + ing).
e.g. Gunpowder is an explosive consisting of a mixture of potassium nitrate,
sulphur, and charcoal.
12 Formula II
А/ an....general class word + wh- word.... is known as (an x/y).
is called
is termed
Here are some examples:
Class word wh- word is called /is known as a(n) x/y is termed
A machine which can be programmed to perform specific mechanical functions in
the manner of a man is known as a robot.
An AI computer (which is) designed to represent human expertise in a particular
domain is called an expert system.
An explosive which consists of a mixture of potassium , nitrate, sulphur, and
charcoal is termed gun powder.
So far the general class word has always been followed by a wh- word or by a
reduced relative clause. However, there may be a preposition before the wh- word.
This happens when the subjects of the two parts of the definition sentence are not
the same.
Task 8. Try to recall which formula for making definitions is more popular in the
articles you have recently read. Which one do you prefer and why?
Make up a list of key words for your article and make definitions for them. Use the
formulas you prefer.
Task 9. Try to recall the articles you have read focusing on their structure. Did all
of them contain introductions? Read the text about introductions: functions and
types. Did you get any new information about the role introduction can play and the
form it can take?
Unit 5
Task 10. Read the text about functions and types of introductions. Find the
function for each type of introduction. Add to the list of functions if appropriate.
Introductions
FUNCTIONS:
• Give background information; let the readers know what led you to consider
the point you are treating in this essay.
• Mention other viewpoints besides the one that you wish to support; use a
transition to make your readers aware of which viewpoint is yours: "Most
people think that American education is going downhill. National test results
indicate that this may be true. I, however, have found that today's students are
far better prepared academically than we have been led to believe."
13 • Ask questions that will interest the readers and keep them reading.
• Use an interesting, relevant quotation to introduce your topic.
• Use an anecdote, a brief story that sets the stage for your topic.
• Tell briefly what each body paragraph will deal with; don't go into so much
detail that the readers don't need to read the rest of the paper.
TYPES:
Direct Announcement: "A Solution to Graffiti Problems"
There is no one complete method of solving the graffiti problem. Increased
lighting of streets and buildings at night, limited spray paint cans, and new graffitiproof building materials can all help to decrease the graffiti problem. Graffiti
removal is a costly process and all of these methods should be used to try to
decrease the problem of graffiti.
Question and Series of Related Facts:
What do Cornbread, Cool Earl, and Rembrandt have in common? "Nothing,"
say the mil lions who are appalled at the notion of graffiti by the first two wellknown Philadelphia graffiti "artists" whose work has defaced many city buildings.
"Quite a bit," argue the defenders of this unusual kind of "folk art." While a vocal
minority champions the spray paint "artists," concerned citizens are banding
together to find a solution to problems created by such "creative expression."
Definition:
"Graffiti" is an Italian word that refers to words or phrases written On public
sidewalks or buildings. Ancient examples of this "public writing" were found on
the walls of the: city of Pompeii when it was unearthed. Today the term often
signifies the spray-painted slogans that "decorate" urban schools, houses, and even
subway cars. To some people psychologists and sociologists for the most part such graffiti are a valid-and even artistic means of self-expression. To most people,
however, graffiti represent an ever-increasing urban problem calling for immediate
solution.
Quotation:
In a national symposium on graffiti, David Adams, noted art historian, stated:
"Time was when 'Kilroy was here' decorated many out-of-the-way places, but now
it has been replaced by more exotic signatures, and the penciled comments have
given way to spray-painted slogans." As Dr. Adams pointed out, once graffiti
writing moved out of the rest rooms and onto the streets, it immediately became an
object of concern among citizens trying to solve our urban problems. Elimination
of this unsightly blight presents a real problem.
14 Anecdote:
Yesterday Billy Barnes came home at 3:30 and let himself into his house
with the key he carries to school every morning. After fixing himself a snack of
five Oreo cookies and a glass of grape Koolaid, Billy watched television (MTV) for
two hours. When the doorbell rang, Billy didn't answer it. Instead, he peered out the
window from behind the living room curtains and waited anxiously until the
stranger on his front porch walked away. At 5:30 Billy remembered that he was
supposed to call his mother when he got home from school, but when he
telephoned her office, she was in a meeting and couldn't talk to him. Billy is seven
years old; he represents a growing number of latchkey children who pay the price
for their parents' changing lifestyles.
Refutation:
Many people (among them, many legislators) believe that the legalization of
marijuana would cause a widespread Increase in drug addiction and crime.
Actually, as moderate legalization is beginning to show in some states, legalization
probably will create a drop in crime as marijuana ceases to be contraband and a
black-market product. Also, is reported that as its use has increased, use of hard
drugs and the crime associated with such drugs have decreased.
Presenting a New Slant:
Sickle cell anemia, a serious disease that mainly threatened blacks, has
recently become the target of an extensive health campaign on both state and
federal levels. This campaign has been received by the public with tremendous
approval. It's about time, however, that the other side of the story was revealed.
For, although the program to test for and treat the disease has undoubtedly been
undertaken with good intention they have had some decidely negative effects.
Task 11. Scan the text from the unit Management Across Cultures in your Student
book and find the introduction, decide on the type and function of it. Decide on the
function of introduction in your own article. Write at least 2 types of introductions
to your paper. Choose the best to present in class.
Unit 6
Task 12. Before reading the text below, make a definition for conclusion. Now
read the first sentence and paraphrase it into a definition. Compare your own
definition of a conclusion and the one the text offers. Are there any similarities?
Task 13. Read the list of advice to make good conclusions and add to it by reading
the information from the text and your own ideas.
15 Strategies for Effective Conclusions
The conclusion needs to let the readers know that the essay is coming to a close
and that you have accomplished what you intended.
DO NOT:
• start a whole new topic.
• contradict your entire point.
• make obvious statements.
• repeat your exact words from the thesis.
DO:
• summarize the main points of the essay.
• point out what has been learned from the information provided in the essay.
• supply the possible solutions for problems you have raised.
From one point of view, the conclusion of your essay is its most important
part. Why work so long and hard at composing a stimulating introduction and welldeveloped body paragraphs if your effect is to be weakened by your conclusion?
Your conclusion is your last, word on the subject, a last chance to make your point
to your readers. A weak, abrupt, or uninteresting conclusion can detract greatly
from what would otherwise be a memorable essay. Hence, a strong concluding
statement is essential. It should focus your reader's attention on your main points
and hold that attention as effectively as the introduction does.
A conclusion should sum up, give readers a sense of completeness or finality,
and perhaps help convince them. A common way to achieve these goals is to restate
the essay's controlling idea, thereby underscoring the points the entire essay has
made and presenting them one final time. Often this restatement appears in the first
sentence or two of the conclusion.
You can then expand your discussion by making some general concluding
remarks, perhaps ending with a strong emphatic statement as a climax. In general,
the conclusion can be said to be shaped like this:
Restatement of controlling idea
General concluding remarks
Final statement.
Task 14. Read the text below to get acquainted with different types of conclusions.
In each example find signal words helping you to differentiate one type from
another.
Six Commonly Used Conclusion Types
Restatement- This is the most familiar type of conclusion. The controlling idea is
repeated in different words, and the main points of the essay's argument are
16 reviewed or restated. A straightforward essay, whose introductory paragraph is a
direct announcement, will often end this way. Restatement has the advantage of
reinforcing one last time all major points. For this reason, it can be an excellent
concluding strategy for an essay which seeks to prove a point. The following
example illustrates a conclusion using the restatement technique:
It is clear from even a casual trip through much of Appalachia that this region
presents a challenge to a social planner. But before any Utopian schemes can
be considered, basic needs must be met. The region's main problems remain
very basic: adequate housing, poor nutrition, and a lack of educational
facilities.
Chronological Wind-up - when a piece of writing is narrative, it is natural to have
its final paragraph tie up all loose ends by ending with what happened last. Personal
experience essays and stories narrated in the first person normally use this method.
For example, this student ends a personal experience essay with a chronological
wind-up:
The next few years of my life passed quickly, probably because I was so busy.
In the space of three years, I got my equivalency diploma and held down three
jobs— in sales, in the restaurant business, and in a men's clothing store. I also
hitchhiked around the country. When I came back from my trip, I decided to
return to school, and that's how 1 ended up in this English class, taking the
first step toward getting a college degree.
Illustration - To make an abstract or general conclusion more concrete and
specific, you may choose to follow a broad restatement of your controlling idea
with an example to illustrate it. A relevant news item can often serve this purpose.
Similarly, a personal experience essay—or any story told in the first person—may
conclude with an example that strikes a personal note. You can make a general or
abstract conclusion more convincing if you provide an analogy with another
situation. A student essay about the perils of living at college concludes with this
analogy:
In many ways, learning the "ins" and "outs" of living on campus is almost like
taking a survival course. This training is not as thorough as what the army
would put you through, but it comes close; it is learning survival in society
instead of in the wilderness.
Prediction - Writing designed to convince of persuade your readers may very
naturally end with a prediction that takes the conclusion a step further than a
summary. This type of conclusion does sum up the essay's main points, but it also
enables the writer to make certain additional projections on the basis of those
17 points. For example, a nursing student ended his paper for a public health course
with this prediction:
Even though there has not been a case of smallpox in the United States for
years, children should still be vaccinated against this disease. Despite the
assurances of many doctors to the contrary, some physicians still recommend
this course of action. As far as this vocal minority is concerned, it is extremely
likely that failure to immunize against smallpox could result in an outbreak of
epidemic proportions, just like the one that recently occurred in Somalia.
Recommendation of a Course of Action - When you feel you have convinced
your readers, you may want to recommend action. In persuasive writing, it can be
psychologically very effective to conclude by appealing to the reader for action.
For example, note how this student concluded his essay which discussed the
harmful effects of food additives:
Every month, the Food and Drug Administration finds that another food
additive has harmful effects on humans. In spite of this, food processors seem
reluctant to eliminate additives from their food. It seems as if the only way we,
the consumers, will be able to make our desires felt is to stop buying food that
contains artificial preservatives and flavor enhancers. It is time for us to take
an active part in determining what we eat.
Note: The writer's use of "It is time" is characteristic of this type of
concluding strategy.
Quotation and Dialogue - As in the introduction, a quotation can lend authority to
a conclusion. Quotations by well-known authors can sometimes sum up your essay
handsomely as well as enable you to use their distinctive writing styles to add
variety and interest in your conclusion. This conclusion uses the words of a
character from literature to sum up:
In its tone and its theme, The Lost Days illustrates Dickson's mixed attitude
toward capitalism. On the one hand, he felt that the ideal represented by
capitalism was good and fair-minded. On the other hand, Dickson could not
ignore the many inequalities being perpetuated by that system, inequalities
best expressed by the character of Jacob when he said, "The unfairness I have
seen in my life became more bitter when I realized that it was done in the
name of fairness; it was done in the name of equal opportunity and of
capitalism".
18 Task 15. Label conclusion for the text Marketing across Cultures from your
Student Book. Recall articles you have recently read Can you find any relations
between a type of the article (e.g. discursive, descriptive, informative) and a type
of conclusion? Choose the best type of conclusion to your own article. Explain your
choice.
Unit 7
Task 16. Make a list of authors who are gurus in your field. Are going to refer to
their ideas in your article? Why? What is the difference between fair borrowing
ideas and plagiarism? Are there any rules to do against it in Russia?
How we can include someone’s ideas in our work and build on them fairly?
Using Sources Fairly and Accurately
You will be borrowing material from other people's work as you write your
research paper. To avoid plagiarism, the unfair use of someone else's words or
ideas, you must properly integrate and credit all quotes and paraphrases and include
a works-cited page at the end of your paper. Follow a standard documentation style
when citing sources and writing your bibliography. Most disciplines prefer a
particular documentation style. For example, some humanities follow Modern
Language Association (MLA) standards while social sciences follow American
Psychological Association (АРА) standards. If you are unsure which style to use,
ask your instructor. Various style manuals are available in the reference area in
your library, or consult our on-line guides for АРА or MLA examples.
For information on quoting and paraphrasing, link to these pages.
• Introducing Quotations and Maintaining Coherence by William Greenway,
Youngstown State University
• Paraphrasing
For information on citing electronic sources, link to these sites. Please comply
with any individual copyright notices:
• Bibliographic Formats for Citing Electronic Information (MLA and АРА
Styles)
by
Xia
Li
(xli@zoo.uvm.edu)
and
Nancy
Crane
(ncrane@zoo.uvm.edu) from the University of Vermont
• MLA-style Citations of Electronic Sources by Janice Walker (jwalker@chuma.cas.usf.edu), Department of English, University of South
Florida.
• Footnote and Citation Style Guides by Lehigh University Libraries
(http://www.lib.lehigh.edu/). This page contains information on how to cite
both electronic and print sources in these styles: MLA, АРА, ACS (American
19 Chemist Society) and Chicago Manual of Style. It also contains a link to
information on citing electronic sources in Turabian/Chicago-Style in History
and Humanities by M. Page.
Task 17. Find examples of references in the text of Negotiation Across Cultures
from your student book and the articles you read. Give samples of references you
are going to use in your article, including quotations and paraphrases.
Unit 8
Task 18. Read the first paragraph of the text below and find out decide which of
two ways of integrating the author’s ideas is mentioned.
Task 19. Now read the whole text and explain why some words are highlighted
Writing a Summary
To summarize an essay, article, or book, you should not include your own
thoughts on the matter, but describe the essay as objectively as possible, whether
you agree with it or not, though you may suggest what you think the author is up to,
what their agenda or strategy is, at the conclusion of the summary. Try to use
pertinent quotations by the author, working them in gracefully where appropriate.
Also, any important or conspicuous words, phrases, or terms should be put in
quotation marks.
You can model your summary on the structure of the original, keeping the
size of your paragraphs in roughly the same proportion as the paragraphs of the
original. But you do not need to follow the author's organization slavishly. You
might want to use your own organization based upon what you think the point of
the essay is. A good summary of something is a critique of it because it makes
explicit what has only been implicit. Understanding an argument is halfway work
toward refuting or confirming it, so summary is а crucial first step toward using
information, expertise, or opinion. It is essential that you read about paraphrasing,
summarizing, and quoting in your handbook before you begin your summary.
You must understand the differences between paraphrase, quotation, and
plagiarism.
So a summary is intended to highlight objectively the main points of
another writer's work. Although written in your own words, the summary does
not include your opinions of the piece you are considering. Since the summary
eliminates those details that are not needed to convey the major points, it is
naturally shorter than the original. In general, a summary is from one fourth to one
half the length of the original.
20 The problem we face when attempting to summarize a piece of writing is
figuring out what to include and what to leave out. Below are some tips on how to
choose material to include in your summary.
Cross out the less important details.
• Underline topic sentences and key ideas.
• Take notes on those key ideas - jot down the information that clarifies the
topic sentence, for example.
When you summarize, you might try following these steps:
• Read the piece for understanding first. Never summarize as you read the
article for the first time.
• Before you begin to write, check the topic sentences and key words (words
that are underlined, italicized, or capitalized). These will clue you in on main
ideas. Topic sentences often provide a good starting point for writing a
summary. You can sometimes build a summary of a text simply by combining
paraphrases of the topic sentences.
• Jot down the organizations of the original and follow that pattern in your
summary.
• Check your summary to be sure you have been objective. Your opinions are
not part of the original
• Check your summary to be sure that you have properly documented any
words or phrases that you have taken from the original.
• Identify your summary and its source. Some instructors will ask that you do
this as part of the title of the piece; others will request a footnote.
Task 20. Follow the tips for summary writing and the words in bold and write a
summary for the text above and on-sentence summary for the text of your choice.
Unit 9
Task 21. Read the text to find devices that can be used for different functions.
Transitional Devices (Connecting Words)
Transitional devices are like bridges between parts of your paper. They are
cues that help the reader to interpret ideas in the way that you, as a writer, want
them to understand. Transitional devices help you carry over a thought from one
sentence to another, from one idea to another, or from one paragraph to another
with words or phrases. And finally, transitional devices link your sentences and
paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between
ideas.
21 There are several types of transitional devices, and each category leads your
reader to make certain connections or assumptions about the areas you are
connecting. Some lead your reader forward and imply the "building" of an idea or
thought, while others make your reader compare ideas or draw conclusions from
the preceding thoughts.
Here is a list of some common transitional devices that can be used to cue
your reader in a given way.
To Add: and, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further,
furthermore, nor, too, next, lastly, what's more, moreover, in addition, first (second,
etc.).
To Compare: whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, however, nevertheless,
on the contrary, by comparison, where, compared to, up against, balanced against,
vis a vis, but, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in contrast, although this
may be true.
To Prove: because, for, since, for the same reason, obviously, evidently,
furthermore, moreover, besides, indeed, in fact, in addition, in any case, that is.
To Show Exception: yet, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, of
course, once in a while, sometimes.
To Show Time: immediately, thereafter, soon, after a few hours, finally,
then, later, previously, formerly, first (second, etc.), next, and then.
To Repeat: in brief, as I have said, as I have noted, as has been noted.
To Emphasize: definitely, extremely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any case,
absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly, always, forever, perennially,
eternally, never, emphatically, unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly,
undeniably, without reservation.
To Show Sequence: first, second, third, and so forth. А, В, C, and so forth,
next, then, following this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward,
subsequently, finally, consequently, previously, before this, simultaneously,
concurrently, thus, therefore, hence, next, and then, soon.
To Give an Example: for example, for instance, in this case, in another case,
on this occasion, in this situation, take the case of, to demonstrate, lo-'illustrate, as
an illustration, to illustrate.
To Summarize or Conclude: in brief, on the whole, summing up, to
conclude, in conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said, hence, therefore,
accordingly, thus, as a result, consequently, on the whole.
Task 22. Now scan two first paragraphs of the text and find all transitional devices
and label them. Do the same with the article of your choice.
22 Unit 10
Task 23. Scan the types of punctuation devices and compare them with Russian.
Are there any differences? Choose purely English punctuation mark and explain
why we do not need it in Russian.
PUNCTUATION
Why use it? Its purpose is to guide the reader in the natural pauses in writing.
It is also there to show how the grammar of a sentence is supposed to work: a
capital letter at the beginning of a sentence and a full stop at the end.
Punctuating your sentence may involve: a selection of the following:
• Colon (:)
Is most often used to introduce a quotation or a list.
• Full stop (.)
Use full stops more than you expect to. When in doubt, your instinct should
always plump for a full stop.
• Semicolon (;)
Represents a pause longer than a comma but shorter than a full stop. (If in
doubt about its use don't use it.)
It is used between clauses when the second clause expands or explains the
first e.g., Neither of them moved; they waited to see if the intruder made a quick
exit.
It is also used before clauses which begin with 'nevertheless','therefore','even
so', and "for instance" e.g., He looked before he leaped; even so he landed in the
water.
It is used to mark off a series of phrases or clauses which themselves contain
commas, e.g., You will need the following ingredients: four eggs, preferably size 3;
4oz caster sugar; a few drops of vanilla essence; and 2oz almonds, which must be
ground.
• Question mark (?)
Use a question mark every time there is a genuine direct question.That means
Are you going? but not / asked if he was going? (wrong because it is a reported
question).
• Dashes (-)
Use dashes but don't overdo them.You can use a pair of dashes - in place of
brackets - or a single dash to mark a break in the sentence before a punch line or a
throwaway remark: In life, two things are never with us - death and taxis.
• Apostrophes (')
They should not be used to make things plural e.g., I990's, MP's HQ's.
The general rule is: if something belongs to someone you write someone's or
e.g., the student's.
23 If it belongs to several people (the students), you write the students'. Plurals
like people and children, that aren't made with an s, take apostrophes i.e.,
children's.
Apostrophes are also shown where letters are missed out - can't play, won't
play. It's is short for it is. Beware of: its, (meaning "of it") yours, hers, ours, theirs,
and whose. None of them takes an apostrophe.
• Commas (,)
Commas, like buses, often come in pairs. It is wrong to write The reason is
as it always was, to save money. Two commas should be used, like brackets, either
side of the phrase as it always was.
The test is whether, grammatically, the sentence would hold up if the section
between the commas were removed. The common mistake is to forget the second
comma.
Commas are needed, and are not optional, when someone or something is
being addressed. Kiss me, Hardy must take the comma after me. Yes Minister
should have Yes, Minister.
Pairs of commas should be used when however, say, meanwhile and for
instance are interjected into sentences - he might be paid, say, £50,000 a year.
At the beginning of a sentence, these words or phrases need to be cordoned
off with a single comma - However, investigations into..., For instance, if we look
at.....
Commas are used to mark off separate items in a list, except between the last
two items. You can put a comma in before and if it's needed to make the sentence
clear - Goods are transported by lorry, horse and cart, and even handcart.
A strong adjective usually takes commas after each one except the last - old,
crabby, pedantic Dr Johnson.
• Quotation marks (")
Use double to enclose direct speech. Use a colon, not a comma before
quotes - Mr Smith said:"This is good news for all poor students."
Use a comma after quotes (before the second quotation marks) - "It will help
many students," said Jim.
Quotations direct from a book or journal also need to have double quotation
marks (") -Davis et al.(l99l, p243) stated that "Equilibrium is the sense which tells
you when your body is balanced and when it is tipping, turning or inverting."
Unless the length of the quotation is more than three lines of your text, in which
case it is indented and no quotation marks are necessary.
• Brackets ()
The use of brackets (whose technical term is parenthesis) should be kept to a
minimum.They are used to indicate a supplementary remark, or a qualification of
some sort. Grammatically they work like commas, but the remarks inside the
brackets tend to be less important than those inside commas.
Brackets are always used in pairs.
24 If the brackets surround an entire sentence then the full stop at the end of the
sentence stays within the brackets. (This is the procedure you should follow.) If the
brackets only surround part of the sentence, the full stop goes outside. This is the
procedure you should follow (under normal circumstances).
• Square brackets [like these]
Square brackets are used to indicate your changes or your own comments on
somebody else's writing. The report that 25000 had been killed in battle [a figure
shown to be greatly exaggerated] changed the course of the war.
 Capitalization
Capitalization is tricky unless you adhere to some basic rules of thumb. First of all,
capitalize proper nouns and common nouns used as proper nouns.
1. Specific persons, races, and nationalities:
William, Mary, American, Asiatic
2. Specific places:
Dallas, Iran, Peoria
3. Specific organizations, historical events, and documents:
Democratic National Committee Taft-Hartley Act Civil War NAACP
4. Titles when they precede a proper noun:
Professor Wilson
Dr. James Arlington
President George Bush
When titles follow the name, capitalize them only if they represent a title and not a
job description.
John Smith, President, Bank of the North
John Smith, the president of the Bank of the North, was conspicuously absent from
the meeting.
5. Common nouns when used as an essential part of a proper noun.
University of Delaware (Not in "The University was overrun with bigots.")
General Motors Corporation (Not in "The Corporation stands to lose millions this
year.")
6. An exception is usually made for state and federal governments.
The state encompasses some three-million square miles. (Speaking of the state as a
land mass.)
Task 24. Test your punctuation ability.
A. Look through any text and circle examples of these forms of punctuation;
* , (comma)
* ? (question mark)
* - (dash)
* "... ." (quotation marks)
* ( ) (parentheses)
* : (colon)
* ; (semi-colon)
25 B. Work with a partner. For each example that you circled in step 1, discuss why
the writer used this punctuation mark.
At least twice a week@ he works from his Ohio home on a computer that is
linked to his office.
C. Read the paragraph below and punctuate it, using the ideas from your
discussion above. Put in capital letters where necessary.
It may be extremely important to have a job but does it bring happiness in
many studies over the last two decades workers have been asked whether they
would continue to work if they inherited enough money to live comfortably without
working more than 70 percent replied that they would asked how satisfied they
were with their jobs even more 80 to 90 percent replied that they were very or
moderately satisfied but asked whether they would choose the same line of work if
they could begin all over again most said no only 43 percent of white-collar
workers and 24 percent of blue-collar workers said yes and when asked do you
enjoy your work so much that you have a hard time putting it aside only 34 percent
of men and 32 percent of women said yes in short most people seem to like their
jobs but are not too excited about them.
PART 2
MODELS AND SAMPLES OF LETTERS AND OTHER MATERIALS
FOR SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION
CVs & Resumes in English
7 Tips for CVs & Resumes in English
by Josef Essberger
Your CV/resume has one mission and one mission only: to get you a job
interview. Your CV is usually the first impression an employer has of you. And as
'you never get a second chance to make a first impression', you'd better get it right
first time.
Tip 1: Use design that demands attention
Employers don't have time to read through each of your job descriptions to
know if you have the skills they need. The design of your CV must do it for them.
Your CV should be concise, well-organized and relevant. It should emphasize the
most important and relevant points about your experience, skills and education.
Tip 2: Use 'power words'
To control the image that an employer has of you, use power words that
match the position you want. Certain words are used frequently by recruiters in
their job descriptions. You should study recruiters' advertisements and job
descriptions and use these words in your CV and covering letter.
26 The most powerful words are verbs. And the most powerful verbs are action
verbs (describing dynamic activity, as opposed to state).
If, for example, you are applying for a management post, you should use as
many management skills power words as possible - and use them in the active
form, not passive.
Here are some teaching skills power words:
• advice, clarify, coach, elicit, enable, encourage, explain, facilitate, guide,
inform, instruct, persuade, stimulate, train
Tip 3: A number is worth 1,000 words
People react to numbers! Numbers are alive and powerful. They create vivid
images in our minds. General statements are easy to ignore. Be specific and use
numbers when describing your duties and achievements.
Don't talk about 'managing a major turnover'. Talk about 'managing a
$27,000,000 turnover'. Don't talk about 'extensive teaching experience'. Talk about
7,000 teaching hours'. Better still; talk about 7,300 teaching hours' - the more
precise a figure, the more real it becomes.
Tip 4: Put important information first
List important information at the beginning of your job descriptions. Put
statements in your CV in order of importance, impressiveness and relevance to the
job you want. A powerful statement with numbers and power words influences
every statement that follows.
Tip 5: Sell benefits, not skills
Holiday companies don't sell holidays. They sell relaxation, adventure, sun,
sea and sand (the benefits of a holiday). You should not sell your skills (many other
people have the same skills). You should sell the benefits of your skills. When you
write your skills and past duties, be careful to explain their benefits to the
employer.
Tip 6: Solve your employer's (project manager) needs
Employers want people who can solve problems, not create them! Your CV
and cover letter should show how you can solve the employer's problems and
needs. And in addition to the skills or needs shown in a job advertisement, an
employer may have other needs. You should identify these additional needs and
show how you can satisfy them too. But concentrate first on the needs listed in the
job advertisement. Your additional solutions should come later, after you already
have the employer's attention.
Tip 7: Target your aim (job, project participation, etc)
You will have more success if you adjust your CV and cover letter for the
specific skills an employer is seeking. This means that you would write one CV for one
particular job and a different, modified, CV for another job. You ’re-package' yourself.
In that way, an employer will see immediately that you correspond to the job
description. It is not dishonest to 're-package' yourself. You are simply presenting
yourself and your skills in the best light for a particular employer. This will help you to
get more interviews and allow you to apply for a wider range of jobs.
27 Look through the skills below and find those you consider you have yourself
I am a person who:
With respect to execution of a task, and achievement
Takes initiative
Is able to handle a great variety of tasks and responsibilities simultaneously and
efficiently
Takes risks
Takes calculated risks
Is expert at getting things done
With respect to time, and achievement
Consistently tackles tasks ahead of
time
Is adept at finding ways to speed up a
task
Gets the most done in the shortest
time
Expedites the task at hand
With respect to working conditions
Maintains order and neatness in my
workspace
Is attendant to details
Has a high tolerance of repetition
and/or monotonous routines
Likes planning and directing an entire
activity
Demonstrates mastery
Promotes change
Meets deadlines
Delivers on promises on time
Brings projects in on time and
within budget
Enjoys a challenge
Loves working outdoors
Loves to travel
Has an unusually good grasp of. . .
Is good at responding to
emergencies
Has the courage of his or her
convictions
Works well under pressure and still
improvises
I am VERY:
□ Accurate
□ Achievement-oriented
□ Adaptable
□ Adept
□ Adept at having fun
□ Adventuresome
□ Alert
□ Appreciative
□ Creative
□ Decisive
□ Deliberate
□ Dependable/have
dependability
□ Diligent
□ Diplomatic
□ Driving
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
28 Independent
Innovative
Knowledgeable
Loyal
Methodical
Objective
Open-minded
Outgoing
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
Realistic
Reliable
Repeatedly
Resourceful
Responsible
Responsive
Safeguarding
Self-
□ Assertive
□ Astute
□ Authoritative
□ Calm
□ Cautious
□ Charismatic
□ Competent
□ Consistent
□ Contagious in my
enthusiasm
□ Cooperative
□ Courageous
□ Dynamic
□ Extremely economical
□ Effective
□ Energetic
□ Enthusiastic
□ Exceptional
□ Exhaustive
□ Experienced
□ Expert
□ Firm
□ Flexible
□ Humanly oriented
□ Impulsive
□ Outstanding
□ Patient
□ Penetrating
□ Perceptive
□ Persevering
□ Persistent
□ Pioneering
□ Practical
□ Professional
□ Protective
□ Punctual
□ Quick/ work quickly
□ Rational
motivated
□ Self-reliant
□ Sensitive
□ Sophisticated, very
Sophisticated
□ Strong
□ Supportive
□ Tactful
□ Thorough
□ Unique
□ Unusual
□ Versatile
□ Vigorous
Task 2. All these words can be used in writing personal documents for
scientific communication. Scan the model of curriculum Vitae below and look
for the mentioned characteristics
Curriculum vitae
Personal information
First name / Surname
Address
Telephone
E-mail
Nationality
Date of birth
Gender
Lyudmila Lebedeva
1 Borissov Street, Krasnoyarsk, 660074, Russia
89061901493
lyudmila-1406@yandex.ru
Russian
14.06.1990
Female
Work experience:
Dates
Occupation or position
held
Main activities and
responsibilities
Name and address of
employer
2010-2012
Marketing Department, Engineer
Administering programmes of additional professional education
Siberian Federal University
26 Kerensky Street, Krasnoyarsk, 660074, Russia
29 Dates
Occupation or position
held
Main activities and
responsibilities
Name and address of
employer
2008-2010
Business Foreign Languages Department, office manager
Administering programmes of additional professional education
Siberian Federal University
26 Kerensky Street, Krasnoyarsk, 660074, Russia
Education and training
Dates
Title of qualification
awarded
Name and type of
organization
providing education and
training
2007-2012
Diploma of Higher Education in Economics
Dates
Title of qualification
awarded
2009-2012
Diploma of Higher Education in Interpreting and Translating in
Professional Communication, translator and interpreter from the
English Language
Siberian Federal University
Institute of Business Process Management and Economics
Program of additional qualification “Interpreting and Translating in
Professional Communication”
Name and type of
organization
providing education and
training
Siberian Federal University
Institute of Business Process Management and Economics
Computer skills and
competences
MS Office (Word, Excel, Access, Visio, FrontPage), Project Expert
Additional
information
PUBLICATIONS:
Abstracts of "The Role of Russia's WTO accession in the development
of machine-building industry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory."
Proceedings of the XI All-Russian Olympiad of economic
development
The article "Formation of the information economy in Russia."
Proceedings of V All-Russian conference of students and young
scientists "Youth and Science"
EXPERIENCE IN PROJECT PARTICIPATION:
Development of the project "Analysis of the fiscal capacity of
Taseevskii district the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the development of
scenarios of its development," presented at the competition of students
projects commissioned by Administration of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory, organized by the Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund to support
science and scientific and technical activities
30 Task 3. Follow the structure and use characteristics you have from the list
filling in the form for a CV below .
Europass
Curriculum Vitae
Insert photograph. Remove heading if not relevant (see instructions)
Personal information
First name(s) / Surname(s)
Address(es)
Telephone(s)
First name(s) Surname(s) (remove if not relevant, see instructions)
House number, street name, postcode, city, country (remove if not relevant, see
instructions)
(remove if not relevant, see
instructions)
Fax(es)
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
E-mail
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Nationality
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Date of birth
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Gender
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Desired employment /
Occupational field
Mobile:
(remove if not
relevant, see
instructions)
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Work experience
Dates
Add separate entries for each relevant post occupied, starting from the most
recent. (
remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Occupation or position held
Main activities and responsibilities
Name and address of employer
Type of business or sector
Education and training
Dates
Add separate entries for each relevant course you have completed, starting from
the most recent. (remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Title of qualification awarded
Principal subjects/occupational skills
covered
Name and type of organisation
providing education and training
Level in national or international
classification
(remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Personal skills and
competences
31 Mother tongue(s)
Specify mother tongue (if relevant add other mother tongue(s), see
instructions)
Other language(s)
Social skills and competences
Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they
were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Organisational skills and
competences
Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they
were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Technical skills and competences
Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they
were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Computer skills and competences
Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they
were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Artistic skills and competences
Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they
were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Other skills and competences
Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they
were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Driving licence
Additional information
Annexes
State here whether you hold a driving licence and if so for which categories of
vehicle.
(Remove if not relevant, see instructions)
Include here any other information that may be relevant, for example contact
persons,
references, etc. (Remove heading if not relevant, see instructions)
List any items attached. (Remove heading if not relevant, see instructions)
Task 4 Analyse the structure and the language of the RESUME below. How
different it is from CV sample above.
LYUDMILA LEBEDEVA
1 Borissov Street
Krasnoyarsk 660074 Russia
89061901493
lyudmila-1406@yandex.ru
WORK
EXPERIENCE:
2010-2012
Siberian Federal University
Marketing Department, Engineer
2008-2010
Siberian Federal University
Business Foreign Languages Department, office manager
32 EDUCATION:
2007-2012
Siberian Federal University
Institute of Business Process Management and Economics
Diploma of Higher Education in Economics
2009-2012
Siberian Federal University
Program of additional qualification “Interpreting and Translating in
Professional Communication”
Diploma of Higher Education in Interpreting and Translating in
Professional Communication, translator and interpreter from the English
Language
PUBLICATIONS:
2011
"The Role of Russia's WTO accession in the development of machinebuilding industry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory", abstract in the
Proceedings of the XI All-Russian Olympiad of economic development
2009
"Formation of the information economy in Russia.", article in the
Proceedings of V All-Russian conference of students and young
scientists "Youth and Science"
EXPERIENCE IN 2011
Development of the project "Analysis of the fiscal capacity of
PROJECT
PARTICIPATION: Taseevskii district the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the development of
scenarios of its development," presented at the competition of students
projects commissioned by Administration of the Krasnoyarsk Territory,
organized by the Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund to support science and
scientific and technical activities
SKILLS:
Computers
MS Office (Word, Excel, Access, Visio, FrontPage), Project Expert
Languages
Spoken and written English at intermediate level
Task 5. Now write your own RESUME following the advice, model and
language presented
RESUME
Name
Telephone Number
Address
Date of birth
Summary
More than___________ years experience in_______________________ including
management pests as a ________. Currently employed as____________________
at _____________________ . I am now looking for an opportunity with a
multinational company that________________________________________ .
33 EMPLOYMENT
Current employment
______________- present (years) _______________(company name)
____________ (job title)
During my ________________ years at ____________________ I have been
responsible for:

supervising a team of___________people

negotiating contracts worth______________ with
____________________

managing the accounts of ____________________

planning and coordinating marketing campaigns for
___________________

preparing reports analyzing___________________

increasing sales of___________________ by ___________ % over
two years

achieving _____________% savings in the cost
of__________________

obtaining______________% market share for_______________within
one year.
Previous employment
___________- ___________ (years) _____________(company name)
_____________ (job title)
While at _________________________ I was part of a team which:
 _________________ planned the launch of ________________
 _________________ developed a new ________________
 ___ achieved_______________% brand recognition for___________after
two years.
 ___ organized the installation of_________________
 _________________ initiated a new system for___________________
_______________
__________(final
(establishment)
__________(final
(establishment)
year)
EDUCATION
__________________(qualification)_______________
year)
__________________(qualification)_______________
OTHER EXPERIENCE
Computer Skills. Comprehensive knowledge of_______________________
_________________________________
Languages.
Spoken
and
written
English
to________________________level.
Personal and Professional References provided on request
34 Covering letter
Your CV/Resume will have a covering letter. The paragraphs of this letter
might follow the pattern below.
1 Subject heading at the top of the. letter: Vacancy for a Marketing Director
2 Introduce yourself and mention the purpose of your letter. If you saw an
advert in a newspaper/specialist journal, say which one.
3 Give your background and experience, and emphasize why you are
suitable for the job. Refer to your abilities and achievements, perhaps linking
directly to things mentioned in the advert.
4 Ask the reader to look at your CV/Resume, and focus on one or two key
points.
5 Close by thanking them for taking the time to read your CV/Resume and
say when you are available for interview.
Task 6. Choose a job advert from a newspaper/specialist journal or think of a
real job that you would like to apply for. Write the covering letter for your
CV/Resume.
Letter of motivation can be a part of a pack of documents for project
participation.
Task 8 Read the first paragraph of the letter below and try to guess what is the aim
of the writer’s application. Then make up the structure of a letter of motivation.
Letter of motivation
Dear Sir or Madam, It’s a big pleasure for me to express my highest motivation to apply for the Eranet Plus programme, scheduled to start in fall, 2013. First of all I would like to introduce myself. My name is Elizaveta Gavrikova and I’m currently completing a comprehensive undergraduate degree in the Institute of Business Process Management and Economics at the Siberian Federal University (Russia). My major field of study is Applied Computing in Enterprise Management. Also, I’ve just completed a degree in Translating in the field of professional communication in Spanish and expecting to complete a similar degree in English in April, 2013. I have a sufficient knowledge of Information Systems and Management since it was essential during my studies. Due to the wide range of different 35 disciplines that Enterprise Management involves, soon after starting my studies I was interested in various subjects, such as Marketing, Business Process Management, Strategic Management and I realized that I’m really interested in continuing my education further by completing a master programme. Since I have been reading a lot on the topic I am really impressed with the achievements in marketing and management of those huge and famous European corporations. As I see it, the problem with Russian economy is though we have a wide range of resources, in the last 20 years we have been facing the challenge to come up with the world’s economic trends and to become a full‐fledged participant of the international market. Surely, that calls out for the collaborative and efficient work of professionals who have gained international experience and, therefore, are able to propose solutions and design alternatives for Russian companies. I am confident in my decision to apply for the programme as it will give me a strong background and high level of knowledge in economics through different disciplines. Owing to my academic achievements I was selected to spend one semester abroad at the University of Cadiz, Spain. While studying there I took several elective courses in Translating in Spanish and English to improve my language level and also attended some lectures on management and marketing. Through this experience I became fascinated with the possibilities that may provide an international student exchange program. Together with my international colleagues we worked on some tasks and projects and it helped us to share knowledge gained in different countries and work out creative solutions. In fact, during my studies in the university and especially after my semester in the University of Cadiz I became passionate about making researches and investigations. I believe that to understand how the world economy is changing through the time we have to learn how to analyse the experience and then use it in a proper way. Moreover, this spring the Santander Bank announced a competition for those who study Spanish and I was selected as one of the grantees. I’m convinced to take a higher level course of Spanish in winter again in the University of Cadiz (level B2). I consider the opportunity of taking part in the Eranet Plus project as a great chance for self‐development, broadening of my horizons and gaining life experience and surely master my language in application to the scope of economics. Enterprise management is a discipline, which requires interpersonal abilities and skills for working with people and delegating decisions. In my opinion, studying abroad in a multicultural environment is exactly what demonstrates and improves such skills. Another important matter for me when living and studying in Spain I understood that the culture, 36 traditions, mentality and way of life of the Spaniards impressed me deeply and I have a great desire to know more about this fascinating country. Given my past history of commitment to the overall self‐development, I am confident that I will bring a high level of energy and enthusiasm to your programme. I will enrich it by enabling fellow students and professors to benefit from my ambitious and open nature. Furthermore, my international background will help me to bring more diversity to your programme. Once again I am grateful to you for considering my application and I am looking forward to a favourable reply! Sincerely, Elizaveta Gavrikova Task 8 Think of a potential opportunity to participate in a programme or a project
and write your own letter of motivation. Use strong languge to describe your strong
points
Recommendation (reference) letter can be a part of a pack of documents for
project participation.
Task 9 Read the letter below, analyse its structure and decide what type of
information should be included in it. What is the tone of the letter? Is it emotional
or reserved and full of facts and evidence?
Recommendation letter
Dear Sir/ Madam,
I have known Anastasia Pavlova, as my student at Siberian Federal University,
for 5 years. I taught her General and Business English and I was her thesis
supervisor in the context of the special academic course “The Translator in the
Sphere of Professional Communications”. It is my pleasure to recommend her in
getting the IMRCEES scholarship.
During her studies, Anastasia showed herself as being an active, self-sufficient
and hardworking student. She was always extremely interested in the things she
was doing. I think that was the reason why she chose such a specific problem as a
theme for her graduation work: “Casino management”. While she was working on
this paper, there were very few publications on the problem in Russian, so she had
to use literary sources published abroad. To be successful in her research, she read
a big amount of overseas literature, analyzed in details the management principles
of this business, and consulted some experts and practitioners in this area,
particularly, casino managers and directors. As a result of her strong effort, the
academic paper was extremely interesting, full of new information and deep in
analyses and conclusions.
In addition, Anastasia is a creative person. She used to participate in
competitions which evaluated imagination and ability in translating lyrics and
37 poems. One of her poetical works was regarded with high esteem by the
commission and she won a prize in inter-university competition in translation.
Anastasia was respected by her peers. She easily became a leader by her
peculiar ambitiousness and determination; in group tasks she was able to distribute
roles and take responsibility for the group work result. She was always ready to
help her classmates in their problems with everyday issues and studies, trying to
understand them and suggesting an advice.
Anastasia was always interested in studying very hard, sometimes in strict
time limits and took her work very seriously, and as her mentor I would rate her
knowledge in the field of technical translation, economics and management, as
excellent. Perhaps, just one of her weaknesses is lack of organization, time
management in particular. But during her studies she did show the progress in
overcoming this weakness.
As her mentor I have had the opportunity to observe her overall progress, and
I’m sure that the commission would make the right decision if they approved her in
getting a scholarship. She would benefit greatly from the experience at IMRCEES
and would use her skills and knowledge to achieve excellent results in studying her
field.
If you have any further questions with regard to her background or
qualifications, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Yours sincerely,
Dr. Olga Almabekova
Siberian Federal University
Phone number: +79233094121
E-mail address: olgaalma@rambler.ru
Task 10 Whom will you ask to give you recommendation when you apply for a
project in management?
Personal Statement is a part of a pack of documents used for project participation.
Personal Statement (model)
Have strong background and good professional experience in…... An outgoing
personality having good professional contacts with …. in Krasnoyarsk and other
regions of Russia
Good at planning and time management but at the same time works well under
pressure and in strict deadlines. Responsible and energetic, self-confident and can
motivate myself and take responsibility for my decisions.
A successful organizer, able to be in charge of projects. Good at establishing close
cooperation of colleagues and team members with each other.
38 Like people and is good at handling both peers and subordinates. Friendly and
sociable, honest and reliable. Work well in a team, listen to other people’s advice
and is ready to contribute my ideas.
Open to new ideas, highly motivated, creative and innovative in trying out new
practices. Welcome criticism and listen to it carefully, recognize it as necessary in
order to learn and develop.
Ready to grow and develop, learn new skills, get experience in different areas, meet
challenges.
Task 11 Follow the structure of a personal statement below. Insert your own
characteristics and achievements and write a personal statement for yourself.
PART 3
ACADEMIC PHRASEBANK
Academic phrasebank is a result of thorough investigation of thousands of articles
and essays written in various fields of research. It is a collection of phrases most
frequently used for the purposes stated as the title of each section. Each section
starts with a short explanation of the functions of phrases given below. Master
students can use academic phrasebank as a learning tool to study and practice
English for science and studies and as a manual for practical writing articles,
abstracts and project proposals.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Introducing Work
Referring to the Literature
Being Critical
Describing Methods
Reporting Results
Discussing Findings
Writing Conclusions
General Functions
1. Writing Introductions There are many ways to introduce an academic essay or assignment. Most academic writers,
however, appear to do one or more of the following in their introductions:
 establish the context, background and/or importance of the topic
 indicate a problem, controversy or a gap in the field of study
 define the topic or key terms
 state of the purpose of the essay/writing
 provide an overview of the coverage and/or structure of the writing
Phrases which are commonly employed to realise these functions are listed below.
39 Establishing the importance of the topic:
One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is ......
It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the .....
X is the leading cause of death in western industrialised countries.
X is a common disorder characterised by ......
X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for ......
In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in .......
Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and ......
Establishing the importance of the topic (time frame given):
Recent developments in X have heightened the need for ......
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in ......
Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in ......
Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in ......
The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many .......
The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of......
Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in ......
One of the most important events of the 1970s was ......
Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that ......
X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.
The changes experienced by Xs over the past decade remain unprecedented.
Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and have been
extensively used for decades to .......
Highlighting a problem or controversy in the field of study:
However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ......
However, a major problem with this kind of application is ......
To date there has been little agreement on what ......
More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about .....
There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ......
Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.
Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:
Concerns have been raised by several relevant bodies about the poor ......
One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philososphy is ......
One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ......
In many Xs a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ......
The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.
The issue of X has been a controversial and much disputed subject within.......
The issue has grown in importance in light of recent ......
Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of study:
So far, however, there has been little discussion about ......
However, far too little attention has been paid to ......
Most studies in X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.
The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
In addition, no research has been found that surveyed .......
So far this method has only been applied to ......
Several studies have produced estimates of X (Smith, 2002; Jones, 2003), but there is
still insufficient data for .....
However, there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in ......
The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no agreement about ......
40 Focus and aim:
This paper will focus on/examine/give an account of ......
This paper seeks to address the following questions:
This essay critically examines/discusses/traces ......
The aim of this paper is to determine/examine ......
The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the ......
This paper will review the research conducted on ......
In this paper I argue that .....
Outline of structure:
The main questions/issues addressed in this paper are: a), b and c).
This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with ......
This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.
This paper begins by ...... It will then go on to ......
The first section of this paper will examine ......
Finally, .......
Chapter 2 begins by laying out
Chapter 3 describes the design,…
The last chapter assesses the ......
Explaining Keywords
While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the
definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as .......
Throughout this paper the term X will refer to/will be used to refer to .......
In this article the acronym/abbreviation XYZ will be used.
Research Questions or hypotheses
The central question in this dissertation asks how ......
In particular, this dissertation will examine six main research questions:
The hypothesis that will be tested is that ......
The key research question of this study was thus whether or not ......
Synopsis of the method
This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of ......
The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of a qualitative,
semi-structured interview methodology.
By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the ......
This work takes the form of a case-study of the ......
Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide both descriptive,
interpretive and empirical data.
A holistc approach is utilised, integrating literary, numanistic and archeological material
to establish ......
2. Referring to Literature One important characteristic of academic writing is that all the sources of
information that the writer has used need to be indicated, not just as a bibliography
or list of references, but also in or alongside the text. In some cases the source will
be the main subject of the sentence, in others the sources may be mentioned
parenthetically (in brackets) or via a notation system (eg. footnotes). The more
common verbs and verb phrases used in academic writing for referring to sources
are given below. Note that different referencing systems are used in different
41 disciplines. In the examples, the Harvard in-text referencing system has been used.
Also note that the "author as subject" style is less common in the sciences.
General reference to previous research/scholarly activity (usually more than
one author)
Recent evidence suggests that ....... (Smith, 1996; Jones 1999; Johnson, 2001)
Recently, in vitro studies have shown that T.thermophylus EFTu can ...... (Patel et al.,
1997; Jones et al., 1998).
Several attempts have been made to ....... (Smith, 1996; Jones 1999; Johnson, 2001)
Several studies have revealed that it is not just X that acts on ...... (Smith, 1996; Jones
Several studies investigating X have been carried out on ......
Previous studies have reported ...... (Smith, 1985; Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1992).
Xs have been identified as major contributing factors for the decline of many species (1).
X has also been shown to reverse the anti-inflammatory effects of ….
It has conclusively been shown that X and Y increase Z (Smith et al., 1999; Jones, 2001
It has been demonstrated that a high intake of X results in damage to ...... (Smith, 1998;
Reference to current state of knowledge
A relationship exists between an individual's working memory and their ability to ......
(Jones et al.,1998).
GM varieties of maize are able to cross-pollinate with non-GM varieties (Smith, 1998;
Jones, 1999).
There is an unambiguous relationship between spending on education and economic
development (Rao, 1998).
Reference to single investigations in the past
Smith (1968) found (analysed investigated interviewed demonstrated studied carried
out) that as levels of literacy and education of the population rise .............
Reference to what other writers do in their text
In her major study,
In her seminal article,
In her classic critique of ......,
In her case study of ......,
In her review of ......,
In her analysis of ......,
In her introduction to ......,'
Smith (2004) identifies five characteristics of .......
lists three reasons
provides in-depth analysis
traces the development
defines evidence
highlights the need
discusses the challenges and strategies
uses examples of
Reference to other writers' ideas
According to Smith (2003), preventative medicine is far more cost effective, and
therefore better adapted to the developing world.
Smith (2003)
points out
argues
maintains
claims
concludes
suggests
that
Smith (2003)
argues for
offers
proposes
suggests
an explanatory theory for each type of irrational belief.
preventative medicine is far more cost effective,
and therefore better adapted to the developing
world
42 Some ways of introducing quotations
In the final part of the Theses, Marx writes: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted
the world in various ways; the point ......."
Sachs concludes: "The idea of development stands today like a ruin in the intellectual
landscape…" (Sachs, 1992a: 156).
As Smith argues: "In the past, the purpose of education was to ......" (Smith , 2000:150).
3. Being Critical As an academic writer, you are expected to be critical of the sources that you use.
This essentially means questioning what you read and not necessarily agreeing with
it just because the information has been published. Being critical can also mean
looking for reasons why we should not just accept something as being correct or
true. This can require you to identify problems with a writer's arguments or
methods, or perhaps to refer to other people's criticisms of these. Constructive
criticism goes beyond this by suggesting ways in which a piece of research or
writing could be improved.
...... being against is not enough. We also need to develop habits of
constructive thinking. Edward de Bono
Introducing questions, problems and limitations (theory)
However, all the previously mentioned methods suffer from some serious
limitations
weaknesses
disadvantages
drawbacks.
Identifying a study's weakness:
the main weakness of the study is the failure to address how .......
the study fails to consider the differing categories of damage that .....
the research does not take into account pre-existing ...... such as ......
the author offers no explanation for the distinction between X and Y.
Smith makes no attempt to differentiate between various different types of X.
(However,)
Jones fails to fully acknowledge the significance of ......
the paper would appear to be over ambitious in its claims
the author overlooks the fact that X contributes to Y.
what Smith fails to do is to draw a distinction between ......
another weakness is that we are given no explanantion of how ......
Offering constructive suggestions:
Smith's paper
Her
conclusions
The study
The findings
would have
been
might have
been
more
much
more
far more
useful
included ......
convincing if he/she had
interesting if the author
persuasive had
original
considered
......
adopted ......
used ......
A better study would examine a large, randomly selected sample of societies with ......
A much more systematic study would identify how X interacts with other variables that
are believed to be linked to ......
43 Introducing other people's criticisms:
However, Jones (2003) points out that .....
Many analysts now argue that the strategy of X has not been successful. Jones (2003),
for example, argues that .....
Non-government agencies are also very critical of the new policies.
The X theory has been / vigorously / strongly challenged in recent years by a number of
writers.
Smith's analysis has been criticised by a number of writers. Jones (1993), for example,
points out that ……
Smith's meta-analysis has been subjected to considerable criticism.
Critics question the ability of poststructuralist theory to provide ......
4. Describing Methods In the Methods section of a dissertation or research article, writers give an account of how they
carried out their research. The Materials and Methods section should be clear and detailed
enough for another experienced person to repeat the research and reproduce the results.
Typical features with examples of this language are listed below.
Describing different methods
To date various methods have been developed and introduced to measure X:
In most recent studies, X is measured in four different ways.
Radiographic techniques are the main non-invasive method used to determine ....
Different authors have measured X in a variety of ways.
Previous studies have based their criteria for selection on ......
A variety of methods are used to assess X. Each has its advantages and drawbacks.
Giving reasons why a particular method was adopted
The semi-structured approach was chosen because ......
Smith et al (1994) identify several advantages of the case study, .......
It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was to ......
A case study approach was chosen to allow a ......
The design of the questionnaires was based on ......
The X method is one of the more practical ways of ......
Indicating a specific method
X was prepared according to the procedure used by Patel et al. (1957).
The synthesis of X was done according to the procedure of Smith (1973).
X was synthesised using the same method that was detailed for Y, using ......
This compound was prepared by adapting the procedure used by Zhao et al. (1990).
For this study the X was used to explore the subsurface ……
Indicating sample size and characteristics
The initial sample consisted of 200 students of whom 13 did not complete all of the
interviews
All studies described as using some sort of X procedure were included in the analysis.
All of the participants were aged between 18 and 19 at the beginning of the study.....
A random sample of patients with ...... was recruited from .......
Forty-seven students studying X were recruited for this study.
The students were divided into two groups based on their performance on ......
Indicating reasons for sample characteristics
A small sample was chosen because of the expected difficulty of obtaining ......
The subjects were selected on the basis of a degree of homogeneity of their .......
Criteria for selecting the subjects were as follows:
44 Describing the process: infinitive of purpose
To enable the subjects to see the computer screen clearly, the laptop was ......
To see if the two methods gave the same measurement, the data was plotted and ......
To control for bias, measurements were carried out by another person.
To measure X, a question asking ...... was used.
In order to identify the T10 and T11 spinous processes, the subjects were asked to .....
The vials were capped with ..... to prevent volatisation.
In an attempt to make each interviewee feel as comfortable as possible......
To determine whether ......, KG-1 cells were incubated for ......
To establish whether ......,
To increase the reliability of measures, each X was tested twice with a 4-min break
between the trials.
Describing the process: other phrases expressing purpose
For the purpose of height measurement, subjects were asked to stand .....
For the purpose of analysis, 2 segments were extracted from each ......
For the estimation of protein concentration, 100 µL of protein sample was ......
Describing the process: typical verbs (note use of passive form)
The experiments were carried out over the course of the growing period from .......
Injection solutions were coded by a colleague to reduce experimenter bias.
Drugs were administered by icv injection under brief CO2 narcosis;
The mean score for the two trials was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to
determine ......
The subjects were asked to pay close attention to the characters whenever ......
Prompts were used as an aid to question two so that ......
The pilot interviews were conducted informally by the trained interviewer ......
Blood samples were obtained with consent, from 256 caucasian male patients ......
Independent tests were carried out on the x and y scores for the four years from ......
This experiment was repeated under conditions in which the poor signal/noise ratio was
improved.
Significance levels were set at the 1% level using the student t-test.
A total of 256 samples were taken from 52 boreholes (Figure 11).
Describing the process: sequence words/phrases
Prior to commencing the study, ethical clearance was sought from ......
In the end, the EGO was selected as the measurement tool for the current study.
After "training", the subjects were told that the characters stood for X and that their task
was to .......
After collection, the samples were shipped back to X in ......
After conformational analysis of X, it was necessary to ......
Once the Xs were located and marked, a thin clear plastic ruler ......
Once the positions had been decided upon, the Xs were removed from each Y and
replaced by .....
Once the exposures were completed, the X was removed from the Y and placed in ......
On completion of X, the process of model specification and parameter estimation was
carried out.
Following this, the samples were recovered and stored overnight at ......
These ratings were then made for the ten stimuli to which the subject had been exposed
The analysis was checked when initially performed and then checked again at the end of
The subjects were then shown a film individually and were asked to ......
The soil was then weighed again, and this weight was recorded as ......
45 The results were corrected for the background readings and then averaged before being
converted to......
Finally, questions were asked as to the role of ......
Describing the process: adverbs of manner
The soil was then placed in a furnace and gradually heated up to .....
The vials were shaken manually to allow the soil to mix well with the water.
The medium was then aseptically transferred to a conical flask.
The resulting solution was gently mixed at room temperature for ten minutes and ......
A sample of the concentrate was then carefully injected into ......
The tubes were accurately reweighed to six decimal places using ......
Describing the process: passive verb + using .... for instruments
15 subjects were recruited using email advertisements requesting healthy students ......
All the work on the computer was carried out using Quattro Pro for Windows and ......l.
Data were collected using two high spectral resolution spectroradiometers.
The data was recorded on a digital audio recorder and transcribed using a .......
Semi-automated genotyping was carried out using X software and ....
Statistical significance was analysed using analysis of variance and t-tests as
appropriate.
Using the X-ray and looking at the actual X, it was possible to identify ......
Using an Anthos Microplate Reader were able to separate single cells into different ......
Indicating problems or limitations
In this investigation there are several sources for error. The main error is ......
Another major source of uncertainty is in the method used to calculate X..
It was not possible to investigate the significant relationships of X and Y further because
the sample size was too small.
Further data collection is required to determine exactly how X affects Y.
5. Reporting Results The most common way of presenting results is through tables and figures. Figures
may include anything that is not a table, such as: graphs, photographs, diagrams,
and any other sort of visual information. Writers usually comment on the
significant data presented in the tables and figures. This often takes the form of the
location /summary statement, expressed in general terms, followed by a statement
or statements which highlight or point out the significant information. Discussion
of the results is normally, though not always, restricted to the Discussion section.
Reference to method
To assess X, the Y questionnaire was used.
In order to assess Z, repeated measures of ANOVA were used.
Regression analysis was used to predict the ......
Changes in X and Y were compared using ......
The average scores of X and Y were compared in order to ......
9 items on the questionnaire measured the extent to which ......
The correlation between X and Y was tested.
The first set of analyses examined the impact of ......
Simple statistical analysis was used to ......
A scatter diagram and a Pearson's product moment correlation were used to determine
the relationship between ......
T-tests were used to analyse the relationship between ......
46 Location and summary statements:
shows
Table 1
Figure 1
compares
presents
provides
the experimental data on X.
the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X.
the intercorrelations among the nine measures of X.
are shown
The results obtained from the preliminary analysis
can be compared
of X
are presented
in Table 1.
in Fig 1.
As shown in Figure 12.1,
As can be seen from the table
(above),
the X group reported significantly more Y than the
It can be seen from the data in Table
other two groups.
12.1 that
From the graph above we can see
that
The table below illustrates
The pie chart above shows
some of the main characteristics of the
the breakdown of
Highlighting significant data in a table/chart
It is apparent from this table that very few ......
This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables ......
Data from this table can be compared with the data in Table 4.6 which shows ......
From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between ......
From this data we can see that Study 2 resulted in the lowest value of ......
The histogram in Fig 1. indicates that ......
What is interesting in this data is that ......
In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing ......
As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two
groups.
Statements of result (positive)
Strong evidence of X was found when ......
This result is significant at the p = 0.05 level.
There was a significant positive correlation between ......
There was a signifcant difference between the two conditions ......
On average, Xs were shown to have ......
The mean score for X was ......
Interestingly, for those subjects with X, ......
A positive correlation was found between X and Y.
Further analysis showed that ......
Further statistical tests revealed .....
Statements of result (negative)
There was no increase of X associated with .....
There were no significant differences between ......
No significant differences were found between .....
No increase in X was detected.
No difference greater than X was observed.
47 The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between ......
None of these differences were statistically significant.
Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measures;
Highlighting significant, interesting or surprising results
The most striking result to emerge from the data is that ......
Interestingly, this correlation is related to .....
The correlation between X and Y is interesting because ......
The more surprising correlation is with the ......
Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews
The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire.
Of the initial cohort of 123 students, 66 were female and 57 male.
The majority of respondents/those who responded felt that .....
Over half of those surveyed indicated that ......
70% of those who were interviewed indicated that .....
Approximately half of those surveyed did not comment on ......
A small number of those interviewed suggested that ......
Only a small number of respondents indicated that ......
Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that .......
In response to Question 1, most of those surveyed indicated that ......
The overall response to this question was very positive.
When the subject were asked ......, the majority commented that .....
Other responses to this question included ......
The overall response to this question was poor.
Transition statements
Turning now to the experimental evidence on ......
Comparing the two results, it can be seen that ......
A comparison of the two results reveals ......
If we now turn to ......
6. Discussions
The term discussion has a variety of meanings in English. In academic
writing, however, it usually refers to two types of activity: a) considering both sides
of an issue, or question, b) considering the results of research and the implications
of these. Discussion sections in dissertations and research articles are probably the
most complex in terms of their elements. The most common elements and some of
the language that is typically associated with them are listed below:
Background information
A strong relationship between X and Y has been reported in the literature.
Prior studies that have noted the importance of ......
In reviewing the literature, no data was found on the association between X and Y.
As mentioned in the literature review, ......
Very little was found in the literature on the question of .....
This study set out with the aim of assessing the importance of X in ......
The third question in this research was ......
It was hypothesized that participants with a history of ......
48 Statements of result (usually with reference to results section)
The results of this study show/indicate that .......
This experiment did not detect any evidence for ......
On the question of X, this study found that ......
The current study found that ......
The most interesting finding was that ......
Another important finding was that .....
The results of this study did not show that
In the current study, comparing X with Y showed that the mean degree of ......
In this study, Xs were found to cause .....
X provided the largest set of significant clusters of ......
It is interesting to note that in all seven cases of this study......
Unexpected outcome
Surprisingly, X was found to .......
One unanticipated finding was that .....
It is somewhat surprising that no X was noted in this condition ......
What is surprising is that ......
Contrary to expectations, this study did not find a significant difference between .......
However, the observed difference in between X and Y in this study was not significant.
However, the ANOVA (one way) showed that these results were not statistically
significant.
Reference to previous research (support)
This study produced results which corroborate the findings of a great deal of the
previous work in this field.
These findings of the current study are consistent with those of Smith and Jones (2001)
who found ......
This finding supports previous research into this brain area which links X and Y.
This study confirms that X is associated with ......
This finding is in agreement with Smith's (1999) findings which showed .......
It is encouraging to compare this figure with that found by Jones (1993) who .....
There are similarities between the attitudes expressed by X in this study and those
described by (Smith, 1987, 1995) and Jones (1986)
These findings further support the idea of .....
Increased activation in the PCC in this study corroborates these earlier findings.
These results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that ......
The present findings seem to be consistent with other research which found ......
Reference to previous research (contradict)
However, the findings of the current study do not support the previous research.
This study has been unable to demonstrate that ......
However, this result has not previously been described.
In contrast to earlier findings, however, no evidence of X was detected.
Although, these results differ from some published studies (Smith, 1992; Jones, 1996),
they are consistent with those of ......
Explanations for results:
There are several possible explanations for this result.
These differences can be explained in part by the proximity of X and Y.
A possible explanation for this might be that .....
Another possible explanation for this is that ......
This result may be explained by the fact that ...../ by a number of different factors.
49 It is difficult to explain this result, but it might be related to ......
It seems possible that these results are due to ......
The reason for this is not clear but it may have something to do with ......
It may be that these students benefitted from ......
This inconsistency/discrepancy may be due to ......
This rather contradictory result may be due to ......
These factors may explain the relatively good correlation between X and Y.
There are, however, other possible explanations.
The possible interference of X can not be ruled out.
The observed increased in X could be attributed to .....
The observed correlation between X and Y might be explained in this way. .....
Suggesting general hypotheses and implications
The value of X suggests that a weak link may exist between .....
It is therefore likely that such connections exist between .....
It can thus be suggested that ......
It is possible to hypothesise that these conditions are less likely to occur in ......
It is possible/likely/probable therefore that ......
Hence, it could conceivably be hypothesised that ......
These findings suggest that ......
It may be the case therefore that these variations ......
From the above it can be concluded that .....
In general, therefore, it seems that ......
It is possible, therefore, that ......
Therefore, X could be a major factor, if not the only one, causing ......
It can therefore be assumed that the ......
The findings of this study suggest that ......
Commenting on findings
However, these results were not very encouraging.
These findings are rather disappointing.
The test was successful as it was able to identify students who ......
Suggestions for future work
However, more research on this topic needs to be undertaken before the association
between X and Y is more clearly understood.
Further research should be done to investigate the ......
Research questions that could be asked include .....
Future studies on the current topic are therefore recommended.
A further study with more focus on X is therefore suggested.
Further studies, which take these variables into account, will need to be undertaken.
Further work is required to establish this.
In future investigations it might be possible to use a different X in which ......
This is an important issue for future research.
7. Writing Conclusions
Conclusions usually serve two functions. The first is to summarise and bring
together the main areas covered in the writing - this might be called "looking back";
and the second is to give a final comment or judgement on this. The final comment
may also include making suggestions for improvement and speculating on future
directions. In dissertations and research papers, conclusions tend to be more
50 complex and will also include sections on significance of the findings and
recommendations for future work.
Summarising the content
This paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread use of X ......
This essay has argued that X is the best instrument to ......
This assignment has explained the central importance of X in Y.
This dissertation has investigated ......
Restatement of aims (research)
This study set out to determine ......
In this investigation, the aim was to assess ......
The purpose of the current study was to determine ......
This project was undertaken to design ...... and evaluate .....
Returning to the hypothesis/question posed at the beginning of this study, it is now
possible to state that .....
Summarising the findings (research)
This study has shown that ......
These findings suggest that in general ......
One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that .....
It was also shown that......
This study has found that generally .......
The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study ......
The relevance of X is clearly supported by the current findings.
This study/research has shown that ......
The second major finding was that ........
The results of this investigation show that .......
The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that ......
X, Y and Z emerged as reliable predictors of ......
Multiple regression analysis revealed that the ......
Suggesting implications
The evidence from this study suggests that ......
The results of this study indicate that ......
The results of this research support the idea that .......
In general, therefore, it seems that ......
Taken together, these results suggest that ......
Significance of the findings (research)
The X that we have identified therefore assists in our understanding of the role of ......
These findings enhance our understanding of ......
This research will serve as a base for future studies and ......
The current findings add substantially to our understanding of ......
The current findings add to a growing body of literature on ......
The study has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of ......
The methods used for this X may be applied to other Xs elsewhere in the world.
Taken together, these findings suggest a role for X in promoting Y.
Recommendations for further work (research)
This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigation.
Further work needs to be done to establish whether ......
It is recommended that further research be undertaken in the following areas:
Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate ......
What is now needed is a cross-national study involving ......
51 More broadly, research is also needed to determine .....
It is suggested that the association of these factors is investigated in future studies.
Further research might explore ......
Further research in this field/regarding the role of X would be of great help in .......
Further investigation and experimentation into X is strongly recommended.
A number of possible future studies using the same experimental set up are apparent.
It would be interesting to assess the effects of ......
More information on X would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this
matter.
If the debate is to be moved forward, a better understanding of ...... needs to be
developed.
I suggest that before X is introduced, a study similar to this one should be
…Implications/recommendations for practice or policy
These findings suggest several courses of action for ......
The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.
There is, therefore, a definite need for ......
There are a number of important changes which need to be made.
Another important practical implication is that ......
8. General Functions 8.1 Writing Definitions
In academic work students are often expected to give definitions of key words and
phrases in order to demonstrate to their tutors that they understand these terms clearly.
Academic writers generally, however, define terms so that their readers understand
exactly what is meant when certain key terms are used. When important words are not
clearly understood misinterpretation may result. In fact, many disagreements (academic,
legal, diplomatic, personal) arise as a result of different interpretations of the same term.
In academic writing, teachers and their students often have to explore these differing
interpretations before moving on to study a topic.
Simple two-part definitions
A university is an institution
where knowledge is "produced" and passed on to
others.
Social Economics may be broadly defined
as the branch of economics
[which is] concerned with the measurement,
causes and consequences of social problems.
Research may be defined is a systematic
process
which consists of three elements or components:
(1) a question, problem, or hypothesis, (2) data,
and (3) analysis and interpretation of data.
General meanings:
The term X has come to be used to refer to ......
The term X is generally understood to mean ......
The term X has been applied to situations where students ......
In broad biological terms, X can be defined as any stimulus that is .......
The broad use of the term X is sometimes equated with ......
The term disease refers to a biological event characterised by .......
In the literature, the term tends to be used to refer to ......
52 Specifying terms that are used in an essay/thesis:
In this essay the term overseas student will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all
students who ......
Throughout this thesis, the term education is used to refer to informal systems as well as
formal systems.
While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the
definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as .......
In this paper, the term that will be used to describe this phenomenon is X
In this dissertation the terms X and Y are used interchangeably to mean ......
Referring to people's definitions (author prominent):
Smith (1954) was apparently the first to use the term ......
Chomsky writes that a grammar is a 'device of some sort for producing the .....' (1957,
p.11).
According to a definition provided by Smith (2001:23), fluency is 'the maximally ......
The term "fluency" is used by Smith (2001) to refer to ......
Smith (2001) uses the term "fluency" to refer to ......
For Smith (2001), fluency means/refers to .......
Macro-stabilisation policy is defined by Smith (2003: 119) as "......................"
Aristotle defines the imagination as "the movement which results upon an actual
sensation."
The term "matter" is used by Aristotle in four overlapping senses. First, it is the
underlying ....... Secondly, it is the potential which ......
Smith et al. (2002) have provided a new definition of health: "health is a state of being
with physical, cultural, psychological ....."
Referring to people's definitions (author non-prominent):
Validity is the degree to which an assessment process or device measures what it is
intended to measure (Smith et al., 1986)
8.2 Giving Examples
Writers may give specific examples as evidence to support their general claims or
arguments. Examples can also be used to help the reader or listener understand
unfamiliar or difficult concepts, and they tend to be easier to remember. For this reason,
they are often used in teaching. Finally, students may be required to give examples in
their work to demonstrate that they have understood a complex problem or concept.
Many paragraphs in academic writing show development from general statements
to specific details or examples. In most paragraphs, therefore, examples usually come
after a more general statement, as in the short extract below.
Many words can often acquire a more narrow meaning over time, or may
come to be chiefly used in one special sense. A classic example of this practice is
the word doctor. There were doctors (i.e., learned men) in theology, law, and many
other fields beside medicine, but nowadays when we send for the doctor we mean a
member of only one profession.
Examples as the main information in a sentence:
For example / instance, the word doctor used to mean a learned man.
For example, Smith and Jones (2004) conducted a series of......
By way of illustration, Smith (2003) shows how the data for .....
A classic / well-known example of this is .......
An example of this is the study carried out by Smith (2004) in which .......
53 X is a good example / illustration of .......
X illustrates this point / shows this point clearly.
This can be illustrated briefly by .......
Young people begin smoking for a variety of reasons. They may, for example, be
influenced by their peers, or they may see their parents as role models.
Another example of what is meant by X is ......
Diseases that can result at least in part from stress include arthritis, asthma, migrane,
headaches and ulcers.
Examples as additional information in a sentence
Young people begin smoking for a variety of reasons, such as pressure from peers and
the role model of parents.
Pavlov found that if some other stimulus, for example the ringing of a bell, preceded the
food, the dog would start salivating.
In Paris, Gassendi kept in close contact with many other prominent scholars such as
Kepler, Galileo, Hobbes, and Descartes.
The prices of resources, such as copper, iron ore, oil, coal and aluminium, have declined
in real terms over the past 20 years.
Many diseases can result at least in part from stress, including: arthritis, asthma,
migrane, headaches and ulcers.
8.3 Classifying and Listing
When we classify things, we group and name them on the basis of something that they have in
common. By doing this we can understand certain qualities and features which they shares as a
class. Classifying is also a way of understanding differences between things. In writing,
classifying is often used as a way of introducing a reader to a new topic. Along with writing
definitions, the function of classification may be used in the early part of an essay, or longer
piece of writing. We list things when we want to treat and present a series of items or different
pieces of information systematically. A list is series if items. The order of a list may indicate rank
importance.
General Classifications
X may be divided into
three main
classes
sub-groups
categories
X may be classified
on the basis of
according to
depending on
in terms of
Y
into Xi and Xii
Specific Classifications:
according to whether .....
on the basis of ......
in terms of
In the U.S. system, X is graded
Smith (1966)
divided
classified
grouped
Thomas and Nelson (1996)
describe
Xs
four basic types
of
54 into two broad types: Xi's and Xii's
validity: logical, content, criterion and
contruct.
Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a)
...... and b) ....
For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which ......; (2) motion which ......; (3)
motion which ......; and (4) motion which.......
8.4 Describing Causes and Effects
A great deal of academic work involves understanding and suggesting solutions
to problems. At postgraduate level, particularly in applied fields, students search out
problems to study. In fact, one could say that problems are the food for a significant
proportion of academic activity. However, solutions cannot be suggested unless the
problem is fully analysed, and this involves a thorough understanding of the causes.
Some of the language that you may find useful for explaining causes and effects is listed
below:
Verbs expressing causality
Lack of protein
may cause
can lead to
can result in
Low levels of chlorine in the body
Much of the instability
mental retardation.
can give rise to
the economic effects of the war.
stems from
Kwashiorkor is a disease
Beri-beri is a disease
Scurvy is a disease
high blood presssure.
caused by
resulting from
stemming from
insufficient protein.
vitamin deficiency.
lack of vitamin C.
Nouns expressing causality
The most likely causes of X are poor diet and lack of exercise.
A consequence of vitamin A deficiency is blindness.
Physical activity is an important factor in maintaining fitness.
Many other medications have an influence on cholesterol levels.
Another reason why Xs are considered to be important is that .......
Sentence connectors expressing causality
Therefore,
when they grow up, it will
If undernourished and retarded children do
Consequently,
survive to become adults, they have decreased Because of this, probably be difficult for them
to find work.
learning ability.
As a result (of
this),
55 Phrases expressing causality
owing to
because of
as a result of
200,000 people per year become deaf
Malnutrition leads to illness and a reduced ability to
work in adulthood,
The warm air rises above the surface of the sea,
thus/thereby
thus/thereby
a lack of iodine.
perpetuating the poverty
cycle.
creating an area of low
pressure.
As a consequence of X , it appears that winds alone are not the causative factor of.......
Due to X and Y inflowing surface water becomes more dense as it .......
X and Y are important driving factors of Z
The mixing of X and Y exerts a powerful effect upon Z through ......
8.5 Comparing and Contrasting
By understanding similarities and differences between two things, we can
increase our understanding and learn more about both. This usually involves a
process of analysis, in which we compare the specific parts as well as whole.
Comparison may also be a preliminary stage of evaluation. For example, by
comparing specific aspects of A and B, we can decide which is more useful or
valuable. Many paragraphs whose function is to compare or contrast will begin
with an introductory sentence expressed in general terms. Note the introductory
sentences below:
Introductory Sentences: Differences
X is different from Y in a number of respects.
There are a number of important differences between X and Y.
X differs from Y in a number of important ways.
Smith (2003) found distinct differences between X and Y.
Women and men differ not only in physical attributes but also in the way in
which…
Introductory Sentences: Similarities
The mode of processing used by the right brain is similar to that used by the left brain.
The effects of nitrous dioxide on human health are similar to those of ground level
ozone.
Both X and Y generally take place in a "safe environment".
There are a number of similarities between X and Y.
Numerous studies have compared the brain cells in man and animals and found that the
cells are essentially identical.
Comparison within one sentence
In contrast to oral communities, it is very difficult to get away from calendar time in
literate societies.
Oral societies tend to be more concerned with the present, whereas literate societies
have a very definite awareness of the past.
Women's brains process language simultaneously in the two sides of the brain, while
men tend to process it in the left side only.
56 This interpretation contrasts with that of Smith and Jones (2004) who argue that ......
Comparison within one sentence (comparative forms)
Women are faster/slower than men at certain precision manual tasks, such as placing
pegs in holes on a board.
Women tend to perform better/worse than men on tests of perceptual speed.
Further, men are more/less accurate in tests of target-directed motor skills.
The corpus callosum, a part of the brain connecting the two hemispheres, may be
more/less extensive in women.
Women are more/less likely than men to suffer aphasia when the front part of the brain
is damaged.
Adolescents are less likely to be put to sleep by alcohol than adults.
Women tend to have greater/less verbal fluency than men.
Men learned the route in fewer trials and made fewer errors than did women.
8.6 Writing about the Past
Writing about the past in English is made diffcult by the rather complex tense system. However
the phrases grouped below give an indication of the uses of the main tenses in academic writng.
For a comprehensive explanation of the uses of the various tenses you will need to consult a
good English grammar book. A good recommendation is Practical English Usage by Michael
Swan, OUP.
Time phrases associated with the use of the simple past tense
For centuries,
In the second half of the 19th century,
At the end of the nineteenth century,
church authorities placed restrictions on academics.
During the Nazi period,
Between 1933 and 1945,
From 1933 to 1945,
In the 1930s and 1940s,
restrictions were placed on German academics.
Time phrases associated with the use of the present perfect tense:
Over the past few decades, the world has seen the stunning transformation of X, Y and
Z.
Since 1965, these four economies have doubled their share of world production and
trade.
Until recently, there has been little interest in X.
Recently, these questions have been addressed by researchers in many fields.
In recent years researchers have investigated a variety of approaches to X but ....
Up to now, the research has tended to focus on X rather than on Y.
To date, little evidence has been found associating X with Y.
So far, three factors have been identified as being potentially important: X, Y, and Z.
The present perfect tense may also be used to describe recent research or
scholarly activity with focus on the area of enquiry - usually more than one
study
There have been several investigations into the causes of illiteracy (Smith, 1985; Jones,
1987).
The relationship between a diet high in fats and poor health has been widely
investigated (Smith, 1985, Jones, 1987, Johnson, 1992).
57 The new material has been shown to enhance cooling properties (Smith, 1985, Jones,
1987, Johnson, 1992).
Invasive plants have been identified as major contributing factors for the decline of many
North American species (1).
A considerable amount of literature has been published on X.
8.7 Describing Trends and Projections
A trend is a description of change over time. A projection is a prediction of future
change. Trends and projections are usually illustrated using line graphs in which the
horizontal axis represents time. Some of the language commonly used for writing about
trends and projections is given below.
Describing trends
slight
gradual
steady
marked
steep
sharp
The graph shows that
there has been a
increase
rise
decrease
fall
decline
drop
in the number of divorces in
England and Wales since 1981.
Describing high and low points in figures
The number of live births outside marriage reached a peak during the second world war.
The peak age for committing a crime is 18.
Oil production peaked in 1985.
Gas production reached a (new) low in 1990.
Projecting trends
The number of Xs
The amount of Y
The rate of Z
is projected to
is expected to
is likely to
will probably
decline steadily
drop sharply
level off
after 2010.
8.8 Describing Quantities
Describing ratios and proportions
The proportion of live births outside marriage reached one in ten in 1945.
The annual birth rate dropped from 44.4 to 38.6 per 1000 per annum.
Describing fractions
Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that .......
The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
Over half of those surveyed indicated that ......
70% of those who were interviewed indicated that .....
Approximately half of those surveyed did not comment on ......
Nearly half of the respondents (48%) agreed that ......
Less than a third of those who responded (32%) indicated that ......
The number of first marriages in the United Kingdom fell by nearly two-fifths.
Describing percentages
13.1% of young men and 23.1% of young women who had married said that they ......
Returned surveys from 34 radiologists yielded a 34% response rate.
58 The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
East Anglia had the lowest proportion of lone parents at only 14 per cent.
Since 1981, England has experienced an 89 % increase in crime.
A study in Java found that of 2,558 abortions, 58% were in young women aged 15-24, of
whom 62% were .....
He also noted that less than 10% of the articles included in his study cited ......
In 1960 just over 5% of live births in 1960 were outside marriage.
Describing averages
This figure can be seen as the average life expectancy at various ages.
The proposed model suggests a steep decline in mean life expectancy ......
Roman slaves probably had a lower than average life expectancy.
The average of 12 observations in the X, Y and Z is 19.2 mgs/m .....
The mean score for the two trials was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to
determine ......
The mean income of the bottom 20 percent of U.S. families declined from $10,716 in
1970 to .......
Describing ranges
The evidence shows that life expectancy from birth lies in the range of twenty to thirty
years.
Between 575 and 590 metres depth the sea floor is extremely flat, with an average slope
of only 1 : 400
The mean income of the bottom 20 percent of U.S. families declined from $10,716 in
1970 to $9,833 in 1990.
The respondents had practiced for an average of 15 years (range 6 to 35 years)
They calculated ranges of journal use from 10.7%–36.4% for the humanities, 25%–57%
for the ......
Rates of decline ranged from 2.71– 0.08 cm day-1 with a mean of 0.97 cm day-1.
59 SOURCES
1. Brown Kristine & Hood Susan. Academic Encounters. Life in Society. Reading
and Writing. McMillan Heinemann, 2005.
2. Cotton David. Market Leader: Business English: Intermediate: Course Book.
Longman, 2006.
3. Dignen Bob & Flinders Steve. English 365-2. Cambridge University Press,
2004.
4. Dignen Bob & Flinders Steve .English 365-3. Cambridge University Press,
2006.
5. Mackenzie Ian. Management and Marketing. LTP Business, 2007.
6. Mascull Bill. Test your Business Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge University
Press, 2007.
7. McCarthy Michael& O’Dell Felicity. Academic Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge
University Press, 2008.
8. Mascull Bill. Business Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
9. Wilson Andrew. Academic Phrase Bank.
10. Болсуновская Л. М., Демченко В. М. Учебное пособие по аннотированию
и реферированию научно-популярных текстов. Томск: ТПУ, 2005.
11. www.cambridge.org/elt/english365
12. www.presentationpowerpoint.com/easy-steps-to-become-an-expert-onpresentation
13. www.presentationstraining.net/presentation_skills_delivering_your_speech
14. www.businesstown.com/presentations/
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