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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
American &British
values vs Russian ones
(In The World of Linguo-Cultural
Studies & Cross-Cultural Communication)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
American &British
values vs Russian ones
(In The World of Linguo-Cultural
Studies & Cross-Cultural Communication)
Второе издание переработанное и дополненное
Учебное пособие
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
В 65
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Иркутского
государственного лингвистического университета
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей
с общественностью ИГЛУ
Ю.С. Заграйская
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
И.Н. Зырянова
Войткова, А.Н.
В 65 Patriotism: American & British values vs Russian ones (in the world of
linguo-cultural studies & cross-cultural communication) : учеб. пособие:
в 3-х частях / А.Н. Войткова. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ,
2013. – Ч.2. – 88 c.
Учебное пособие содержит обширный аутентичный практический текстовой и
аудиальный материал по актуальным проблемам межкультурной коммуникации,
практикуму по культуре речевого общения и сравнительной лингвокультурологии и
направлено на формирование профессиональной дискурсивной иноязычной компетенции.
Предназначено для студентов среднего (среднепродвинутого) уровня, обучающихся
в вузах с расширенной сеткой преподавания английского языка, а также для студентов 24 курса лингвистического университета неязыковой направления «Музеология и охрана
объектов культурного наследия».
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© Войткова А.Н., 2013
© Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет,
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Book 2
Module 4 What is Patriotism?
 (1) Yankee Doodle - unofficial anthem
Module 5
National values:
(1) American values & beliefs
(2) Core British values
(3) Comparing Russian & British values
Module 6 A bit about Russia
(1) Religious creeds in Russia
(2) Stereotypes and symbols of Russia
(3) Russian Folk craft
(4) Russian traditions
(5) Folklore of rural Russia
(6) Funerals in Russia & in other countries
Module 7.1 Russian New Year vs American & British
(1) Holiday decorations and New Year resolutions,
(2) Christmas superstitions
(3) New Year & all that jazz in Russia
(4) The origin of the Father Frost & Snow maid)
X-mas is coming (additional text)
7.2 Religious & pagan holidays in Russia in
 Epiphany
 Easter
 Shrovetide
Module 8
Nursery Rhymes
(1) The Horrible Meaning behind Nursery Rhymes
(2) The secret History of the Nursery Rhyme
(3) Whose is Mother Goose ?
(4) Lullabies for babies & toddlers
(5) Clapping songs
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Module 4
1. What is patriotism?
a) Read the text below & say what you
think about the basic patriotic terms.
Ask most American adults today whether they are
patriotic, and the answer is a heartfelt yes, regardless of
In fact, 94.5% of Americans think of themselves as
at least somewhat patriotic, and 72.2% say they are either
very or extremely patriotic, according to a new USA
TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll of 1,009 adults. Only 5% of
those polled said they were "not especially patriotic."
But exactly what is patriotism?
In a general way, patriotism means love of country
— love of one's country, one's homeland — a very simple
emotional attachment to the place where you're from," says
Jack Citrin, professor of political science at the University
of California at Berkeley.
"After that, agreement tends to dissolve."
Some people religiously salute the flag; some wrap themselves in the flag —
literally. Others burn it and say patriotism is about protest.
"There are various ways people love the country, just as there are various
ways people love their spouses or love their friends," says Thomas Cushman, a
professor of sociology at Wellesley College.
Patriotism is so complex that academicians have loosely broken it down into
categories, although they don't all agree on the labels:
•Devout patriotism. Unconditional loyalty to country. Also called blind
patriotism because adherents will support the country no matter what, espousing
the ideology, "My country; right or wrong."
•Symbolic patriotism. Attachment to symbols and rituals, such as the flag
and patriotic songs.
•Constructive or critical patriotism. Belief that the best way to love one's
country is with constructive criticism of the government.
Increasingly these days, disagreement leads to arguments and accusations of
others being unpatriotic.
Patriotism "is something that almost everyone thinks is good," says Nolan
McCarty, professor of politics and public affairs at Princeton. "So if you can attach
your idea to something that is good — Mom, apple pie, patriotism — that's a
particularly effective way of selling the idea.
Patriotism raises questions of the sort philosophers characteristically discuss:
How is patriotism to be defined? How is it related to similar attitudes, such as
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nationalism? What is its moral standing: is it morally valuable or perhaps even
mandatory, or is it rather a stance we should avoid? Yet until a few decades ago,
philosophers used to show next to no interest in the subject.
b) Watch the video(1) and (2) & sum up the ideas & discuss
their premises in class.
2. Render the ideas in the sayings into English and into
1. Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel.
— Сэмюэл
2. The soul and substance of what customarily ranks as patriotism
is moral cowardice — and always has been.
— Марк Твен
3. To be a patriot, one had to say, and keep on saying, «Our
Country, right or wrong», and urge on the little war. Have you
not perceived that that phrase is an insult to the nation?
— Марк Твен
4. To me, it seems a dreadful indignity to have a soul controlled
by geography. Джордж Сантаяна
5. Patriotism is the virtue of the vicious. — Оскар Уайльд
6. Patriotism is not necessarily included in rebellion. A man may
hate his king, yet not love his country. — Сэмюэл Джонсон
7. Patriotism is the willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons.
— Бертран Рассел
8. Patriotism is your conviction that this country is superior to all other countries because you were
born in it.
— Джордж Бернард Шоу
9. Патриотическая идеология не позволяет делить соотечественников на «белую кость» и
«быдло», она не признает исключительных прав «титульной нации» и не делит жителей
страны, как лошадей в упряжке, на «коренных» и «некоренных». — Борис Кагарлицкий,
Управляемая демократия: Россия, которую нам навязали
10. Патриотизм в самом простом, ясном и несомненном значении своем есть не что иное для
правителей, как орудие для достижения властолюбивых и корыстных целей, а для
управляемых — отречение от человеческого достоинства, разума, совести и рабское
подчинение себя тем, кто во власти. Так он и проповедуется везде, где проповедуется
патриотизм. Патриотизм есть рабство. — Из книги «Христианство и патриотизм» — Лев
Николаевич Толстой.
11. Я, конечно, презираю отечество мое с головы до ног — но мне досадно, если иностранец
разделяет со мною это чувство. — Из письма П. А. Вяземскому от 27 мая 1826 г. Из Пскова
в Петербург — Александр Сергеевич Пушкин
12. Патриотизм — это изумительное чувство, которого не существует у людей, которые вслух
произносят это слово. — В передаче «Дифирамб», на радиостанции «Эхо Москвы» —
Игорь Миронович Губерман
Долг патриота — защищать свою страну от ее правительства.
— Томас Пейн
Истинный патриот — это человек, который, заплатив штраф за неправильную
парковку, радуется, что система действует эффективно.
— Питер Уостхолм
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15. Нет патриотов там, где речь идёт о налогах. — Джордж Оруэлл
16. Патриотизм по сути своей агрессивен, а патриоты, как правило — люди злые.
— Оскар
17. «Патриотизм» значит просто «убей иноверца».
— Борис Гребенщиков
18. Патриот — это мужик, живущий в избе с соломенной крышей, но истово гордящийся тем,
что у его барина самый высокий дом во всей волости.
— Лев Семёнович Рубинштейн (Википедия)Патриотизм
3. Surf the net & search for a cartoon or caricature on the
patriotic issues. Bring them in & comment on the main issue
which is being mocked in the cartoon.
4. Act out a talk show summing up the above-mentioned
Compare the
way how the
Russian &
American are
5. Yankee Doodle - unofficial anthem
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a) Look at the cartoon above. Comment on the patriotic
* Yankee - янки; американец; английская речь американцев; относящийся к
янки; житель Новой Англии; северянин (житель одного из северных штатов)
*Doodle - болван; бездельник;
b) Do you know who & what Yankee Doodle
is. Watch the video clip for children & follow
the lyrics. Discuss what be implied in the
context. Do you understand the satire in the
Kids Version of Yankee Doodle:
Yankee Doodle went to town
A-riding on a pony
He stuck a feather in his hat
And called it macaroni
Father and I went down to camp
Along with Captain Gooding
And there we saw the men and boys
As thick as hasty pudding.
Yankee Doodle, keep it up
Yankee Doodle dandy
Mind the music and the step
and with the girls be handy!
And there was Gen’ral Washington
Upon a slapping stallion
A giving orders to his man
I guess there was a million.
c) Read the explanation of this patriotic
Singing a song in Revolutionary America was not
necessarily an innocent act. At the time, almost everyone
sang in public on occasion, either for entertainment, for
worship, or as part of their work. However, songs were
also important instruments of satire and mockery. People
used them to make fun of public figures, to pass ugly
rumors, or to playfully insult their enemies—and
sometimes their friends.
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As opposition to British rule in the American colonies heated up, satirical
songs took on a new edge. Rebellious colonists sang songs insulting Britain’s king,
George III, as a drunken tyrant, and British soldiers answered with songs ridiculing
the Americans as backwoods yokels.
One of these songs, which told the story of a poorly dressed Yankee
simpleton, or "doodle", was so popular with British troops that they played it as
they marched to battle on the first day of the Revolutionary War. The rebels
quickly claimed the song as their own, though, and created dozens of new verses
that mocked the British, praised the new Continental Army, and hailed its
commander, George Washington.
Yankee Doodle, the patriotic song (and state anthem of Connecticut) was
originally sung by British military officers to mock the disheveled and
disorganized American colonists who fought alongside them during the French and
Indian Wars
The Americans took the song (and insult) and turned it around: they were
proud to be called Yankees, and Yankee Doodle became a patriotic song.
The origin of the Yankee Doodle is murky, but it is thought to originate in
15th century Holland as a harvesting song that began "Yanker dudel doodle down."
The same tune was used for an English nursey rhyme "Lucy Locket."
There are several possible origins of the word "yankee," but I like this one:
it's a Indian corruption of "anglais," the French word for English.
Doodle is actually a 17th century word meaning "fool."
The macaroni in the lyric is not pasta - it's
actually a pejorative term for a man who dressed in
a ridiculously outlandish style. The word came
from the Italian word "maccherone" or a boorish
The Macaroni wig was an extreme fashion in
the 1770s and became contemporary slang for
foppishness. The Macaronis adopted feminine
mannerisms, and the men were deemed
'effeminate.' Thus, the British were insinuating that
the colonists were womanish and not very
By 1781, when the British surrendered at
Yorktown, being called a "Yankee Doodle" had
gone from being an insult to a point of pride, and
the song had become the new republic’s unofficial
national anthem
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Module 4
Part 1
National values
1. Being an American.
a) Continue the sentence
American means ……………”
 Have you come across the phrase “melting
pot” about the USA? Think over what this
phrase might imply
America has traditionally been referred to as a "melting pot," welcoming
people from many different countries, races, and religions, all hoping to find
freedom, new opportunities, and a better way of life.
Strictly speaking, the only indigenous Americans are the American
Indians who were living here long before the first waves of settlers came over
from Europe. When Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, he
called these natives "Indians" because he thought he had discovered a western
route to India.
Today the trend is toward multiculturalism, not assimilation. The old
"melting pot" metaphor is giving way to new metaphors such as "salad bowl"
and "mosaic", mixtures of various ingredients that keep their individual
characteristics. Immigrant populations within the United States are not being
blended together in one "pot", but rather they are transforming American
Society into a truly multicultural mosaic.
b) Watch the video file “What does it mean to be American”
& sum up the ideas in the box below.
Daniel Bylor
(College of William & Mary)
McKinley Sims
(College of William & Mary)
Mathew Howard
(Resident Of Virginia Beach
Alexandra Lichtenstein
(Princess Ann High School)
Paul Camacho
Leon Spinner
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(Virginia Wesleyan College)
Adam Stinson
(Resident Of Virginia Beach
After you’ve discussed all the basic American values do
come back to this video & watch it again to better
understand American ideology!!!
Text 1
Individual Freedom and
 What
understand these two values? Can you explain why they
are crucial for Americans?
a) Vocabulary1. Match the beginning of the phrase with its
end. Make up sentences with them.
Part 2
1. establish colonies/a new nation 1. have
a profound effect on
2. place
2. shape
3. declare
titles of nobility
3. eliminate one’s destiny
4. overthow the king
4. create
a climate of freedom
5. forbide
control on smb
5. control
to be paid for…
6. a price
the character
b) Read the text & answer the questions:
 How did the concept of individual freedom appear? What do they mean
by this?
 What was the price to be paid for
individual freedom & why?
Individual Freedom and Self-reliance
The earliest settlers came to the North
American continent to establish colonies which
were free from the controls that existed in
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European societies. They wanted to escape the controls placed on their lives by
kings and governments, priests and churches, noblemen and aristocrats. To a great
extent, they succeeded. In 1776 the British colonial settlers declared their
independence from England and established a new nation, the United States of
America. In so doing, they overthrew the king of England and declared that the
power to govern would lie in the hands of the people. They were now free from the
power of the kings. In 1789, when they wrote the Constitution for their new nation,
they separated church and state so that there would never be a governmentsupported church. This greatly limited the power of the church. Also, in writing the
Constitution they expressly forbade titles of nobility to ensure that an aristocratic
society would not develop. There would be no ruling class of noblemen in the new
The historic decisions made by those first settlers have had a profound effect
on the shaping of the American character. By limiting the power of the government
and the churches and eliminating a formal aristocracy, they created a climate of
freedom where the emphasis was on the individual. The United States came to be
associated in their minds with the concept of individual freedom. This is probably
the most basic of all the American values. Scholars and outside observers often call
this value “individualism”, but many Americans use the word ‘freedom’. Perhaps
the word “freedom” is one of the most respected popular words in the United
States today.
By “freedom”, Americans mean the desire and the ability of all individuals
to control their own destiny without outside interference from the government, a
ruling noble class, the church, or any other organized authority. The desire to be
free of controls was a basic value of the new nation in 1776, and it has continued to
attract immigrants to this country.
There is, however, a price to be paid for this individual freedom: selfreliance. Americans believe that individuals must learn to rely on themselves or
risk losing freedom. This means achieving both financial and emotional
independence from their parents as early as possible, usually by age 18 or 21. It
means that Americans believe they should take care of themselves, solve their own
problems, and “stand on their own two feet”. Tocqueville observed the Americans’
belief in self-reliance 150 years ago in the 1830s:
They owe nothing to any man, they expect nothing from any man; they
acquire the habit of always considering themselves as standing alone, and they are
to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.
This strong belief in self-reliance continues
today as a basic American value. It is perhaps one
of the most difficult aspects of the American
character to understand, but it is profoundly
important. Americans believe that they must be
self-reliant in order to keep their freedom. If they
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rely too much on the support of their families or the government or any
organization, they may not be free to do what they want.
By being dependent, not only do they risk losing freedom, but they also risk
losing the respect of their peers. Even if they are not truly self-reliant, most
Americans believe they must at least appear to be so. In order to be in the
mainstream of American life – to have power and/or respect – individuals must be
seen as self-reliant. Although receiving financial support from charity, family, or
the government is allowed, it is never admired. Many people believe that such
individuals are setting a bad example which may weaken the American character
as a whole.
Contemporary American Culture and Society
c) Vocabulary2. Complete the table below with derivatives
of the words & pay attention to the way the stress is
changed in the words. Explain why? Make up your own
context with the words
Text 2 Equality of Opportunity and Competition
 What is the way you understand these two values? Can
you explain why they are crucial for Americans?
a) Vocabulary1. Match the beginning of the phrase with its
end. Make up sentences with them.
Part 2
6. come with
to succeed
7. enter
the race
7. a chance
were fulfilled
8. better (v)
8. excessive
9. place a strain
as a race
9. hereditary
this expectation
10.titles of
11.see life
11.the hopes
12.pressure of
on smb
b) Read the text & answer the questions:
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Equality of Opportunity and Competition
A second important reason why immigrants have
traditionally been drawn to the United States is the belief that
everyone has a chance to succeed in the U.S. Generations of
immigrants from the earliest settlers to the present day have
come with this expectation. They have felt that because
individuals are free from excessive political, religious, and
social controls, they have a better chance for success. Particularly important is the
lack of a hereditary aristocracy.
Because titles of nobility were forbidden in the Constitution, no formal class
system developed in the United States. In the early years of American history
many immigrants chose to leave the older European societies, believing that they
had a better chance to succeed in America than in “the old country”, where their
place in life was determined largely by the social class into which they were born.
They knew that in America they would not have to live among noble families who
possessed great power and wealth inherited and accumulated over hundreds of
The hopes of many of these immigrants were fulfilled in their new country. The
lower social class into which many were born did not prevent them from rising to a
higher social position. Many found that they did indeed have a better chance to
succeed in the United States than in the old country. Because millions of these
immigrants succeeded, Americans came to believe in equality of opportunity.
When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, he was impressed by the
great uniformity of conditions a life in the new nation. He wrote:
The more I advanced in the study of American society, the more I perceived
that…equality of condition is the fundamental fact from which all others seem to
be derived.
It is important to understand what Americans mean when they say they believe
in equality of opportunity. They do not mean that everyone is – or should be –
equal. However, they do mean that each individual should have an equal chance
for success. Americans see much of life as a race for success. For them, equality
means that everyone should have an equal chance to enter the race and win. In
other words, equality of opportunity may be thought of as an ethical rule. It helps
ensure that the race for success is a fair one and that a person does not win just
because he or she was born into a wealthy family. President Abraham Lincoln
expressed this belief in the 1860s when he said:
We…wish to allow the humblest man an equal chance to get rich with everybody
else. When one starts poor, as most do in the race of life, free society is such that
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he knows ha can better his condition; he knows that there is no fixed condition of
labor for his whole life.
There is, however, a price to be paid for this equality of opportunity:
competition. If much of life is seen as a race, then a person must run the race in
order to succeed; a person must compete with others. If every person has an equal
chance to succeed in the United States, then it is every person’s duty to try.
Americans match their energy and intelligence against that of their neighbors in a
competitive contest for success. People who like to compete and are more
successful than others are honored by being called “winners”. On the other hand,
those who do not like to compete and are not successful when they try are often
dishonored by being called “losers”. This is especially true for American men, and
it is becoming more and more true for women.
The pressures of competition in the life of an American begin in childhood and
continue until retirement from work. Learning to compete successfully is part of
growing up in the United States. In a recent opinion poll, 60 percent of the
American people agreed with this statement: “It is not healthy for young people to
refuse to believe that winning in competition is important”. That is, 60 percent
believed competition and the desire to win are healthy and desirable. Only 28
percent disagreed.
The pressure to compete causes an American man to be energetic, but it also
places a constant emotional strain on him. When he retires at age 65, he is at last
free from the pressures of competition. But then a new problem arises. He tends to
feel useless and unwanted in a society that gives so much prestige to those who
compete well. This is one reason why older people in the United States do not have
as mush honor and respect as they have in other, less competitive societies. In fact,
any group of people who do not compete successfully – for whatever reason – do
not fit into the mainstream of American life as well as those who do.
Contemporary American Culture and Society
c) Vocabulary2. Complete the table below with derivatives
of the words & pay attention to the way the stress is
changed in the words. Explain why? Make up your own
context with the words
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Text 3 Material Wealth and Hard Work
 What is the way you understand these two values? Can
you explain why they are crucial for Americans?
a) Vocabulary1. Match the beginning of the phrase with its
end. Make up sentences with them.
Part 2
one’s standards of living
1. raise
1. is
of great importance
2. leave
2. find
social status
3. abundant
3. judge
by the idea
4. seek
4. be affected
every facet of life
5. get rich
5. influence
6. go from
6. harsh
a substitute
b) Read the text & answer the questions:
 What made people leave their homeland?
 What was the slogan for the great American dream?
Material Wealth and Hard Work
A third reason why immigrants have traditionally come
to the United States is to have a better life – that is, to raise their
standard of living. For the vast majority of the immigrants who
came here, it was probably the most compelling reason for
leaving their homeland. Because of its incredibly abundant
natural resources, the United States appeared to be a “land of
plenty” where millions could come to seek their fortunes. Of
course, most immigrants did not “get rich overnight”, and many
of them suffered terribly, but the majority of them were
eventually able to improve upon their former standard of living.
Even if they were not able to achieve the economic success they wanted, they
could be fairly certain that their children would have the opportunity for a better
life. The phrase “going from rags to riches” became a slogan for the great
American dream. Because of the vast riches of the North American continent, the
dream came true for many of the immigrants. They achieved material success; they
became very attached to material things. Material wealth became a value to the
American people.
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Placing a high value on material possessions is called “materialism”, but this
is the word that most. Americans find oftensive. To say that a person is
“materialistic” is an insult. To an American, this means that this person values
material possessions above the else. Americans do not like to be called
materialistic because they feel that this unfairly accuses them of loving only
material things and of having no religious values. In fact, Americans do have other
values and ideals. Nevertheless, acquiring and maintaining a large number of
material possessions is of very great
importance to most Americans. Why is
this so?
Probably the main reason is that
material wealth is the most widely
accepted measure of social status in the
United States. Because Americans
rejected the European system of
hereditary aristocracy and titles of
nobility, they had to find a substitute
for judging social status. The quality
and quantity of an individual’s material
possessions became the accepted
measure of success and social status.
Moreover, as we shall see in later
chapters, the American Protestant work ethic associated material success with
Americans pay a price, however, for their material wealth: hard work. The
North American continent was rich in natural resources when the first settlers
arrived, but all these resources were undeveloped. Only by hard work could these
natured resources be converted into material possessions and a comfortable
standard of living. Hard work has been both necessary and rewarding for most
Americans throughout their history. Because of this, they have come to see
material possessions as the natural reward for their hard work. In some ways,
material possessions are seen not only as tangible evidence of people’s work, but
also of their abilities. In the late 1700s James Madison, the father of the American
Constitution, stated that the difference in material possessions reflected a
difference in personal abilities.
More recently, Barry Goldwater, a candidate for the presidency in 1964, said
that most poor people are poor because they deserve to be. Most Americans would
find this a harsh statement, but many might think there was some truth in good
standard of living. In a study of teenagers conducted in 1981, researchers found
that over 90 percent of young Americans “think they will achieve what they want
in life, and almost eight out of ten think they can get what they want through hard
work.” There is, however, considerable social pressure not only maintain a good
standard of living but to improve it.
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Since people’s status in society is frequently measured by now mush they
own, Americans often feel pressured to buy more than they need. The saying that
someone is “keeping up with the Joneses” expresses this urge to buy possessions
that are equal to or better than what others
have. If Mr. And Mrs. Jones buy a new
car, their neighbors may begin to think
about buying one too, even if they don’t
really need a new car. They want to appear
as prosperous as everyone else around
them, and this means making a continuing
effort to buy newer and better material
In understanding the relationship
between what Americans believe and how
they live, it is important to distinguish
between idealism and reality. Ameriacan
values such as equality of opportunity and
self-reliance are ideals that may not
necessary describe the facts of American
life. Equality of opportunity, for example,
is an ideal that is not always put into
practice. In reality, some people have a
better chance for success than others. Those who are born into rich families have
more opportunities than those who are born into pooper families. Inheriting money
does gibe a person a decided advantage. Many black Americans have fewer
opportunities than the average white American, in spite of laws designed to
promote equality of opportunity for all races.
The fact that American ideals are only partly carried out in real life does not
diminish their importance. Most Americans still believe in them and are strongly
affected by them in their everyday lives. It is easier to understand what Americans
are thinking and feeling if we can understand what these basic American values are
and how they influence almost every facet of life in the United States.
The six basic values presented in this chapter – individual freedom, selfreliance, equality of opportunity, competition, material wealth and hard work – do
not tell the whole story of
the American character.
Rather, they should be
thought of as themes which
will be developed in our
discussions on religion,
business, and politics. These
throughout the book as we
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continue to explore more facets of the American character and how it affects life in
the United States.
Contemporary American Culture and Society
c) For fun. Keeping up with the Joneses. Look at the
cartoon below & read the comment. Do they seem funny to
you. What do they mock at?
“Jones, how about a maratorium on keeping “Bloody Joneses! Just because
up? Our budget is a bit tight this year”.
we’ve put a new fishpond…”
***Go to to get
more cartoons on the issue. Bring in some pictures in class & comment them
d) Vocabulary2. Complete the table below with derivatives
of the words & pay attention to the way the stress is
changed in the words. Explain why? Make up your own
context with the words
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2.1. An American Dream
a) Warm-up. Discuss.
The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, a set of ideals
in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, and an
upward social mobility achieved through hard work. In the definition of the
American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, "life should be better and
richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or
achievement" regardless of social class or circumstances of birth.[1]
The idea of the American Dream is rooted in the United States Declaration
of Independence which proclaims that "all men are created equal" and that they are
"endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights" including "Life, Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness."
b) Read the text & discuss the
issues raised in it. Summarize
the context
What is an American dream?
Once upon a time I woke up and
realized the American Dream was… not
quite what I thought it was? An illusion? Unattainable? What is the American
Dream anyway?
American Family Insurance performed a survey on their site to determine if
the American Dream is still alive. When I took the survey I felt it was most
definitely still alive and I defined it as:
 Defining success on my own terms
 Pursuing my passion
 Being my own person
That sounds about right to me. The dream we all have (or so I thought) is to
be able to do what makes us happy. To be free from tyrannical governments
dictating religion or career choices. To be free to live the life we want rather than
the one someone else forces upon. America was founded on the idea of freedom
and the pursuit of life, liberty, and happiness.
For centuries, America was the land of opportunity and a place where people
could go to escape the difficulties they faced in their home countries. It was a place
where people were free to be themselves. But then I looked at the results of the
American Family survey. The top three definitions of the American Dream today
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 having money
 owning a nice car
 owning your own business
Wow. That scares me. When asked what it was that kept people from living
their dream, the top answers were work, parenting, too lazy, too busy, chores,
worry, financial reasons, too old, love, and shopping.
The most important things needed to be able to live their dream were money
in the bank, family, and a fancy job title. At least they’ve got the family right.
I’m starting to wonder about this American Dream. For centuries the dream
was one of personal fulfillment and happiness, now it appears as though it’s
morphed into something unrecognizable. The white picket fence used to stand for
being happy with your family, but now it appears to be something else. It’s having
a big fancy house, an expensive car, a prestigious job, and bucket loads of money
in the bank. Will all that money in the bank and fancy job title truly make us
happy? Will reaching “success” by today’s definition lead to personal fulfillment?
I think back to the ranch hand I met near Drewsey, Oregon a few years ago.
“This is the life,” he exclaimed when we stumbled into his tiny cabin in the
middle of eastern Oregon. I had knocked on his door to beg for water. He swept his
arm around to show off his humble abode. “I wouldn’t give this up for anything.”
I looked around and thought, “It’s the life alright. A tumbledown shack in
the middle of dusty nowhere.” If you’ve ever traveled the desolate, wide open
spaces of the eastern Oregon desert you’ll know exactly what I mean.
“My wife and I have been here five years now. Wouldn’t trade it for all the
gold in Midas’ chest,” he explained. “I’m convinced Drewsey is heaven on Earth. I
used to be a marketing exec for a manufacturing plant in Portland, but somewhere
along the way my wife and I decided the long hours and stress just wasn’t worth it.
“People thought we were nuts — selling our 40-acre plot of land and huge
house in the city and moving out here to be ranch hands. But we’re convinced this
is God’s country, pure and simple. We’re living our dream — and that’s a good
place to be.”
I’m convinced that ranch hand was living the American Dream. He had
figured out that what made him happy wasn’t the fancy job title or piles of
money. It was the wide open spaces of the godforsaken desert of Eastern Oregon.
I totally understand where he’s coming from. There’s a peacefulness and
serenity about the desert that one doesn’t find in busier places. There is beauty in
the vastness of it all, and it didn’t take me long to understand the people who love
it. I can say with certainty that God’s country is a good place to be.
So what is the American Dream? My definition may be different from the
American masses, but I still stand by my definition – it’s the freedom to pursue
your passion and live your dreams. And I’m
living it.
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b) Vocabulary. Explain the meaning of the
words in bold.
c) Watch the cartoon 30-minute "American
Dream" on YouTube & summarize its
d) Look at the cartoons below & read the comments. Do they
seem funny to you? Or do you feel sympathy with the
Americans & their dream. What do they mock at?
e) Listen to Madonna's "American life" & follow
the lyrics. Comment on the idea.
Do I have to change my name?
Will it get me far?
Should I lose some weight?
Am I gonna be a star?
I tried to be a boy,
I tried to be a girl
I tried to be a mess,
I tried to be the best
I guess I did it wrong,
That's why I wrote this song
Fuck it...
Do I have to change my name?
Will it get me far?
Should I lose some weight?
Am I gonna be a star?
I'm drinking a Soy latte
I get a double shot
It goes right through my body
And you know
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This type of modern life - Is it for me?
This type of modern life - Is it for free?
So, I went into a bar looking for sympathy
A little company - I tried to find a friend
It's more easily said it's always been the same
This type of modern life -Is not for me?
This type of modern life -Is not for free?
American life. I live the American dream
You are the best thing I've seen,
You are not just a dream
I tried to stay ahead,
I tried to stay on top
I tried to play the part,
But somehow I forgot
Just what I did it for
And why I wanted more
This type of modern life - Is it for me?
This type of modern life - Is it for free?
Do I have to change my name?
Will it get me far?
Should I lose some weight?
Am I gonna be a star?
I'm satisfied,
I drive my mini cooper
And I'm feeling super-dooper
Yo they tell I'm a trooper
And you know I'm satisfied
I do yoga and pilates
And the room is full of hotties
So I'm checking out the bodies
And you know I'm satisfied
I'm digging on the isotopes
This metaphysic's shit is dope
And if all this can give me hope
You know I'm satisfied
I got a lawyer and a manager
An agent and a chef
Three nannies, an assistant
And a driver and a jet
A trainer and a butler
And a bodyguard or five
A gardener and a stylist
Do you think I'm satisfied?
I'd like to express my extreme point of view
I'm not Christian and I'm not a Jew
I'm just living out the American dream
And I just realized that nothing Is what it
American life. I live the american dream
You are the best thing I've seen,
You are not just a dream
Do I have to change my name
Am I gonna be a star
Do I have to change my name
Am I gonna be a star?
Do I have to change my name
I tried to be a boy, I tried to be a girl
I tried to be a mess, I tried to be the best
I tried to find a friend, I tried to stay ahead
I tried to stay on top...
Module 3
Part 2
BBC Learning English Weekender
Weekender © BBC Learning English / Page 1 of 3 /
Yvonne: This is Weekender and hello…I’m
Yvonne Archer! Now what comes to mind
if I mention the term “British Values”?
Well, that’s a question several people have
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been pondering since the recent news headlines. Secondary School students in
England may have to study core British values – and that’s to help people live
together in peace, respecting each other and feeling that they are a part of society.
Perhaps you heard those headlines too?
Radio London news headline
“Compulsory lessons on core British Values could be introduced in secondary
schools in England as part of the government’s response to the London bombings.
Ministers are setting up a review to examine the idea with the aim of creating a
more united society.”
Yvonne: The idea has come about as a response to the London bombings and as
we heard,
the ‘aim’ – or goal - is to create ‘a more united society’. Here’s Bill Rammell, The
Higher Education Minister – and one of the people behind the idea of teaching core
British values. It’s clear what they’re trying to achieve, but is it really clear what
British values are?
Bill Rammell, Higher Education Minister:
“What I think is clear, is there are a whole set of values
around fairn ess, around democracy, around civic
responsibility that are intrinsic to how this country is
developed. And I think if we do want to have a peaceful,
mutually respectful, cohesive society, then we need a
better understanding of how those ideas have developed.”
Yvonne:MrRammell is clear that fairness, democracy
and civic responsibility – that’s being a responsible
member of society – are three values that are extremely
important. As he put it, they’re ‘intrinsic’ to England’s
development. Those values are so basic and important
that England would be a very different place without
them. And we want a ‘cohesive’ society – where
everyone is united.
Yvonne: For me, one of the most interesting things about
living in England is that it really is possible to meet
people from almost any country in the world, especially
here at Bush House. So I asked a few friends, who’ve
made England their home, what comes to mind when
they think of British values? Here’s Sun Chen from
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Sun Chen, China: “You can see how well those historic sites are maintained. So I
think maybe that’s part of British values, is to respect their history and also respect
their heritage.”
Yvonne: In Sun Chen’s opinion, respect for British history and British heritage,
which includes traditions, are core British values. And Sun Chen mentioned
‘heritage’ because he’s noticed how well the old buildings and monuments are
looked after. Dima, who’s from Ukraine, had lots of ideas on what children should
be taught if they are given new lessons on British values. Which three does Dima
talk about?
Dima: “I think one of the most important values is the devotion to democracy. I
also think that a very important thing about the way British people express
themselves is the freedom of speech. The other thing which I would also mention
is the feeling of duty before society. Basically, you try to be useful to the society
and not just live for yourself.”
Yvonne: Dima mentioned ‘democracy’ and‘freedom of speech’. He also explained
what he means by ‘duty before society’ – which we could also refer to as ‘civic
responsibility’. Finally, I spoke to Helen, who’s also from China. Which two core
British values does she think would be taught in schools?
Helen: “Well I think British Values would include things like respecting each
other; respect other cultures and other human beings. And also, being very polite to
each other. I think that’s quite important – well, certainly for me!”
Yvonne: So for Helen, an example of those core values would be ‘respect’ for
people and other cultures, and being
‘polite’. Now, surely you’ve got to agree
that being polite is intrinsically British?!
Helen: “And also, being very polite to each
other. I think that’s quite important – well,
certainly for me!”
Yvonne: And there we have it – lots of
words and expressions that we can use to
discuss core British values - or any other
kind of values in English after today’s
programme. But that’s all for today –
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Module 3
Part 3
3. Comparing Russian
and American values
By Julia Kurasovskaya, Moscow State University
The question of values becomes
important when we cannot understand
and explain the behavior of foreigners.
Probably you know this from your own
experience of communication with
people from other countries: sometimes
we think that foreigners behave strangely
or rudely or just differently from what
we expect. In most cases this is what is
understand that foreigners behave in this
strange way not because they are rude or
crazy, but simply because they proceed
from a different list of values. In other
words, what they consider good and
standard behavior in their society does not always coincide with what we consider
good and standard in our society.
Last year I asked Russian students to compare the Russian system of values
and the American system of values. This task meant that they had to find the areas
in which the Russian and the American behaviors would be different and I also
asked them to illustrate their system of values by examples. As the result, the
Russian students produced their own list of 10 values.
These statements contain interesting observations and there is a grain of
truth in most of them, but in some cases cute and truthful observations are packed
in a humorous wrapping.
The List of Russian-American Values, produced by the Russian
students of Moscow State University:
1. Going to extremes (Russians) vs.
moderation in everything (Americans)
A Russian can spend all his money in a
restaurant during one night, Americans
would probably never do this and would
consider the Russian behavior strange or just
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2. Open-heartedness (Russians) vs. being reserved (Americans)
A Russian can talk to a complete stranger on the train about his or her problems, an
American would probably prefer to talk about football, rather than to share his or
her problems with anybody.
3. Generosity, hospitality (Russians) vs. BEING PRACTICAL, saving money
While Russian dinner is a real feast, Americans make as many hamburgers as there
are guests expected; if Americans invite you for coffee, they mean coffee and not
anything else.
4. Complaining about problems (Russians) vs. Being always OK (Americans)
Russians and Americans solve their problems in different ways: if Russians have
problems they go to their relatives or friends, if Americans have problems, they go
to their psychiatrist.
Russians and Americans also differ in borrowing money: Russians borrow
money from their relatives or friends, Americans borrow money from the bank.
It may seem that Americans are always OK. When Russians watch American
movies they often get surprised. Just imagine the following situation: A brave
American cowboy (or policeman) is nearly shot by a bad guy. The cowboy is
bleeding and nearly faints. At this point he is saved by his friend, who asks him:
"Are you OK?" The cowboy replies: "I'm OK." "But he is not OK!" - my little
Russian nephew protested: "Why is he lying?" I realized that it would have taken
long to explain why and I simply answered: "American cowboys are always OK."
5. Critical/ironical attitude to one's country (Russians) vs. patriotism
Russian love of their country is geographical (they love their nature, their birchtrees); American love is political (they love their freedom and democracy and they
believe that it's their sacred duty to protect freedom and democracy all over the
6. "Being" orientation (Russians) vs. "Action" orientation (Americans)
Americans are more active physically and mentally. Russians prefer to sit at home
doing little and earning little money for little work rather than to stand the physical
strains of hard work.
Russians prefer intellectual entertainment to going in for sports (Americans prefer
7. Leisure orientation (Russians) vs. Work orientation (Americans)
You have worked hard before the exam. When you come to your exam and get "5"
you tell your colleagues that you knew everything and you deserved it (American);
you tell your colleagues that you knew nothing and got "5" because of cheating
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8. Problem making (Russians) vs. problem solving (Americans)
Russians have a serious attitude to life, they tend to complicate everything,
Americans have a childish attitude to life, they tend to simplify everything.
Situation: Your friend doesn't get on with his colleagues and because of this won't
get a promotion. You think that a) He has a complicated personality (Russians), or
b) He is a fool (Americans)
9. "Creative attitude to law" (Russians) vs. law obedience (Americans)
It's normal to break traffic laws in Russia, then it's normal to bribe the police
(Americans can't even think of bribing the police!). Explanation: When Russians
break traffic laws and are stopped by the policeman, they first try to talk with him,
appealing to his feelings, since Russians see in him a human being and not the
embodiment of the law.
10. Collectivism (Russians) vs. individualism (Americans)
Examples from Russian life: cheating on tests, which is considered normal among
Russian students (When Russian students are told that American students do not
normally cheat, Russian students can't understand why.). A line in the library
(Several people from your group will join you in the line and nobody would object,
American students would consider this not only strange but totally unacceptable).
Let me remind you that some of these observations are quite unusual or extreme.
Can you identify which ones are relatively correct and which ones are, well, not so
b) Look at the cartoon in the text Do they illustrate the idea
(the stereotype) of a Russian man? What do they mock at?
4. Read Часть 1 Главу 1 “Актуальные
проблемы межкультурной коммуникации’’ in
the textbook by S. Ter-Minasova (p.177-193). Jot
down the main issues & deliver the ideas to the
Paragraph5 p.176 “Love to your country. Patriotism”
 What is the concept of родина in Russia?
Paragraph 6 “Smile & culture conflict
Module 6
Part 1
A bit about Russia
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Home. Sweet Russian home.
1. Watch the video on the youtube "Home. Sweet Russian
home" & discuss what you feel while watching it.
b) Read the introductory text of Russia in numbers and
facts & make up questions to discuss the text
Geography, territory, climate
Russia is situated in the east of Europe and the north of
Asia. It is contiguous with 14 states and has the longest
borderline in the world. Its territory is 17,075,400 sq. km.
Russia's climate is very diverse, ranging from sub-tropical
at the Black Sea to extremely continental in Siberia, where the
temperature drop within a year may exceed
100°C, and arctic in the Far North; but most
of the country lies within the zone of temperate climate.
There are 11 time zones in Russia. The time difference
varies from +2 hours in Kaliningrad to + 12 hours in
Kamchatka and Chukotka with respect to the Greenwich Time.
The time in Moscow and St. Petersburg is GMT +3 hours,
Ekaterinburg (GMT +5 hours), Novosibirsk (GMT +6 hours),
Krasnoyarsk ( GMT +7 hours), Irkutsk ( GMT +8 hours), Chita ( GMT +9 hours),
Vladivostok ( GMT +10 hours).
Major cities, administrative division
The Russian Federation includes 21 republics, 6 territories, 49 regions, 1
autonomous region, 10 autonomous districts, and 2 cities of federal subordination:
Moscow and St. Petersburg. The capital of Russia is Moscow (about 10 million
residents). The largest cities (above 1 million) are: St. Petersburg (4.6 million),
Novosibirsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Ekaterinburg, Samara, Omsk, Chel'abinsk, Kazan',
Perm', Ufa, Rostov-on-Don, and Volgograd.
Political system
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Russia is a federal republic. The head of state is President, but the executive
power is also exercised by the Government under a Prime Minister. The legislative
power belongs to the Federal Assembly which consists of two
houses: the Federation Council and the State Duma.
Population and language
There are about 143.3 million people in Russia (the data of
2002), 80% of whom are Russians (Slavs). Besides, more than a
hundred different national and ethnic groups live in Russia. The
most numerous of them are Ukrainians and Tatars, as well as
Armenians, Azerbaijanians, Kazakhs, Hebrews and Germans.
The official (state) language throughout the whole territory of the
Russian Federation is Russian.
Monetary unit
Monetary unit is ruble (RUR).
About half of the Russians are atheists. Most of the believers are Orthodox
Christians (the eastern branch of Christianity). Islam, Catholicism, Judaism, and
Buddhism are also practiced in Russia. More than a hundred different peoples or
ethnic groups speak their own languages, but everybody knows Russian as well.
Main holidays
1-5 January – New Year holydays
1 May — Day of spring and labour
7 January — Nativity (Orthodox Christmas)
9 May — Victory Day
23 February — Day of Motherland's Defender
12 June — Day of Russia
8 March — International Women's Day
4 November – Day of national unity
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The most widespread Russian surnames are Kuznetsov, Ivanov,
Petrov, Smirnov and Popov. First names - Elena and Alexey. There are
more women in Russia than men. Russian brides are famous in the whole
world not only for their looks but also for their household skills. Many
foreigners come to Russia with the special aim of finding beautiful Slav
«The Russians harness slowly, but they ride fast». It's interesting to mention
that these words, characterizing the Russian style pretty accurately, were said by
the prominent German politician Otto von Bismark about one hundred and fifty
7years ago. The Russians are a talented nation. We are proud of our famous
fellow-countrymen. Russia gave the world Tolstoy, Dostoevsky and Chekhov. Five
Russian authors - Bunin, Sholokhov, Pasternak, Solzhenitsin and Brodsky - were
awarded with the Nobel Prize in literature. Music by Russian composers is played
throughout the world -Tschaikovsky, Rachmaninov, Stravinsky, Prokofiev,
Shostakovich, Shnitke. Malevich and Kandinsky - representatives of the so-called
"Russian avantguard" - became famous for their innovations in painting.
Discoveries and achievements by Russian scientists in chemistry, nuclear
physics and aviation - they're common knowledge. Some firsts of invention are
regarded in Russia in a way different from that generally accepted. For example,
foreigners become genuinely surprised when they learn that Russians consider
themselves inventors of the first steam locomotive, electric bulb or radio.
Nevertheless, there are lots of things where Russian firsts are of no doubt.
In 1961, Russia (then the USSR) first sent a man into space. Russian tanks,
battle air-craft and famous Kalashnikov tommy-guns are definitely the best in the
world, as well as the Russian classical ballet. The names of Anna Pavlova, Galina
Ulanova, Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nuriev and Mikhail Baryshnikov are known to
each and every educated person. Equally obvious are the achievements of Russia in
sports: traditionally high places in team scores at the Olympic Games, world
records and titles of our swimmers, weight-lifters, gymnasts, figure-skaters.
Among the world champions in chess there are more Russians than all others put
Module 9
Part 2
Religious creeds in Russia
1. a1) Warm-up. Discuss:
 What are basic religions in the world?
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a2) Vocabulary. Match the parts of the collocations &
make sentences with them
Part 2
the Orthodox
5. monasteries
6. in the years of
the orthodoxy
were abolished
7. the doctrine of
8. the church
9. branched-off
10.followers of
Stalin's repressions
the orthodoxy
traditional beliefs
was prosecuted
Transcribe the following
adherents ............................ atheism .........................orthodox ...................
b) Read the text & make up true of false sentences
regarding the main idea of the text
Religious creeds in Russia
About half of the Russians are atheists. Most of
the believers are Orthodox Christians (the eastern
branch of Christianity). Islam, Catholicism, Judaism,
and Buddhism are also practiced in Russia. More than
a hundred different peoples or ethnic groups speak
their own languages, but everybody knows Russian as well.
Various religious creeds peacefully coexist in Russia. There
is no one predominant religion; none of them is under special protection of the
state, though the majority of believers practice the Orthodoxy. The Orthodoxy in
our country is certainly firstly associated with the Russians, though it is
acknowledged by greater part of Karels, Udmurts, the Mari, Osetians and other
peoples. The total number of Orthodox Christians in the country amounts to 80
million people. Most of them belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, which exists
in all the regions. In the Soviet period and especially in the years of Stalin's
repressions when atheism was the state policy the Orthodox Church was
persecuted, churches and monasteries were abolished. An outstanding example is
the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow only recently completely rebuilt at
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the place of the old Cathedral.
The main doctrine of the Orthodoxy is the Holy Trinity. You can tell an
Orthodox from other Christians because he mentions in his prayers not just «God»,
but «Father, Son and the Holy Spirit». The Orthodoxy is a large family. It is
normal for the Orthodox priest to get married and have many children; the church
condemns divorces.
Beside the Orthodox and followers of branched-off sects, adherents of other
communities of Christianity live in Russia. Among them there are Catholics,
though much inferior in number to the Orthodox. There are Protestants, too.
The second largest religion of the Russian Federation is Islam
(approximately 13 million believers). The two main branches of Islam - Sunnism
and Shiism - are presented in Russia, most Moslem of our country are Sunny.
Sunnism was officially accepted in Volzhskaya Bulgaria in 922. Today it is
practiced by a large part of Tatars and Bashkirs.
In the eastern regions of Russia there are a lot of
adherents of Buddhism - about 900 thousand believers:
eastern Buryat, Buryat-Hongodor, the largest part of Tuva
and few (?) Evenks. Buddhism is a religion declaring
deliverance of sufferings by means of refusal of desires
and reaching the "highest blooming" - nirvana. Buryatia
has become the center of Buddhism in Russia. Here about 30 Buddhist temples datsans - have survived. Buddhism in Russia was officially admitted in 1741 by the
order of empress Elisabeth.
There are adherents of Judaism in Russia, too. Their quantity is difficult to
define because of a great number of mixed marriages. The majority of Judaists live
in the biggest cities of Russia. Their largest groups are situated in Moscow, St.
Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Nizhny Novgorod.
Among the people of Russia there are also followers of traditional beliefs
(for instance, shamanism). Their adherents are the majority of the believers of
small Northern nations of Russia - Eskimos, Chukchas, Koryaks.
Adherents of traditional beliefs are among the Volga people, too. They are
the Mari, the Chuvashian and the Udmurt. Marians practicing heathen beliefs are
called «Chi-Mari», which means pure Mari.
c) Watch the video "What is the Orthodox Church? (A Short
Overview)" & sum up the ideas in writing
2. Role-play the scientific conference "What do we guys
believe in all over the world".
 Surf the net & do some research & then make a
report delivering the main issues of religions all
over the world
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Module 9
Part 2
Stereotypes and symbols
of Russia
1. a1) Warm-up. Watch the video file of
the students' performance made for
the English contest entitled "Siberia the past & present"
Discuss the ideas mentioned in the video.
b) Read the introductory part of the text & do the research
on the phrase mentioned in the text ?
 Did you know that phrase existed in Russian ?
Stereotypes and symbols of Russia
Foreigners have lots of wrong stereotypes about Russian life. Maybe they
were started by the French novelist Alexander Dumas, Senior, who happened to
travel about Russia. In one of his books, the author of The Three Musketeers
described how he had had a rest «under a branchy cranberry-plant». Actually, a
cranberry is a very small bush that flourishes in Russia’s marshlands so it’s hard to
imagine the author fitting under one and even harder to imagine him resting in a
swamp! Since that time, the phrase “patulous cranberry” * has become a Russian
idiomatic expression meaning an incompetent or perfunctory judgement. Since
those old days, "branchy cranberry" has formidably established itself in the
Russian language as a synonym for incompetence and superficiality of judgment.
The stereotypical understanding is that Russia is a faraway, snowy
country, where one must wear a furcoat and valenki (felt boots), people do
nothing but drink vodka and play balalaikas, while bears are leaving their forest
homes to go walking down village streets. All these stories
are just myths for naive tourists. However, the reality of
our life is very far from this idyllic myth: balalaikas, bears,
and felt boots have more or less become symbols of Russia
rather than attributes of everyday life.
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*Note: Развесистая клюква (или под развесистой клюквой,
раскидистая клюква, иногда просто клюква) — идиоматическое выражение,
обозначающее вымыслы, ложные стереотипы, искажённые представления,
вздорные и нелепые выдумки. Выражение обычно употребляется в
язвительно-ироническом смысле, чаще всего о бытующих среди иностранцев
домыслах о России и русских: о жизни, культуре, истории, языке и т. п.
Идиома содержит в себе оксюморон, который заключается в том, что
низкорослый (2-3 см) стелющийся по земле кустик клюквы никак не может
быть развесистым. Толковый словарь Ожегова определяет это выражение
как ироничное — о чём-нибудь совершенно неправдоподобном и
обнаруживающем полное незнакомство с предметомРазвесистая_клюква
c1) Vocabulary. Match the parts of the collocations & make
sentences with them
Part 2
1. patulous
2. naive
3. idyllic
4. rest in a
5. rambunctious
6. severe
7. go on
8. go
9. plucking
folk holiday
a spree
string instrument
13.the production
14. coin (v)
17.immense (adj)
18.hand out
20.roam (v)
the phrase
the streets
Transcribe the following
idyllic ............................ swamp .........................naive ................... furcoat ........
ruddy ....................... triangular ........................ gigantic ................................
unifying .......................... roam ................................
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c2) Read the text & match the basic associations with their
explanations. Say what the key words there were to make
you think that way
samovar balaika roads maslenitsa (shrovetide) vodka
valenki fur hats Russian bear troika frosts
grandfather frost & the snow maiden
................., or felt boots, are Russian national footwear. They are
traditionally made of milled fleece, and each pair requires at least a kilogram of
fleece that must undergo a long processing treatment. It must be combed out, made
into thin strips of felt, shaped, boiled, and dried out. In the old times, the centre for
that footwear production was Ouglich, a small city in the Upper Volga area;
currently, this footwear is made all over Russia. In the 18th century, felt boots were
an expensive, luxury gift: Peter the First and Catherine the Great ordered specially
made valenki for their personal wardrobes. Soviet leaders such as Lenin, Stalin,
Khrushchyov, and Marshall Zhukov also appreciated it. Today, This footwear is
still irreplaceable as footwear in the countryside and in the army: felt can resist –40
°C (–40 °F) freeze and protect the soldiers’ feet in combat.
Much is especially told about Russian hard drinking. Well, undiluted
................. - chilled but without ice - has been a favourite alcoholic drink in Russia
since time immemorial, but it can be explained by our severe climate. Having been
frozen in winter, you would have such a drink as gladly as we do. And though the
Russians do know how to go on a spree, there is an old proverb: «Drink you may but don't forget your business».
This is one of the most rambunctious and joyful folk holidays in Russia. It
symbolizes the end of winter and takes place at the end of February or beginning of
March. During Soviet times, ............. was a quiet family holiday. However, now it
is again celebrated by the entire country — people have fun outside, sing songs, go
sledding, and ride on Russian troikas. The main special treats associated with
................. are bliny (crêpes). They are round, ruddy, and hot like the sun, to which
this pagan Slavic holiday is dedicated.
The a plucking string instrument that resembles a guitar, but
has a triangular shape and only three strings (or two in some cases). Nowadays,
the .................. has disappeared from people’s everyday life almost completely.
Only professional musicians in Russian folk music ensembles and folk
instrument orchestras play the .......................
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The Russian word ........................ literally means “self-boiling.” The
vessel consists of a metal container for boiling the water and a fire-pan with a
tube. .....................s appeared in Russia in the second quarter of the 18th century
and, in the course of one hundred years, became an integral part of every Russian
household, restaurant, or hotel. The ....................... had both a practical and an
emotional function: it became a unifying symbol for people when they gathered
to have tea parties and provided the right atmosphere for friendly conversation.
Though samovars first appeared in the Urals, the production of .........................s
blossomed in Tula, an old city to the south of Moscow, also famous for its
armories and spice-cakes.
A winter hat with ear-flaps and warm covering for the back of the head can
protect one against the severe Russian cold. In the past, only peasants would wear
such hats — they called them the “three-eared hats.” In 1940, the Red Army
substituted winter helmets with earflap hats, and since then the hats have become
popular among civilians, men as well as women. Most foreigners buy black and
gray military hats with faux fur, but the Russians prefer ear-flap hats of expensive
natural fur: mink, nutria, muskrat, or fox. During the Soviet times, such hats were
difficult to find, and state officials would wear fur trim of quality depending on
their rank.
One of Russias' favorite animals is the ..................., a hero of many legends
and fairytales. Russians tenderly give bears the human name of Misha (sometimes
adding a patronymic name out of respect — hence, Mikhail Potapych). They also
apply ..........-like qualities to people; a clumsy but kind person is referred to as a
“..............” The little .................cub was chosen to be Russia’s mascot in the 22nd
Olympic Games held in Moscow in 1980. ..........s live throughout Russia, and there
are two main kinds: brown .............s that are forest dwellers (the .............. in those
areas is also nicknamed the “chief of the taiga”), and white bears that dwell in
polar areas. The popular foreign stereotypes notwithstanding, you will not see
.............s roaming the streets of towns and cities, but you can still see them in a zoo
or a circus.
Ded Moroz (Grandfather Frost) is a fairytale character
who brings New Year’s and Christmas gifts to children every
year. He is a big and stately older man with a deep voice,
dressed in felt boots, a fur cap, and a coat that reaches to his
heels. He either puts the gifts under the tree or hands them out
to children himself: in this way, he is
different from Santa Claus who leaves
the gifts in Christmas stockings. The
Russian Grandfather Frost has a
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granddaughter, Snegurochka (the Snow Maiden), who comes with him to wish
children a happy New Year. The homeland of Grandfather Frost is Veliky
Oustyug, an old town in the Vologda Region.
The ................ is a Russian traditional triple harness, which connects the
horses to sleighs, carts, or covered wagons. This troika ride has been recognized as
the most spirited, fun, and fastest way to travel, and the sensations that it evokes
are in tune with the Russian personality and spirit. Nikolai Gogol coined the
famous phrase: “What kind of Russian man doesn’t like a spin?” The troika has
become one of the most famous symbols of Russia, not to mention a favourite
winter entertainment for tourists.
Russia is the coldest country in the world; in most regions winter lasts for
four to five months, and in the North - ten. Even in Moscow, which is situated in
the middle belt, ................. of about 30 degrees are rather frequent. That is why
Russians wear the famous fur hats called «ushanka» to protect one's ears
(«ushi»); foreign tourists gladly buy these hats as souvenirs. For the majority of
the guests from abroad, huge snowdrifts in the streets of Russian towns seem sort
of exotic - they have only seen such quantities of snow at mountain-skiing
Moscow, where a record low temperature of –42 °C (–43.6 °F) was
recorded in the winter of 1942. The Russians are used to frosty weather, enjoying
winter sports and festivities such as skiing, skating, and sledding. However, the
severe climate does create many problems in everyday life. Buildings must be
built with very thick walls to insulate them for effective heating and protection
from the cold, roads must be clear from ice and snow. All of this requires money
and effort, not to mention the extra warm clothing and footwear that one needs to
survive the winter months. But summer in most of Russia is amiable - warm and
Foreigners sometimes repeat an old joke: there are no .............s in Russia only directions. Certainly, there are territories in our boundless country where not
only will you not see any roads but you won't even see any population. Even
though very much has been changing recently in the settled regions - roads have
been or are being built - gigantic distances can still be felt. For example, letters
might travel for weeks; and even the Express-Post works not so fast as in Europe.
Life in Russia depended on ...................s since the old days. Many fairy
tales are based on journeys; legends tell of hermits, pilgrims, and wanderers
whom one can meet along the way. At the same time, Russians themselves often
criticize their roads. As early as the 19th century, Nikolai Gogol, the famous
writer, noted that “Russia’s two biggest problems are fools and .............s.”
Russians still use the word “...............” for any type of terrain that they drive
through, paved or not. Our immense country has many places where there are no
people, much less ..................s. However, the developed areas have undergone
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many changes in recent years: .....................s are either built or are being built,
though, given the enormous distances between places, building ................s is no
easy task. One can still wait for a letter to get from one place in Russia to another
for many weeks; even express mail cannot work as fast as it does in other places.
«By reason, Russia can't be got...» These words were
uttered by Fyodor Tutchev, a Russian poet, in the 19th century;
but you could rather agree with him even today. Russia is
inscrutable. She may only be sensed. But for that you must
come into Russia, see Russia, travel around Russia...
2. Watch the video file "Hollywood stereotypes about
Russia" (parody made by out Russian programm "Bolshaya
Raznitsa") 7 discuss what stereotypes of russians, idioms &
proverbs they had mentioned there
Module 9
Part 3
1. a) Warm-up.
 What are the wellknown Russian folk
craft techniques?
b) Read the text & make up true or false statments to the
Works of Russian folk art can tell a lot about Russian national character,
about the history of Russia, about the people's ideals of happiness and beauty.
Most homecrafts came into being in ancient times and their roots are lying in the
village mechanical arts. Nature itself told people both materials and themes. In the
forest regions turning trade and wood engraving used to
develop. In places where deposits of clay were found the
art of fine ceramics appeared. In Northern regions of the
European part of Russia where flax was grown there was
the art of trimming with lace. The Urals - the place of
deposit of iron ore - is famous for its cast-iron moulding
and ornamenting arms.
There are lots of folk
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homecrafts: wood and bone carving, embroidery, painting on wood and metal,
ceramics, prints, production of skin and fur. However subjects of world fame
became only some of them - matreshkas, Khokhloma painting, Gzhel' ceramics,
Palekh miniature, Zhostov trays, shawls of Pavtovo-Posad, Vologda lace,
Dymkovo toy, painting of Gorodets, Kaslin cast-iron moulding.
Matreshka, the most popular Russian souvenir, is still rather «young», it is a little
more than 100 years old. Its prototype is the Japanese sectional wooden doll of
buddhistic sage Fukurumu. In only several years after it came into being matreshka
was already exposed at the World exhibition in Paris where it got a medal and
world fame. In Paris Kaslin mouldings were remarked either. A cast-iron cigarettecase had the same price there that a silver one equal in weight.
«Khokhloma» - painting on wood with golden, red and black paints appeared very long ago, in XVII century, and its technology has very little changed
since then.
Palekh miniature appeared at the basis of ancient icon painting. In the 20s, in
the period of «militant atheism» it did not die away but changed its form. Former
masters of icon painting started making caskets, brooches and cigarette-cases
painting the items in old technique but giving them another themes: scenes of
Soviet everyday life, illustrations to folk tales, historical and literary plots.
Gorodets painting which appeared in the middle of XIX century discloses
people's ideas of «good life». Beside flowers and animals Gorodets masters liked
to depict walkings, tea-drinkings, celebrations etc. The heroes of these plots are
well-to-do peasants, townsmen and merchants - gay, rich and
foppishly dressed.
Nowadays all Russian people love and appreciate works
of folk art. Almost in every house one can see a Kaslin
statuette, a wooden spoon of Khokhloma; among children's
toys there are certainly a matreshka and a painted pyramidion.
One can often see collections of Gzhel, Khokhloma or
Dymkovo toys.
Production of folk homecrafts are sold in all the tourist centers. Leaving
Russia one cannot help taking home some folk work which will remind one of a
huge country, of its kind and talented people.
Module 9
Part 4
Russian Traditions"
There are many "Russian Traditions" this page primarily
deals with things that differ from the US along with customary
classic traditions.
It’s a Russian tradition to drink! Anytime is a good time to justify a drink or
two. Its customary to go to a friend’s house for a routine visit and have a drink.
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Holidays or special events usually warranty everyone showing up to the party with
a bottle or two.
If you get married in Russia it’s a tradition for the bride’s mother to hand
you and your bride a loaf of bread at your wedding reception. Whoever can take
the largest bite becomes the head of the household. Usually this is to the man’s
Take off your shoes before you enter a house (residence). Russians do not
wear shoes inside the home except for house shoes. Even if you are going to
someone else's home you will still need to remove your shoes before you enter
their home. Most Russians have several pair of guest shoes at their home for
visitors. If they do not have enough extra house shoes for you then it is permissible
to wear your socks, but not your shoes.
Tipping an office working for expediting your request or favor is done by
providing the person with a box of chocolates or some other sweet appropriate gift.
It’s a tradition to pay your fine to the police (Police-"i") at the time of the
ticket. Many drivers are stopped in the middle of the street by the police for a
traffic violation. Russian police give you two options. One pay me now a fraction
of the fine or pay the fine in full at the police station within two weeks. Needless to
say the discount is worth paying at the time of the offense. Highway robbery? You
Never kiss your lady on her forehead. Kissing someone on their forehead is
reserved for funerals. Kissing a loved one at the funeral reception is a tradition.
Never send even number of roses. Even numbers are reserved for death and
considered bad luck if someone gives you a even number while you are alive.
Exchanging money with retailers. It’s a tradition for you to hand the money
to the cashier but do not expect the cashier to count the money back to you or offer
to hand you back your money. Russians receive your money and return your
change to a small trey where you can count your money.
All time favorite Russian tradition:
Whenever they want to do something or something that you would prefer not to do
and they want to do it; They will tell you it’s a Russian tradition! In short,
whatever they want to do saying it’s a Russian tradition justifies it. This applies to
Russian men and women at home and in the workplace. You will find yourself
hearing that phrase many times. Your best rebuttal is saying it’s an "American
Tradition" or whatever your country may be.
2. Watch the video file on the Youtube " Fun Russian
Superstitions" & write out what Russian superstitions were
mentions in the video
 Consult some reference books & make a report on
the origin of those beliefs in Russia
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Module 9
Part 5
Folklore of rural Russia
 How much do you know about russian
follore? What are the characters?
 Do you know how the characters appear?
b) Read the texts below about Koshei Bessmertny & Baba
Yaga& retell them as close to the text as possible
Koshei Bessmertny
He is way too skinny and very,very old. He’s
been there forever (and not a very good eater.)
“Bessmertny” means “immortal” in Russian, but it is not
quite so. Koshei’s death is hidden on island Buyan, - there’s an oak
on the
island, on that oak there’s a wooden chest. Inside the chest there’s a hare. Inside
the hare there is a duck. Inside the duck, an egg. Inside the egg there is a needle.
To break the needle is to kill Koshei.
Koshei’s primal element is water. It gives him strength; in some stories
Koshei is kept captive in someone’s barn, for 70 years without water. As soon, as
he downs three buckets of water (silly, silly girl, Vasilisa!), he is able to rip the
iron chains and break free (leisurly kidnapping someone on the way home,
usually.) Watch out then, can’t kill Koshei by any means other than destroying his
soul needle.
Baba Yaga will be the first one to tell you that, along with a few other tips
you might use to conquer Koshei. I can’t figure Baba Yaga out, who’s side is she
on, really?
Baba Yaga
Baba Yaga is definitely my favorite mean lady. She lives deep in the woods
in a little house on chicken feet. Why build a house on chicken feet, you may
wonder. The answer is simple; the house will not hesitate to run when attacked by
Some sources suggest that the house is
really just a hut, with no doors and no windows.
Supposedly, Baba Yaga uses the chimney to get
out, or, rather fly out in her giant mortar.
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Now, you see, how well she is equipped to fly (as opposed to your ordinary
witches that just ride a silly broomstick.)
She’s been accused of kidnapping children and threatening to eat them.
However, there’s much more evidence of Baba Yaga’s actual help and guidance to
heros on their quests. She’s not as wicked as she may seem, but she does possess a
few supernatural talents and abilities, and her help is usually highly appreciated
(yeah, Baba Yaga saves the day.)
2. a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 Are there similar evil creatures in other cultures?
 Can you presuppose where Baba Yaga come from?
b) Read the text & find out who she was & where she came
Baba Yaga: A Demon or A Goddess?
by Freya
Growing up in Kiev, Ukraine, I loved reading and listening to fairy tales.
These stories, filled with Slavic flavor, were opening up a new world for me, a
world where one is to learn lessons and always to succeed, a world in which no
matter how many hardships and terror a good character goes through, he or she
always succeeds, a world in which a goodness always defeats an evil. Being my
hide-away from the harshness of reality, that world was very much sought by me at
all the times. Yet, this world absolutely needed to have a few definite
characteristics to serve its purpose: the fairy tales I loved to read and re-read had to
have Baba Yaga as one of its evil characters. The more evil this character was, the
scarier her description, the more vicious her behavior, the better I liked the fairy
tale. So who was this Baba Yaga character and what was it in this evil creature that
drew me to read and re-read multiple fairy tales, in which I was seeking a
camouflage from reality?
In search for truth, I first addressed The Encyclopedia Britannica. Here is
what I found: “Baba Yaga, also called BABA-JAGA, in Russian folklore, is an
ogress who steals, cooks, and eats her victims, usually children”. My immediate
reaction was a long guttural scream! An ogress?!!! I can agree to the fact that Baba
Yaga is usually depicted as a hideous cruel, brutish old woman, but certainly she is
not a giant monster!!! I was also utterly upset to see the misconception that Baba
Yaga comes only from Russian folklore. Certainly any Ukrainian or Polish child
will be very upset if there were no more fairy tales with Baba Yaga. Being
obviously upset with my first choice of the Reference Literature, I then addressed
the Soviet equivalent of Encyclopedia Britannica. Here I found a bit more
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information that was closer to the truth that I have learned over the years and that
was instilled in my veins. “Baba Yaga is an old wicked evil woman practicing
witchcraft; a popular character in Slavic folk tales.” Though closer to my heart, this
definition was still dreadfully uncomfortable. I knew that to find the truth I needed
to search deeper inside of me, within but now without, in a patriarchically mended
society, be it capitalistic or socialistic. What follows is my own search for truth, for
reality, and certainty.
The word “baba” in Russian means a woman older than a girl; usually any
married woman was considered to be “baba” notwithstanding her age. In old
Russia, girls were given out for marriage by their parents pretty early on. Once a
girl’s virginity was lost, she was consigned to be a “baba” for the rest of her life.
“Baba” is truly a derogatory word implying the whining, constantly yelling and
upset nature of some women. It is a root word for the well-known “babushka”,
which simply means “grandmother”. Though “babushka” sounds very warm and
comfy, “baba” sounds harsh and abrasive.
Usually, Baba Yaga is a frightening Witch who lives in the middle of a very
deep forest, in a place which is often difficult to find unless a magic clew (a ball of
yarn or thread) or a magic feather shows the way. The old hag lives in a wooden
hut on two chicken legs (sometimes three or four legs are described). Usually the
hut is turned with its back towards a traveler, and only magical words can make it
turn around on its chicken legs to face the newcomer. Very often, the hut revolves
with loud noises and painful screams that make a visitor cringe. This serves to
frighten the reader, showing the hut’s old age, and to show that Baba Yaga does
not care about her hut’s well being. It is also fascinating that some fairy tales
describe the hut as being a unique evil entity: firstly, it has the ability to move on
its chicken legs. Secondly, it understands human language and is able to decide
whether and when to let a visitor enter its premises. Finally, the hut is often
depicted as being able “to see” with its eyes (its windows) and “to speak” with its
mouth (its doorway). I also cannot help feeling that the hut is able “to think”, and
one can observe these thoughts as wild powerful clouds of steam emerging from
the hut’s chimney. What powerful imagery!
Baba Yaga’s hut is often surrounded by fence made of human bones and
topped with human skulls with eyes. Instead of wooden poles onto which the gates
are hung, human legs are used; instead of bolts, human hands are put in; instead of
the keyhole, a mouth with sharp teeth is mounted. Very often Baba Yaga has her
hut is protected by hungry dogs or is being watched over by evil geese-swans or is
being guarded by a black cat. The gates of Baba Yaga’s villa are also often found
to be guardians of Yaga’s hut as they either lock out or lock in the Witch’s prey.
As for Baba Yaga herself, she flies through the air in a mortar using the
pestle as either a device to drive her mortar or as a wheel to control her motion; she
sweeps away her tracks with a broom. In Russian, “Baba Yaga” is often
accompanied by “Kostyanaya Noga”, which means “the bone leg”. Here is a very
strong indication of how skinny and even physically weak she is. Yet Baba Yaga is
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very powerful: a sense of purpose drives her forward to perform “evil” deeds. This
witch is often depicted to be an ugly old hag, her back bent down from age so that
she often reaches the floor with her head. Her nose is long and bent; don’t be
surprised to find out that it often curls up on itself reaching Baba Yaga’s chin.
Alternatively, Baba Yaga’s nose is often found to grow so long that it reaches the
ceiling of the witch’s hut when she is lying asleep. Multiple ugly warts covering
her revolting face certainly do not make Yaga any prettier. The witch’s hair, long
and gray from age, has not been washed or trimmed in hundreds of years. Her
clothing, dirty and smelly, has turned into rags. She is the epitome of disgust and
evil. Baba Yaga either hunts for her prey or awaits it at home, knowing that it will
come to her. She often senses her prey by smelling the air around her and
pronouncing loudly “Foo, foo! It smells with Russian scent! Who’s here?” Then,
the evil Yaga cleans her guests in a hot Russian bath, feeds them with hearty
Russian meals, and only then invites them to be eaten by her. Here is another
interesting fact: Baba Yaga cooks her meals in her ancient brick oven. She invites
her prey to sit down on a giant spatula, which she then artfully places in the fire of
her oven, literally letting her guest make his or her own destiny to die (depending
on how they sit, they may or may not fit into the oven). There exist a multitude of
fairy tales about Baba Yaga, each with somewhat different description of the old
hag or how she hunts or eats her prey. The majority of stories keep the old witch
and her surroundings as ugly, disgusting and evil, as possible. Note the similarities
with the western fable of Hansel and Grettel.
Growing up with the old Baba Yaga in large number of my favorite fairy
tales, I looked at this hag as a wicked witch, a carrier of black magic and evil. It
took me a very long time to realize that there is much more to Baba Yaga, that she
is a Great Goddess, a holder of the Great Power of Death. [1,2,3] I had to grow and
mature; I had to read literature about feminism and Goddess religions; I had to
connect with my ancient roots and listen to the words of wise ones before I
understood the necessity and importance of Baba Yaga in Slavic folklore. Here is
how I changed and here is what I now see now in a Great Goddess of the Dead,
Baba Yaga, the Bony Leg.
Baba Yaga is a Slavic version of Kali, the Hindu Goddess of Death, the
Dancer on Gravestones. [4] Although, more often than not, we consider Baba Yaga
as a symbol of death, she is a representation of the Crone in the Triple Goddess
symbolism. She is the Death that leads to Rebirth. It is curious that some Slavic
fairy tales show Baba Yaga living in her hut with her two other sisters, also Baba
Yagas. In this sense, Baba Yaga becomes full Triple Goddess, representing Virgin,
Mother, and the Crone. Baba Yaga is also sometimes described as a guardian of
the Water of Life and Death. When one is killed by sword or by fire, when
sprinkled with the Water of Death, all wounds heal, and after that, when the corpse
is sprinkled with the Water of Life, it is reborn. The symbolism of oven in the
Baba Yaga fairy tales is very powerful since from primordial times the oven has
been a representation of womb and of baked bread. The womb, of course, is a
symbol of life and birth, and the baked bread is a very powerful the image of earth,
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a place where one’s body is buried to be reborn again. It is interesting that Baba
Yaga invites her guests to clean up and eat before eating them, as though preparing
them for their final journey, for entering the death, which will result in a new clean
rebirth. Baba Yaga also gives her prey a choice when she asks them to sit on her
spatula to be placed inside the oven: if one is strong or witty, he or she escapes the
fires of the oven, for weak or dim-witted ones, the road to death becomes clear.
Here is another thought. When one is walking by a frightening hut on
chicken legs, a modern person would think: “DANGER! DO NOT WALK IN!”
However, a fairy tale character always goes into the Yaga’s house. Why do they do
it? Do we, with our modern worldview, know something that the fairy tale folk
from primordial times does not know? Or maybe we would walk into that hut
ourselves? The truth is that the primordial folk enters the Goddess’s habitat
searching for wisdom, thirsting for knowledge, being hungry for truth. It is us,
modern folk who needs to look now for this truth and knowledge and to seek it
from the Crone, the Goddess of Wisdom and Death because with Death always
comes Rebirth. With this learned wisdom, one may receive the Water of Life and
Death from her by a show of strength or a pure heart. “For like all forces of nature,
though often wild and untamed, she can also be kind.” So, who is She, Baba
Yaga? Demon - not, She is a Goddess!!!
c) Discuss:
 What did it mean ‘to be sent to Baba Yaga’? was tantamount to being sent to
one's death?
d) Comment On :
1. The myths of our society tell us much about the attitudes and world view of the mythowners (Kaufert 1982), and these attitudes are the products of women's roles within
the wider society. Myth arises out of the collective level of humankind's experience,
which is presented through images and symbols that resonate within our psyche. It is
something we inherit from our ancestors and it is expressed through our genetic,
racial memory. Kaufert (1982) reminds us however, that "myth is a system of values
presented as if it were a system of facts" (p. 143).
2. The Crone is a figure who incorporates both dark and light, life and death, creation
and destruction, form and dissolution. She acts as a guide through the great passages
of life, leading a woman into her own inner knowing.
Module 9
Part 6
Funerals in Russia.
1. A) Read the text & say what the main issue
is in the text
Cultures treat death differently and the rites performed at the funeral reflect
this diversity. There are usually beliefs and stories surrounding the funeral tradition
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that become part of the culture’s folklore. There are scholars all over the world
that study folklore in hopes to preserve traditions that are no longer practiced.
All cultures preserve a unique variety of folk traditions and rituals. The
wonderful poetic world of stories, rites, and rituals has been passed down through
the generations and, in many cases, is currently being lost due to modernization. In
Russia, the eradication of folk beliefs has been quite severe under the communist
regime which actively destroyed many ritual sites and forbid discussion of such
beliefs, and the orthodox church which believes the pagan rituals are in direct
opposition to the church. Despite these obstacles in the last century, some villages
in southwest Russia have managed to maintain their stories and rituals by secretly
passing on traditions to younger family members. Funeral rites are in this category
and will be the focus of this particular lesson. As with any traditional cultural
practice, I believe it imperative that people understand and familiarize themselves
with the folklore of their own traditions as well as other regions of the globe to
understand the diverse backgrounds from which we all came.
Third grade students are old enough to appreciate the wealth of traditions
from other cultures and are able to compare it to their own. The Third Grade
curriculum standards in Los Angeles require that students have exposure to
multicultural experiences. For them to learn the Funeral Rites in Russia would be
both interesting and perfect part of the curriculum.
To sum up why this study is important for both the adults carrying it out and
the third grade students who will learn about it, I quote Yelena Minyonok,
principal investigator of "Folklore of Rural Russia", "Folklore presents the
enormous life experience of humanity, embodied in high artistic forms; experience
that a single human being cannot accumulate, even if he lives to be a hundred years
b) Surf the net to get the information of a funeral in the
United States. An encyclopedia is a good source as well.
 Have you ever been to a funeral? Share your short stories.
 Is death a scary and emotional subject? Discuss the tradition in American
culture and any other cultures.
c) Read the text how funerals are held in Russia. Can you
explain many of the funeral superstitions?
In Russia there is a unique tradition surrounding funeral proceedings. It is as
1. When a person dies, the family is required to invite many guests to their
home to come and say farewell to their friend. If a priest is nearby, he may
say a blessing at this event. Most Russian villages are too small to have a
priest or a church so the blessing is said by the family.
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2. The family then lays out the long embroidered towels on the ground, side by
side. The dead body is then laid on them side ways. People grab the end of
the towels lifting the body from the ground and walk to the cemetery. The
last person in the procession scatters the pine branches on the road. They
believe the deceased will follow the branches back to the village when
he/she wants to visit.
3. When the procession arrives at the cemetery, the towels are lowered into the
grave and the body is covered with dirt until a large mound protrudes from
the ground. At this point, the family takes a table cloth, covers the mound,
and sets up a picnic for everyone to share a meal with the deceased.
4. The picnic part of the tradition is repeated every year on the anniversary of
the death for at least 4 years.
2. A)Discuss:
 Do you know why during the funeral procession in
Russia they carpet the last path of the deseased when
his body is being carried out for a burial?
b) Read the article & find out. Render the
ideas in English
Являясь, подобно березе, одним из самых распространенных
деревьев средних и северных широт России, ель издавна широко использовалась в
хозяйстве. Ее древесина служила топливом, употреблялась в строительстве, хотя и
считалась материалом не самого высокого качества, что нашло отражение в поговорке:
«Ельник.березник чем не дрова?/ Хрен да капуста чем не еда?». Упоминания о ели в
древнерусских источниках (где она называется елиe, елье, едина, елинка, eлица) носят, как
правило, чисто деловой характер: «дровяной ельник», «еловец» (строевой еловый лес) и
т.п. В образе ели люди Древней Руси не видели ничего поэтического: еловый лес («елняк
большой глухой») из-за своей темноты и сырости отнюдь не радовал глаз. Произрастая по
преимуществу в сырых и болотистых местах, называвшихся в ряде губерний «елками»,
это дерево с темно-зеленой колючей хвоей, неприятным на ощупь, шероховатым и часто
сырым стволом (с которым иногда сравнивалась кожа бабы-яги), не пользовалось особой
любовью. Отрицательное отношение к ели, ощущение ее как враждебной человеку силы
встречается в литературе . «Темная буроватая ель и сосна в русском фольклоре не
пользуются особым почетом, может быть, и потому, что огромные пространства наших
степей и лесостепей их не знают» [В. Я. Пропп].
В русской народной культуре ель оказалась наделенной сложным комплексом
символических значений, которые во многом явились следствием эмоционального ее
восприятия. Внешние свойства ели и места ее произрастания, видимо, обусловили связь
этого дерева с образами низшей мифологии (чертями, лешими и прочей лесной нечистью),
отразившуюся, в частности, в известной пословице: «Венчали вокруг ели; а черти пели»,
указывающей на родство образа ели с нечистой силой.
Слово «ёлс» стало одним из имен лешего, черта: «А коего тебе ёлса надо?», а «еловой
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головой» принято называть глупого и бестолкового человека.
Ель традиционно считалась у русских деревом смерти, о чем сохранилось множество
свидетельств. Существовал обычай: удавившихся и вообще — самоубийц зарывать между
двумя елками, поворачивая их ничком. В некоторых местах был распространен запрет на
посадку ели около дома из опасения смерти члена семьи мужского пола. Из ели, как и из
осины, запрещалось строить дома. Еловые ветви использовались и до сих пор широко
используются во время похорон. Их кладут на пол в помещении, где лежит покойник.
Еловыми ветками выстилают путь похоронной процессии. Веточки ели бросают в яму на
гроб, а могилу прикрывают на зиму еловыми лапами.
Время возникновения (или же усвоения от южных славян) обычая устилать дорогу, по
которой несут на кладбище покойника, хвойными ветками (в том числе и
можжевельником) неизвестно. На православных кладбищах долгое время не принято
было сажать елки возле могил.
Смертная символика ели нашла отражение в пословицах, поговорках,
фразеологизмах: «смотреть под елку» — тяжело болеть; «угодить под елку» — умереть;
«еловая деревня», «еловая домовина» — гроб; «пойти или прогуляться по еловой
дорожке» — умереть и др. Звуковая перекличка спровоцировала сближение слова «елка»
с рядом нецензурных слов, что также повлияло на восприятие русскими этого дерева.
Характерны и «елочные» эвфемизмы, широко употребительные в наши дни: «ёлкипалки», «ёлки-моталки» и т. п.
Смертная символика ели была усвоена и получила широкое распространение при
советской власти. Ель превратилась в характерную деталь официальных могильников,
прежде всего — мавзолея Ленина, около которого были посажены серебристые
норвежские ели. Впоследствии эти ели стали соотноситься с кремлевскими новогодними
елками. «Новая сестра» — это елка в Большом Кремлевском дворце. Главная елка
страны Советов. Два противоположных символических значения ели (исконнорусский и усвоенный с Запада) здесь вдруг соединились, создав новое символическое
значение: преемственности ленинских идей в празднике советской детворы.
В настоящее время связь ели с темой самоубийства или насильственной смерти
утратилась, и она превратилась в один из символов вечной памяти и вечной жизни: теперь
елочки часто можно увидеть на многих русских кладбищах.
Душечкина Е. В. Русская ёлка: История, мифология, литература. - СПб., 2002, с. 13-81
1. Go to YouTube & watch the TV programme
(Гордон + Задорнов (часть 1-3)). State the
issue they were discussing & express your
opinion & attitude to that issue.
Module 9
Part 7
2. Additional article to discuss.
Read “Dazhdbog in Russian mythology or His story” & draw a
scheme (system) of Ancient Russian Gods.
3. Arrange a conference “Myths &Gods of Pagan Russia:
origin of Russian language”.
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Do some research & make a report devoted to one of the
themes below:
 Pantheon of Russian Pagan Gods
 “Slavonic God – Rod” (Единый славянский бог - Род)
 “Russian God- Veles ” (Бог Велес и его брат Сварог сыновья Рода)
 “Fylfot (swastika) is the system of Slavonic symbols”
 “Ancient Slavic city Arkaum” (Древнеславянский
город «Аркаум»)
 “Russia´s evil spirits” (Русалки (мавки), водяной,
леший, домовой и т.д.)
 Ancient pagan holidays in Russia (День Ивана Купала,
Спасовки, Колядки, Покров, Сретение, Дмитриев
день, Никола зимний(Николин дент),
 Двунадесятые и Великие церковные праздники
(непереходящие и переходящие)
 Облик Русской деревни (Тальцы)
Module 7.1.
Russian New Year vs American & British X-mas
X-mas is coming
1. a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 How many things can you associate with this holiday in the USA & UK?
 Why did it happen that this holiday is more important for Western (European
) people that for Asians, oriental people?
2. Read the text about Christmas traditions in the UK & USA
Where did it come from? & Where is it going?
In many countries of the world, the celebration of Christmas on December
25th is a high point of the year. But why? Can it have any real meaning for us
today? Is there a 'real' Christmas message?
From November onwards, it is impossible to forget that Christmas is
coming. Coloured lights decorate many town centres and shops, along with shiny
decorations, and artificial snow painted on shop windows. In streets and shops,
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'Christmas trees' (real or plastic evergreen 'conifer' trees) will also be decorated
with lights and Christmas ornaments.
Shopping centres become busier as December approaches and often stay
open till late. Shopping centre speaker systems will play Christmas 'carols' - the
traditional Christmas Christian songs, and groups of people will often sing carols
on the streets to raise money for charity. Most places of
work will hold a short Christmas party about a week before
Christmas. Although traditional Christmas foods may be
eaten, drink (and plenty of it) means that little work will be
done after the party!
By mid-December, most homes will also be decorated
with Christmas trees, coloured lights and paper or plastic
decorations around the rooms. These days, many more
people also decorate garden trees or house walls with
coloured electric lights, a habit which has long been
popular in USA.
Families decorate their houses. Streamers are put up made of paper, or foil,
candles may be put out, some people decorate their windows. Wreaths may be
hung on the door.
In many countries, most people post Christmas greeting cards to their
friends and family, and these cards will be hung on the walls of their homes. In
UK this year, the British Post Office expects to handle over 100 million cards
EACH DAY, in the three weeks before Christmas.
The custom of sending Christmas cards started in
Britain in 1840 when the first 'Penny Post' public postal
deliveries began. Traditionally, Christmas cards showed
religious pictures - Mary, Joseph and baby Jesus, or other
parts of the Christmas story. Today, pictures are often
jokes, winter pictures, Father Christmas, or romantic scenes
of life in past times.
The old man with the sack
'Father Christmas' (or 'Santa Claus') has become the human face of
Christmas. Pictures will be seen everywhere of the old man with long white beard,
red coat, and bag of toys. Children are taught that he brings them presents the night
before Christmas (or in some countries on December 6th - St. Nicholas' Day), and
many children up to the age of 7 or 8 really believe this is true. In most countries, it
is said that he lives near the North Pole, and arrives through the sky on a sledge
(snow-cart) pulled by reindeer. He comes into houses down the chimney at
midnight and places presents for the children in socks or bags by their beds or
in front of the family Christmas tree. In shops or at children's parties, someone will
dress up as Father Christmas and give small presents to children, or ask them what
gifts they want for Christmas. Christmas can be a time of magic and excitement for
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Father Christmas is based on a real person, St. Nicholas, which explains his
other name 'Santa Claus' which comes from the Dutch 'Sinterklaas'. Nicholas was a
Christian leader from Myra (in modern-day Turkey) in the 4th century AD. He was
very shy, and wanted to give money to poor people without them knowing about it.
It is said that one day, he climbed the roof of a house and dropped a purse of
money down the chimney. It landed in the stocking which a girl had put to dry
by the fire! This may explain the belief that Father Christmas comes down the
chimney and places gifts in children's stockings.
c) Talking point. Discuss:
 Did you believe in Christmas father when you were a
child? Was it a happy time for you?
 Do you have any unforgettable recollections about the
way you celebrated Christmas?
2. a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 What do you think boxing day is? Why is it called this
b) Read the text & find out.
Boxing Day
In English-speaking countries, the day following Christmas Day is called
'Boxing Day'. This word comes from the custom which started in the Middle Ages
around 800 years ago: churches would open their 'alms boxe' (boxes in which
people had placed gifts of money) and distribute the contents to poor people in
the neighbourhood on the day after Christmas. The tradition continues today small gifts are often given to delivery workers such as postal staff and children
who deliver newspapers.
Making sense of Christmas
Today in the West, not many people consider the religious meaning to
Christmas. Most people in UK or Europe will not go to a religious church meeting,
even at Christmas. It has become a busy race to spend money on presents, and get
ready for the Day. In UK, our shops stay open till late Christmas Eve and often
open again on Boxing Day with the cut-price 'sales'. (Not much holiday for the
poor shop workers!) A visitor from another world would think that Christmas was
a festival to the gods of money and shopping.
What do you want from Christmas?
Many people do hope for more than presents at Christmas. We want to
somehow return to a time in our childhood (or some other good time in the past),
when life was simpler and made more sense, before the troubles of adult life
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arrived. We feel sure that behind all the fun and decorations, there must somehow
be a message, something more, some key to life, hope and happiness.
c) Discuss:
 “Many people do hope for more than presents at
Christmas” What are your hopes about this holiday?
3. Do this puzzle for fun. Look at the pictures & write the
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www.busyteacher .com
4. Christmas superstitions
a) Look at the pictures & presuppose what they might mean
for Christmas. What superstitions might be related to the
thing in the picture?
b) Match the pictures with the superstition titles
Presents Mince Meat Pies Keep the Candle Burning
Yule Log Mistletoe First to Open the Door on Christmas Day
Plum Pudding Christmas Tree Carolers Holly
c) Read the superstitions & match them with their titles
Eat as many mince pies as you can on Christmas eve and afterward, because the
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amount will determine how much luck you will have in the next year. Don't cut them
with a knife but rather bite into them or you will cut your luck.
For the superstitious, it is vital that Christmas ..................... are kept burning and
undisturbed from the time they are lit on Christmas eve until they are put out on
Christmas day.
The ................. for the fireplace has to be cut or found rather than bought and should
be big enough to keep burning all night otherwise there it means bad luck for the year
ahead. It can be a stump (пень) or a big root, not necessarily a proper log. Tradition
has it that you then sit around telling ghost stories and drinking mulled wine on
Christmas eve in front of the Yule fire.
"Welcome Father Christmas!" is the shout the first to open the door Christmas
morning should give, to let Christmas in and any trapped bad spirits escape. Others
might sweep the threshold if they are first to clear it of "trouble".
In the original superstition, the one who avoids a kiss under the mistletoe will have
bad luck but the man is meant to present the kisses with a mistletoe berry. Once the
berries are gone, the kissing stops. Don't get rid of the ................ though! Bad lack to
remove it from the house until it is replaced next year.
Everyone in the house is to take turns stirring the .........................three times and
making a wish. If you are unmarried and forget to join in, you will not get a spouse in
the upcoming year. Like most wishes they are to stay secret until they come true. is the old tradition of going to people's houses and singing
Christmas songs for them. Never turn them away without some food, some money or
a drink or you will suffer bad luck for the rest of the year.
Tradition has it that St. Nicholas felt sorry for three sisters at Christmas time and
tossed three coins down the chimney. Their stockings were hanging at the hearth
(очаг) and each coin landed in a respective stocking. A superstition has arisen about
giving shoes, never give them at Christmas because the person can then walk out of
your life.
..................... is protective magic against witches and lightning and is brought in
during the holiday season for that purpose. Another superstition is that if
the.................. is smooth, the wife will be the master, while if the ................. is
prickly, the husband will be, so cautious couples bring in both!
According to snopes, bringing green branches is magic meant to ensure vegetation
returns at the end of winter. The .................... is the biggest centerpiece of all for that
belief. An older superstition surrounding the....................... is that it should not be
brought in and decorated before the 24th of December to avoid "capricious" forces.
5. Watch the video of Muppet show & their parody at singing
"Jingle bells"
Watch & sing the original "Jingle Bells" Animation clip
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Module 4c
Part 3
Christmas vs New year
1. a) Warm-up. Discuss
 How important is the New Year Day for you?
Listening 1
Listen to Karen & Johnny describing Scottish & Chinese
New Year. Who do you think mentions these things? Listen
& check
cleaning the house mushrooms & oysters the front & the back door
fruit cakes new clothes little red envelopes of money
 Listen again & say what one
similarity & two differences are
between Scottish & Chinese new
 Are there similarities with New year
in your country?
b) Read the text about New Year's
Traditions In Britain & in Russia
"New Years Around the Globe"
1. A) How do people celebrate New year all over the world?
B) Read the text below & say what the American traditions
to celebrate this holiday
There's something strange about starting a new year on January 1st, in the
dead of winter (the middle of winter). Did ancient people actually say, "Hey, this
snow is getting boring; let's end this dumb (= stupid) year and start another"?
Well, of course some fool probably said such a thing at one time or another, but
that's not the reason we have New Years in January. Celebrations of New Year are
based on the movements of the sun or moon, or on events associated with the
changing seasons.
So, for instance, the ancient Egyptians celebrated the New Year in
September when the banks of the Nile flooded. The flooding was good news for
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the crops in that desert landscape. Lots of cultures, like the Romans, started their
New Year in late March with the coming of spring. Spring signifies a rebirth of the
land, a new cycle of the seasons.
With the establishment of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, the first day of the
year shifted from March to the 1st of January. The date itself is arbitrary (=
determined by chance, произвольный), but it does give us a
nice excuse to have fun in the middle of winter.
Whatever the actual date of the New Year, new
beginnings and good luck are important. In Wales (Great
Britain), at the stroke of midnight, people open the back door
of their home and let out the bad luck. Then they opened the
front door to let in the good luck. (It’s unfortunate to have a
house with no back door.) For New Years luck in Venezuela,
people wear yellow underwear.
In America, people try to make a fresh start with the New Year by making
resolutions. That means they vow to change their life in some way. Here are some
of the most common New Year’s Resolutions (= a resolve or a promise to yourself
/= make a serious promise to oneself):
1. Lose weight
5. Find a better job
9. Eat better
2. Stop smoking
6. Become more organized 10. Become a better
3. Stick to a budget
7. Exercise more
4. Save or earn more
8. Be more patient at
11. Stop dancing on
work/with others
tables in cafes
(Okay, number 11 is not a common
resolution, but for some of us it is still
An American tradition is to kiss at the
stroke of midnight (= when the clock strikes
12:00 a.m.) on New Years. Almost anyone will
permit you a kiss at that time. For those people
who enjoy kissing someone whom they
ordinarily can’t, or shouldn’t, this is a great
For Americans, New Years is a holiday to
be spent with friends rather than family, and usually at a large party: from 20 to
100 people. In Russia, New Years is more of a family holiday, and the groups that
gather to celebrate are likely to be much smaller.
The Russian celebration is centered around a table--a table crowded with
dishes--where people can sit (even хорошо сидеть). Americans will walk around,
circulating among a large group of people. They may even eat standing up,
carrying a plate of hors d’oeuvres (= appetizers) with them.
The preferred drink of both Americans and Russians on New Years is
usually champagne. Americans toast. That means they clink glasses (=to tap
glasses together, чокаться), say "Happy New Year!"--and всё. Russians tend to
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“make toasts,” meaning that before they clink glasses someone gives a short (or
long) speech. This is rare with Americans, who tend to be a little more casual.
c) Vocabulary. Explain the meaning of the words in bold
d) Discuss: Talk Topics
1. What do you like about New Year's? & What do you not like about New Year's?
3. What do you like to drink on New Year's?
4. What are your favorite New Year's foods?
5. What time do you usually get to sleep on New Year's?
6. What did you do last New Year's? Who were you with? Where?
8. If you celebrate Old New Years (January 13th), what do you usually do?
9. Have you ever experienced New Years in a different country or culture? What
was it like?
10. If you could spend New Year's Eve anywhere in the world, where would you
Listening 2
2. Holiday decorations.
Listen to the text & write out all
words related to new year's
Consult the dictionary about
these words below.
lawn ornaments
3. New Year resolutions.
New Year's Eve has always been a time for looking back to the past, and more
importantly, forward to the coming year. It's a time to reflect on the changes we
want (or need) to make and resolve to follow through on those changes.
Listening 3.
a) Listen to file called New Year's resolutions & put it down
& discuss the vocabulary items in it
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b) Look at the cartoons & Comment in the idea that is
mocked in them
c) Enjoy the poem by Robert Fisher:
My New Year's Resolutions
I will not throw the cat out the window
Or put a frog in my sister's bed.
I will not tie my brother's shoelaces together
Nor jump from the roof of Dad's shed (сарай).
I shall remember my aunt's next birthday
And tidy my room once a week
I'll not moan (ныть) at Mum's cooking (Ugh! fish
fingers again!)
Nor give her any more of my cheek.
I will not pick my nose if I can help it.
I shall fold up my clothes, comb my hair,
I will say please and thank you (even when I don't
I shall write each day in my diary.
Try my hardest to be helpful at school
I shall help old ladies cross roads (even if they don't
want to)
And when others are rude I'll stay cool.
I'll go to bed with the owls and be up with the larks
And close every door behind me
I shall squeeze from the bottom of every toothpaste
And stay where trouble can't find me.
I shall start again, turn over a new leaf,
leave my bad old ways forever
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mean it)
And never spit or shout or even swear.
shall I start them this year, or next year
shall I sometime, or .....?
C) Make up a list of resolutions for yourself for better future
4. Abba song. Listen to the song
& fill in the words you hear
Happy New Year
No more champagne And the 1………….
are through
Here we are, me and you feeling 2…… and
feeling blue
It's the 3…. ..of the party And the morning
seems so grey
So ……….. yesterday Now's the time for us
to say...
Happy new year Happy new year
May we all have a 4……….. now and then
Of a world where every 5…………….. is a
Happy new year Happy new year
May we all have our 6………, our will to try
If we don't we might as well lay down and
You and I
Sometimes I see How the 7………
Seems to me now That the 10…………
we had before
Are all dead, nothing more Than
11…………..on the floor
It's the end of a 12………….. In
another ten years time
Who can say what we'll find
What lies waiting down the line
In the end of eighty - nine...
Happy new year Happy new year
May we all have a vision now and then
Of a world where every neighbour is a
Happy new year Happy new year
May we all have our hopes, our will to
If we don't we might as well lay down
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world arrives
and die
And I see how it thrives In the
You and I
8……………… of our lives
Oh yes, man is a fool And he thinks he'll be
9…………… on, feet of clay Never knowing
he's astray
Keeps on going anyway...
Module 4d
Part 4
New Year & all that Jazz In Russia
1. A) Discuss:
 What does the holiday mean for you? What comes to
your mind fist when you hear New Year’s
Day is coming?
B) Read the text below & discuss the way The
Russian traditionally celebrate New Year’s Day
Each New Year is a frantic event! Everybody tries to spend
New Year that it left a bright, light trace in our memory!
New Year in Russia is celebrated on January 1, the first day
of the Gregorian Calendar. In earlier times, New Year was
celebrated in the month of September. Later, this day was forbidden by Czar Peter,
the Great. In 1699, a decree was read about counting of years from Birth of Christ
since January 1. Thus, this day was declared as a New Year's day in Russia. Since
then, New Year became a family holiday for the people of Russia.
New Year Traditions
Have a look at some of the cherished New Year traditions in Russia. New
Year in Russia is celebrated with lots of fanfare. The New Year's Tree or
Novogodnaya Yolka is decorated with tinsel and sweets which is topped with a
bright star and decorated with various sweets. In the New Years Eve everybody
offer gifts to one another, have fun, make fireworks, cook
delicious meals and visit friends and relatives. Another
popularly celebrated New Year tradition is the arrival of Ded
Moroz or Father Frost and his granddaughter Snegurochka
the snow girl. They bring in New Year presents for the good
children and keep them under the New Year's Tree. There is
a custom that children must sing a song or recite a poem to
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satisfy Old Man Frost before acquiring the gift from him. Traditional New Year
dishes of Russia consist of Olivie salad with meat, potatoes , pickles, green peas,
onion, carrots, and mayonnaise. The most favorite New
Year drink is champagne.
New Year verve can be seen by the family gettogether, use of fireworks, delicious meals etc. The most
important part of the New Year activities is the sumptuous
dinner with light music and champagne. The most
important meals include meat, green peas, pickles,
mayonnaise, onion, carrots and potatoes.
New Year celebrations in Russia are marked by variegated traditions.
Russians also follow the tradition of listening to the New Year Speech from the
President on New Year's Day. After that everybody tries to open a bottle of
champagne and make a wish within the first few moments of the New Year.
New Year is more of a winter vacation in Russia. Schools remain closed
from January 1 till January 13. The main New Year celebrations begin from night
of December 31. People usually prefer to spend the day with their friends and
family members. Party clubs, hotels and discotheques are all jammed up at the
time of New Year. The main New Year celebrations come to an end on January
13th, when Russians lionizes the so-called Old-Style New Year. Old Style Year is
an unofficial & is not declared as a public holiday but is celebrated to mark the
beginning of the year according to the Julian
Another traditions followed at the time of New
Year is the tradition of fortune telling. Many people
especially women and unmarried girls are excited to
know about their future indulge in this acitivity. So,
The tradition of fortune telling is a very common
practice on the New Years Eve night.
c) Discuss:
 Did you believe in Grandfather Frost when you were a child? Was it a happy
time for?
 Have you ever organized any children’s parties (utrennik)? Would you
manage to be (to look) like a real Father Frost or Snow girl?
 What would say to a child if he / she came up to you & asked if the Father
Frost exists or not?
2. Father Frost vs Santa Claus
a) Warm-up. Divide in to two teams & play the game: what
team will manage to itemize the differences between these
two guys.
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b) Read the text below & see how many of your
descriptions coincide
Strictly speaking, Russian children don't
have a Christmas party these days. It was replaced
in 1935 with a New Year party (Christmas being
shunned in the atheist USSR as an "obsolete"
religious holiday). The tradition stuck, and today,
Russian children party and receive gifts on New
Year's day, while the Russian Orthodox Christmas
of January 7 (celebrated later due to the difference
in church calendars) remains a strictly religious
holiday, marked by an hours-long mass and a
hearty feast to break the forty-days' long
Christmas fast.
Still, the traditions remain the same and the
Russian children sing the same songs and play the
same games as they did a hundred years ago
around the Christmas tree. So if you plan to
organize a Russian Christmas party for kids, here are a few tips to make sure they
remember it.
The Difference Between Santa Claus and Russian Father
Christmas (a.k.a. Father Frost, or Ded Moroz)
Although both characters stem from the Huns' pagan god of New Year, there are
certain differences. The image of Santa Claus was heavily influenced by the Dutch
tradition of children's party on Nicholmas (December 6), while the Russians stuck
to their own legends about the ancient Slavic god of winter, Father Frost.
Here are some differences in their appearance:
 Ded Moroz (Father Frost) wears a floor-length fur coat of red, blue or
white (traditionally, it used to be red but blue and white are also very
popular as they're associated with snow and frost). The coat is trimmed
with white fur (or ideally, swans' down) and embroidered with ancient
Russian pagan symbols: silver crosses and eight-point stars.
 Ded Moroz wears a color-coordinated winter hat trimmed with white fur
or swans' down while Santa has a fur-trimmed conical cap.
 Santa has a short beard while Father Frost's beard has to be waist long.
 While Santa wears gloves, Father Frost wears very special mittens: warm
and white, they are embroidered with silver and have three fingers. In
pagan Russia, having three fingers was a sign of Godlike nature.
 Father Frost always appears with a magic staff in his hands. He uses it to
turn into ice whatever he touches with it, so kids should steer clear from
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Santa has a leather belt while Father Frost has a white, silver or colorcoordinated sash.
Santa wears a pair of trousers with his short coat while Father Frost
wears a linen shirt and trousers embroidered with white pagan patterns
(eight-point stars, crosses, etc) under his long coat: white linen being the
ancient pagan symbol for purity.
Santa wears black boots while Father Frost wears traditional Russian felt
boots in white or alternatively, medieval Russian leather boots with red
heels and curling pointed toes.
Santa is often portrayed wearing glasses while Father Frost never wears
As Santa lives in Lapland, he uses reindeer to pull his sleigh. Father
Frost, being Russian, uses three horses (a troika) for the same purpose,
although he can travel by foot, too.
Santa employs elves as his helpers, while Father Frost has his
granddaughter, Snegurochka, to accompany him in his travels.
Father Frost is tall and athletic while Santa is, er, Santa.
NEW Year Arrangements
Listening 4.
3. A) listen to the people talking how they are going to
organize their holiday. Fill in the table below (NY listening2)
4. Imagine are an agent in Holiday Tourist Network. Offer at
your audience’s choice variety of ways of celebrating this
Start like this …….And what will be now? Would you like to celebrate this
holiday the same way, you have celebrated the running year? Maybe, you are
waiting for something new? Are you tired from prosiness and waiting for
miracles? This offer is especially for you. That was your fantasy, will become
a wonderful and happy reality! If you are tired from holidays in the city, in
usual conditions, we offer to you to spend New Year in the best places of
Russia! Fun, laugh and Champaign splashes, the wise, grey haired Father
Frost and his young, pretty Snow Maiden are guaranteed………..
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Some more ideas…… We offer at your choice:
 New Year in Talci museum (open air museum of wooden Architecture)
 A corporative New Year,
 New Year in a restaurant,
 New Year on the motherland of Father Frost (Velikiy Ustyug) or on the
motherland of the Snow Maiden (Kostroma),
 New Year on the ice-skating rink,
 New Year in a Russian village and so on.
……In all cases, with each tourist group works a qualified manager, providing the
rest of a high class and professional escorting. ……..Call us and New Year will
become for you and your friends a real
Celebrating New Year in Russia
5. a) Warm-up. Discuss:
 What might an American
be surprised by seeing
New Year in Russia?
b) Read the story of an American who happened to see
New Year with his Russian friends.
Only Russians Know How to Greet the New Year
New Year - Russia
Article by: © Joshua Hartshorne 2012
One of the first questions my Russian acquaintances ask me is,
"Have you ever celebrated the New Year in Russia?" When I say I
haven't, they always laugh. Until I've met the New Year Russian-style,
they tell me, I have never really celebrated it at all. My attempts to tell
them about the Times Square parties leave them unimpressed.
It should come as no surprise that I balked when my Russian
friends approached me about throwing a New Year's bash in my
apartment. My friends, like myself all in their early 20s, live with their
parents, as do most unmarried Russians. This means I was the only
one with his own place. After they swore to keep the number of invitees down (1520), to supply all the food and drinks themselves and to not leave until the place
was spotless, I agreed. "At most one person will get sick," Kolya assured me. I
was not especially heartened, but I reasoned that I have very little in my
apartment to get destroyed: thick plaster walls, a painted wood floor, a tough
wooden bed, an old couch, a small kitchen table and a mostly-broken TV (its only
colors are red and black). The books, guitar, and dishes I hid.
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The first guest, Misha, who I had never met, arrived at 7pm on December
31st with a heavy hiking back-pack. From the backpack quickly emerged tea,
coffee, several loaves of bread, home-made pickles and a couple bottles of wine.
Guests trickled in over the next few hours, nearly every one with large backpacks
full of food and many with bedrolls. Russian parties, I had already been warned,
generally last at the very least until the next morning.
Posters are rare in Russia, so I have decorated my walls with maps. Misha
asked me where in America I am from, a typical question. The answer "Kansas"
tends to get either blank stares or jokes about Dorothy. In their credit, however,
that is more than most Kansans I know can say about Irkutsk, the Siberian city of
700,000 I am living in.
As soon as a critical mass of guests had been reached, they settled down in
the kitchen to begin cooking. Much of the food had come prepared. As always,
Sasha brought preserved mushrooms his family had gathered the last summer and
several bottles of home-made sparkling wine. Natasha, my neighbor, brought
over a tvorok-and-raison pie (tvorok is one of those Russian delicacies criminally
missing from American cuisine; it resembles cheesecake filling), after which she
returned to her own family's party. Anya brought breaded fish. Others brought
various pies, preserved fruits and vegetables, and salads (all home-made). Almost
no one arrived without a bottle or two of wine. Red wine was chilled between the
double panes of my kitchen windows; the beer was kept cool in a bathtub full of
Once on site, they proceeded to make more salads. A Russian salad would
not be recognized in America as such, since lettuce is almost completely unknown
in Russia. Russian salads come in two sorts: collections of pickled vegetables, or
mayonnaise-based inventions resembling chicken or egg salad. (At a restaurant, I
once ordered a "green" salad. The waitress looked at me. "You know, it's not really
a salad. It's mostly just grass.") They also assembled a large tray of the open-faced
sandwiches of smoked fish or sausage that are a staple of every Russian picnic.
Sasha directed the peeling and boiling of about 10 pounds of potatoes.
While half the guests were busy in the kitchen, the rest were redecorating my
room with the supplies they had brought. The centerpiece was the yolka, a small
but well-decorated pine tree. Russians find the idea of having a yolka at Christmas
very amusing. The walls of my room are completely devoid of hooks or nails, but
they nonetheless managed to hang ribbons and bows and streamers all around.
Around 11 pm, we went to Natasha's to retrieve a folding table, and by
11:30 all the food was prepared and on the table. Many American parties at the
time were already winding down. The meal was punctuated by regular toasts.
Toasting in parts of Russia is said to have developed into a high art. After the
Event itself - which brought on another round of toasting -- I was called over to
Natasha's, where her family was quietly celebrating the New Year together. I got
small presents from everybody. Even Russian Christians exchange presents on
New Year's rather than on Christmas. I had given them my presents the day before.
All my friends received the same present from me: banana bread, which Russians
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have never heard of but usually love once they have tried it. After a toast and a
promise from Natasha to head over to the party shortly, I headed back.
Shortly, Natasha arrived and about half the party headed downstairs to meet
her friend, Masha, who was arriving by taxi after celebrating the New Year with
her family. On the way, we passed the concierge, a fixture of many Russian
apartment buildings. I had taken down food and wine for her earlier and left it with
a note, since she had been in her own apartment with her husband when I dropped
by. Each guest who arrived had brought increasingly bellicose messages from her.
At first, she had been very helpful directing people to "the American's apartment,"
which was important since Sasha had given all his friends incorrect directions. The
last few guests, however, reported statements like, "How many people are going to
this party?" and "If you get too noisy, I'll chase you all out."
She seemed mollified by the food or possibly by the wine, and smiled at us
as we passed. Perhaps she thought we were leaving.
Having retrieved Masha, we returned to the apartment, where the guitars
had been broken out. Kolya had found my poorly-hidden guitar. Denis brought
his own. Russians know an incredible number of folk songs, some of which Denis
had been kind enough to type up and print out for me. The guitar was followed by
the arrival of Grandfather Frost (the Russian version of Santa Claus who arrives on
New Year's, not Christmas) and Snowflake - Sasha and Anya in full regalia and
presents in tow. Everyone had to perform for their presents. I was made to sing
"Frost, frost," since everyone knows that's the only Russian folk song I have
learned so far.
Russian parties are never deemed complete without a skit, usually performed by
volunteers who have no idea what the skit is about and simply follow the
instructions of the narrator (even a Rotary Club party I attended had a half-hour
skit). Snowflake (Anya) narrated. I do not recall the plot, but I played the part of a
pirate, at one point having to carry a princess to the top of a "rock." In Russian
skits, landmarks are usually roles, not props. There was also a "tree" in our skit,
upon which a "bird" was "perched" for most of the story.
Toasts continued to be announced. I committed the accidental faux paux of
suggesting one "to friendship," forgetting that in Russia this is taken very
seriously. Fortunately, no one seemed too embarrassed. However, Sasha later
responded with a toast, saying I was lucky to have found such a group of friends so
quickly upon arriving in Irkutsk (I arrived November 16th), that such groups did
not exist everywhere. I had actually hoped in choosing Irkutsk and Siberia in
general that it would more resemble the friendly and open social environment and
hospitality of my native Midwest. I had found making friends Russia's old capital,
St. Petersburg, very difficult. The big cities of European Russia resemble our big
cities at least in their rather closed social environments.
The guests continued to trickle in, the last one arriving sometime after 3 in
the morning. Not long after, the decision was made that the time had come for an
excursion. Coats were dragged out of the closet - which had taken 3 people to
close that last time - and we all headed to a large and well-lit yolka outside of the
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Polytechnical University, not far from my apartment. The excursion soon devolved
into a free-for-all wrestling match in the snow, from which the girls were not
excluded. The one really good pounding I got was at the hands of two girls, after
which they filled my hat with snow for good measure - never mind that one of the
girls was wearing my gloves, which I had lent her.
Having had enough of this, we headed off to a playground to play on the
slide, which was completely coated in ice, with a twenty-foot strip of ice on the
ground in front of it. Russian boys tend to go down standing up, a technique
which I have not mastered. I went down the slide sitting on pieces of cardboard
like the girls (some days later, I practiced the art form on a kiddie slide downtown
while no one was looking and almost succeeded). This was not exactly the chicken
way out, however. The ice was lumpy, and writing this now two days later I sit
rather uncomfortably. On the way home, one of my friends asked me how this
compared with New Year's parties in America. I said I did not know about
America as a whole, but the ones I'd been to usually seemed to end by 2 or 3 in the
morning. They thought this was quite rich.
After the excursion, a few of the guests said their goodbyes. Natasha and
Masha left for Natasha's apartment. The 10 of us who were staying prepared the
bed, the fold-out couch, and the bedrolls. In a few small clusters scattered about
the room, we drifted off to sleep ... or rather, to nap. Within a few hours, the
guests were already up. Breakfast consisted of leftovers, which were not
inconsiderable. I didn't have to cook again for a week.
The stereo was turned back on, and the party began anew. I was
requisitioned to teach Sasha, Anya and yet another Anya how to swing dance.
Swing is rare in Russia and completely unknown in Irkutsk. The night before I had
been teaching the second Anya a few moves, which had impressed Sasha and the
first Anya enough that they are now determined to learn. The guitars were brought
back out, and we sung the "very last" song. We had sung the "last" song the night
before, but at the time I had been warned that there was a difference between the
"last" and the "very last." In fact, not long after, there were even more songs.
Much of the morning and afternoon was taken up by sporadic cleaning.
My attempts to help were politely by firmly rebuffed. When the last guests, Sasha
and Anya. left at a little before 4 in the afternoon, the apartment, if not spotless,
was indeed cleaner than when the first guest had arrived nearly 21 hours
A few days before New Year's I received an email from one of my Russian
friends, currently in Tashkent, Kazakhstan. On the subject of what she was doing
for the holiday, she said she would probably sleep. "The holiday is no fun without
Russians," she explained. "Only Russians know how to greet the New Year."
What were you for the holiday?
c) Vocabulary.
d) Discuss:
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 Do you agree “the way of the celebrating any holiday & how amusing it
might be fully depends on you…. Nobody is to blame that the celebration
turned out to be rather tedious”?
 Do you have a “plan” to organize a holiday? Do you entertain your
guest…do you prepare something amusing for the guests? etc
The story of Moroz Ivanovich & his
6. The questions have been taken
out of the text & mixed. Render
the text & insert the questions in
the suitable answer.
- & where does The Snow Girl come from?
- Today it’s hard to imagine that NY’s Day was celebrated without the pine
tree – some politician in Soviet times considered the tree smth as a criminal
element of bourgeois society. Why / What for?
- As it is known nowadays Father frost lives in Great Ustug, but where did he
live before?
But Initially Orthodox Church disapproved of using pine trees on holidays.
Why did it them agree on it?
So, How old is Father Frost?
- Could you let out the secret (reveal a secret): who are her parents?
- Ultimately, Elena, could you tell us how the look of today’s’ FF changed in
comparison with Father Frost existed before the revolution in October 1917
Где живет Дед Мороз, кем на самом деле
ему приходится Снегурочка, и как украшали
елки в разное время - об этом корреспонденту
"Труда" рассказывает профессор СанктПетербургского государственного
университета Елена ДУШЕЧКИНА - автор
научной монографии "Русская елка: история,
мифология, литература".
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- И новогодняя елка, и Дед Мороз как новогодний персонаж - почти
ровесники, им чуть больше 160 лет. Но в восточнославянском фольклоре с
незапамятных времен существовал мифологический образ Мороза. Он
представлялся в виде существа, стерегущего лес и своим стуком
вызывающего трескучие морозы. В канун Рождества Мороза "задабривали":
для него клали на подоконник или на крыльцо ложку с кутьей или киселем.
Прежде чем за этим сказочным персонажем окончательно закрепилось
нынешнее имя, его звали Дедушкой Николаем (правда, этот вариант рано
отпал), Добрым Морозко, Рождественским или Елочным Дедом, Святочным
Стариком, Елкичем. Первая литературная обработка фольклорного Мороза
принадлежит перу Владимира Одоевского, опубликовавшего в 1840 году
"Детские сказки дедушки Иринея". Одна из них и посвящена Морозу
Ивановичу. В этой сказке он еще не новогодний персонаж, а просто добрый и
справедливый опекун. Ну а Снегурочка помоложе, ей 130 лет - столько же,
сколько и одноименной сказке Островского. Сам обычай устраивать елку
пришел к нам из Германии в 30-х годах XIX века. Вскоре детские елки стали
модным новшеством в состоятельных семьях. Дерево украшали фонариками,
свечками, конфетами, игрушками, книгами. А затем уже, как и на Западе, у
нас это вечнозеленое дерево стало считаться Христовым, важным атрибутом
- Не только церковь. Недовольство высказывали защитники природы,
любители отечественной старины были против укоренения заимствованных
обычаев. В конце ХIХ века российские педагоги и писатели немало сделали
для того, чтобы "переселить" миф о елке на нашу почву и примирить новую
традицию с воззрениями верующих. Елка стала связываться не с Рождеством,
а с Новым годом, и воспринималась как символ зимы и России. К висящим
на ней игрушкам добавились шишки, зайчики, грибочки, появился на ветках
старичок с мешком в руках. Вскоре он увеличился в размерах и "переехал"
под дерево. Постепенно на праздниках начали появляться ряженые деды с
заплечными мешками. А уж от них до Деда Мороза был и вовсе маленький
Великий Устюг - только одна из резиденций. Есть еще у Деда Мороза
ледяные хоромы в селе Малые Корелы Архангельской области, куда его
официально "прописали" в начале 90-х годов прошлого века. По
архангельской версии, Дед Мороз - постаревший Николай Угодник. А вот в
сказке Владимира Одоевского он - близкий родственник народного Мороза,
зимой жил в ледяной избушке, спал на перине из пушистого снега, а летом
переселялся на дно колодца.
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- Из Щелыково Костромской области, где Александр Николаевич
Островский написал одноименную пьесу, кстати, с подзаголовком "Весенняя
- У Островского Снегурочка была дочерью Мороза и Весны-Красны, потом
она стала называться внучкой, а про маму Весну как-то забылось. Вместе же
с Дедом Морозом она стала появляться лишь во второй половине 1940-х
годов. Свой современный вид образ Снегурочки получил в 1935 в Советском
Союзе, после официального разрешения празднования Нового года. В книгах
по организации новогодних ёлок этого периода Снегурочка выступает
наравне с Дедом Морозом, как его внучка, помощник и посредник в общении
между ним и детьми. В начале 1937 года Дед Мороз и Снегурочка впервые
явились вместе на праздник ёлки в Московский Дом Союзов.
- В первые годы после Октября отношение новой власти к елке и Деду
Морозу было вполне лояльным. Но когда в 1927 году началась
антирелигиозная кампания, вечнозеленое дерево превратилось в "пережиток
прошлого". Дед Мороз тоже, между прочим, оказался под подозрением. На
плакатах с подписью "Что скрывается за Дедом Морозом?" изображался
старик, за спиной которого, притаившись, стояли поп и кулак.
Через семь лет елке все же дали "добро". 28 декабря 1935 года в "Правде"
появилась статья кандидата в члены Политбюро ЦК ВКП(б) П.П. Постышева
"Давайте организуем советским детям хорошую елку". Это означало
официальное разрешение того, чтобы лесные гостьи появлялись на
новогодних праздниках. Их сразу же стали продавать на рынках. Украшали
елки с фантазией, соответственно веяниям эпохи.
- Он по-прежнему любимец детворы. Правда, поменял белую шубу на
красную - как у Санта-Клауса, вместо шапки иногда надевает колпак, кладет
подарки в чулок. Одним словом, становится все более
похожим на западного собрата.
Ивойлова Ирина
B) История Снегурочки и ее избушки.
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Кострома считается родиной Снегурочки - маленькой девочки, которая
так печально растаяла весной, прыгая с подружками через костер. Стоит
разобраться, почему именно Кострома. И надо ли так уж переживать из-за
безвременной смерти Снегурочки из сказки? И такая ли уж она милая
девочка, как принято считать? Видимо, сказка о Снегурочке возникла из
древнего славянского обряда похорон Костромы. И, значит, можно
утверждать, что Кострома не просто родина Снегурочки. Она и есть та самая
Снегурочка. Кострому хоронят по-разному. Соломенное чучело,
изображающее девушку Кострому, или топят в реке, или сжигают, подобно
Масленице на костре. Само слово Кострома имеет один корень со словом
костер. Сожжение Костромы - это одновременно проводы зимы. Обряд
призван обеспечить плодородие земель. Так же и Снегурочка дожила до
весны и погибла на костре.
Вспомним о происхождении Снегурки. По многим вариантам сказки
она ожившая снежная баба. Это значит, что Снегурочка была
олицетворением зимы, сила, враждебная людям и почти потусторонняя,
связанная с загробным миром. Ведь Кострома тоже имеет два значения. Это,
с одной стороны, аграрная богиня, чья смерть необходима для будущего
урожая. С другой - Кострома - это еще и заложный покойник, то есть
покойник, умерший неестественной смертью и опасный для живых. По
представлению славян, человек, умерший не своей смертью, неожиданно или
покончивший с собой, превращается в особый вид нечистой силы заложного.
Заложный покойник доживает положенный ему на земле срок после
смерти и при этом всячески старается вредить людям, особенно своим
родным и близким. Заложными становятся не только самоубийцы, но и
некрещеные младенцы, дети, проклятые родителями, люди, умершие от
Обряд похорон Костромы и похожая детская игра были зафиксированы
фольклористами на приволжских землях вплоть до первой половины XX
Слияние в образе Костромы и аграрной богини, и заложного покойника
вовсе неудивительно. Ведь заложный покойник - это одна из разновидностей
умершего предка. А почитание умерших предков и мнение, что они
воплощение огромной силы доброй или злой, характерны для всех
архаических мифов. Конечно, после принятия христианства, вытеснившего
язычество на Руси, покойники стали рассматриваться исключительно как
злые, дьявольские силы.
Как бы то ни было, Кострома была явно могущественным существом.
Но могущество ее постепенно забывалось. Сама она со временем
превратилась из грозной богини в нежную Снегурочку. А ее торжественное
сожжение стало случайным прыжком через костер. Сейчас обрядовое
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значение всей этой истории забыто. Из древнего аграрного мифа выросла
печальная романтическая сказка.
8.5. Х-mas is coming
Where did it come
Where is it going?
In many countries of the world, the celebration
of Christmas on December 25th is a high point of the
year. But why? Can it have any real meaning for us
today? Is there a 'real' Christmas message?
Christmas celebrations in the West today. From November
onwards, it is impossible to forget that Christmas is coming. Coloured lights
decorate many town centres and shops, along with shiny decorations, and artificial
snow painted on shop windows. In streets and shops, 'Christmas trees' (real or
plastic evergreen 'conifer' trees) will also be decorated with lights and Christmas
Shopping centres become busier as December approaches and often stay
open till late. Shopping centre speaker systems will play Christmas 'carols' - the
traditional Christmas Christian songs, and groups of people will often sing carols
on the streets to raise money for charity. Most places of work will hold a short
Christmas party about a week before Christmas. Although traditional Christmas
foods may be eaten, drink (and plenty of it) means that little work will be done
after the party!
By mid-December, most homes will also be decorated with Christmas trees,
coloured lights and paper or plastic decorations around the rooms. These days,
many more people also decorate garden trees or house walls with coloured
electric lights, a habit which has long been popular in USA.
Families decorate their houses. Streamers are put up made of
paper, or foil, candles may be put out, some people decorate their
windows. Wreaths may be hung on the door.
In many countries, most people post Christmas greeting
cards to their friends and family, and these cards will be hung on the
walls of their homes. In UK this year, the British Post Office expects
to handle over 100 million cards EACH DAY, in the three weeks
before Christmas.
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The custom of sending Christmas cards started in
Britain in 1840 when the first 'Penny Post' public postal
deliveries began. Traditionally, Christmas cards showed
religious pictures - Mary, Joseph and baby Jesus, or other
parts of the Christmas story. Today, pictures are often
jokes, winter pictures, Father Christmas, or romantic scenes
of life in past times.
The old man with the sack
'Father Christmas' (or 'Santa Claus') has become the human face of
Christmas. Pictures will be seen everywhere of the old man with long white beard,
red coat, and bag of toys. Children are taught that he brings them presents the night
before Christmas (or in some countries on December 6th - St. Nicholas' Day), and
many children up to the age of 7 or 8 really believe this is true. In most countries, it
is said that he lives near the North Pole, and arrives through the sky on a sledge
(snow-cart) pulled by reindeer. He comes into houses down the chimney at
midnight and places presents for the children in socks or bags by their beds or
in front of the family Christmas tree. In shops or at children's parties, someone will
dress up as Father Christmas and give small presents to children, or ask them what
gifts they want for Christmas. Christmas can be a time of magic and excitement for
Father Christmas is based on a real person, St. Nicholas, which explains his
other name 'Santa Claus' which comes from the Dutch 'Sinterklaas'. Nicholas was a
Christian leader from Myra (in modern-day Turkey) in the 4th century AD. He was
very shy, and wanted to give money to poor people without them knowing about it.
It is said that one day, he climbed the roof of a house and dropped a purse of
money down the chimney. It landed in the stocking which a girl had put to dry
by the fire! This may explain the belief that Father Christmas comes down the
chimney and places gifts in children's stockings.
 Did you believe in Christmas father when you were a
child? Was it a happy time for you?
 Do you have any unforgettable recollections about the
way you celebrated Christmas?
Boxing Day
In English-speaking countries, the day following Christmas Day is called
'Boxing Day'. This word comes from the custom which started in the Middle Ages
around 800 years ago: churches would open their 'alms boxe' (boxes in which
people had placed gifts of money) and distribute the contents to poor people in
the neighbourhood on the day after Christmas. The tradition continues today small gifts are often given to delivery workers such as postal staff and children
who deliver newspapers.
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Making sense of Christmas
Today in the West, not many people consider the religious meaning to
Christmas. Most people in UK or Europe will not go to a religious church meeting,
even at Christmas. It has become a busy race to spend money on presents, and get
ready for the Day. In UK, our shops stay open till late Christmas Eve and often
open again on Boxing Day with the cut-price 'sales'. (Not much holiday for the
poor shop workers!) A visitor from another world would think that Christmas was
a festival to the gods of money and shopping.
Here are the instruction how to celebrate Cristmas. Arrange
the right order
Tips & Warnings
Step1Step2Step3Step4Step5Step6Step 7Step 8Step 9Step 10Step 11Step 12
 Christmas is celebrated around the world in a wide variety of ways.
Incorporate traditions from other cultures into your own festivities to create
your own unique traditions.
 Share the list with Santa Claus so he can fill their requests. Expect him to
arrive on Christmas Eve in a sled drawn by reindeer, carrying a red sack
filled with gifts.
 Buy gifts for family and friends and pile them under the tree.
 Set up a live or artificial Christmas tree in your home. Decorate it with
ornaments and lights.
 Play Christmas music in your house to get in the holiday spirit; some
popular choices include "Silent Night" and "Deck the Halls."
 Place lights and other decorations on the outside of your house and on your
outdoor shrubs and trees.
 Hang mistletoe in a doorway. It is traditional for people to kiss when they
stand underneath this small, scented sprig.
 Send Christmas cards to family and friends wishing them a merry Christmas
and a happy new year.
 Hang stockings from your mantel so Santa can leave little items inside
when he visits.
 Help those less fortunate than you are at this time of year. Donate a
toy for a needy child, or give food to a food drive or homeless
shelter so others can enjoy a holiday meal.
 Ask your children to write down a wish list of the toys they would
like to receive.
 Remember that the true meaning of the season is really about
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 Prepare a huge Christmas feast with foods such as turkey, ham, stuffing and
vegetables; serve mince pie for dessert. Include other favorite recipes from
your childhood holiday meals.
 Attend church on Christmas Eve.
Module 7.2
Part 1
Russian pagan holidays in more
a) Discuss:
 How many facts do you know about Epiphany?
b) Read the article below & find the words related to the
holiday in the text?
Святая вода
Освящать воду
Нырять в прорубь во
Храбрый (2)
Обильный (об урожае)
Омолодить тело
Целебные свойства
Сбрызгивать продукты
Предотвратить болезни
Окунуться в воду 3 раза
Пить …на голодный
Родник (2)
Торжественно и с
Суровый (о морозах)
проводить какие-л.
мероприятия в память о
ком-л., чём-л.
Священник (2)
Домашние предметы
Стало обычаем
Крещенские морозы
Не портится целый год
Orthodox Russians celebrate
The Epiphany - one of the twelve main
Orthodox holidays - is celebrated by Russia’s
Orthodox Church and believers throughout the
country (January 19 in accordance with the
Julian calendar). Churches bless the waters
and the more valiant take the plunge (= a dive) into holes in the ice in sub-zero
The Epiphany is one of the most highly esteemed holidays in Russia. It
commemorates the day when John the Baptist christened (= baptized) the 30
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year old Jesus Christ in the Jordan River nearly 2,000 years ago. The sacrament of
Baptism came from this occasion.
Russians believe that holy water (blessed on
Epiphany) has special healing qualities and use it to
heal spiritual ailments (=diseases). Russians are
convinced that women can wash away wrinkles with
holy water. Many Russians store (=keep) the water at
home as a relic for the year and it is customary to drink
a little in the mornings on an empty stomach. Priests recommend that the holy
water be sprinkled on food products and other household goods.
In addition to believers, many atheists acknowledge (= accept the idea of)
the healing powers of the blessed water. Orthodox faithful believe that the physical
characteristics of the holy water cannot be explained scientifically & rationally.
Orthodox Christians believe that on Epiphany all water around the world
becomes holy, and immersing oneself in it three times will prevent illnesses. It's
believed no-one has ever become ill after an Epiphany ice-swim. So they believe
They cleanse themselves & rejuvenate their body & also take advantage of the
water's healing properties..
Russia has traditionally celebrated Epiphany solemnly and extensively. It
was customary to carve a hole in the ice and to call
it "Jordania" in memory of the river in which Christ
was baptized. On the feast day, clergy (=priest) lead
a procession to these holes or to wells and bless the
water, even in the biting cold. Some courageous
(=valiant) people immerse themselves in the icy
water. In Russia they are called walruses. For those
less courageous a glass of blessed water is an
alternative. Some people go to church to have water
In some cities thee are theatrical performances. See
some shots:
Orthodox believers claim that the collected water
does not spoil for an entire year. On the day after the
holiday all water sources lose their special quality.
“The importance of the holy water is actually a pre-Christian
Slavic tradition, so it is much more emphasized in Russia than in the
West,” Lara McCoy-Roslof, Deputy Editor of Russia
Profile magazine, an expert on Orthodox Christianity explained in her interview to
Russia Today.
The famous Epiphany frostsare approaching. In Russia they have been
considered the harshest of the year. According to the farmer's almanac there are
many signs tied to this day. Russians believe that if it snows on Epiphany then the
wheat (пшеница) and honey harvest will be plentiful and if the eve of Epiphany
is starlit, then the berry crop will be good.
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These are the dictionary entry for the holiday:
Epiphany ■ the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles (язычники) as represented by
the Magi (the "wise men") (Matthew 2:1 - 12)
■ the festival commemorating this on January 6
■ a manifestation of a divine or supernatural being ( from Greek epiphainein
Baptism - (in the Christian Church) the religious rite of sprinkling water onto a
person's forehead or of immersion in water, symbolizing purification or
regeneration and admission to the Christian Church. In many denominations,
baptism is performed on young children and is accompanied by name-giving
■ a ceremony or occasion at which this takes place
■ a religious experience likened to this baptism in the Holy Spirit
■ figurative a person's initiation into a particular activity or role, typically
one perceived as difficult
1.Vocabulary (explain the words highlighted in the text with
your own words? Make up sentences with them)
2. Discuss:
 Do you believe in the “holy” healing qualities of the
waters this day?
 Are you going to take a dive into the hole in the ice?
 True or false? Ice-swimming is like a drug – you get hooked on the
feeling of euphoria from the icy water, something which you need to
experience again and again.
3. Make up a plan & Give a talk about the holiday as if you
are speaking to an American?
Module 6
Part 2
1. Easter
In April or at the end of the
March English people celebrate Easter
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Day. They celebrate it as the start of spring or a religious festival. In England it is
time to give and to get presents.
On Easter Sunday children get chocolate eggs and rabbits.
Because the use of eggs was forbidden during Lent, they were brought to the
table on Easter Day, coloured red to symbolize the Easter joy. This custom is
found not only in the Latin but also in the
Oriental Churches. The symbolic meaning of
a new creation of mankind by Jesus risen
from the dead was probably an invention of
later times. The custom may have its origin
in paganism, for a great many pagan
customs, celebrating the return of spring,
gravitated to Easter. The egg is the emblem
of the germinating life of early spring.
The Decorated Easter Egg
The egg is nature’s perfect package. It has, during the span of history,
represented mystery, magic, medicine, food and omen. It is the universal symbol of
Easter celebrations throughout the world and has been dyed, painted, adorned and
embellished in the celebration of its special symbolism.
Before the egg became closely entwined with the Christian Easter, it was
honored during many rite-of-Spring festivals. The Romans, Gauls, Chinese,
Egyptians and Persians all cherished the egg as a symbol of the universe. From
ancient times eggs were dyed, exchanged and shown reverence.
In Pagan times the egg represented the rebirth of the earth. The long, hard
winter was over; the earth burst forth and was reborn just as the egg miraculously
burst forth with life. The egg, therefore, was believed to have special powers. It
was buried under the foundations of buildings to ward off evil; pregnant young
Roman women carried an egg on their persons to foretell the sex of their unborn
children; French brides stepped upon an egg before crossing the threshold of their
new homes.
With the advent of Christianity the symbolism of the egg changed to
represent, not nature’s rebirth, but the rebirth of man. Christians embraced
(воспользоваться, принимать) the egg symbol and likened it to the tomb from
which Christ rose.
Decorating and coloring eggs for Easter was the custom in England during the
middle ages. The household accounts of Edward I, for the year 1290, recorded an
expenditure (расходование) of eighteen pence for four hundred and fifty eggs to
be gold-leafed and colored for Easter gifts.
Answer the questions:
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- What is the holiday like in England? What do children
get on that day?
- Why were eggs colored red the previously & what
emblem was the egg later on? Why do we celebrate
- Is the way the English people celebrate the holiday
in Russia?
- What were the meanings of an egg before
Christianity & after the advent of it?
Module 6
Part 3
1. Read the text about this holiday &
the way the Russians celebrate it. Answer the questions:
 When did Shrovetide originate? What did our ancestors do & worship?
Why did bake circular red pancakes?
 What does the holiday indulge? & why? (what does it precede?) What
were the beliefs about celebrating this holiday?
 What is the equivalent of this holiday in European countries? Is the
significance of this holiday the same?
 What was the meaning & name of each day of the week?
 What does the holiday symbolize in Russia nowadays?
Shrovetide in Russia
Like any other nation the Russians are famous
for their own peculiar customs and traditions kept
through the centuries. At the end of winter
Shrovetide (a pancake week) comes. In Russian
Pancake week is called "Maslyanitsa".
The tradition of celebrating Shrovetide
originated in the pagan days. Our ancestors tried to
use oil to please the god Veles, the patron of crop
farming and cattle-rearing. With this aim they
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would bake circular red pancakes, which are a symbol of the sun.
This holiday indulges in unrestrained (=unlimited) gluttony and
merriment. Traditionally it was always
thought that a person who has a boring,
unpleasant Shrovetide week will be unlucky
for the whole of the coming year. So in that
case drink, eat, cheerfully chase away the
winter and do not forget at the very end to
burn a straw effigy dressed in n women’s
rags which people played with before burning
it to ashes.
For Russians, Shrovetide is the
equivalent of Carnival for Italians, especially as both celebrations have the same
original meaning: translated from the Italian, carnival (carne-vale) means ‘farewell
to beef’. Shrovetide, which precedes Lent, previously used to be called Meat-Fare
Sunday, because it is forbidden to eat meat during this period. Before Lent,
Shrovetide is the last week when you are still allowed to stuff yourself with large
amounts of rich food, and have whole-hearted fun.
The Christian historians say that those were really "mad" days in the past.
People wore funny masks and costumes, sometimes, men wore women's clothing
and vice versa. Such masquerade anticipated a merry festival, when delicious food
and a lot of wine was consumed. At first it was a festival that celebrated the arrival
of spring and the start of work on the land. It included many rituals (burning a man
of straw symbolizing winter, lighting fires, leaving festival food on the ancestors'
graves) and feasts, the main food at which were bliny. And they hold competitions
for the best and biggest pancake.
The fist fighting was one more great fun that helped to get warm on cold
winter days.
Later, the Orthodox Church included Shrovetide among its festivals.
Shrovetide has lost its ritual significance and has become a
symbolic festival of saying good-bye to winter and
welcoming spring. At present special performances are held
during Pancake week.
The tradition of celebrating Shrovetide is now back all
over the country with villages and city parks opening for
community gatherings, where people treat each other to
pancakes with fish,
mushrooms, sour cream,
preserves, cereals, eggs, honey
and other delicacies.
In Orthodox calendar
Shrovetide is called the Cheese
Week, a week before Lent, when they don’t eat
meat but fasting is lifted from Wednesday and
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Friday and milk, eggs and cheese are allowed. Holy Church sees the Cheese Week
as a week of humility and penitence, for a prayer of repentance to Saint Ephraim
Sirin is read at the evening service on Tuesday.
b) Read the text again & find the English equivalent to the
following Make up sentences of your own with them:
Задобрить богов
Кулачные бои
Прощаться с
Встречать весну
Строить горки
Кататься на
Кататься с горки
2. Below is the second part of the text. Read & insert the
right name of the week day
Shrovetide in Russia (2)
Each day of Shrovetide week has its own name, which refers to what
you are meant to do on that
particular day.
…………….. is “gaming
day”, when light-hearted games
begin and people offer pancakes
to accompany the merriment.
On Tuesday the guys invited the
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young ladies to take a slide downhill so that they could choose a match.
…………….. is “the meeting”. On this day you are meant to set up ice
slides: the further the toboggan skates and the louder the noise and laughter over
the ice slide, the better the harvest will be. On Monday they dressed the
Shrovetide straw doll.
…………….. is ‘the lover of good food’. This name speaks for itself.
Hostesses observe the saying: “Offer your guests everything you have and then
some”. Of course pancakes are offered above all else. On Wednesday mothers-inlaw invited their sons-in-law for a treat.
……………..was the last day of Shrovetide and was known as Sunday of
forgiveness. On that day people ask forgiveness of one another for earlier hurts,
burnt the Shrovetide effigy and scattered the ashes for a profuse harvest.
On …………… was the sons-in-law’s turn to treat their mothers-in-law
to pancakes.
……………..marks ‘broad Shrovetide’, for it was the heat of the holiday
with revelers riding troikas and taking part in fist fights. Thursday is “the day
for going wild”. To help the sun chase away the winter, people ride horses around
the village along the line of the sundial. The main male activity on this day
involves playing at defending and capturing a village in the snow. The young
boys and men enter into a fervent battle, whilst the women and children act out
the role of spectators, strict judges and passionate supporters.
On ……………..sisters-in-law gathered for a chat and the young
housewives invited all relatives to demonstrate their culinary skills.
3. Render the ideas in the article below
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4. Write an essay “Shrovetide & Easter are the injections to
remember our own culture”
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5. Render the ideas &
discuss the issues raised in
the article in class
«Церковь не против
Масленицы, но
зачем возрождать
На вопросы читателей «Комсомолки»
ответил епископ Острогожский Андрей,
викарий Воронежской епархии
- Владыка, добрый день. Вас беспокоит
Тамара Коваленко. Сейчас продолжается масленичная неделя. Многие воспринимают
это время как возможность вдоволь наесться и хорошо повеселиться. А как правильно
провести ее с точки зрения Церкви?
- Масленица - подготовительная неделя Великого поста. По сути, он уже начался, ведь в
течение этой недели мы полностью отказываемся от мяса. Есть можно только молочные
продукты и рыбу. Таким образом, верующие привыкают к воздержанному образу жизни,
и им не придется резко вступать в пост.
- А как быть с тем, что вокруг очень много соблазнов - и гулянья, и сжигание чучела, и
всевозможные праздники. Это не считается зазорным?
- Людям свойственно веселиться, и Церковь никогда это не запрещала. Тем более перед
постом надо запастись радостью. Другое дело, что у каждого религиозного праздника есть
не только литургический, но и бытовой характер. Например, Масленица отличается
гастрономическим разнообразием, свойственным только этому периоду.
А вот возрождение языческих традиций Церковь не поддерживает. Еще в XVIII веке
святитель Тихон Задонский, епископ Воронежский, выходил на площадь и архиерейским
посохом разгонял всех, кто занимался всякого рода непотребствами. И речь идет не
только о сжигании чучела зимы. Приготовление блинов рассматривается как ритуал,
посвященный символу Солнца. Все это несет сакральный характер языческой
обрядовости. В древности была традиция крещенских купаний - к религии она никакого
отношения не имеет. Просто люди, которые на святки ходили ряжеными и колядовали,
сами придумали себе подобный способ избавления от личины, ими принимаемой. В
купель окунались лишь те, кто наряжался, а не все село поголовно. Теперь же это стало
модой - люди считают, что непременно должны прыгнуть в воду и тем самым смыть
грехи. То есть таинство исповеди, требующее серьезной работы над собой, по их мнению,
уже необязательно. Возникает вопрос: зачем наше светское государство организует эти
купели? Считаю, что это неправильно еще и потому, что не все они освящаются. Точно
так же и с Масленицей. Почему религиозный праздник вдруг стал общенародным?
Получается политика двойных стандартов. Церкви говорят: «Не лезьте в образование, в
воспитание». Однако в это же самое время возрождаются альтернативные религиозные
традиции, которые будут не воспитывать, а разлагать народ. В Воронеже мы добились
того, чтобы в Прощенное воскресенье проводы Масленицы не устраивали. Ко дню, когда
мы просим прощения у Бога и ближних, надо оставить за порогом все ликование и войти в
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этот период уже с серьезным настроением, благоговейным отношением и к собственной
духовной жизни. Также мы очень просим не разжигать костры и не сжигать чучело. Что
касается блинов, то, пожалуйста, пеките их, ходите друг к другу в гости, посещайте
нуждающихся, делитесь от своих щедрот. Правда, все это делайте не только на
Масленицу, но и в другое время года.
- Здравствуйте, меня зовут Альбина. Хотела бы узнать, как надо провести Прощеное
- Прежде всего не стоит думать, что в этот день отпускаются все общие грехи. Прощение лишь знак одобрения на вступление в период Великого поста. Мы входим в него как в
духовную пустыню, где остаемся один на один с собой, со своей душой. Важно, чтобы на
это была не собственная воля, а благословение священников и наших ближних. С другой
стороны, некоторые из нас по разным причинам не смогли попросить у кого-то прощение
в течение года. У этих людей есть хорошая возможность примириться со своими
ближними, с теми, кого мы обидели или кто обидел нас.
- Многие просят прощения с помощью SMS, кто-то пишет письма в социальных сетях…
- Я считаю, что личное общение все равно ничто не заменит. Хотя если нет возможности
встретиться, то почему бы не отправить сообщение или не позвонить по телефону?
- А есть правила, как надо просить прощения? Или возможны импровизации?
- Самое главное слово - это «прости». И оно должно быть искреннем. Надо сказать
«Прости меня ради Христа» и, услышав в ответ «Бог простит, а я прощаю», можно
поцеловаться. Больше ничего не надо. Ведь когда мы начинаем объяснять, за что именно
извиняемся, зачастую возникает диалог: один начинает оправдываться, а другой искать
виноватого. Ни к чему хорошему это не приведет - вы еще сильнее обострите свои обиды.
- Вас беспокоит Светлана. Владыка, у меня такая проблема - я верующий человек и
соблюдаю пост, а вот муж нет. Он категорически против того, чтобы на этот период
мы воздерживались от супружеских отношений. Как мне быть?
- Если ваш муж ходит в церковь и есть какой-то авторитетный для него священник, то
попросите его донести моменты понимания супружеских взаимоотношений. Церковь на
время поста предписывает воздержание. Однако есть оговорка, упомянутая апостолом
Павлом, - это воздержание должно проходить по взаимному согласию супругов. Лучший
вариант - перед началом поста договориться о том, что когда вы не готовитесь к
причастию, если это не первая, четвертая или страстная седмицы поста и вы готовы
уступить его немощи, то пусть он в остальное время вместе с вами постится и следует
благочестивым установлениям Великого поста.
- Вам звонит Оксана Калинина. В понедельник начнется Великий пост. Объясните,
почему он такой длительный. Все-таки 40 дней - это очень много…
- Традиция пошла из Ветхого завета - поста, установленного для израильского народа
Моисеем, а также сорокадневного пребывания Христа в пустыне, здесь же вспоминаются
40 часов пребывания Спасителя во гробе. В первые четыре дня есть можно, согласно
уставу, лишь вечером, причем пища должна быть невареной, обычные овощи, хлеб и вода.
В общем, крайне скудный рацион, который нужен лишь для того, чтобы поддерживать
свои силы. Однако важна не только физическая составляющая. На период поста надо
отказаться от просмотров развлекательных программ, походов в театры, кино, рестораны,
клубы и дискотеки. И, конечно же, не сплетничать, не ругаться, не злословить.
Ольга Волкова
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Часть 2 Module 3
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28. Cool quote collection.
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30. All pictures taken from
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Учебное издание
Войткова Анастасия Николаевна
American &British
values vs Russian ones
(in the world of linguo-cultural studies & cross
cultural communication)
Второе издание переработанное и дополненное
Учебное пособие
Печатается в авторской редакции
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