close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

5104.Пиши грамотно

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Федеральное агентство по образованию
ГОУ ВПО Тульский государственный педагогический
университет им. Л. Н. Толстого
ПИШИ
ГРАМОТНО
Учебное пособие по английской орфографии
для студентов I курса, обучающихся по направлению
«Филологическое образование»
Тула
Издательство ТГПУ им. Л. Н. Толстого
2009
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2Англ – 923
П32
Рецензент –
кандидат филологических наук Г. А. Бухмастова
(кафедра переводоведения и межкультурной коммуникации
ТГПУ им. Л. Н. Толстого)
Коллектив авторов:
З. А. Любимова, Ю. А. Богатова, И. В. Родионова,
И. В. Мельникова, А. А. Чусова, Ю. А. Разоренова, И. Б. Елисеева,
Н. А. Хван, Д. С. Храмченко, Л. А. Салищева,
Е. В. Лухина, Ю. А. Егорова, Т. Н. Климова
Пиши грамотно = Сorrect spelling: Учеб. пособие по английской орфографии
П32 для студентов 1 курса, обучающихся по направлению «Филологическое
образование».– Тула: Изд-во Тул. гос. пед ун-та им. Л. Н. Толстого, 2009.– 72 с.
Главной целью пособия является практическое овладение основными правилами
английской орфографии. Материалы пособия подготовлены в соответствии с программой по
практике устной и письменной речи английского языка на I курсе. Пособие построено на
лексическом материале, содержащемся в учебниках и учебных пособиях, включенных в список
обязательной литературы для студентов I курса.
Пособие состоит из трех частей и приложения.
Первая и вторая части содержат сводные таблицы правил орфографии, включающих в себя
правила слогоделения, правописания, правописания нечитаемых букв, удвоение согласных,
а также правила чтения различных буквосочетаний.
Третья часть пособия содержит разнообразные упражнения и диктанты для самоконтроля.
В приложении студентам сообщаются дополнительные сведения о слогоделении, а также
основные правила оформления письменной речи.
Предлагаемое пособие по орфографии английского языка предназначено для студентов
I курса, обучающихся по специальности «Филологическое образование» (бакалавриат).
ББК 81.2Англ – 923
Учебное издание
ПИШИ ГРАМОТНО
Учебное пособие по английской орфографии для студентов 1 курса,
обучающихся по направлению «Филологическое образование»
Подготовка оригинал-макета – О. А. Нестерова.
Художественное оформление – Е. А. Свиридова.
Подписано в печать 24.12.2009. Формат 60 × 90/16. Бумага офсетная.
Гарнитура «Таймс». Печать трафаретная. Усл. печ. л. 4,5.
Тираж 150 экз. Заказ 09/070. «С» 1166.
Издательство Тульского государственного педагогического
университета им. Л. Н. Толстого. 300026, Тула, просп. Ленина, 125.
Отпечатано в Издательском центре ТГПУ им. Л. Н. Толстого.
300026, Тула, просп. Ленина, 125.
© Коллектив авторов, 2009
© Издательство
ТГПУ им. Л. Н. Толстого, 2009
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Contents
Introduction .............................................................................................................
Part I ........................................................................................................................
Syllabication............................................................................................................
The Silent –e............................................................................................................
The Final –y.............................................................................................................
Part II .......................................................................................................................
Silent Letters............................................................................................................
Consonant Doubling................................................................................................
Part III......................................................................................................................
The Individual Consonant Symbols ........................................................................
Part IV .....................................................................................................................
Exercises..................................................................................................................
Family......................................................................................................................
Home .......................................................................................................................
Meals .......................................................................................................................
Daily Routine ..........................................................................................................
Leisure .....................................................................................................................
Nature ......................................................................................................................
Shopping..................................................................................................................
Appendix .................................................................................................................
On Punctuation ........................................................................................................
3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Introduction
Every speaker of every language knows about tens of thousands of words.
Without words we would be unable to convey our thoughts through language.
Words are an important part of linguistic knowledge and constitute a component
of our mental grammars and phonetics.
Anyone who tries to make himself understood in a foreign language knows
that a word is a particular string of letters united with a meaning which must be
united with specific sounds in order for the sounds or the meaning to be a word
in our mental lexicon. Thus when you know a word you know both its meaning
and its forms represented by sounds in pronunciation and by letters in spelling
(or orthography).
The current English spelling system is based primarily on the early
pronunciations of words. The many changes that have occurred in the sound
system of English since then are not reflected in the current spelling, which was
frozen due to widespread printed material and scholastic conservatism. For these
reasons, modern English orthography does not always represent what we know
about the phonology of the language. The disadvantage is partially offset by the
fact that the writing system allows us to read and understand what people wrote
hundreds of years ago without the need of translation.
But language changes. It is not possible to maintain a perfect
correspondence between pronunciation and spelling, nor is it 100 percent
desirable. For instance, in case of homophones, it is helpful at times to have
different spellings for the same sounds, as in the following pairs: The book was
red. The book was read.
There are also reasons for using the same spelling for different
pronunciations. A morpheme may be pronounced differently when it occurs in
different contexts. The identical spelling reflects the fact that the different
pronunciations represent the same morpheme. For instance, this is the case with
the plural morpheme which is always spelled with an s despite being
pronounced [s] in cats and [z] in dogs. The sound of the morpheme is
determined by rules, in this case as in other cases.
Similarly, the phonetic realizations of the vowels in the following forms
follow a regular pattern:
[ai] / [i]
[i:] / [e]
[ei] / [æ]æ
divine / divinity
serene / serenety
sane / sanity
sign / signature
obscene / obscenity
humane / humanity
These considerations have led scholars to suggest that English orthography
in addition to being phonemic is morphophonemic. Thus despite a certain lack
of correspondences between sound and spelling, the spelling often reflects
speakers’ phonological and morphological knowledge. Without any reference to
morphology or to the meaning, it is possible to say that such nonsense words as
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
‘mimsy’, ‘slithy’, ‘wade’, ‘toves’etc. from ‘Alice in Wonderland’ (Lewis Carol)
are English and ‘kpso’ and ‘frple’ cannot be English as far as the combinations
of sounds are concerned. And because of the specific grouping and distribution
of the sounds in different languages one and the same word may, with certainty,
be interpreted as bisyllabic by a speaker of one language, and as thrisyllabic by
a speaker of another language.
Syllabics
The main focus in this section is on syllable - a unit higher than a sound,the
shortest segment of spoken continuum and a material carrier of words.
The syllable is one or more sounds, forming a single uninterrupted unit of
utterance.
The syllable can be considered as both a phonetic and phonological unit.
As a phonetic unit it can be defined in terms of the articulatory, acoustic and
auditory (perceptional) characteristics with universal application for all
languages. As a phonological unit the syllable can be defined and described only
with reference to the structure of one particular language. The very term
‘syllable’ denotes particular ways in which phonemes are combined in a
language. Each language has its own way of syllabification or syllabication,
i.e. syllable formation and syllable division.
Even the ancient Greek scholars noticed that the two main phonological
types of sounds – vowels (V) and consonants (C) – participate in the process of
syllabification. But the function of a vowel is to occupy the central position in
the combinations of sounds due to its articulatory and acoustic features, while
consonants serve as the margins of the sound combinations,
V [a:], CV [ka:], VC [a:t], CVC [ka:t], CCVC [skeit], CCVCC [skeits],
CCCVC [stri:t], CCCVCC [stri:ts], CCVCCCC [twelfөs].
The analysis of the word cramped given below as a model of a structure of
the one-syllable English word:
Initial Post-initial
k
r
------------------------Onset
Pre-final
Final
Post-final
m
p
t
-----------------------------------Coda
æ
Peak
In other words, vowels are always syllabic (capable of forming syllables),
but consonants in most cases are incapable of forming syllables without vowels
except some sonorants that can be syllabic [m],[n],ή],[l] after consonants.
The study of the possible phoneme combinations of a language is called
phonotactics. In English the word can begin with a vowel, or with one, two or
three consonants. No word begins with more than three consonants. In the same
way, the word can end with a vowel, or with one, two, three, or (in a small
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
number of cases) four consonants. No word ends with more than four
consonants.
However the majority of words in English are polysyllabic(of more than
one syllable) and have come from other languages. Among them easily
recognizable words (came from Latin) such as permit, submit, commit,
combining mit with the prefixes per-, sub-, com-. Greek has given us such
words as dialogue, catalogue, analogue etc.
Complex words are of two types: words made from a basic word form
(which is called the stem), with the addition of affixes (prefixes and suffixes);
and compound words, which are made of two (or occasionally more)
independent words: ice-cream, armchair and many others. The important point
to remember is, that both phonological (primarily) and morphological (in many
cases) external structure of the words united with the meaning – internal
structure of the words, to be taken into consideration in syllabication – division
of the polysyllabic words in English.
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PART I
SYLLABICATION
1. Words can be syllabicated in different ways:
1. according to formation
a) on the prefix: un-like;
b) on the suffix: beauti-ful;
c) if it is a compound, between the words it is composed of: black-berry
2. on the vowel: slo-gan
3. between consonants: pic-ture, gar-den
4. between double consonants: let-ter
If the double consonant is the result of a suffix being added, as in beginning,
the second consonant is carried over together with the suffix: begin-ning.
Note: If the double consonant comes at the end of a simple word and is part
of the root, then it cannot be syllabicated, as in tell-ing.
2. Vowel letters are pronounced according to their position in the word, i.e.
according to the type of syllable.
Traditionally there are four types of syllables.
The first type, the open syllable, may consist of:
(1) consonant + vowel: go, me, by;
(2) consonant + vowel + consonant (except r) + silent e: take, Pete, like,
tone, tune.
In the open syllable the pronunciation of vowel letters coincides with their
alphabetical definition: a[ei], e [i:], i [ai], o [ou], u [ju:].
But these same sounds may be presented by other means, i.e. other
combinations of letters, and in different position:
[ei] represented by a in open syllables: age, name.
ai: main, plain.
ea: break, great.
eigh: neighbour, eight.
a followed by nge, ste: strange, waste.
ay: day, way.
ei (in the middle of the word) or ey (when final): veil, grey.
[ai] represented by i and y in open syllables: mine, time, my, dye.
i before mb, nd, ld: climb, kind, child.
igh: right, night, high, bright.
uy: buy, guy.
[i:] represented by e in the open syllable: me, these.
ee: street, green, tree.
ea: please, sea, repeat, weak, read.
ie: piece, chief.
7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ei: receive.
[ou] represented by o in the open syllable: so, stone.
oa: coat, loaf.
o before ld, st: old, most.
ou: shoulder, though.
ow: know, low.
Also remember: sew.
[ju:] represented by u in the open syllable: tune, huge.
ew: new, few.
[ju:] or [u:]
ue: due, blue.
[u:] represented by ui: fruit, juice, suit.
The Second Type of Syllable
The second type of syllable, the closed syllable, consists of: consonant +
vowel + one or more consonants(including double r. A single r forms other
types of syllable).
The letter a is pronounced as [ǽ ] : cat, map.
The letter e is pronounced as [e]: red, tell.
The [e] sound can also be represented by the letters ea: ready, weather.
The letters i, y are pronounced as [i]: sit, system.
The letter o is pronounced as [o]: not, hot.
The letter u is pronounced as [^]: nut, but.
The [^] sound can also be represented by:
a) the letter o: among, above, colour, brother, love, wonder.
b) The combination of ou: country, cousin.
Also: blood, flood.
The Third Type of Syllable
The third type of syllable consists of a vowel followed by r. It represents a
long vowel sound.
The letter a is pronounced [a:]: large, park.
Remember some other ways of representing this sound in the words: clerk,
heart, and also: laugh, aunt.
The letter o is pronounced [o:]: born, forth.
Remember the words where this sound is represented by the letters:
a) the combination oar: board, coarse, hoarse
b) the combination au: pause, laundry, saucer, August
c) the combination aw: lawyer, lawn, raw, saw, awful
d) the combination augh and ough before t: naughty, taught, caught,
thought, brought.
e) The combination our: four, your, course.
The letters e, i, u are pronounced as [з:]:
a) er: term, serve, certain.
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Note: the combination ear in some words is pronounced [з:]: early, learn
b) ir: first, birth, girl
c) ur: turn, curl, return.
The Fourth Type of Syllable
The fourth type of syllable consists of a vowel + r followed by e or some
other vowel:
A is pronounced [ə]: stare, dare.
Remember the words where this sound is rendered by the letters:
a) air: chair, pair
b) by the combination ear: tear, pear.
E renders the diphthong [ə]: here, mere.
Remember the words where this diphthong is represented by the letters:
a) eer: beer, career
b) ear: hear, dear
c) ier: pier, fierce.
I, y are pronounced [aiə]: fire, tyre.
The same sound may be represented by the combination iar: liar, diary.
O is pronounced [o:]: more, adore.
U is pronounced [juə]: pure, during.
THE SILENT –E
1. When a suffix beginning with a vowel letter is added to a word ending
in the silent –e, the letter e is dropped: advise + able = advisable; hope + ing =
hoping.
Note: Words ending in ce, ge keep the silent e before suffixes beginning
with the letters a, o to show pronunciation: notice + able = noticeable; courage +
ous = courageous.
2. The silent e is retained at the end of such words where its omission
might change the pronunciation of the preceding vowel letter. This rule is
applicable to such words as: blame + able = blameable; hire + able = hireable.
3. When a suffix beginning with a consonant letter is added to words
ending in the silent –e, the e is retained: name + ly = namely; hope + ful =
hopeful.
Exceptions: The following group of words does not follow this rule:
acknowledge + ment = acknowledgment; argue + ment = argument; awe + ful =
awful; judge + ment = judgment; lodge + ment = lodgment; due + ly = duly; true
+ ly = truly; whole + ly = wholly.
4. Words like lie drop the silent –e and change the i to the y when the
suffix –ing is added to avoid –il-: lie + ing = lying; die + ing = dying.
9
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
THE FINAL -Y
1. Words ending in the letter y preceded by a consonant change the y to the
i when a suffix is added: merry + ment = merriment; carry + age = carriage.
Note: When suffixes beginning with i are added, then the y is not changed
to the i to avoid –il-. This applies to such suffixes as –ing, -ish, -ist: lobby + ist =
lobbyist; carry + ing = carrying; baby + ish = babyish.
2. Words ending in the y preceded by a single vowel letter do not change
the y into the i: annoy + ed = annoyed; money + less = moneyless.
Exceptions: the words pay, say, gay are exceptions to this rule: pay + (e)d
= paid (but paying); say + (e)d = said (but saying); gay + ly = gaily; gay + ety =
gaiety ( but gayer, gayest).
3. Words of one syllable ending in the letter y do not change the y to the i
before the suffixes –ness, -ly: dry – dryness – dryly; sly – slyness – slyly.
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PART II
SILENT LETTERS
Silent letter
b
Initially
Medially
(before t)
debt
n
k
Before n: knee,
knife, knowledge
s, z
in some words of
French origin
gh
g
Before n: gnome
h
Hour, heir; in exh-:
exhaust, exhibit; in
gh-, kh-: ghost,
khaki; in th-:
Thames, Thomas:
in rh-: rhyme,
rhythm; in wha-,
whe-, whi-: what,
when, while, why;
note: in who- the
letter h is audible:
who, whom, whose
But ck/k before n
is pronounced:
acknowledge
Aisle, isle,
rendezvous
After i: bright, light
After ei: neighbour
After ai: straight
After –au: daughter
After –ou: thought
Champagne
But g is always
audible : signal,
recognize
a) between a
stressed and an
unstressed
vowels: vehicle;
b) between a
consonant and an
unstressed vowel:
silhouette,
spaghetti; in –ham:
Buckingham
l
Finally
Comb, thumb
But number
[΄n^ mbə]
Autumn, column
But in derivatives n
is pronounced:
autumnal
Précis, pince-nez
High, sigh
weigh
through
Foreign;
before m: paradigm
After a vowel: ah,
bah, eh, oh, hurrah
In –alf/-alv: half,
halves; in –alm:
calm, palm; in –alk:
chalk, talk; in –olk:
folk, yolk; in –oln-:
Lincoln, colonel; in
–olm-:Holmes.
11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Silent letter
w
(-) aw (-), (-) ow (-),
(-) ew (-)
Initially
Medially
Write, wrong;
Between a
who, whose, whole consonant and a
vowel: two,
answer,
Greenwich,
Warwick
Awful, own, ewer
Crawl, crowd, fowl,
gown, drowse,
news
Pneumonia; psalm;
Ptolemy;
in words
containing:
pseudo-, psych(o)-
Scene, scent,
scissors
Finally
Also in could,
should, would.
But: in milk, bulk,
realm the letter l is
audible
In monosyllables:
cow, low, know,
new, few, nephew;
in the forms of the
verbs ending in
ow, ew: allow,
grew, knew.
Raspberry, receipt,
corps, sapphire,
cupboard
In a few words
between n and a
consonant which
follows d:
handsome,
sandwich,
Wednesday,
grandma, grandpa
Halfpenny [́΄heipni],
Halfpence
[΄heipəns]
Discipline.
Also in some
names of English
counties:
Gloucester
[΄glostə],
Leicester [΄lestə]
12
Reminisce; in a
few words before l:
muscle, corpuscle;
in a few words
before t: indict
[in΄dait] (charge
with an offence
esp. in law),
victuals [vitlz] (old
use food and
drink). But in
muscular c is
pronounced.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Silent letter
AcquExce-, exci-
ch
t
Initially
Acquaint, acquire
Except, excite
In four loans from
Russian: czar [za:],
czarina
Medially
Yacht [jot],
Fuchsia [΄fju:ƒə]
Castle, bristle,
Christmas. But t is
pronounced in
pistol, hostel,
crystal
Finally
Soften, listen; in
some words of
French origin:
ballet, buffet,
bouquet.
But t is
pronounced in
haste, Christ, soft
CONSONANT-DOUBLING
The principle of vowel quantity is at the basis of all the rules on the
doubling of consonant letters.
1. One-syllable words ending in [f], [s], [l] and [z] always have a double
final consonant letter (ff, ll, ss and zz) if the consonant is preceded by a vowel
sound represented by a single letter:
stuff, tell, stress, jazz.
Exceptions: as, bus, gas, his, if, plus, us, nil, this, thus, was, yes, quiz.
2. After long vowels represented by a or o, a (in five words):
all, roll, staff, off; class, grass, pass, glass. brass
3. In unstressed final syllables:
΄tariff, ΄compass
Note: The letters h, j, q, w x are never doubled.
4. Before the final –le, -en preceded by a stressed short vowel if it is
represented by a single letter:
middle, little, apple, puzzle; sudden, kitten, written
Note: risen, given, eaten, table, shorten
5. Monosyllables ending in a single consonant letter double it before
inflections and suffixes beginning with vowels (-ed, -y, -ish, -ing, er) if this
consonant is preceded by a single short vowel:
hot – hotter – hottest
man – mannish
frog – froggy
stop – stopped
plan – planning
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Words of more than one syllable follow the rule for monosyllables if
their last syllable (either short or long but not a diphthong) is stressed:
be΄gin – beginning
e΄quip – equipped
Also: ΄kidnap – ΄kidnapping, ΄outfit - ΄outfitting
7. Words in – gram (though unstressed) double the m:
diagrammatic
But: systematic
8. The letter k is doubled in very few words of foreign origin:
Akkad (the ancient city in central Mesopotamia).
Note: ck is used instead to show that the preceding vowel is short:
trick
When a word ending in c has a suffix beginning with a vowel, the hard [k]
is preserved before the native suffixes –ed, -er, -ing, -y and is indicated by ck:
picnic – picnicking
panic – panicked
But before classical suffixes –ian, -ist, -ism, -ize
musician, criticism, electricity
9. (1) The final consonant r is doubled in the root of two-syllable words
after a stressed short vowel:
marry, porridge, squirrel, hurry, terrace, error
Also: err [з:]
(2) In the derivatives from the stems ending in r if preceded by the vowel
letter representing the stressed long [a:], [o:], [з:]:
refer – referring
occur – occurrence
prefer – preferred
But: ΄preference, ΄reference, ΄entering
10. The letter l is doubled irrespective of the stress and of a position
preceded by either short or long vowel represented by a single letter (but not by
a diphthong or a long vowel sound represented by two letters ai, ea, ee, oi, ow,
ur in inflected or derived words before –able, -ed, -en, -er, -est, -ing):
control – controllable
travel – traveller
cruel – cruellest
quarrel – quarrelling
jewel – jeweller
But : (1) parallel – paralleled, (2) l is not doubled before –ish, -ist, -ism:
naturalist
Note: Derivatives and compounds of some words in –ll (all, full, skill, will)
drop one l:
all – almighty, always, already; skill – skilful; full - fulfil
But: walnut (which is not from wall).
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PART III
THE INDIVIDUAL CONSONANT SYMBOLS
F, GH, PH FOR THE [F]-SOUND
Letter(s)
f
Initially
friend
Medially
after
Gulf
gh
ph
In words of
Greek
origin
-ieu-
phrase,
photography
Finally
telephone
rough Also
before t:
draught
[dra:ft]
triumph,
paragraph
Other
consonant
values
(1) [v] – in of
(2) See silent
letters
(3) Consonant
Doubling
See Silent
letters
(1) Rare: [v]
in:
nephew
(2) See Silent
letters
Lieutenant
K, C, CC, CH, CK, CCH, QU FOR THE [K]-SOUND
k
c
cc
ch
ck
kettle, kid,
kangaroo,
koala
class, cry
Also in: Celt
But: Caesar
[΄si:zə]
Christian
basket
act
tobacco
school
pocket
cch
Bacchus
In some words
of Greek origin
qu
queue, quarter, bouquet,
quite
parquet, equal.
But: conquest
[kw], liquid [kw]
15
dark, make,
book, milk,
think
phonetic,
music
See silent
letters
monarch,
epoch
duck
See silent
letters
See
ConsonantDoubling
In words of
French origin:
cheque,
antique,
picturesque
See silent
letters
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
LETTERS S, SS, C, Z FOR VOICELESS [S]- AND VOICED [Z]-SPONDS
Letter
s
[s]-sound
Initially
sit, speak, smile;
In prefixes dis-,
mis-:
disappear,
misunderstand
[z]-sound
busy, easy;
crimson, pansy,
Windsor; Tuesday,
Wednesday,
husband
possible, message
ss
[s]-sound
[z]-sound
c
[s]-sound (before
e,i,y)
z
[z]-sound
zz
[z]-souns
x
[z]-sound
Medially
philosopher,
absent, sister
cell, city, cycle
zero, zone, zoo
scissors, possess,
dessert, hussar
bicycle
razor
But: azure[΄eizə]
dazzle
But: pizza [΄pitsə]
Finally
pulse, tense,
purpose; gas, yes,
bus;
in words of
Roman and Greek
origin ending in –
as. –os, -us, -ous, osity, -sis, -sy, sive: famous,
circus, crisis
lose, ease, please;
his, is, as;
these
pass, class
notice, niece
quiz
But: waltz [wolts]
buzz, jazz
Xerox
LETTERS SH, S, SS, SC, C, T, CH, SCH FOR THE [ƒ]-SOUND
sh
s
ss
sc
shadow
sure, sugar
cushion
After l or n before –
-ion, -ure, -ual, -ia:
pension, sensual,
Asia
But: [] – after
vowels:
vision, measure
After a vowel
before -ian, -ion, ure: Russian,
mission,pressure
Before –ious, ience: conscience;
fascist
16
brush
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c
t
ch
Mainly used in
French loans
sch
In loans from
German
chef, chic, Chopin
Before –ial, -ious, ient, -ian, -ion:
ancient, musician
Also: ocean [΄ouƒə
n]
Before –ion, -ient, ial, ian, ious, ium:
nation, partial
machine
moustache
Schubert,
Schumann,
schnapps, schnitzel
In loans from
Greek:
schedule
LETTERS J, G, GG, DGE, D, DJ, DE, DI, DURE,
CH FOR THE [DZ]-SOUND
j
g
before e, i, y
jar, Japan
general, giraffe
Also: gaol [dgeil]
gg
dge
Dj, de, di, dure
ch
adjective
major, banjo
algebra, regiment
sausage, huge
Also: margarine
Also: veg [vedg]
[˛ma: dgə΄ri:n]
Suggest,
exaggerate
But: gg – [g] before
the unstressed e, i,
y:
Maggie
fidgety
Before the silent
e:
porridge
soldier
procedure
In unstressed
syllables:
sandwich, spinach
In geographical
names: Greenwich
LETTERS CH, TCH, C, C, CZ, T FOR THE [Tƒ]-SOUND
ch
tch
chalk
Tchaikovsky
duchess
kitchen
17
brooch, teach
After a single
short vowel: fetch,
watch
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c
in loan words
from Italian
cc
in words of Italian
origin
cz
cello
Czech
concerto
da Vinci
Puccini
Boccaccio
Christian
(1) Before u in
unstressed
syllables (mainly
before the suffixes
-ure, -ual, etc.):
nature, punctual
(2) Before i in the
ending –stion:
question
FAMILY
1. Write the following words and expressions in spelling. If there are two
ways of expressing the vowel sound, give both variants. Use the expressions in
sentences of your own. Translate them into Russian:
[waıf], [reız] (2), [ðI `əUnlI `tSaıld], [`əUld meıd (2)], [bı: In ə `fæmIlI weı], [ðə
`beıbI Iz dju: ón], [bı: `únrI`leıtId tə], [rI`məut `kInzmən], [nı:s], [`nju: bØ:n],
[`grəUn úp], [`sı:njə], [`dZu:njə], [teık å:ftə], [deıt], [gəU aUt], [meık ə deıt],
[prə`pəUz], [breık In`geıdZmənt], [`mærIdZ Ev kən`vı:njəns], [I`lı:gəl
`mærIdZ], [`mIsə`laıəns], [`gəUldən `wedIN], [braıd], [`braıdgrUm], [meıt],
[`seıkrId `ju:njən], [prI`núpSəl əg`rı:mənt], [braıdz meıdz], [`nju:lI wedz], [sju:
fE(r) ə dI`vØ:s], [hæv ə rəU], [Sεə `súmbədIz pØınt əv vju:], [əb`teın `pεərənts
kən`sent], [peı məUst Iks`pensiz], [`próspərəs `fju:tSə], [næpI], [kı:p haUs].
2. Arrange the underlined words in columns according to the different
pronunciation of the combination ‘ea’. Explain each case and translate the
expressions into Russian:
Marriages are made in heaven; bread-and-cheese marriage; to be heavily madeup; cheaper by the dozen; to lead a cat’s and a dog’s life; head of the house;
great grandparents; to go steady; bread-winner; to be head over heels in love; to
repeat the wedding vows; to be breast-fed; dreamy eyes; weak and of poor
health; misleading appearance; lean or heavy; hair streaked with red; pleasant
features, to become a teacher or a weaver; to come from New Zealand; to wear
dreadlocks and a beard
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Supply the missing letter or letters. Group them according to the
sounds represented.
d….ter-in-l.., .rphan, ..nt, to have a son by f.rmer marriage, in-l..s, a g.rl-friend,
c…tship, wedding s.rvice, to div.rce, to .rgue, housew.rk, a f.rmal marriage
proposal, to make the f.rst cut together, sweeth..t, stag p.rty, to st.rt a family,
diamond anniv.rsary, ..rn money, to fl.rt, frat.rnal, gu.rdian, live ap.rt, marriage
adv.rtisement, mat.rnity, not to be of the marrying s.rt; Marriage makes or m.rs a
man.
4. Supply the missing letter combination. Group them according to the
way the sounds are represented
a) constit[ju:]tion, st[u:]ping, cr[u:] cut, r[u:]ge, cr[u:]pier, h[ju:]morist,
prod[ju:]cer, sh[u:] maker, st[ju:]ard, C[ju:]ban, opport[ju:]nity
b) c[ü:]ly, sh[ü:]k w[ü:]k, int[ü:]preter, c[ü:]ved, st[ü:]dy, sup[ü:]b, s[ü:]vant,
n[ü:]se, st[ü:], s[ü:]geon, att[ü:]ney, t[ü:]ner, G[ü:]man, f[ü:]m, T[ü:]kish,
c[ü:]cumstances, p[ü:]fect, j[ü:]nalist, P[ü:]sian, res[ü:]cher, adv[ü:]tisement
c) b[Ø:]ld, t[Ø:]ll, N[Ø:]way, f[Ø:]lse, br[Ø:]d, c[Ø:]se, n[Ø:]ty, h[Ø:]lt,
p[Ø:]nchy, [Ø:]dinary, fl[Ø:]ed, rep[Ø:]ter, [Ø:]kward, sm[Ø:]ll, sw[Ø:]thy,
[Ø:]burn, w[Ø:]t, l[Ø:]yer
5. Arrange the following words into three columns according to the
vowel sound in the stressed syllable:
a)
[æ]
[å:]
[‰E]
fat, dark, charming, handsome, large, half pay, bearing, lank, draftsman, flaxen,
Bulgarian, afro (haircut), arm, dancer, fair-haired, palm, patch, parting, shaggy,
staff, square, sallow, spare, sparse, librarian, lash, laugh, task, scar, Danish,
Hungarian, clerk, carpenter
b)
[ó]
[Ø:]
[EU]
shoulder, ordinary, close, bony, stocky, oval, blond, mole, Norway, toe, old,
common, soldier, cross-eyed, comb, lock, reporter, nostril, earlobe,
correspondent, composer, grocer, doctor, postman, porter, poet, promotion,
support, Mongolian, Portugal, Polish,
6. Spell the transcribed words:
1. Though he is only [`fØ:tI] he is [bØ:ld] and rather [staUt], with a beer
[pØ:ntS].
2. His [kEm`plekS(E)n] is [`sælEU], his hair is [tútSt] with grey at the [templz]
and it makes him look [`EUldE].
3. She was a [`lúvlI] girl of about five, [plump], with an [úp`tü:nd] nose, rosy
cheeks and [`Ø:bEn] hair.
4. Mark was [då:k]-haired and romantically handsome, with his merry [lå:f] and
the [tSå:m] of a person who comes from Spain.
19
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Form Participle I of the following verbs:
Raise, give, relate, have, take, resemble, be, date, make, propose, engage,
divorce, file, sue, argue, share, exchange, symbolize, separate, consummate,
care, admire, grumble, juggle, live.
8. Form adverbs from the following adjectives:
delicate, fine, close, sparse, false, gentle, impressive, repulsive, large
9. Add suffixes to the following words. Transcribe the derivatives and
translate them into Russian:
- ance: resemble, observe, insure, ignore, endure;
- er: toddle, make, love, mate, couple;
- less: date, love, care, age, home;
- ly: consummate, single, home, name, due;
- ment: engage, agree, divorce, argue, advance;
- ful: care, house, hope, hate, peace;
- ous: trouble, outrage, fame, desire, nerve;
- able: marriage, admire, pleasure, adore, value.
10. a) Give the plural of the following nouns:
Family, baby, granny, daddy, aunty, nanny, copy, dowry, ceremony, fidelity,
party, guy, bigamy, agency, anniversary, monogamy, nappy, destiny, pregnancy,
delicacy;
b)Write down the third person singular of the Present Indefinite, the
Past Indefinite and Participle I of the following verbs. Use them in sentences
of your own:
Carry (a child), marry (off a son), pay (most expenses), fancy (somebody).
с)Form adverbs from the following adjectives, give their comparative
and superlative forms:
Steady, heavy;
11. Use a suitable derivative of the word given in brackets:
1. If your husband ceases to call you “Sugarfoot” or “Candy Eyes” during the
first year of your (marry), it is not (necessary) a sign that he no longer cares.
2. The safest place for a (happy) (marry) couple is the indicative mood.
3. The bride`s parents did not approve of the (marry).
4. We`ve got a lot of electrical and other (apply) at home, but my husband (buy)
more and more.
5. She wants her husband to be (industry) and (mercy).
6. They were alone for an hour because her husband was taking his (day) nap.
7. My grown-up son is quite a (rely) person.
8. His fiancée is the (pretty) girl he`s ever seen.
9. This was I some measure due to her (shy) that she refused his proposal.
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
10. John`s best man is a …guy, the …I have ever met; and at the wedding party
he was …than ever (funny).
11. The sight of the wedding ceremony was (beauty).
12. Supply the missing letter combination. Group them according to the
way the sounds are represented
a) fre[k]led, ar[k]eologist, [k]lose, sto[k]y, ar[k]itect, Denmar[k], thi[k],
va[k]ancy, ne[k], te[k]nician, Ira[k]i, lo[k], [k]emist, deli[k]ate, chee[k],
[k]apacity, me[k]anic, [k]ler[k], ba[k]er, pra[k]tice, boo[k]-[k]eeper,
an[k]orman, cir[k]umstance, Gree[k]
b) mousta[S]e, fle[S]y, Ru[S]ian, la[S]es, recep[S]ionist, bru[S], expre[S]ion,
[S]rug, musi[S]ian, [S]oulder, artifi[S]ial, Per[S]ian, fa[S]ial, pen[S]ion,
electri[S]ian, posi[S]ion, obstetri[S]ian, [S]ef, techni[S]ian, promo[S]ion,
profe[S]ion
13. Choose between single and double letters.
1. Nora is ta(l) and sli(m) and ve(r)y a(t)rac(t)ive. Her g(o)d l(o)ks a(p)ea(l) t(o)
peo(p)le.
2. My br(o)ther has gr(o)wn thi(n)er and hi(s) i(l)ne(s) t(o)k the co(l)our o(f)
hi(s) ch(e)ks.
3. The gir(l) was de(l)icate(l)y bui(l)t, ve(r)y s(l)ender and graceful(l). Her
d(e)p-s(e)t haze(l) (e)yes, fu(l) li(p)s and si(l)ky re(d)ish hair a(d)ded to her
a(t)rac(t)ion.
4. The o(f)icer was dark-ski(n)ed, cro(s)-eyed and lo(p)-eared, with untri(m)ed
stu(b)les a(l) over hi(s) face.
5. The sho(p) a(s)i(s)tant was a ski(n)y long-le(g)ed Swi(s) gir(l), e(f)i(c)ient
and pre(t)y.
14. Pick out the odd word
1. cr[aU]n
fr[aU]n
2. pl[ú]mp
r[ú]gh
3. ba[k]er
[k]emist
4. en[dZ]ine
[dZ]et-black
5. gesture
singer
6. security
resemblance
7. musician
composer
8. nurs(e)
palm(e)
9. dimpl(e)
curl(e)
10. stu(b)le
chu(b)y
cl[aU]n
sn[ú]b
me[k]anic
en[dZ]ineer
average
researcher
clumsy
curv(e)
gentl(e)
ba(b)y
f[aU]nder
ab[ú]ndant
ar[k]itect
ima[dZ]e
gentle
servant
false
fring(e)
resembl(e)
sno(b)ish
15. Match the words with the given definitions. Write your sentences to
illustrate the meanings of all these words.
1) Dowry
a) a brother through one parent only;
21
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2) plight
b) a solemn promise or pledge, esp. one made to
a deity;
3) in-laws
c) the money, land or other possessions which a
woman brings to her husband under a marriage
contract;
4) a widow
d) the hole or loop through which a button is
passed;
5) descend
e) (human nature) one`s blood relatives;
6) half brother
f) a relative by marriage;
7) flower buttonhole
g) to be transmitted by inheritance/ to proceed
from earlier to later time;
8) wedding vows
h) to make a promise of marriage;
9) one`s own flesh and blood i) a woman who has not married again after
her husband`s death
16. There are some words with their vowels left out. Supply these vowels
in the right places and arrange the words properly.
Bqt, hnr, chmpgn, grndprnts, sl, dghtr, grnpsn, grndchldrn.
17. Give the opposite of the following words:
Lightly, new, low, nephew, autumn, granddaughter.
18. Write out the following to give a correct spelling, adding
(a) either k (e) or ck:
Ro…, brea…, ca…, ma…, wedlo…, pi…ed;
(b) either k or c:
…arry, expe…t, …insman, un…le, …ousin, …id, bro…en, …are, …ot, …ross,
…rush, domestic…, …opy, …onsider, certifi…ate, …onvenience, sa…red,
…ustoms, …ouple, …onsent, prospe…tive, …ut, …ounselling, …onsummate,
…areer, …eep, …ith, …in, …at, a…quaintance, …landestine, …ontrast,
deli…asy, repli…a;
(c) either sc- or sch-:
…ool, di…ontent.
19. Explain the c, s and z letters in the spelling of the following words.
Arrange them in columns respectively.
Hu.band, rai.e, .pin.ter, kin.man, an.e.try, cou.in, nie.e, pre.ent, re.emble,
des.end, propo.e, .ertificate, convenien.e, servi.e, symboli.e, expen.es, distan.e,
acquaintan.e, adverti.ement, .ibling, do.en, .eremony, pregnan.y, clande.tine,
delica.y, dome.tic, mi.allian.e, .ivil, .acred, divor.e, .ue, con.ent, ac.pt, advan.e.
22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
20. Complete the following. Match the words in columns with their
partners from the list below.
Supersti…. (n), supersti….. (adj.); tradi…. (n), tradi…al (adj.); recep…. (n),
recep….ist (n); rela…s (n), rela….al (adj.); admira…. (n); genera…. (n);
effi….cy (n), effi….t (adj.); pa….n (n), pa…..ate (adj.); ..ampagne (n); invita….
(n), invita….al (adj.).
Lost in, in our, interest, card, established, it`s ….here to fly the flag on
holidays, lavish, register your name with the …, strengthen, aid, at peak…,
it is not … to hire poorly trained workers, to fly into, to sip, wedding,
attitude.
21. Complete the following words whose definitions are given on the right.
1. J…,
a) younger, used esp. to distinguish son from father, when
both have the same name;
2. m…,
b) the institution under which a man and a woman become
legally united on a permanent basis/ the act of entering into
this institution/ the wedding ceremony;
3. i…,
c) a person or thing resembling another person or thing,
a likeness;
4. e…,
d) an undertaking or obligation, esp. a promise to marry;
5. b…,
e) personal or household expenses;
6. a…,
f) the length of time that a person or thing has lived or
existed;
7. a…,
g) an organization (or its building) existing to promote the
exchange of goods and services;
8. g…,
h) a whole body of persons, animals or plants removed in
the same degree from an ancestor/ the whole body of
persons thought of as being born about the same time;
9. j…,
i) to alter (facts or figures) with the intention of deceiving);
10. o…,
k) an institution for the care and education of orphans;
11. r…,
l) of, pertaining to, or concerned with religion/ faithful in
religion;
12. p….
m) a boy attendant upon the bride at a wedding.
22. Write the words in phonetic script in the correct spelling. Explain the
ch, tch, ture letters.
[`bæt∫ələ], [t∫aild], [mæt∫], [`fju:t∫ə], [iks`t∫eindj], [`t∫i:pə], [t∫ε:t∫], [t∫i:z], [spi:t∫],
[`∫əufə].
23
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
DICTATION
Mormor (Danish) – maternal grandmother
One of Mormor’s favourite stories was of Swanny’s courtship. She called it
a romance and talked about it with great pride, for, though both her daughters
had made what she called ‘good marriages’, my father had spoilt my mother’s
by dying young.
As in the song, Torben Kjær saw a stranger across a crowded room. He was
a young diplomat, home on leave from a posting in South America where he
was second secretary. Swanny was a bridesmaid at a wedding (…) and Torben
was one of the guests. (…) He fell in love with her at first sight. He asked her to
marry him two days later and accompany him back to wherever it was. (…)
Looking at Torben and Swanny now, one could hardly believe, it. They
were both (…) so calm, so well-dressed, so middle-aged. My mother, though
only six years younger, was like a child beside dignified Swanny. There was no
resemblance between them and none between Swanny and Uncle Ken or
Swanny and Mormor (…). My mother was much prettier than her mother,
though of the same sort of build. Ken looked a bit like one of the uncles in the
old photographs, short and sturdy but with rather handsome pointed features
(…). They all had reddish or dark-brown hair and eyes ranging from cat’s green
to a bright blue, they all were inclined to freckles and sunburn.
But Swanny was the perfect Danish type (…). She was taller than any of them
(…), and she was a dazzling blonde. In sunshine she went brown, not freckled. Her
eyes were a dark sea-blue. Even in the days I’m talking about (…), when she was
in her late fifties. she still had that look of a goddess out of Wagner, with hair silver
instead of gold and a profile like an empress on an ancient coin.
(from ‘Asta’s Book’ by Barbara Vine)
This was supposed to happen to a wealthy cousin, one of the Swedish lot.
The woman was happily married but childless and eventually she and her
husband decided to adopt, a simple enough business at that time. According to
Mormor, you picked the child you wanted and took it home with you.
Sigrid’s husband took her to an orphanage (…). The submissive Sigrid was
led by a matron to a particular child, a little boy whose beauty and pretty ways
immediately won her heart (…).
‘My cousin loved him at once,’ Mormor said. ‘She took him home with her
and they adopted him and then the husband told her the truth. This was his child
by another woman, a girl he had met on business trips to Odense.’ She added,
with relish, ‘His mistress. (…) He had arranged the hold thing. Sigrid forgave
him and kept the boy and he must by quite an old man by now.’ Here Mormor
fixed a brilliant blue eye on one of the men in her audience. ‘I wouldn’t have.
That boy would have gone straight back to where he came from.’
(after Ruth Rendell)
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
He had found her (…) one late June afternoon the previous year. She had
been sitting on the shingle staring out into the sea, her arms clasped round her
knees, Timmy lying asleep on the small rug beside her. He was wearing a blue
fleecy sleeping suit embroidered with ducks from which his round face seemed
to have spilled over, still and pink as a porcelain, painted doll, the delicate lashes
brush-tipped on the plump cheeks. And she, too, had something of the precision
and contrived charm of a doll with an almost round head poised on a long
delicate neck, a snub nose with a splatter of freckles, a small mouth with a full
upper lip beautifully curved and a bristle of cropped hair, originally fair but with
bright orange tips which caught the sun and trembled in the breeze so that the
whole head seemed for a moment to have a vivid life separated from the rest of
her body and, the image, changing, he had seen her as a bright exotic flower.
(…) As he approached tentatively, wanting to seem friendly but not to alarm
her, she had turned on him a long and curious glance from remarkable, slanted,
violet-blue eyes.
(P.D. James)
HOME
1. Complete the following words by adding the necessary letters or lettercombinations so that to render the required sound. Make sure you know the
meaning of the words.
[e] b_dspr_d, f_nce, l_ther, thr_shold, c_ment, l_d, f_ther
[ai] bl_nd, l_t, beds_de, fl_t of stairs, gr_nder, to w_pe, _ron
[aiə] appl_nce, building soc_ty, f_place
[əu] alc_ve, bungal_, c_t rack, c_sy, lin_leum, pill_, ren_vate, s_ing-machine,
thresh_ld, uph_lstery, s_p, m_ldings, m_saic, bur_
[ei] n_l, b_sement, f_l to oper_te, n_bour, cl_, pl_n cloth, handr_l, st_ned glass,
m_sonry, dec_, p_l, spr_, cont_ner, ashtr_
2. Write out the words into different lines according to their
pronunciation. Mind the spelling of one and the same sound. Make sure you
know the meaning of the words.
[a:] or [Λ]
bathroom, bunk bed, country house, apartment, carpet, cover, cutlery, garage,
double bed, hearth, dustbin, rough, houseplant, lustre, yard, larch, plaster,
bucket, basket, draught, sponge, enough
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
[i:] or [i]
building, ceiling, heating, single, convenience, keyhole, crystal, kitchen, sheet,
quilt, cleaner, bleach, to shift, chimney, lease, suite, linden, linen.
3. In the weak position the vowels are either reduced to neutral sounds
[ə], [i] or not pronounced at all, though their spelling is often rather
complicated. Rewrite the following words, underline the letters, which
represent the vowels in weak positions and transcribe the words.
residential, crystal, utensil, spacious, curtain, marvelous, cushion, lavatory,
oven, standard lamp, lantern, position, mansion
4. Complete the missing items in this word class table as in the example:
1. to construct
2. to extend
3. to operate
4. to separate
5. to decorate
6. to possess
7. to demonstrate
8. to suggest
9. to permit
10. to indicate
constructive
construction
5. Make nouns from the following verbs, using the suffixes: -tion, -ing,
-ture, -age, -ase, -ure, -ance, -ment.
1. to accommodate
2. to register
3. to build
4. to install
5. to furnish
6. to inherit
7. to purchase
8. to press
9. to enter
10. to expose
11. to renovate
12. to combine
13. to arrange
6. Supply the missing vowel letters according to the definition.
1. h-d---s (mess)
means extremely unpleasant or ugly
2. th-r--gh (cleaning)
means careful to do things properly
3. p-rf-m-d (soap)
means with a strong and pleasant smell
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4.
5.
6.
7.
st-nd-rd (lamp)
fl--r-sc-nt (lamp)
-ph-lst-r-d (furniture)
p-rq--t-d (floor)
8. pr-f-br-c-t-d (blocks)
9. fr-q--ntl- (connected)
10. -nt-r--r (design)
means that it stands on the floor
means that it produces very bright white light
means covered with some material
means covered with small flat blocks of wood
fitted together in a pattern
means made in a factory in standard sizes
means very often
means the inside outlook of the house
7. Can you guess the following labour-saving devices? Write the words
according to their definitions:
1. a m----2. a d--- - d-----3. a v----- c------ /
a h----4. an i------ b---5. a c----- g-----6. a s------7. a d--- - w----8. a t----- -d---9. a f-----10. an o---
1. a machine that cuts meat into very small pieces by forcing it
through small holes
2. a special place where you put your plates and cups after
washing them up to let the water flow away so that they
become dry
3. a machine that cleans floors by sucking up the dirt from
them
4. a small narrow table used for making clothes smooth with
iron
5. a machine for crushing coffee beans into powder
6. a machine for getting juice from fruit
7. a machine that washes dishes
8. a machine that uses hot air to dry clothes after they have
been washed
9. a large machine in which food can be stored at very low
temperatures for a long time
10. a machine inside which food is cooked
8. Write the following words in spelling, defining the type of the stressed
syllable, and translate the words.
[ dɪʹtætʃt], [ hedʒ], [ hǝʊm], [ ʹterǝst], [ʹkɔtıdʒ], [ freɪm], [ ʹʃæbɪ],
[ʹpɔ:tʃ], [ flæt], [əʹpɑ:tmənt], [ gɑ:dn], [ʹfə:nɪʃ], [ʹdekəreɪt], [ geɪt],
[ lɔk], [ʹsentə], [ʹkə:tn], [ʹpeɪpə], [ pəʹfekʃn], [ʹlʌkʃərɪ], [ʹdreɪpərɪ],
[ʹkɑ:pɪtɪŋ], [ʹbeɪsmənt], [ʹbʌŋgələʊ], [ʹstjudɪəʊ], [ʹkrɔkərɪ], [ɪʹrekt],
[ʹskætə], [ʹkeəfl], [niʹglekt].
9. Arrange the following words into two columns according to the
different pronunciation of the combination ea, and translate them.
Clean, heap, steady, heat, measure, thread, meal, spread, head, East, neat, health,
conceal, bread.
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
10. Supply the missing letters in the given sentences with the help of the
transcription, define the type of syllable, give other examples of such cases
and translate the sentences.
1. He threw the sh…tters [‘ʃʌtəz] open and saw a m…ble [ma:bl] st…tue
[‘stætʃu:] in the c…ner [‘kɔ:nə] of the room.
2. He couldn’t conceal his am…zement [ə’meɪzmənt] bewitched by beige
ch…ndeliers [,ʃændə’liəz] near the f…..place [‘faɪəpleɪs].
3. She got abs…bed [əb’sɔ:bd] with thoughts recoll…cting [,rɪ:kə’lektɪŋ]
the chain of unh…ppy [ən’hæpɪ] coincidences.
4. The bathroom floor was t…led [taɪld] with n…ce [naɪs] d…agonal
[daɪ’ægnəl] squ…..s [skweəz].
5. On a steep hills…de [‘hɪlsaɪd] th…..[ðeə] was a c….pentry [‘ka:pəntrɪ]
w…..kshop [‘wɜ:kʃɒp] filled with tools for g….dening [ga:dnɪŋ].
6. When you …nter [‘entə] the room, you see a scr…tched [skrætʃt] p….quet
[‘pa:keɪ] floor.
7. This beautiful t…mple [templ] ass…med [ə’sju:md] its present-day
appearance long ago.
8. The w…ndow [‘wɪndəʊ] of this room opens onto a series of beautifully
pl…nned [plænd] g….dens [ga:dnz].
9. The b…droom [‘bedrʊ:m] with its oak f….niture [‘fɜ:nitʃə] constitutes a
l…gical [‘lɔdʒɪkl] complement to the int…rior [ɪn’tɪərɪə] of the whole
ap….tment [ə’pa:tmənt].
10. This inv…ntion [ɪn’venʃn] remains a l…mpid [‘lɪmpɪd]
…vidence
[‘evɪdəns] of ….tistic [a:’tɪstɪk] mat…rity [mə’tjʊərətɪ].
11. Add the following suffixes to the given words and translate them.
-ing: to dine, to pile, to close, to purchase, to divide, to examine, to remove, to
change, to describe, to provide, to hide, to amuse, to intrigue
-ly: immense, entire, rare, strange, delicate, private, dense, loose, close, absolute,
intricate, nice
-ment: base, improve, achieve, arrange, excite, move, pave, advertise, engage
-ion: decorate, renovate, illuminate, fascinate, create, regulate, insulate,
fabricate
-less: frame, care, noise, change
28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
12. Form adverbs from the given adjectives, plural form of the nouns and
participle two of the following verbs and translate the words.
- heavy, shy, easy, pretty, lofty
- laundry, facility, property, chimney, balcony, ashtray, nursery, study
- to pay, to satisfy, to decay, to tidy up, to empty
13. Look up the pronunciation and the meaning of the following words.
Make a list of silent letters in the words.
Scent, excellent, climb, fascinate, light, comb, bright, exhaust, scene, debt,
victuals, answer, high
14. Make sure you can spell these words correctly.
It’s pronounced as [ ʹmɔ:gɪdʒ ]
but spelt as ……
[ ʹpɑ:keɪ ]
[ ʹneɪbə ]
[ ʹdrɔ(r) ]
[ dɪʹzɑɪn ]
[ ʹkʌbəd ]
[ ʹkɒləm ]
[ ʹbɪdeɪ ]
[ ʹkɑ:sl ]
15. Which of the underlined parts of the sentences is right?
1. When I entered the house, he was polishing the nob/knob.
2. A knew/new broom sweeps clean.
3. Why are you building a cottage on the northern side? You’d better choose a
warmer clime/climb.
4. Take your car to the repairing office. Its engine is nocking/knocking badly.
5. He new/knew many real estate agencies but could trust none of them.
16. Give the participle II of the following verbs and the comparative and
superlative degrees of the given adjectives.
- to fit, to cram, to plan, to shop
big, thin
17. Study the ways the sounds [→], [±] and [ ] are spelt (see Part IV),
write the following words and explain their spelling if possible:
(a)
he[→]e, a[→]acent, fri[→]e, loun[→]e, mortga[→]e, a[→]ency,
refri[→]erator, smu[→]e, lo[→]ings, re[→]istration, bri[→]e, fra[→]ile,
[→]asper
(b) furni[±ə], ki[±]en, [±]air, [±]imney, or[±]ard, architec[±ə], to swi[±] on,
minia[±ə], tha[±]
(c) [ ]andelier, cu[ ]ion, man[ ]ion, accommoda[ ]ion, refuse-[ ]ute,
wa[ ]ing ma[ ]ine, spa[ ]ious, thre[ ]hold, poli[ ]er, exten[ ]ion, a[ ]tray,
dimen[ ]ion
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
18. Study the way the letter –s is pronounced and write out the following
words into two groups according to the pronunciation of the letter –s: [s] or [z].
fuse, houseplant, nursery, case, cosy, closet, sink, refuse, mosaic, washbasin,
masonry, socket, estate, lease, utensil, crimson
19. Study the ways the letters are doubled in English, write the following
words adding a single or a double consonant. Explain your choice.
If the word is not spelt according to the rule, write it out separately and
memorize.
(a) either l or ll
ce_ar, dwe_ing, ti_ed, wa_paper, po_ish, window-si_, pi_ow, pa_ace, co_umn,
umbre_a, va_ey, exce_ent, ba_cony, pavi_ion, ga_ery
(b) either r or rr
co_idor, ba_acks, clea_ing, che_y, mi_or, su_oundings, o_iginal, ga_et, te_ace,
ba_ier, bu_eau, to a_ange, bo_ow
(c) either s or ss
food-proce_or, bra_, clo_et, stainle_, gla_, mattre_, depo_itors, ti_ue, acce_,
acro_, to a_ume, po_e_ion, e_ential, pa_
20. Spell the word correctly according to the definition. If in trouble,
consult the dictionary and memorize the spelling.
1. a place for
someone to
stay, live or
work in
2. a set of rooms
within a larger
building,
usually on one
level
3. someone who
lives in a
house or room
and pays rent
4. the buildings
that a shop,
restaurant
company uses
5. shared by a
group of
people who
live together
6. a toilet
A. acommodatoin
B. accommodation
C. accomodation
A. apartment
A. appartment
A. aparttment
A. tenant
B. tennant
C. tenantt
A. premmises
B. premisses
C. premises
A. communal
B. comunal
C. comunnal
A. lavattory
lavatorry
C. lavatory
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. a room under
the roof of a
house, used
for storing
things
8. a small hut
where a dog
sleeps
9. gradual
destruction of
buildings and
structures
10. a flat piece of
wood with
straight sides,
which forms
part of a door,
wall, fence
11. to repair and
paint a
building so
that it is in
good
condition
again
12. decorated with
some regular
repeated
shapes, lines
and colours
13. a piece of
electrical
equipment,
used in
people’s
homes
14. tools or
machines
used for
scientific,
medical and
technical
purposes
15. a piece of
equipment for
climbing a
wall, the side
of a building,
etc.
A. atic
B. attic
A. kenel
B. kennel
A. decay
B. deccay
A. panel
B. pannel
A. rennovate
B. renovate
C. renovatte
A. patterned
B. paterned
C. pattenned
A. aplliance
B. apliance
C. appliance
A. aparratus
B. aparratus
C. apparatus
A. lader
B. ladder
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
16. something
such as a
piece of
equipment,
shop or park
that makes it
easier to live
somewhere
17. the way by
which you can
enter a
building or
reach a place
18. a very small
statue
19. the soft part of
a bed that you
lie on
20. a long seat
with a back
and usually
with arms
A. amenity
B. ammenity
C. amennity
A. acess
B. access
C. acces
A. statuette
B. statuete
C. stattuete
A. matress
B. mattres
C. mattress
A. settee
B. setee
21. Write out the words in four lines according to the pronunciation [s],
[z], [k],[ ʃ].
House, log-cabin, glazier, barracks, cottage, shed, studio, mosaic, basement,
advertise, court, high-rise, furnish, architect, chandelier, residence, block,
designer, mansion, sky-scraper, hostess, curtain, shutter, stable, bronze,
residential, whitewash, registration.
DICTATION
Last night I dreamed I went to Manderley again. It seemed to me I stood by
the iron gate leading to the drive and for a while I couldn’t enter, for the way
was barred to me. There was a padlock and a chain upon the gate. I called in my
dream to the lodge-keeper but saw that the lodge was uninhabited.
No smoke came from the chimney, and in the little lattice windows gaped
forlorn. The drive wound away in front of me, twisting and turning as it had
always done, but as I advanced I was aware that a change had come upon it; it
was narrow and unkept.
The drive was a ribbon now, a thread of its former self, with gravel surface
gone, and choked with grass and moss.
There was Manderley, secretive and silent as it had always been, the grey
stone shining in the moonlight of my dream, the windows reflecting the green
32
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
lawns and the terrace. Time could not wreck the perfect symmetry of those
walls, not the site itself.
Moonlight can play odd tricks upon the fancy, even upon a dreamer’s
fancy. As I stood there, hushed and still, I could swear that the house was not an
empty shell but lived and breathed as it had lived before.
Light came from the windows, the curtains blew softly in the night air, and
there, in the library, the door would stand half open as we had left it, with my
handkerchief on the table beside the bowl of autumn roses.
The room would bear witness to our presence. Ash-trays, with the stubs of
a cigarette; cushions, with the imprint of our heads upon them, lolling in the
chairs; the charred embers of our fire still smouldering against the morning.
In reality I lay many hundred miles away in an alien land, and would wake,
before many seconds had passed, in the bare little hotel bedroom, comforting in
its very lack of atmosphere. I would not tell my dream for Manderley was ours
no longer.
MEALS
1. Define the type of syllable in the following verbs. Transcribe them.
Match the products with the ways of cooking:
1. pare
a. mushrooms
2. carve
b. cheese
3. mince
c. meat
4. dredge
d. orange
5. grate
e. turkey
6. sprinkle
f. lemon
7. squeeze
g. pastry
8. stew
h. pizza
2. Arrange the following words into five columns according to the
different pronunciation of the combination ou(r) and translate them:
Nourishing, flour, soup, poultry, delicious, dough, sour, flavour.
3. Add the following suffixes to the given words and translate them:
Starve (-ation,), whole (-some), bake(-ery,), carve (-ing), sprinkle (-ed),
taste(-ful), juice(-er), pickle (-ed), orange (-ade).
4. Use the correct grammar form of the words in brackets:
1. He poured himself a glass of orange juice and drank it (thirsty).
2. She went to the tea-table and delicately picked up a biscuit from one of the
(tray) with cakes and buns and sandwiches.
33
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. There was no (jelly) fish on the menu, so he ordered a plate of smoked
salmon to begin with.
4. She (fry) bacon, sliced tomatoes, cooked linguine and poured another glass
of wine.
5. They cut a sausage in half and ate it (hungry), almost without tasting.
6. The pork (kidney) were seasoned (heavy) than he had expected.
7. In McDonalds we ordered a large portion of French (fry) and strawberry milk
shakes.
8. Pepper is a hot-tasting powder made from the dried (berry) of certain plants,
used to add flavour to food.
9. He told his wife he (fancy) a bit of fish for his supper.
10. (Cherry) are red or black when they are ripe.
5. Study the rule about silent letters. Match the words and their
definitions. Where do you think these English words are borrowed from?
1. restaurant
2. spaghetti
3. champagne
4. buffet
5. gourmet
6. bouquet
7. cognac
a. someone who knows a lot about food and wine and who
enjoys good food and wine
b. a type of pasta in very long thin pieces, that is cooked in
boiling water
c. a place in a railway station where you can buy and eat
food or drink
d. a French white wine with a lot of bubbles, drunk on
special occasion
e. a kind of brandy made in France
f. a place where you can buy and eat a meal
g. the smell of a wine
6. Rewrite the sentences correctly paying attention to the words with
missing silent letters. Use these words in the sentences of your own.
1. We sented danger and decided to leave.
2. The roast lam we ordered was a little underdone and spoiled by a number of
herbs.
3. The yellow part of an egg is the yok.
4. My breakfast usually consists of a cup of tea with some sanwiches.
5. She prefers delicious vegetable dishes and holesome bread.
6. The restaurant is famous for its baked samon with spicy amond sauce and
blue cheese dressing.
7. I don’t eat weat bread. Can I have brown bread, please?
8. Some Americans like to have a glass of wisky before their dinner.
9. For dessert they chose straberry ice-cream.
10. He helped himself to a large piece of rasberry pie.
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Study the rules of consonant-doubling. Say why:
a. the final letters are doubled in the following words:
spill, stuff, bill, pass, roll, smell, glass, grill, fizz;
b. the final letters are not doubled in the following words:
oil, peel, sweet, roast, boil, beat, cook, pour.
8. Form the Past Indefinite and Participle I of the following verbs and
translate them:
Chop, stir, pour, boil, beat, whip, top, roast, peel, cook.
9. Write out the correct spelling and use the words in the sentences of
your own:
1. a thing that is eaten or drunk
appetizer / apettizer / apetizer
before a meal
2. any sweet food eaten
desert / desret / dessert
at the end of a meal
3. a round vegetable with green
cabage / cabbage / cabagge
or purple leaves which are usu. cooked
4. a substance from the tropical plant
vanilla / vannila / vanila
used as a flavour in sweet foods
5. a mixture of minced meat and
saussage / sausage / sausagge
other ingredients in a long edible skin
6. an edible fruit
apple / aple / aplle
7. a small black, red or white berry
curant / currant / curunnt
that grows in bunches on certain bushes
8. a soft food made by boiling oatmeal
poridge / porigge / porridge
9. a hollow red, green or yellow vegetable
pepper / peper / ppeper
that is used in hot or cold dishes
10. In some of these names ch sounds as [t∫]. In others as [k] or [∫].
Arrange these words in columns respectively and transcribe them:
Champagne, chocolate, ketchup, cheese, stomach, chop, chef, chicken, perch.
11. Write out the following, adding g, j, dg to give the correct spelling for
the sound [dg]:
mar…arine
…elly
…am
fu…e
…in…er
bevera…es
tan…erine
cabba…e
sausa…e
partri…e
vinta…e
oran…e
porri…e
stur…eon
…uice
ve…etarian
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
12. Write the following words in spelling:
[‘kæbidʒ] [‘kærəts] [bə’na:nə] [greips] [‘ra:zb(ə)ri] [‘eiprikɔt] [‘ʌnjən]
[‘kju:kʌmbə] [‘pʌmpkin] [‘pa:sli] [‘letis] [dil] [‘pɔm,grænit] [‘sæmən]
[‘pi:nʌt] [paik] [sa:’di:n] [kri:m] [fru:t] [tʌŋ] [,tændʒ(ə)’ri:n] [’jɔgət]
[mʌtn] [gu:s] [‘heizlnʌt] [rai] [‘mʌstəd] [‘peisrti] [kwi’zi:n]
13. Supply the mute –e where necessary:
tomato_ , potato_, chees_, soup_, noodl_, champagn_, clov_, buiscuit_, ounc_,
margarin_, flour_, pinch_, tabugo_, abalon_, steak_, scallop_, calori_, linguin_,
spong_, caldron_, beverag_.
14. Supply the missing letters (where necessary), translate and transcribe
the words:
macaron_, n__dle, __tmeal, sq__sh, liqu__r, tof__es, verm__th, a__etizer,
t__rsty, rec_pe, si__er, flav__, disg_sting, r_w, barbec__, co_rse, ecla_r, w_fers,
s_molina, c__namon, cr_nberry, ma__ow, porri__e, phe_sant, cav__r.
15. Form participles two of the following verbs and transcribe them
cook, boil, fry, stew, can, bake, chop, peel, spill, cut, pour, season, taste, tin.
16. Study the ways the letters are doubled in English, write the following
words doubling consonants where necessary. Translate and transcribe them
Banan?a, bas?, but?er, por?idge, cof?ee, tof?ee, rol?, crois?ant, piz?eria,
dres?ing, mayon?aise, sal?ad, jel?y, grav?y, bar?el, car?ot, foodstuf?s, her?ing,
let?uce, mel?on, patis?erie, rad?ish, sal?ami, spaghet?i, margarin?e, ap?etite,
cas?er?ole, buf?et, coc?oa, martin?i, ec?lair, glut?on, gob?le, nib?le, souf?le,
vermicel?i, ap?eritif.
17. Choose correct spelling of the following kinds of meat:
Meat from this animal…
A cow
A young cow
An adult sheep
A young sheep
A pig
Birds like chickens and turckeys
Deer
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
…is called
Beaf / beef / bief
Veal / veel/ veil
Maton/ muton / matton/ mutton
Lam / lamb/ lambe
Pork / porck / pock / porc
Poltry / poaltry / poultry
vinison / vennison / venisson / venison
18. Find an odd word. Explain your choice:
beef, beet, cheese, sweet, coffee.
bacon, bargain, champagne, raisins.
change, champagne, cherry, Scotch
beans, bread, cereals, pear.
apricot, carton, carrot, potato.
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
19. Find one word which is spelled correctly. Think of its synonyms.
canteen – cantean – canteen – cantine
devour – devaure – devoure – devore
deliscius – deliscious – delicious – delishous
lolipop – lolippop – lollipop – lollopope
crokery – crockerry – crockery - croccery
20. In the weak position the vowels are either reduced to neutral sounds
[ə], [i] or not pronounced at all, though their spelling is often rather
complicated. Rewrite the following words, underline the letters, which
represent the vowels in weak positions and transcribe the words.
Cafeteria, calorie, condiment, delicious, doughnut, gourmand, dumpling,
marmalade, mustard, muffin, pasta, portion, salad, simmer, substantial,
luncheon.
21. Rearrange letters to create words:
1. frsetakab
2. oftyercinncoa
3. hugod
4. wehc
5. laremadam
6. anusepac
7. tasryp
8. pitoron
9. akcapen
10. irecep
DICTATION
ROSIE’S PUB
Rosie’s Pub is a charming little place located right off Zubovsky Boulevard.
It is divided into three halls which you can choose from according to your plans. If
you’re in the mood for a quick bite and a glass of beer, grab a seat at the bar or a
nearby table. For a more thorough meal proceed to the second hall –a spacious
room decorated like a hunter’s cabin, complete with a genuine fireplace, stainedglass windows, paintings, photographs and a piece that immediately catches your
eye – a wild boar’s head hung proudly above the mantelpiece. The atmosphere is
quite cozy, inviting you to relax and enjoy your food.
And if after dinner you feel like stretching your legs, go downstairs and
shoot some pool in a rustic room with yet another bar.
At Rosie’s, you can enjoy any meal of the day – traditional Irish breakfast,
a large selection of soups, salads and sandwiches for lunch and various beef and
37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
pork recipes for dinner. Meanwhile, the most traditional dishes – fish and chips
– is just as good as you can find in the UK. It is best accompanied with cider,
which is a specialty here – flavors come in blackcurrant, honey or apple.
Okay, time for dinner. My companion went for Zurich beef, which
consisted of tender cuts in a dark savory sauce stewed with wine and red onion.
We also shared a plate ofhot tortins for beer, which were nice.
Later, we were joined by two of my friends who were eager “to have a taste
of Ireland.” One of them ordered Irish stew – a traditional Irish meal of beef,
potatoes and carrots ‘cooked together to homemade perfection.”
My other friend tried an Irish pork chop served with mushrooms, tomatoes,
beans and BBQ sauce. He was delighted that the meat was “tenderized and wellcooked.” All meals were accompanied with more beers.
I highly recommend you try Rosie’s wonderful cuisine, exquisite cider and
eight kinds of beer delivered straight from Ireland.
DAILY ROUTINE
1. Revise Part Four: the individual consonant symbols for [dz] and [tƒ]
sounds. Write the proper leters instead of the transcription signs
colle[dz]e
su[dz]est
lun[tƒ]
fe[tƒ]
langua[dz]e
[dz]eneral
dispa[tƒ]
vou[tƒ]
dili[dz]ent
stora[dz] e
star[tƒ]
ca[tƒ]
[dz]unior
[dz]ob
lec[tƒ]e
wa[tƒ]
ma[dz]or
py[dz]ama
[tƒ]eat
broo[tƒ]
[dz]ournal
a[dz]ust
[tƒ]eck
por[tƒ]
arran[dz]e
[dz]og
coa[tƒ]
pin[tƒ]
sub[dz]ect
smu[dz]e
swi[tƒ]
sear[tƒ]
a[dz]acent
[dz]aw
tea[tƒ]er
scor[tƒ]
2. Add the missing letters to get the proper word.
The grey or black powdery substance that is left after something is burnt
.sh
A device for cleaning plates, cups, pans etc.
..sh -..sher
Rub something with a cloth to make it shine
…. sh
A period of the day when the demands especially of traffic
or business are at a peak
..sh hour
A first year student
…shman
3. Complete the following words by adding the same letters to give the
correct spelling of the sound [k]. Each of the words has one or more
rhymed words in the list. Compose a poem using all the words.
so_et
la_
po_et
sa_
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
lu_
bu_
tru_
pi_
qui_
ne_
pe_
mo_
fro_
no_
blo_
4. Revise Part Four: the individual consonant symbols for sound [k].
Which word is the odd one in each group and why?
1. aerobics – overcoat – cupboard – appliance
2. schedule – chaos – chore – scholarship
3. rickety – spick-and-span – bucket – vacuous
4. accommodation – accept – accuracy – occupation
5. campus – certificate – curriculum – crib
5. Form the Past Indefinite and Participle I of the following verbs.
Eg. Step – stepped –stepping
Cancel, shrug, infer, bat, occur, jam, trot, hum, clog, press, cram, equip
6. Write out the following adding
a) either l or ll
sti…, unti…, ti…, thri…, pe…me…, spi…, expe…, ski…, nove…
b) either s or ss
pre…, harne…, acro…, bu…, dismi…, jealou…, lo…, dre…, cla…, me...,
pa…, acce…, proce…, progre…
c) either f or ff
pu…, cha…, belie…, proo…, sni…, cu…
7. Write out the correct spelling.
a) happening quickly and unexpectedly
b) occur (by chance or otherwise)
c) decide and arrange something
d) walk unsteadily with short quick steps
e) a colored spot
f) interfere without right or propriety
g) a glass or plastic container
h) a short growth of unshaven hair
sudden/ suden/ suddne
hapen/heppen/ happen
sattle/ settle/ setle
toddle/ todle/ toddl
motel/ motle/ mottle
meddle/ medel/ meddl
botel/ bottle/ bottle
stubble/ subel/ stuble
8. Revise part two: consonant doubling. Write the words in spelling
[gæləri] [fΛni] [kæriə] [erənd] [imbærəs] [mirə] [skΛri] [bΛtn] [skætə] [litə]
[mætə] [kəset] [pesimist] [isenƒl] [efət] [slipəz] [Λtəli] [pudiŋ] [ƒæbi] [ribən]
[grΛbi] [rΛbiƒ] [ƒægi] [sigəret] [esei] [græmə] [kəma:nd] [əlau] [sætəlait]
39
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
9. a) Answer the following questions
Do we put wrap or rap around the sandwiches to keep them from getting stale?
Do we usually straighten or straiten the sheets on the bed?
Which of the two is a thick soft quilt with a detachable cover, used instead
of an upper sheet and blankets: duvay or duvet?
If something is out of order do we put it right or rite?
When you finish doing your room what do you say: I’m through or threw
with it?
What do we call a person who fits and repairs the apparatus of a watersupply, heating:
plummer or plumber?
Which of the two is a hollow space in something solid, with an opening on
one side: whole or hole?
b) Write sentences to illustrate the meaning of the words with silent
letters which you gave as the correct answers to the questions in part a).
11. Make phrases by joining together a word from the left column
with a word from the right column. Explain the silent letters.
a) dress
1) bright
b) review
2) tight
c) cleaning
3) flighty
d) whisk
4) knit
e) thermostat
5) chocolate
f) jeans
6) bath
g) temper
7) annual
h) brownie
8) thorough
i) towel
9) turn down
j) colour
10) egg
k) scarf
11) drawer
l) pedestal
12) fasten
m) language
13) difficult
n) assignment
14) foreign
11. Insert the missing letters for [ei]. Each dash stands for one letter.
L-bour-s-ving
G--ly
-pron
Midd-R-zor
B-sin
Restr--nt
Scr-pe
D--br--k
Ret--n
Sh-ve
Dr--n
Parlour-m--d
F--nt
D--ly
Tr--ning
St--n
El-tion
f--lure
Pl-cid
Embr-ce
st-tionary
c-tering
gr-de
m--l
av--lable
m--nt--n
40
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
12. Write the proper word instead of the transcription. Write the
words in spelling, comment on the ways of expressing the phoneme [əu].
[fəuld] the newspaper
bath [fəum]
[tiptəu] step
[səu] on a button
[səup] bubbles
[ləud] the washing machine
[kləuðz] peg
[divəut] time to studies
[həuld] examinations
[ləun] period
high-school [dipləumə]
13. Group the words according to the type of the stressed vowel [æ],
[i], [i:], [Λ], [e], [o:]
memorize
catalogue
speedy
canteen
bleep
pin
sweater
sweep
can
dustpan
bleach
curler
cheep
beat
peal
asleep
lid
slam
treat
lamp
grubby
burden
confirm
squeeze
thread
practice
swirl
murmur
mend
gas
preen
rinse
orderly
tap
submerge
linen
vacuum
nap
detergent
heat
skip
slip
brush
cleaning
door
curtain
grin
dreadful
story
skid
greasy
weeping
consult
week
filthy
chore
graduate
litter
cinder
lending
14. Write out from the sentences all the words which contain sound
[a:]. Translate the sentences. Comment on the reading rules. What other
ways of representing this sound do you know? Give examples.
1. He disposed the garbage into the refuse-chute. 2. The room was in such a
mess – real disaster. 3. All the articles of furniture were rust-stained. 4. 5. She
usually washed he darks last. 6. My wife is a master housewife. 7. Taking a bath
after work was so relaxing. 8. Housework may turn out quite a hazard. 9. She
invited us into the parlour where tea was laid out. 10. I washed the curtains and
starched them.11. She went to the swimming-pool every Wednesday after
41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
classes. 12. He lathered his face and started to shave. 13. The alarm went off and
he woke up. 14. When you can do something very well that means you have a
good command of it. 15. Yesterday I got my library card. 16. I really think Jane
needs to master her French. 17. Passing an exam is such a relief. 18. Being a
part-time student gives you opportunities to work. 19. The teaching staff of our
faculty are all high-qualified professionals. 20. In the reference department of
our library you can find any information you need.
DICTATION
HOUSEWORK
You know, there are times when we happen to be just sitting quietly
watching TV. Then the program we are watching stops for a while and suddenly
someone appears with a smile. He starts to show us how terribly urgent it is to
buy some brand of detergent or soap or cleanser or cleaner or powder or paste or
wax or bleach – to help with the housework.
Now most of the time it’s a lady we see who is doing the housework on the
TV. She’s cheerfully scouring a skillet or two, or she is polishing pots until they
shine like new. She is scrubbing the tub or mopping the floors, or she is wiping
the stains from the walls and the doors. She is washing the windows, the dishes,
the clothes, or waxing the furniture until it just glows. She is cleaning the fridge,
or the stove or the sink with a cheerful smile and a friendly wink. And she is
doing her best to make us think that her soap (or detergent or cleanser or cleaner
or powder or paste or wax or bleach) is the best kind of soap that there is in the
whole wide world!
And may be it is…And may be it isn’t. But one thing is true: the lady we
see when we are watching TV – the lady who smiles as she scours or scrubs or
rubs or washes or wipes or mops or dusts or cleans – that lady is smiling because
she’s an actress.
Remember: Nobody smiles doing housework but those ladies you see on TV.
Because even if the soap or detergent or cleanser or cleaner or powder or paste or
wax or bleach that you use is the very best one, housework is just no fun.
Children, when you have a house of your own, make sure when there is
housework to do that you don’t have to do it alone. Little boys, little girls, when
you’re big husbands and wives, if you want all of the days of your lives to seem
sunny as summer weather, when there is housework to do - do it together.
42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
LEISURE
1. Put “+” in the correct column. The first word (numbered 0) is given as
an example. The following words can be syllabicated:
Word
(A)
On the
formation
(B)
On the
consonant
0. tennis
1. label
2. postmark
3. gardening
4. lifetime
5. super
6. collect
7. discover
8. amazing
9. barmaid
10. reflect
11. current
12. opera
13. weekend
14. radio
15. letter
16. woodcarving
17. music
18. fondness
19. singer
20. pastime
(C)
On the vowel
(D)
Between
double
letters
+
2. a) Syllabicate the given words;
b) Write the numbers of those which can be syllabicated according to
formation rules:
1) Sunday; 2) indoor; 3) best-selling; 4) carry; 5) farewell; 6) intolerable;
7) skiing; 8) museum; 9) poetry.
3. A. Supply the missing letters for the [a:, з:, o:] sounds.
Sc _ rce, _ rdent, tav _ rn, aff _rd, st _ r, s _ rvice, imp _ rtant, perf _ rmance,
_ rt, res _ rt,
t _ rget, _ rchery, p _ rmit, p _ rk, en _ rmous, p _ rsonal, d _ rts, sp _ rt, b _ r,
p _ rty.
B. Group the words according to the [a:, o:] sounds. Write them in
spelling:
[tƒ a:ft], [bo:l], [sta:f], [ko:z], [΄kla:siz], [ho:lz], [bra:s], [΄wo:kin], [΄ho:s-raidin],
[da:ns], [΄o:diəns].
Say what letters stand for the sounds [o:], [a:] in these words.
43
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. A. Write the following words in spelling. Translate the words into
Russian.
[tju:n], [speḱteitə], [ińklu:d], [di΄vəut], [in΄vait], [kən΄sju :m], [dzu :k],
[ə΄reindz], [prə΄məut], [raiz], [pleis], [laiv], [və΄kein], [kən΄fain], [prə΄vaid],
[praiz], [kəm΄pi:t], [sə΄plai], [geim], [raid], [kəm΄ju:niti].
B. Select the words in which you pronounce the following sounds:
[ei] :, [i:] :, [ou] :, [ai] :, [ju:] :, [u:] :.
Pewter, feature, easel, painting, boast, beau, blow, boat, rowing, fair, sewing,
appeal, deal, show, gain, aim, achieve, improvement, group, play, boarding,
coast, available, shooting, place, sailing, team, own, folk, maintenance, repair,
free, Easter, entitle, winding, reading, stay, keen, blind, cartoon.
5. Fill in the blanks from the list below:
Curious, entirely, experience, require, spare, desire, serious, various.
1. His ___________ to learn to play the piano was very strong.
2. My friend prefers to read ______________ newspapers.
3. In this shop you can find ______________ discs to enlarge your collection.
4. She spends her ____________ time _____________ on her hobby which is
collecting postcards with different sights.
5. During his lessons he shares his ________________ of working with the
archaeological group.
6. Going in for sports _____________ a lot of physical efforts.
7. It was ______________ for me to read the article about a famous actress.
6. A. Study the rules for the second type of syllables and group the words
according to the [ǽ, e, I, o, ∆] sounds. Use them in the sentences of your own:
Publish, system, compact, disc, depend, club, patch, cultural, list, annual, hobby,
film, relax, subject, golf, hospital, reluctant, indicate, hunting, canal, badminton,
jazz, cassette, concept, advertise, pop, billiard, hotel, press, picnic, public,
match, span, congregate, band, fix, attend, trample, extra, frescoes, packed,
textile, stamp, enterprise, bank, hectic.
B. The following words contain the [∆, O, I, e] sounds. Write them in
spelling. Say what letters or letter combinations stand for these sounds:
[΄k∆mpəni], [΄topik], [΄l∆vli], [kən΄sidərəbl], [΄polis], [spred], [΄lezə], [΄steriəu],
[΄plesənt], [wots], [welθ], [΄feƏə].
7. Read the rules about the silent –e and form Participle I from the
following verbs:
Drive, ride, scrape, fence, hike, angle, regulate.
8. Read the rules about the final -y and give the plural of the following
nouns:
Gypsy, embroidery, tapestry, activity, gallery, society, company, hobby, party.
44
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
9. To answer the questions below arrange the bracketed letters properly:
1. What can you see in the museum of armoury? (bethixi)
2. When on train, what can you see through the window? (resecny)
3. A bicycle has two of them. What is it? (hewel)
4. What do we call a middle part or point? (trence)
5. Who comes unexpectedly sometimes? (tuges)
10. Read the rules about the silent letters and pick out the words with
silent letters:
Strait, straight, silhouette, Christmas, quiescent, muscular, philharmonic, ballet,
theatre, sceptic, exhibition, hostel, Christ.
11. Explain why the words in italics have double consonants and write
them out:
1. Her hobby is knitting.
2. Winning the Grand Prix was his goal.
3. What I don’t like about video-recorders is setting and resetting all those
buttons when searching the necessary channels.
4. Nick goes in for swimming twice a week.
5. Those handicapped are unequalled to those who are able.
6. She is keen on pottery, especially when are travels to different places which
are traditionally famous for their handicraft art.
7. They considered the case rather formally.
8. Officially she is recognized as a representative of Russia.
12. Explain the usage of CH, C, CK, QU in the italicized words.
1. Nowadays a lot of young people go in for track and field athletics.
2. He is fond of collecting articles of antique furniture.
3. He was happy to join the choral society. He is good at singing.
4. She doesn’t like carpets. She thinks they accumulate dust.
5. In summer parents like to synchronize their annual holidays with children’s
vacation.
6. The English people consider cricket to be a national game. It’s so
characteristic of them.
13. Supply the missing letters for the sounds [s, z].
parti-ipation
[s]
bi-ycle
a-etylene
[s]
enthu-iast
spe-imen
[s]
-inema
clo-e
[z]
exqui-ite
reprodu-e
[s]
fa-ility
45
[s]
[z]
[s]
[z]
[s]
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
14. A. Which word is odd one out in each group and why? What letters
stand for the sound [s]?
1. machine – child – cheap – chop
2. issue – assume – dismiss – miss
3. admission – permission – possession – association
4. social – official – special – society
5. proficient – ancient – musician – specific
B. Form nouns from the verbs using the suffix –(t)ion. Transcribe the
derived words.
To create, to collect, to contemplate, to receive, to anticipate, to qualify
15. Write the words in spelling. Say what letters stand for the sounds [tƒ].
[΄tƒekəz], [hə΄bitƒuəl], [΄tƒeimbə], [΄tƒǽriti], [΄fo:tƒənət], [΄kwestƒə΄neə].
16. Supply the words with the missing letters which stand for the sounds
[dz, z, g].
le-itimate, di-ital, -eneral, -eneration, ener-y, ma-ority, e-istence, plea-ure, lei-ure.
17. Write out the bold typed words, memorize their spelling.
DICTATION
DOLLECTION
On the old lady’s racks, in her plate-glass cases, might be seen the wealth
of a thousand childhoods, and some riches – for such is the genetics of dolls –
possessed by children grown. Here could be found “fashion babies” from the
fourteenth-century France, sacred dolls of the Orange Free State Fingo tribe,
Satsuma paper dolls and court dolls from old Japan, beady-eyed “Kalifa” dolls
of the Egyptian Sudan, Swedish birch-bark dolls, “Katcina” dolls of the Hopis,
mammoth-tooth dolls of the Eskimos, feather dolls of the Chippewa, tumble
dolls of the ancient Chinese, Coptic bone dolls, Roman dolls dedicated to
Diana, pantin dolls which had been the street toys of Parisian exquisites before
Madame Guillotine swept the boulevards, early Christian dolls in the crèches
representing the Holy Family – to specify the merest handful of Miss Ypson’s
collection. She possessed dolls of pasteboard, dolls of animal skin, spool dolls,
crab-claw dolls, eggshell dolls, cornhusk dolls, rag dolls, pine-cone dolls with
moss hair, stocking dolls, dolls of bisque, dolls of palm leaf, dolls of papier
mache, even dolls made of seed pods. There were dolls forty inches tall, and
there were dolls so little Miss Ypson could hide them in her gold thimble.
46
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Notes:
Satsuma – province in Japan; Orange Free State – now province in the
Republic of South Africa
the Hopis – Indian tribe of north-eastern Arizona
the Chippewa – North American Indian tribe
Coptic – of the Copts, Christian descendants of the ancient Egyptians
Diana – goddess of hunting
pantin (Fr.)– made of cardboard
NATURE
1. Read the words given below, analyse the ways of representing the
phoneme [i:] and copy the words in columns under e ea ie ee.
Even, east, recent, heat, degree, beastly, breeze, beach, previous, scene,
shield, reveal, needle, breathe, relief, release, tree, sea, free, season, increase,
serene, freeze, sleet, complete, field, extreme, yield.
Add some other words on the corresponding topic.
What generalization can you make (if possible) about the part of speech
division of the words.
2. Read the words correctly and analyse the ways of representing the
following vowels.
[ei] April, day, bay, hail, rain, sail, bathe, wave, nature, bouquet.
[i:] Ski, quay, oblique, conceive.
[ai] Climb, wind, mild, wild, lively, lifeless, horizon, isle, isicle, cyclone, sky,
dry, light, modify.
[ou] Cold, ocean, opaque, zero, boat, soak, low, flow, yellow, sow, rainbow, awful.
[(j)u:] Dew, bloom, blue.
[e] Edge, berry, every, west, yellow, heavy, steady, weather, leisure.
[i] Blizzard, typical, surface, mountain, holiday, bicycle, horrible.
[o] Pond, crop, swamp, walk, wander, yacht.
[u] Bush, rook, peaceful.
[^] Sun, thunder, summer, umbrella, flood, country, flourish, rough.
[a:] Garden, harvest, sparkle, yard, path, nasty, draught.
[o:] Storm, shore, autumn, dawn, thaw, warm, hoarfrost, squall, roaring,
pouring.
[ə:] Surface, whirl.
[oi] Moist, annoy, destroy.
[au] Clouds, plough, south, drought.
[eə] Area, air, vary, prairie, transparent.
[iə] Fierce, severe.
[uə] Pure, shower.
47
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Read the words and find the odd one. Explain your choice.
ray
bay
quay
hay
maypole
Meadow
Heaven
Weather
Ocean
Depth
rook
cool
moon
bloom
gloom
wave
nature
many
cave
April
mountain
country
ground
drought
bough
4. Insert the missing letters for the vowel phonemes in the phrases and
sentences below. Each dash stands for one letter.
fr-quent --st winds
incr--se sp—d
a p--l of th-nder
a p--k of the mount--n
r-de a b-cycle
the movement of a c-clone
pr-vious y--a cl-ster of c-rrents
sit in a dr—ght
the ---th t--ning round the s-n
dr- cl-mate
s--king the cl-thes in c-ld water
h-venly b---ty
l--sure t-me
-very c--nty
w-lk in a sw-mp
h--- a m--vellous –cht
---ly dew
the rare --- of the mount--ns
the w--ght of the sn--
b) 1. Fine w--ther is both pl--sant and h--lthy. 2. The sky bec-me gr-- ag--n. It is
going to r--n. 3. The city was r-zed by an earthqu-ke. 4. This s--son Mary has b-n to the s--side. She was pl--sed to s-- the boats sailing on the s--. 5. When the l--tning came we all took to fl---t. The flash was so br---t that we all were fr--tened by it and ran with all our m---t. 6. The British --les are composed of about
4000 --lands of different s-ze. 7. The p-th in the g--den sp--kled with dew. 8.
Let’s w-lk to the p-nd. 9. I’m afraid at d--n it might p---. 10. This is an -rea of
f---ly dry climate. 11. The scenery doesn’t v-ry much until you reach the pr--rie.
5. Match the words to the definitions.
Draught
grow vigorously, thrive
Drought
dry weather
Plough
a system of winds rotating …
Flourish
a current of air in a confined space
Fierce
a large area of treeless grassland
Severe
turn or extract roots, weeds
Cyclone
unpleasantly strong, intense, uncontrolled
prairie
forceful, extreme
Compose sentences with them and write them down.
48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Study the rule about the silent-e. Form the adjectives or adverbs of the
words given below adding -able, -ly, -y, -ish, -ous.
Change, agree, notice, immediate, like, due, rare, ice, gentle, shade, noise,
blue, continue.
7. Study the rule about the final-y. Complete the spelling of the following
words by filling in each blank space with y or i. Comment on your choice, in
case of difficulty consult the dictionary.
Dr-ness, dr-ly, dr-ed, heav-est, heav-ly, da-ly, da-s, ic-ly, var-ous, var-able,
rel-able, enjo-able, merc-ful, anno-ing, destro-ing, dirt-ness, dew-ness, sk-es,
berr-es, da-s, countr-es, ra-s, qua-s.
8. Study the rule about silent letters. Copy the words listed below,
underline the silent letters and analyse their position, group them according to
the position of the silent letter.
Wednesday, autumn, landscape, subtle, walk, solemn, wrack, awful, whole,
hour, numb, climb, caught, drought, rough, wretched, scene, island, islet, isle,
bouquet, yacht, light, edge, rustle, bright, soften, whirl, whisper, ghastly, glisten,
glimpse, bough, plough.
From your memory add as many words as you can to each column.
9. Study the rule about the doubling of consonant letters.
a) Write the comparative and superlative forms of the following
adjectives:
big
hot
rich
thin
flat
red
cool
low
sad
wet
slim
grim
flat
loud
small
new
mad
black
b) Write the adjectives formed by adding –y or –ish to the following
words. Underline those in which the final consonant letter is doubled.
fog
mud
Fun
red
man
sun
chill
Wit
green
star
rain
cloud
Dirt
sleep
snob
10. Analyse the position of the doubled letter, explain the basis of
doubling.
blizzard, current, dazzle, summer, narrow, shallow, yellow, valley, grass,
squall, follow, disappear, suffuse, accumulate, thinness, sudden, oppressive,
incessant, merry, stuffy, starry, marvellous, planned, traveller, beautifully,
unnatural, preferred.
49
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
11. Copy the following text adding suffixes and endings given in brackets.
It was a warm, sun(y) day in the late autumn.
“Let’s go for a swim,” said the Cucumber to the Cabbage.
“It’s too cold,” reply(ed) the Cabbage, wrap(ing) her leaf(es) more closely
about her.
“Nonsense!” declare(ed) the Cucumber. “Don’t be so lazy!”
At last the Cabbage consent(ed), and the two hurry(ed) to the river.
The Cucumber plunge(ed) in at once, and splash(ed) about happy(ly) while
the Cabbage sat on the bank, slow(ly) remove(ing) lay(er) after lay(er) of leaf(es).
“Hurry up!” call(ed) the Cucumber. “Aren’t you ready yet? The sun will
soon be going down, and then it will be cold.”
Still the Cabbage sat on the bank, strip(ing) off her leaf(es) lazy(ly), one by one.
At last the Cucumber clamber(ed) out of the water, refresh(ed) by the swim.
The sun was low in the sky, and it was time to go home.
The Cabbage shiver(ed), and began to wrap her leaf(es) about her again,
but the Cucumber got tire(ed) of wait(ing) long before she had finish(ed), and
the silly Cabbage was left to come home alone.
12. Study the following homophones. Insert the proper homophones in
the sentences given below.
1. Rain, reign, rein.
1) Please hold the ___ while I get off the horse. 2) The young poet has
given ___ to his imagination. 3) Queen Victoria’s ___ was very long. 4) There
was a heavy ___ last night. 5) It never ___ but pours.
2. Air, heir.
1) The little boy was ___ to the throne. 2) The mountain ___ is pure and
invigorating. 3) According to his will, his sole ___ is Julia.
3. Beach, beech.
1) In autumn the ___ which grows near my window turns a lovely colour.
2) Children like to play on the ___ in summer. 3) The ___ is a very beautiful tree.
4. Current, currant.
1) After the hteavy rain, there was a strong ___ in the river. 2) You should put
a lot of ___ into this pudding. 3) The ___ edition of that book contains many errors.
5. Blue, blew.
1) She was dressed in ___ . 2) The wind ___ my hat off. 3) It was a bolt
from the ___.
6. Sea, see.
1) The ___ covers nearly three-fourths of the world’s surface. 2) He was all
at ___ when he began his new job. 3) I shall be glad to ___ you again.
7. Weather, whether.
1) I wonder ___ we shall catch the last bus. 2) What was the ___ like
yesterday. 3) ___ we go or ___ we stay, the result is the same.
50
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8. Scene, seen.
1) The first ___ of Hamlet is the wall of a castle. 2) Please don’t make a
___. 3) The sunrise was a beautiful ___. 4) He was ___ to fall.
9. Sow, sew.
1) She can’t even ___ a button on. 2) He wants to ___ his field with wheat.
3) I was not one of those young man who ___ a large crop of wild oats.
10. Quay, key.
1) A ___ is a strongly built landing place. 2) Gibralter has been called the
___ to the Mediterranean.
11. Dew, due.
1) The grass and leaves of the trees were covered with ___. 2) The meeting
is ___ to begin at 4 o’clock.
12. Rays, raise.
1) Sir, don’t ___ this issue, it is too hard for them yet. 2) Wake up,
lazybones, the first ___ of sun are knocking on your pillow.
13. Aisle, isle.
1) We stood in the ___ and talked. 2) The ___ of Man is known for its cats
- the unique Manx cat.
14. Hail, hale.
1) Recently we had a storm of rain and ___. 2) He was ___ and hearty
when I saw him last time.
13. Study the rule about the individual consonant symbols. Read the
words given below and analyse the underlined letter combinations, copy the
words in columns on the basis of consonant sounds.
drench, shadow, draught, weather, pressure, ocean, thrive, bathe, change,
wretched, thunder, earth, excursion, breath, fresh, thaw.
14. Fourteen of these words are misspelled. Spell them correctly.
accummulate
yaht
greenness
disappear
sciene
planed
marvellous
glimse
traveler
opressive
ghastly
dirtines
insessant
retched
cooly
Blizzard
buquet
dryly
Autumm
whisper
icily
15. Study the following words and explain the difficulties in their
spelling:
a) incessant, rhythm, repertoire, violence, radiance, exhaust, accumulate,
rustle, drench, gnat, melancholy;
b) deluge- a heavy fall of rain, a flood
abate- make or become less severe, intense
51
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
sluggish- inactive, slow-moving
fleck- mark with small particles
sulphurus- a pale greenish-yellow colour
suffuse- spread from within to colour or moisten
clammy- unpleasantly damp and sticky or slimy
dither –hesitate, be indecisive
squawk- a loud harsh cry
16. All these words contain the sound [i:]. Name animals, birds, plants,
using the normal English alphabet.
[‘∫i:p], [‘bi:və], [‘i:gl], [‘bi:tl], [gi;s], [‘si:gλl], [‘bi:], [si:l], [tri:], [li:f],
[wi:d], [si:d], [bi:t∫].
17. Write out the words in which there are silent letters. Underline the
letters.
Wolf, calf, elk, stalk, lamb, colt, whale, palm, rhinoceros, swan, salmon,
raspberry, hippopotamus, lobster, swordfish.
18. In the following words one letter is doubled. Write out and complete
the sentences by adding the correct spelling. If necessary, consult the
dictionary.
a)[‘pλpi] b)[æn’tenə] c)[‘dzelifi∫] d)[‘bλtəflai] e)[‘si:gλl] f)[popi]
g) [‘bλfeləύ] h)[dzə’ra:f] i)[,hipə’pþtəməs] j)[‘dæfədil]
k)[gə’rilə]
l)[‘hλmiŋbε:d] m)[‘skwirəl].
1._________ is a long thin sensitive hair like organ, usually growing in
pairs, on the heads of some insets.
2. Water _________ is an Asian animal like a large cow. That is often kept
as a working animal.
3. We have _________s in our stomach when we feel very nervous before
doing smth.
4. ________ is a large African animal with a large head and wide mouth,
large body and thick hairless, dark grey skin, which lives near and in the water.
5. __________ is a very small bird whose wings beat very fast and wake a
continuous low sound.
6. A very long neck helps _______ to eat the leaves from the branches of
trees.
7. ________ is not only a very large African monkey, sometimes we name
so an ugly or rough man.
8. __________ is a fairly large black and white or grey and white flying
sea- bird.
9. There is a very well-known poem by William Wordsworth which British
people often quote when talking about this flower:
52
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o’er vales and hills
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden ________s.
10. Remembrance Day is often called ________ Day because for British
people this red flower represents the soldiers who died in the two World Wars.
11. _______ or a pup is the young of beavers, seals, dogs and others.
12. _______ is a small animal with a long furry tail that climbs trees and
eats nuts.
13. _______ is a sea creature that has a soft nearly transparent body.
19. Below, in the column on the right are the definitions of the words
connected with the topic animals and plants. Try each word next to its
definition. All the words contain sound [ε:]:
T_ _ _ _ _ - an animal that lives esp. in water and has a soft body covered
by a hard bony shell into which the head, legs and tail can be pulled for
protection.
T_ _ _ _ _ - a large bird, rather like a large chicken, kept on farms for its
meat which is eaten, esp. at Christmas and (in US) at Thanksgiving day.
W_ _ _ - a small thin creature with no bones or limbs, like a round tube of
flesh.
B_ _ _ _ - a tree, common in northern countries, with a smooth bark and
thin branches.
F_ _ - any of many kinds of straight tree that mostly keep their seeds in
cones, and grow especially in cold country.
H_ _ _ - any of several kinds of small plant which are used to improve the
taste of food or to make medicine.
E_ _ _ _ - the surface of the planet on which we live as opposite to the sky.
20. Write out the following, adding either ck, c, k, ch, qu, (for the [k]
sound). Arrange words in columns respectively:
…ameleon, …oala, …at, …itten, du…, …amel, …o…, o…topus, …attle,
…ittiwa…e, …angaroo, …anary, …alf, …olt, …ub, …row, …ro…us,
53
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
butter…up, …one, bar…, …o…oon, mos…ito, s…irrel, …rysanthemum,
…u…oo, chi…en, roo…ery, sna…e.
21. In some words ch sounds as [t∫] or [∫].Transcribe the words. Consult
the dictionary if necessary.
Birch, branch, chameleon, chrysanthemum, beech, ostrich, chicken,
chimpanzee.
22. Read the text for the dictation, write out all the difficult words.
DICTATION 1
And the rain poured on down. Not in one incessant sheet – it varied, nearly
stopped and then with a different rhythm began again. I remember the hours
staring at it. How many different ways it can rain! One felt on that afternoon that
it tried every variation of its wet repertoire. With the violence of its first cloud, it
had broken in deluge, knifing down quite vertically its curtain, screening the air
with watered silver wire. That first violence had abated, a small wind had
carried the lighter wider lines of rain to a slant – the surface of the river had
resolved its silver coinage into a sluggish mirror just flecked by light strokes as
at the passage of a fleet of water-insects. Suddenly the lightning sky had grown
purple dark again, a sulphurus yellow radiance had travelled at speed from the
east, and without warning – and only for the space of some three minutes – the
air had been white with rain of hailstones. Some of these collected like crumbled
soda on the projecting ends of the landing-stage; though white they fell like a
storm of heavy soot against the shining brass sky; they made a cruel whipping
sound, danced like mad white peas. Yet – soon as the command of the human
agency that seems to control storms – this temper had exhausted itself; and for a
while in a sullen windless air the rain had showered into lighter, finer drops of
texture of mist, of a most penetrating damp. A bloom of wetness had then
moistened the inside of the boathouse, a sweat suffused clothes, hands, wood
with its clammy dew. And how low the clouds had hung then, an accumulated
greyness of damp mist rolling within its thickness and hanging, always hanging
down over and over. The trees no longer rustled to the lively drops – a clean
sound like the refreshment of birds – but now dropped dogged and wet,
miserable and drenched, stifled with too much water; no tree could breathe in
such dense moisture.
But at six o’clock the clouds grew bright, the pale white sun fired their
wool with warm strong light. The rain dithered away to nothing. The sun came
through, and one by one and then suddenly as if in a chorus the birds came
squawking and trilling out. The gnats rose. Everything glistened into evening
gold. A dog barked; and across the early evening water came the distant,
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
infinitely melancholy strains of a music-hall song played on a summer
gramophone. Windows everywhere must have been opened. Lungs must have
greeted the new air, eyes turned pleased to the sky.
(from The Body by William Sansom)
DICTATION 2
Animals live everywhere. They roam the land. They burrow in the ground.
They swim in the sea. They fly through the air. They creep, they leap, they soar,
and they dive. A very few—including corals — stay in one place.
Animals come in all sizes. The biggest animals are whales, which can be 100
feet (30 meters) long. The smallest animals can only be seen through a
microscope. Zoologists have found more than 2 million species of animals.
They think they have discovered only a small portion of all animals on Earth.
Several things make animals different from other living things. Unlike
plants, animals cannot make their own food. Animals eat other living things—
plants and other animals—to get energy. Animal bodies are made up of more
than one cell, unlike bacteria and other life forms with only one cell. Cells are
the building blocks of living things. Animals also have senses, such as eyes or
ears, that tell them what is going on around them.
Zoologists divide animals into about 30 groups. First, they divide them by
whether they have a backbone. Animals that have a backbone are called
vertebrates. Animals that do not have a backbone are called invertebrates.
The biggest and best-known animals are vertebrates. Mammals, birds,
reptiles, amphibians, and fish are vertebrates. You are a vertebrate. Your
backbone is also called your spine. There are about 40,000 species of
vertebrates.
There are far more species of invertebrates. Even though you can probably
think of many vertebrates, the many kinds of invertebrates greatly outnumber
vertebrates. Almost all invertebrates are small animals. Insects, spiders,
mollusks, and worms are all invertebrates. The biggest invertebrate is the giant
squid. It can be up to 60 feet (18 meters) long.
Zoologists divide vertebrates into two types, cold-blooded and warmblooded animals. The body of a cold-blooded animal is the same temperature as
the air or water around it. A cold-blooded animal has to stay in the sun to get
warm. It must find shade to cool off. Reptiles, amphibians, and fish are coldblooded.
55
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The body of a warm-blooded animal stays about the same temperature all
the time. Warm-blooded animals use food energy to stay warm. Some warmblooded animals can sweat to cool off. Birds and mammals are warm-blooded.
All animals eat plants, other animals, or the remains of dead animals. Animals
that only eat plants are called herbivores. They eat seeds, nuts, grasses, stems, or
flowers. Some mammals, such as cows, are plant eaters. Some insects, such as
termites, only eat plants. Bees, moths, and butterflies suck nectar from flowers.
Animals that only eat meat are called carnivores. The meat can be from
other living animals or animals that have died. Many meat eaters hunt the
animals that they eat. Sharks go after smaller fish. Lions and wolves hunt deer
and other mammals. Owls swoop down on rabbits, squirrels, rats, and mice.
Some frogs and lizards zap insects with their sticky tongues. Hyenas and
vultures mainly eat animals that are already dead.
Animals that commonly eat both animals and plants are called omnivores.
Bears and opossums are omnivores. Humans are omnivores. They eat fruit,
vegetables, fish, chicken, and steak.
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
SHOPPING
1. Find the words similar to the given key-words, arrange them in
columns and learn by heart:
scale, price, cake, hand, take, sole, hope, stripe, spice, stockings,
Lace
case, make-up, trade, tape, trader, change, sales, tax, drab, size,
Cash
ribbon, mittens, fish, shippers, pad, consumer, cotton, socks,
Hope
sandals, drugs, same, item, time, cash, desk, trap, back, jacket,
Shop
add, trunks, pack, lump, bed, dress, huge, napkin, pattern, rack,
slice
bucket, hammer, muffler, button, mop, cotton stock, jumper,
Pin
nylon, note, style, paper, rate, pick-up.
Tube
Run
Vest
My
2. The words present the foreign borrowings. Transcribe, translate them
into Russian.
queue, extraordinary, accompaniment, couple, elephantine, giant, casualty,
triumphant, trolley, maxim, yoghurt, quarter, cashier, cheque, conveyer,
dejectedly, salmon, purse, leather, processed, brassiere, mascara, vogue,
gondola, parka, champagne, Wellingtons, boutique, bouquet, corduroys.
3. Consult the dictionary to read, translate the words.
a. Explain the rules of reading in the following word-combinations:
shopping area
to do one’s shopping
shopping mall
to go shopping
shopping queue/line
shop window (window display)
shopping spree
to dress the shop window
shopping trolley/cart
shopping bag
shopping list
shopping women
b. Group the word-combinations according to the rules of formation.
painting
knitting-needle
watering can
engraving
sitting-room suite
wedding ring
etching
gardening tools
writing-pad
wrapping paper
drawing pin
greeting cards
dressing gown
baking ingredients
sorting goods
outer clothing
fitting room
dancing shoes
marketing
setting accounts
impulse buying
57
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c. Group the word-combinations according to the pronunciation of the
suffixed [d], [t], [id]
textile
laced boots
high heeled shoes
flowered
low heeled shoes
striped
mid high heeled shoes
pin-striped
stiletto heeled shoes
checkered
Bare heeled shoes
tailored
Thick-soled shoes
high-furlined boots
4. Use the rhymed words to complete these sentences.
a. Let us never, never d… (сомневаться)
What nobody is sure about!
b. For ham, jam, or l… (баранина/ягненок)
I don’t give a damn
c. When they said: “Are you d… (глухой)?”
She merely said, “Hum!”
d. When in d… (сомневаться),
Leave out.
5. Look up the meaning of the words from the table in the dictionary,
pronounce them aloud properly.
Silent
“t”
Medially
Finally
stl
St(h)m-
ften
sten
bristle
castle
nestle
rustle
thistle
whistle
wrestle
Christmas
asthma
soften
fasten
Christen
hasten
listen
moisten
In some words of
French origin
ballet
buffet (refreshment
bar)
argot
debut
bouquet
restaurant
beret
And in the inflected and derived forms from them (e.g. whistling,
wrestler, Newcastle, etc.)
Note: however “t” is pronounced in haste, pistol, Christ, soft, hostel, crystal,
etc.
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A. Complete the sentences using one of the words from the table above.
1. Th… and thorn prick sore, but evil tongues prick more.
2. An Englishman’s home is his c…
3. See, l… and be silent, and you will live.
4. Ch… comes but once a year.
5. He doesn’t like honey and th….s
Because of the taste and because of the b…
6. Simple Simon went look
If plums grew on a th…
He prickled his finger very much,
Which made poor Simon wh…
B. Match the words, making up phrases, use them in sentences of your own.
Column A
1. Christmas
2. to nestle
3. glistening
4. to fasten
5. Christian
6. to listen
7. castles
8. The Twelve
9. to hasten
10. bristly
Column B
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
Apostles
in the air
the growth of plants
tree
dew-drops
name
the door
the baby
to the story
moustache
6. Match up the shop (departments) with the appropriate goods; supply
the missing letters in Part A.
Column A
Column B
2. _nitted wear
a. drawing pin, paper clip, blotting paper
3. Haberd_shery
b. paperback, post-stamp, greeting card
4. China and glas_ware
c. vacuum-cleaner, bulb, dish-washer
5. Stati_nary
d. living-room suite, cabinet
6. Perfum_ry
e. pendant, silverware, candlestick
7. Record depart_ent
f. cups, plates, vases, teapots
8. Electri_al equi_ment
g. muffler, jersey, mittens
9. newsag_nts
h. brick-a-brack, silver-bell
10. Furni_ure
i. records
11. Hardw_re shop
j. scissors, tape, ribbons
12. gewel_er’s
k. scent, eye-shade, hand-cream
13. Anti_ue shop
l. knife, screws, watering-can
59
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Make sure you can spell these words correctly.
[‘beIkqz], [‘beIkqri], [‘butSqz], [ken'fekSnqz], [kqn'fekSnqrI], ['dFqrI],
["grJn'grousqz] , [fIS'mAngqz], ['houZqrI], ['swJt-SOp], [frHtqrqz], [tq'bxkqnIsts],
['waIn qnd 'spIrIt 'mWtSqnts], [qf'laIsqns 'SOp], ['grousqz], ['aIqnmANgqz]
8. Match the words in the column A with those in column B. Consult the
dictionary to learn the spelling and the meaning.
a) Pick out the words for the sounds: [iq], [ai], [Ou], [i:], [a:]
b)What letters and letter combinations stand for the sounds [tS] , [S],
[Z], [z], [k]
Column A
1. a packet of
2. a bar of
3. a bunch of
4. a pint of
5. half a pound of
6. a tube of
7. a bottle of
8. a jar of
9. half a dozen
10. 2 hundred grams of
11. a lump of
12. a joint of
13. a cake of
14. a reel of
15. a can/tin of
Column B
a. beer
b. milk
c. chocolate
d. rolls
e. horse-radish
f. champagne
g. raspberry jam
h. butter
i. radishes
j. cheese
k. sugar
l. sardine, peaches
m. thread
n. soap
o. beef
9. Complete the sentences with the following expressions. Consult the
dictionary to see if their spelling is right.
a. be out of stok/stock
b. to sell by weit/weight
c. to wear well
d. to run out of
e. shoping spree/shopping spree
f. impuls/impulse buying
g. look for bargins/bargains
h. shoping/shopping list
1. Many people come to this market to______.
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Sorry, we don’t have this style of shoes now, we are_______ at the moment.
3. The rousers are made of pure wool, I don’t think they______.
4. Have you included sugar in the ______? I couldn’t find any in the cupboard.
5. Do you sell your lemons by the head or ______?
6. I’ve spent all my money at the mall today. It was a real _____.
7. Don’t take your coat off, dear. we’ve _____ bread. Will you run to the
baker’s round the corner?
8. This kind of advertising is aimed at those who incline to _____.
DICTATION
Father doesn’t like when Mother goes shopping on her own. Though she is
always short of supplies and carefully makes her shopping list before going
shopping she usually spends more money than she can afford to because she is
often magnetized by attractively packed things displayed on numerous shelves
of our supermarket which have “no business” to do in a food store, as Father
says. So, he prefers to accompany her on her shopping tours. Last Saturday there
was a big queue in our main department store. They were having a discount on
winter clothing, household electrical appliances and footwear. The prices were
reduced from 20 to 40 per cent. That day we all went shopping together. Each of
us found something to buy. I bought very nice brown shoes for autumn wear.
Mother chose a warm winter coat with a mink collar for herself a and a very
beautiful fur jacket for father, and father couldn’t drag himself away from
electrical appliances department and finally bought a shaving set of the latest
model and a coffee mill, being a great “coffee man”. Though all those items
(things) were sold at a discount our outing turned out a real shopping spree. So
we’re going to be very much stingy with the money next month.
APPENDIX
61
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ON PUNCTUATION
In speaking, our voice, facial gestures, and body movements help to clarify
the meaning. In writing, punctuation marks are the signals that help us to
convey clear meaning. Punctuation should be regarded as a special method of
expressing the relations between written words.
By punctuation we understand signals that work together with words and
structures to create meaning. With the help of these signals, readers anticipate,
link, separate, emphasize, and characterize ideas according to a writer’s wishes.
In fact, their misuse can distort or obscure the intended meaning. Therefore, to
communicate clearly, we must know the English punctuation marks and use
them according to standard practice. Used in this way, it can be very helpful. For
example, punctuation marks help the reader to know whether the sentence is a
statement, a question, a command, or a sentence of strong emotions. To
punctuate correctly, we must know what effect each of the marks may be
expected to have as an actual aid of communication.
Here are some punctuation marks and their names:
,
:
;
“”
a comma
a colon
a semicolon
inverted commas/
quotation marks
’
()
[ ]
-
an apostrophe
parentheses/brackets
square brackets
a hyphen
─
.
?
!
a dash
a full stop (a period)
a question mark
an exclamation mark
Read the following humorous verse about some punctuation marks
The full stop is a busy man.
A small round traffic cop.
He blocks the helter-skelter words
And brings them to a stop.
The question mark’s a tiny boy,
He’s small and very wise;
He asks too many questions
For a person of his size.
Of all the punctuation folk,
I like the comma best,
For when I’m getting out of breath
She lets me take a rest.
Quotation marks are curious.
When friendly talk begins
You’ll always find these little marks
Are busy listening in.
The exclamation mark’s an elf,
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Who is easily excited.
When children laugh, or cry, or scream
It’s then he’s most delighted.
Punctuation can often say quite a lot. Read the following joke paying
attention to the punctuation marks. Compare the sentences written in
italics.*
One day, as a teacher walked into her classroom, she heard Tommy
Andrews whisper to the boy next to him: “Here is the teacher. I’ll bet the silly
cow is going to talk about putting in commas.” The teacher did not say anything
but she really began to talk about putting in commas, and explained how
important they could be. To show what she meant, she wrote the sentence on the
blackboard: “Tommy Andrews says the teacher is a silly cow.” The class
laughed and Tommy Andrews looked very red. “Now,” said the teacher, “I’ll
show how important commas are.” She put two commas into the sentence, and it
now read: “Tommy Andrews, says the teacher, is a silly cow.”
*Italics is a special kind of slant type that printers use. Here is a list of
items that are usually put in italics:
a) Titles of books (Catcher in the Rye; War and Peace)
b) Magazines, journals, newspapers (News Tribune; Newsweek;
Cosmopolitan)
c) Plays, movies, and other works of art such as names of paintings (The
Doll House; Dracula; Peter Pan; Mona Lisa)
d) Names of ships (Queen Elizabeth II)
e) Foreign words or abbreviations of foreign words (cit. ─ цитированный;
ibid. ─ там же; POW ─ военнопленный)
I. The COMMA (,)
The most versatile and often used of all punctuation marks are commas.
They enclose, separate, and set off information. Since commas indicate the
sentence structure and meaning, their use is essential to clear writing.
The comma signals a pause. The tendency in modern English is to use as
few commas as possible, but we should know the main cases when we cannot
do without a comma. Here are some of them:
1. in lists* to separate three or more items in a series (including the last)
e.g. Please order some more office supplies: paper, envelopes, pencils(,)**
and ball-point pens.
* If you are not sure whether to use a comma in a series of three or more
things or events, check to see if and can be used in place of the comma, or
whether you can invert the order of the words.
** The comma is not essential but makes the meaning clearer.
2. in dates
63
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
e.g. 12th April (,) 2008; April 12th, 2008; April 12, 2008.
She was born on Tuesday, July 31, 1980.*
*When only a month and a year are given, the comma is omitted, as in
July 1973 was an unusually warm month.
3. between the subordinate and the main clauses when the subordinate
comes first
e.g. Although the guarantee has run out (,) you needn’t pay anything.*
* It is better to use the comma in this case, particularly if the clauses are long.
4. in compound sentences, no matter if the coordinate connectives are
used or not between the clauses
e.g. The company was good, but the food was awful.
5. after salutation in informal letters
e.g. Dear Mario,
6. in sentences with direct speech
e.g. “And now”, said Mr. Baker, “we must discuss our new model”, and he
asked the Production Manager to give the details.
7. to set off a tag in a disjunctive question
e.g. You ordered your hot dog with chili and onions, didn’t you?
8. to set off an interjection, a direct address, contrasting elements
e.g. Well, this is an interesting turn of events. (interjection)*
Berth, go and give your dog some exercise. (address)
Available credit, not ready cash, determines a consumer’s purchasing
power. (contrast)
* The interjection ‘Oh’ can be also followed by an exclamation mark or no
mark at all. The poetic exclamation ‘O’ is not followed by punctuation
9. in titles, addresses and place names
e.g. Martin Luther King, Jr., was one of the twentieth century’s greatest
orators.
He said he grew up in Malta, Montana.
Her address is Azalea House, 12856 S.W. Jackson Street, Cairo, Texas
66731. **
** Note that no comma is used between the name of the state and ZIP code.
10. before and after the following adverbs and adverbial phrases even
if they are inserted between the subject and the predicate or between the
auxiliary and the notional parts of the predicate: besides, however, indeed, in
fact, moreover, of course, on the other hand, perhaps, therefore, too, etc.
e.g. Our prices, on the other hand, are the same as a year ago.
Inflation has, of course, increased considerably.
11. before and/or after participial phrases
e.g. Hearing the siren, the workers put their things away.
John, having read the book, I gave it back to Peter.
II. THE COLON (:)
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The colon is used in a formal sense to show that something is to follow. A
colon is used:
1. after a salutation in formal letters
e.g. Dear Miss Jones: Gentlemen:
2. to introduce a long quotation
e.g. “There Was an Old Party of Lyme” is an amusing limerick:
There was an old party of Lyme
Who married three wives at one time.
When asked, “Why the third?”
He replied, “One’s absurd,
And bigamy, sir, is a crime.”
3. to introduce a list
e.g. We supply necessary linen to our guests: towels, sheets, and blankets.
4. in writing time
e.g. 12:15 P.M., 9:30 A.M.
5. in a title to separate parts of the title
e.g. “Looking Beyond: A Study of Divergent Thinking”
III. THE SEMICOLON (;)
1. The semicolon is a punctuation signal used to connect two simple
sentences to form a compound sentence. However, the semicolon separates
those parts of the sentence between which there is a more distinct break than
would call for a comma, but which are too closely connected to be made into
separate sentences. Compare the examples: The men stopped working, but they
didn’t go home. The men stopped working; they took their lunch pails and left.
Typically these will be clauses of similar importance and grammatical
construction.
e.g. To err is human; to forgive, divine.
2. When the linking words hence, so, then, nevertheless, therefore,
moreover, thus, and so on join two simple sentences to form a compound
sentence, a semicolon is usually used before the linking word.
e.g. School closed at 1:00 P.M. on Wednesday; then the children went home.
IV. INVERTED COMMAS / QUOTATION MARKS (“…”)
1. A direct quotation* is always enclosed in quotation marks; there is a
comma after said, and the first word of the quotation is capitalized. An indirect
quotation* is not enclosed in quotation marks.
e.g. She said, “I will take a course in French next year.” (Direct quotation)
She said that she would take a course in French next term. (Indirect
quotation)
65
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
* A direct quotation gives a statement in the exact words that come, or
would come from a speaker. An indirect quotation merely gives the gist of what
was, or might have been said.
2. Separate sentences that follow one another and are part of the same
speech should be enclosed in the same pair of inverted commas.
e.g. She replied, “ I am having trouble with this course. If I don’t get help
soon, I’ll have to drop it.”
3. If the words of the author occur in the middle of a quotation, she/he
said should not be included within the quotation marks.
e.g. “If that is true,” he said, “we are in trouble.”*
* The rest of the sentence following he/she said is enclosed in separate
inverted commas and doesn’t begin with a capital letter.
4. If the quotation coming before she/he said forms a complete
sentence, a period (a full stop) should come after he/she said
e.g. “Who are you?” he asked. “I don’t know you.”
5. If the expression she said or he said comes in the middle of a question
or an exclamation, the question mark or the exclamation mark is placed at the
end of the quotation
e.g. “That is so extraordinary,” she exclaimed, “that I don’t believe it!”
6. A quotation within a quotation is designated by single quotation marks
e.g. The storyteller said, “The frightened man asked, ‘Who are you?’
However, there was no answer…”
7. When we use an author’s exact words in our writing, the author’s
words should be enclosed in quotation marks
e.g. Mark Twain writes with biting satire about politicians. My instructor
agrees with Mark Twain that “a jay hasn’t got any more principles than a
Congressman.”
8. Quotation marks are used when defining a word
e.g. Pseudoscience means “false science.”
9. We use quotation marks when writing a dialogue. We start a new
paragraph to indicate a change of the speaker. Sometimes these paragraph
shifts will be the only indication readers need:
e.g. “You are going,” he said as though it were a fact.
“Yes.” Her voice was quiet but firm.
“And you believe you ought to have the Ferrari and the Picasso?”
“It was my money that bought them.”
“So it was,” he said. “So it was.”
SPECIAL NOTES:
• Periods and commas should be placed within the quotation marks
e.g. “It can’t last any longer,” said Jack. “Please get help.”
• Semicolons and colons should be placed outside the quotation marks
e.g. Ms. Smith said, “Never mind, I’ll stay”; however, her boss didn’t hear her.
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• Question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes may be placed inside
or outside the quotation marks depending on whether they refer to the whole
sentence or merely to the quotation
e.g. a) John asked, “What do you want?” b) Did Hilda scream, “I need help”?
[The question mark belongs to the whole sentence] c) “Jack! Wait!”
[Exclamation is part of the meaning of the quoted material] d) Frankie called
after her, “Wait! I need ─ ” but she was already gone. [The dash here indicates
that Frankie stopped abruptly.]
V. THE APOSTROPHE (’)
The apostrophe is used:
1. to signal possession or any other meaning directly connected with the
use of the Possessive Case (N’s or N in the plural plus ’)
e.g. Raymond’s bicycle [the bicycle belonging to Raymond]
the album’s first song [the song that is part of the album]
Keat’s poems [the poems written by Keat]
A day’s journey [a journey lasting a day], etc.
2. with acronyms (words formed by several first initials)
e.g. NASA’s performance record
3. with Indefinite compound Pronouns
e.g. everyone’s choice
4. to form contractions (two words shortened to one)
e.g. aren’t, he’ll, I’d, there’s, wouldn’t, let’s, etc.
5. to signal omitted letters or numbers
e.g. o’clock← of the clock, group of ’99 ← group of 1999
6. to form the plural of numbers, letters, and typographical symbols
e.g. Young children sometimes confuse b’s and d’s.
All my psychology test scores were in the 90’s
When I looked at the page I was typing, all the $’s were 4’s.
Note: The plural of years can be written either with or without the
apostrophe
e.g. The 2010’s will see a rise in the number of high school students.
The 2010s will see a rise in the number of high school students.
VI. PARENTHESES/ROUND BRACKETS ( )
Parentheses are generally used:
1. to enclose added material such as an explanation, a comment, a
translation, or an elaboration of something in an already complete sentence
e.g. The battle decimated (destroyed a large part of) the troops.
His boss (a typical Scrooge) is not known for his generosity to his fellow men.
2. to enclose numbers, sums, or symbols that are repeated in the sentence
67
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
e.g. One hundred (100) people will attend the reception.
Enclosed is the sum of five dollars ($ 5.00)
The dash (─) is used to show an abrupt change in the thought of a
sentence.
3. for reference purposes
e.g. Review uses of the colon (See Unit II).
4. to enclose reference letters and figures which do not need a full stop, or
interruptions by the audience in the report of a speech
e.g. (1), (a); … (applause)
5. to insert in the sentence some loosely related material
e.g. After raking leaves for hours (there must have been millions of leaves
on my lawn),
I was exhausted.
VII. SQUARE BRACKETS [ ]
Writers use square brackets in two quite specialized ways:
1. to set off a parenthetical element within an already parenthesized
passage as in the following example:
e.g. The Republican party has not always been unsympathetic to feminist
concerns (such as the Equal Rights Amendment [ERA], which the Nixon
administration supported).
2. to insert corrections, explanations, interpolations, notes, or translations
into a quoted passage as in
e.g. Then she turned and said, “Will you [meaning my father] be joining us
for dinner?”*
* In sentences like the one just given, readers attribute the bracketed
material to the author of the sentence, not to the person who is quoted.
THE HYPHEN (-)
English is full of words (such as backpack, underline, and payday) whose
parts have joined together to make single words. In other cases such
combination words are formed using hyphens as in blood-pressure, jetpropelled. And sometimes these combinations retain the normal space between
words, as in lame duck and mountain range.
See the following rules when using hyphens:
1. Forming compound modifiers
In the sentence Don’t worry about that down-on-my-luck expression you
have strung four words together with hyphens. By so doing you are telling your
readers that these four words combine in one meaning [sour].*
*a) Hyphenate a compound adjective appearing before a noun; do not
hyphenate such an adjective when it follows the noun. So, if you rewrite the
68
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
above sentence so that the adjective follows the noun, hyphens are not used as in
That expression makes me look down on my luck – don’t worry about it. *b)
Never use a hyphen to join an adverb ending in -ly to another word. Her
radically different approach produced excellent results. *c) a series of
compound modifiers sharing the same word (or words) can be shortened by
using suspended hyphens: This summer, the eight-, nine-, and ten-year-old
campers were placed in a single group.
2. Using hyphens to create your own compounds for special effect
When speaking or writing informally, we often create our own spur-of-themoment compounds which add some flair: We enjoyed another August-inOctober day.
3. Using hyphens with fractions and compound numbers
• We use hyphens to spell out fractions: three-fourths, one-third, etc.
Hyphens connect separate words in order to form one unit, one fractional
number.
• Compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine are also written out
using hyphens.
4. Using hyphens with certain prefixes and suffixes
Over the years many prefixes and suffixes have been so frequently attached
to some words that now no hyphen is used to connect them: unusual,
disinterested, predestined. However, several prefixes and suffixes do commonly
take hyphens. Prefixes attached to numerals or to capitalized words always take
hyphens, as in pre-1914, and un-Christian. Unfortunately, there are a number of
exceptions to this general guideline. The only way to be certain of such
exceptions is to consult a dictionary.
5. Using hyphens in a group of words that has been turned into a
syntactic unit, behaving as a different part of speech from the words of which it
is composed: court-martial (verb), happy-go-lucky (adjective), good-fornothing, stick-in-the-mud, ne’er-do-well (nouns).
THE DASH ( ─ )
The dash is used to indicate some kind of break. Following are some uses
of the dash:
1. to show an abrupt shift in thought
e.g. Oh, yes, let’s go ─ but wait, what did you say?
2. for suspense or emphasis
e.g. All was quiet ─ too quiet.
3. to summarize or rephrase part of a sentence that came before
e.g. She had good looks, charm, intelligence, and money ─ everything that
one could ask for, but she was not happy.
4. in place of parentheses where parentheses would separate the
information too much from the sense of the surrounding words
69
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
e.g. The adjective ─ it describes or limits a noun or pronoun ─ can be used
to expand sentences.
5. to show that a sentence is not finished
e.g. It doesn’t sound right, but if you think ─ I don’t know ─ *
* the period is omitted when a sentence ends with a dash.
PRACTICE
Task 1. Insert commas where needed in the following sentences.
1. The little white cat ran away.
2. The procession halted started again and then halted once more.
3. I like fine-quality furniture that is sturdy attractive and inexpensive.
4. They had vegetables for breakfast vegetables for lunch and vegetables
for dinner.
5. Our flag is red white and blue.
6. The parade was made up by clowns acrobats and animal trainers.
7. The factory noise the traffic noise and the children’s yelling helped give
me a headache.
8. She bought a beautiful red winter coat.
9. If I do the thing I will do it thoroughly but I must have a free hand.
10. O powerful western fallen star!
O shades of night ─ O moody, tearful night!
O great star disappear’d ─ O the black murk that hides the star!
O cruel hands that hold me powerless ─ O helpless soul of me!
O harsh surrounding cloud that will not free my soul.
Walt Whitman
Task 2. Although it is important to remember when to use a comma, it
is no less important to know when not to use a comma. In the following
sentences, put a C (Correct) in front of those that have no comma errors.
Correct the comma errors in the other sentences:
___ 1. When a prospective groom had obtained his father’s consent to
marry a formal marriage proposal had to be made.
___ 2. Nowadays things are more flexible and wedding expenses are split
according to the two families’ incomes.
___ 3. They make plans to read more to help mother about the house, and
to do a hundred other good things.
___ 4. When something is just up your street it is exactly what suits you
but if you take the wrong turning, or you are off the track, you have made a
mistake.
___ 5. In May 1665 the Great Plague arrived in London on one of the
ships.
70
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
___ 6. How people use their free time depends on age, sex, educational
background, social class, and of course on their personal tastes and inclinations.
___ 7. They said that she would not go with us.
___ 8. My son, give me thy heart.
___ 9. In the valley below, the villages and everything else looked very
small.
___10. Our order was for a box of computer paper, two boxes of typing,
ribbons, a stapler, and four rolls of tape.
Task 3. Insert quotation marks where they are needed. Put a C in front
of the sentences that do not require quotation marks
__ 1. How could you do it for me? He asked.
__ 2. The following remarks were overheard at an art show: I don’t get it!
Who are they kidding? Is that art?
__ 3. Classes begin early this semester, said Fran, but they end early too.
__ 4. She said, I’m taking difficult courses this year.
__ 5. We read Walt Whitman’s poems O Captain! My Captain! and When
Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d.
__ 6. Are you sure, she asked, that you will drop out of the swimming
team?
__ 7. Did you get the job you wanted? she asked.
__ 8. What did you say that was so important?
__ 9. No, I’m not going with you, she said.
Task 4. Here are five sentences. Determine whether round or square
brackets should be used with the underlined words in italics.
1. The reporter wrote about the life of Rev. Dr. Brown a circus performer
as well as a man of the cloth and how he single-handedly captured five escaped
criminals, using circus guile.
2. Enclosed you will find a check for twenty-five dollars $25 to pay for my
room reservation.
3. Last week in the newspaper it was reported that Jim Stepleton our local
historian had uncovered some important information about our town.
4. When you mark the papers, put a check √ in front of all the correct
answers and a cross + or an “ex” x in front of all the incorrect answers.
5. After working for days on my English paper I never want to look at
another sheet of paper and pencil again, I finally finished it.
71
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
REFERENCES
1. Куценко А.В. Пиши правильно по-английски! Spell it correctly:
Сборник упражнений по орфографии английского языка. – М.,
Гуманит. изд.центр ВЛАДОС, 1998. – 176 с.
2. Мальченко А.А., Любимова З.А., Окнинская Т.В. Английский для
учителей начальной школы. – Тула: Издательство «Интербумага,
1995. – 143с.
3. Меркулова Е.М. Английский язык. Чтение,письменная и устная
практика. – СПб.: Издательство «Союз», 2004. – 368 с.
4. Письменная практика: Учеб. пособие для студентов пед. ин-тов по
спец. №2103 «Иностр. яз.» / И.А.Уолш, А.Н.Варшанвская,
И.А.Васильевич и др. – М.: Просвещение, 1983. – 208 с.
5. Пособие по практике устной речи для 1 курса факультета
иностранных языков (английский язык)/ Сост. И.В. Мельникова,
З.А. Любимова, Ю.А. Богатова и др. – Тула: Изд-во Тульского
государственного пед. университета им. Л.Н. Толстого. 2006 – 117с.
6. Практический курс английского языка: 1 курс: учебник для
студентов педагогических вузов / Под. ред. В.Д. Аракина. –
5-е издание, испр. – М. : Гуманитарный издательский центр
ВЛАДОС, 2001 . – 544 с.
7. Яо Э.А. Пособие по орфографии английского языка: Учеб.поосбие. –
М.: Высш. Школа, 1981. – 120 с.
8. English reader, First year: Учебное пособие по домашнему чтению
(с упражнениями) для студентов 1 курса факультета иностранных
языков пед. университета (на англ. яз) Сост: Любимова З.А.,
Курбатова Е.А, Анисимова Л.В. и др. – Тула: Изд-во Тульского
педагогического университета им. Л.Н. Толстого, 2001 -253 с.
9. Learn by learning: учебное пособие по английскому языку для
студентов 1 курса факультета иностранных языков пед. университета
(на англ. яз)/
10. Либимова З.А., Мельникова И.В., Курбатова Е.А. / Под ред.
З.А. Любимовой – Тула, изд. Тульского государственного пед.
университета им. Л. Н. Толстого 1999. – 136 с.
72
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
22
Размер файла
783 Кб
Теги
грамотной, 5104, пиши
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа