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1039.Basic legal concepts.

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
BASIC LEGAL CONCEPTS
Учебно-методическое пособие
Составители:
Н.В. Васильченко
А.Ю.Климова
А.Б.Пешкова
Воронеж
Издательский дом ВГУ
2015
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Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета романо-германской
филологии 30 марта 2015 г., протокол № 7
Рецензент: канд. филол. наук, преподаватель кафедры немецкого языка
Л. А. Артемова
Подготовлено на кафедре английского языка гуманитарных факультетов
факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного
университета.
Рекомендовано студентам 1 курса дневного отделения юридического
факультета.
Для направления 40.03.01– Юриспруденция.
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Содержание
Пояснительная записка……………………………………………………...….4
Unit 1: Why do we Need Laws .……………….………………………………..5
Unit 2: Law and Society (Part 1)………………………………….…………...…9
Unit 2: Causes of Crime (Part 2)……………………………………………….12
Unit 3: Law and Justice …………………………………..……………………16
Библиографический список………………………………………………….23
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Пояснительная записка
Данное учебно-методическое пособие “Basic legal concepts”
рекомендуется для самостоятельной работы студентов 1 курса дневного
отделения юридического факультета.
Целью пособия является развитие у студентов необходимого уровня
коммуникативной компетенции для решения социально-коммуникативных
задач в различных областях профессиональной деятельности.
Основными задачами, которые решаются в данном учебнометодическом пособии, являются следующие: формирование навыков
ознакомительного и поискового чтения с целью получения заданной
информации, навыков смыслового обобщения и выделения ключевой
информации из текста, а также развитие умений монологического
высказывания по предложенным вопросам и умений обсуждать полученную
информацию в различных формах взаимодействия студентов в пределах
группы.
Пособие состоит из трех разделов (units), в центре каждого из которых
текст, в ходе работы с которым отрабатываются рецептивные и
продуктивные виды речевой деятельности. Каждый раздел включает
предтекстовые (вводные), сопутствующие тексту задания – на заполнение
пропущенной информации или извлечение необходимой информации,
послетекстовые задания: а) задания, направленные на тренировку
лексического материала, б) репродуктивные задания (изложение краткой
информации по проблемам, поднятым в тексте; составление аннотации
текста).
На каждый раздел рекомендуется отводить 2–4 аудиторных часов и 2
часа для самостоятельной работы, хотя в зависимости от уровня
подготовленности студентов программа может меняться.
Данное пособие соответствует принципам коммуникативной
направленности, культурной и педагогической целесообразности, а также
позволит студентам соответствовать уровню выпускных требований по
дисциплине «Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции (английский)» с
учетом специфики вуза и потребностей студентов.
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UNIT 1: WHY DO WE NEED LAWS?
Warming-up activity
What for have people created laws?
Do you agree that laws haven’t changed since primeval times?
What is the role of a law?
Can we do without a system of laws?
While speaking, use the following word combinations:
1) rules imposed by morality and custom – правила, предписанные моралью и
обычаем;
2) rules made by the state or the courts – нормы,создаваемые государством и
судами;
3) to control or alter our behavior – управлять и вносить изменения в наше
поведение;
4) to safeguard our personal property and our lives – охранять нашу личную
собственность и наши жизни;
5) a well-ordered society- высокоорганизованное общество;
6) to ensure a safe and peaceful society – обеспечивать безопасное и мирное
существование;
7) to punish people without a trial – наказывать людей без суда и следствия;
8) to respect individual rights –уважать права человека;
9) to give effect to social policies –оказывать влияние на социальную
политику;
10) to protect liberty and equality – защищать свободу и равенство.
Task 1. Read the text and find more reasons for the creation of laws.
Why do we Need Laws?
Almost everything we do is governed by some set of rules. There are rules
for games, for social clubs, for sports and for adults in the workplace. There are
also rules imposed by morality and custom that play an important role in telling
us what we should and should not do. However, some rules – those made by the
state or the courts – are called “laws”. Laws are designed to control or alter our
behavior. But unlike rules of morality, laws are enforced by the courts; if you
break a law - whether you like that law or not – you may be forced to pay a fine,
pay damages, or go to prison.
Why are some rules so special that they are made into laws? Why do we
need rules that everyone must obey? What is the purpose of law?
If we did not live in a society with other people, laws would not be
necessary. We would simply do as we please, with little regard for others. But
ever since individuals began to associate with other people – to live in society –
laws have been the glue that has kept society together. For example, the law in
our country states that we must drive our cars on the right-hand side of a two-way
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street. If people were allowed to choose at random which side of the street to
drive on, driving would be dangerous and chaotic. Laws regulating our business
affairs help to ensure that people keep their promises. Laws against criminal
conduct help to safeguard our personal property and our lives.
Even in a well-ordered society, people have disagreements and conflicts
arise. The law must provide a way to resolve these disputes peacefully. If two
people claim to own the same piece of property, we do not want the matter settled
by a duel: we turn to the law and to institutions like the courts to decide who the
real owner is and to make sure that the real owner’s rights are respected.
We need law, then, to ensure a safe and peaceful society in which
individuals’ rights are respected. But we expect even more from our law. Some
totalitarian governments have cruel and arbitrary laws, enforced by police forces
free to arrest and punish people without trial. Strong-arm tactics may provide a
great deal of order, but we reject this form of control. The legal system should
respect individual rights while, at the same time, ensuring that society operates in
an orderly manner. And society should believe in the Rule of Law, which means
that the law applies to every person, including members of the police and other
public officials, who must carry out their public duties in accordance with the
law.
In our society laws are not only designed to govern our conduct: they are
also intended to give effect to social policies. For example, some laws provide for
benefits when workers are injured on the job, for health care, as well as for loans
to students who otherwise might not be able to go to university.
Another goal of the law is fairness. This means that the law should
recognize and protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms, such as liberty
and equality. The law also serves to ensure that strong groups and individuals do
not use their powerful positions in society to take unfair advantage of weaker
individuals.
However, despite the best intentions, laws are sometimes created so that
people later recognize as being unjust or unfair. In a democratic society, laws are
not carved in stone, but must reflect the changing needs of society. In a
democracy, anyone who feels that a particular law is flawed has the right to speak
out publicly and to change the law by lawful means.
Task 2. Match the English word combinations to their Russian equivalents
1) the purpose of law,
а) уважать права отдельного человека
2) to live in society
b) отражать изменяющиеся потребности общества
3) to choose at random
c) иметь разногласия и конфликты
4) to safeguard our personal property and d) верить в верховенство закона
our lives
5) to have disagreements and conflicts
e) назначение( цель) права
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6) to resolve disputes peacefully
f) защищать основные права и свободы
g) иметь право открыто высказать
свое мнение
h) жить в обществе
i) выбирать что-либо наугад
7) to turn to the law
8) to respect individual rights
9) to arrest and punish people without
trial
10) to believe in the Rule of Law
j) стремиться изменить закон
законными средствами
k) арестовывать и наказывать людей
без суда и следствия
l) охранять нашу собственность и
жизнь
m) в соответствии с законом
11) in accordance with the law
12) to protect basic individual rights
and freedoms
13) to reflect the changing needs of
society
Task 3. Complete the following sentences according to the text.
1. Almost everything we do is governed by…
a) rules imposed by morality;
b) the courts;
c) some set of rules.
2. If we didn’t live in a structured society with other people…
a) we would simply do as we please;
b) we would simply do with little regard for others;
c) laws would not be necessary.
3. Laws against criminal conduct help …
a) to protect our property;
b) to take advantage of other individuals;
c) to safeguard our personal property and our lives.
4. We turn to the law…
a) to resolve disputes peacefully;
b) to decide who the real owner is;
c) to force people to keep their promises.
5. Another goal of the law is…
a) to protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms;
b) fairness;
c) to provide for benefits.
Task 4. Complete the following text by translating the words and
expressions in brackets:
The aim of (права) is to regulate the conduct of human beings in society. The aim
of (правовой) theory is (рассмотреть) the nature, origin and classification of
law. The theory of natural law is based on the belief that there is a set of perfect
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(юридических норм) for human conduct and (законы) devised by men must be
induced by these rules. (Закон) is a term which is used in many different senses.
To (юриста) law has a far narrower meaning – the principle recognized and
applied by the state in (суде).The English (правовая система) has still been
copied by many nations.(Судебный процесс) becomes the center of a contest
between both parties in which one emerges as the winner. By the time of
(судебного разбирательства) each (сторона дела) should gain as much
information as possible.
Task 5. Answer the following questions.
1. What kind of society do we live in?
2. What is the society governed by?
3. What is the difference between laws and rules of morality?
4. Why do rules of morality and custom play an important role in our life?
5. Why are laws designed to control our behavior?
6. What are the goals of law?
7. When do people turn to the law?
8. Why do we need law?
Task 6. Make the summary of the text using the following scheme.
1. The author believes …
2. Firstly the author points at …
3. Secondly the author supposes…
4. Thirdly the author thinks…
5. Finally the author concludes…
Task 7. Discuss the following:
1. It is the duty and responsibility of every citizen to uphold and obey the laws.
2. Laws reflect the traditions of the people as to what is right, proper and just.
3. Compare the system of laws of the United States of America with some other
countries.
4. Constitution – the basic system of laws – should never be changed.
5. It is not laws, but politics, that determine citizens’ rights.
6. However hard people try, laws are always insufficient.
The following expressions can help you:
I quite agree here.
Naturally. Certainly. Sure. Exactly. Definitely. Quite.
Most likely. Absolutely.
I couldn’t agree more.
Beyond all doubt.
I’m afraid I don’t agree.
I’m not so sure.
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I doubt it.
There’s something in this, but …
Just the other way round.
UNIT 2: LAW AND SOCIETY (Part 1)
Warming-up activity
Task 1. Discuss the following questions with your groupmates.
1. Do you feel that the law protects you?
2. Does the law limit your personal freedom?
3. Would you like to live by the law of the jungle? Why? Why not?
Task 2. Read the text and be ready to speak on the necessity of laws.
Laws in our Modern Society
No one knows why crime occurs. There are plenty of theories on this
subject. The oldest theory says that people commit crimes deliberately, that the
devil or other spirits make them do it. Another theory says that criminals were not
brought up properly by their parents. In the 19-th century crime was thought to be
the result of poor living conditions: people unable to support their families in a
legal way are driven to theft, burglary, prostitution and other offences, according
to this theory. Nowadays’ theories say that crime is caused by different factors –
biological, psychological, cultural, economic and political.
It was long ago when people decided to make laws for themselves in selfprotection. We know nothing about laws which existed before the invention of
writing in about 3500 B.C. The earliest known legal text was written by UrNammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur, in about 2100 B.C. One of the
most detailed ancient legal codes was written in about 1758 B.C. by Hammuraby.
282 paragraphs of this code were carved into a great stone pillar so that it could
be read by every citizen.
But things never stay the same. The life has changed. We live in a
complicated world. Now we need laws and regulations which govern our every
social move and action. We have made laws of community living.
In the opinion of many people, the law is a necessary evil that should be
used only when everyday, informal ways of settling disputes break down. When
we buy a train ticket a lawyer may tell us it represents a contract with legal
obligations, but to most of us it is just a ticket that gets us on the train. If our
neighbor plays loud music late at night, we probably try to discuss the matter
with him rather than consulting the police, lawyers or the court. Only when we
are injured in a train accident, or when a neighbor refuses to behave reasonably,
do we start thinking about the legal implications of everyday activities.
Some transactions in modern society are so complex that few of us would
risk making them without first seeking legal advice. For example, buying or
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selling a house, setting up a business, or deciding whom to give our property to
when we die.
On the whole it seems that people all over the world are becoming more
and more accustomed to using legal means to regulate their relations with each
other. Law seems to be an evil- but a necessary one that everyone should have a
basic knowledge of.
Task 3. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words from the list below:
felonies, common law, common sense, case law, civil law, ordinances, civil case,
award, misdemeanors, tort
1. The laws of our country are founded on basic rules of right and wrong,
________and good reason.
2. Every state in the USA follows the _______ _______.
3. Laws created by city and county governments are called _________.
4. Decisions made by city, county and state courts are called _______ _______.
5. _______ ________ regulates relations that exist between individuals.
6. Courts usually _______ a person harmed an amount of money to make up for
the loss.
7. One of the most common examples of a ________ ________ is a suit.
8. Being at fault in an automobile accident is an example of a ________.
9. Crimes are usually divided into two groups: _________ and _________.
Task 4. Fill in the correct prepositions, then choose any three and make
sentences:
to be founded ____ rules,
to release a person _____ his or her obligations,
to deal ____ wills and estates,
to be recognized _____ law,
to interfere _____ other people,
to dispose _____ one’s property,
imprisonment _____ a year,
to be charged _____ a crime,
a violation _____ the law.
Task 5. Complete the following text by translating the words and
expressions in brackets:
The law should be used when informal ways of (разрешение
конфликтов) break down. That’s why we start thinking about the legal
meaning of (повседневная деятельность), when we have serious problems.
Some (сделки) in modern society are so (сложные) that it is better to
(спросить совет у юриста) before making them. In the USA (правильно
составленные контракты) are a part of daily life, whereas in Japan, people
prefer informal ways of (разрешения противоречий). So, these two highly
developed countries are so different ( в этом отношении).
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(В целом) people all over the world use (законные средства) to regulate
their relations. Nowadays there are more and more attempts to internationalize
(правовые стандарты). When the law helps people (достичь соглашений)
across different barriers, it (рассматривается) as a good thing. However when it
(включать) time, money and (неспособность людей) to cooperate informally,
the law seems to be an (зло), but a necessary one.
Task 6. Agree or disagree with the following statements using the
conversational formulas. Give your reasons.
I think it is true. The text tells us that…
To my mind, it is false because …
I completely /absolutely agree/disagree with the fact that…, because…
I think it’s true /false, because it’s said in the text that…
I agree/disagree with the statement, because…
The statement is true/false, because, the text says that…
1. We usually think about the legal implications of everyday activities.
2. Few of us would risk making transactions without first seeking legal advice
3. People all over the world are becoming more and more accustomed to using
legal means to regulate their relations with each other
4. When you buy a train ticket a lawyer may tell you it represents a contract with
legal obligations
5. Even though the TV set fails to work and the owner of the shop didn’t return
your money or replace the TV set, we don’t start thinking of taking legal advice.
6. All transactions in modern society are very complex.
7. Nobody should have basic knowledge of law.
8. The defendant accuses a plaintiff
9. The court may listen to the testimony of one party.
10. You may not sue against the person who didn’t pay his debt.
Task 7. Answer the following questions.
1. Were there any laws when the world was at a very primitive stage of
development?
2. Why do we need rules and regulations nowadays?
3. Do we notice some laws? Why?
4. When do we start thinking about the legal implications of our everyday
activities?
5. In what cases do people seek legal advice?
Task 8. Make a summary of the text “Law and society”, using the following
expressions:
This text explains ….
The main aim of the law is to …
That’s why we have to….
Besides law is necessary to…
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Finally, we need laws to…
To sum it up, the law has…
UNIT 2: CAUSES OF CRIME (Part 2)
Task 1. Read the following list of causes why people break the law.
Enumerate them 1-6 (1 – the most widespread reason, 6 –the least
widespread reason).
People break the law…
a) because they are mentally ill;
b) because they can’t control their emotions, for example greed, anger, jealousy,
etc;
c) because they’re poor;
d) for money;
d) because they take the law into their own hands.
Task 2. Read the American criminologist Paul Fisher’s report “Why do
people break the law”. Enumerate the causes of crime in the order they are
presented in the report. Do your points of view coincide?
WHY DO PEOPLE BREAK THE LAW?
Why do people break the law? What are the most common causes of
crime? The research shows that most people break the law for money. They steal,
rob and kill because they want to get other people’s money or property. These
offenders are not always poor. They just want to be rich and live a better life.
The second most typical cause is poverty. Poor people often turn to crime
to get money for themselves and their families.
A lot of people become offenders because they can’t control their
emotions. Some individuals become irritable, angry, selfish or jealous.
Unfortunately, this often happens to those who try to settle disputes after they’ve
drunk too much alcohol.
Fourth, young people often break the law because they are bored and have
nothing to do. They think that breaking the law is cool.
The next cause is mental illness. Sometimes mentally ill people commit the
most horrible and violent crimes and police have difficulty in finding and
catching maniacs and serial killers.
Finally, there are people who take the law into their own hands. These
people are usually law –abiding citizens who in extreme situations punish the
offenders in their own way without the police and courts.
Task 3. Match the word or the word phrase to its synonym:
a) to go to the police
1) to seek legal advice
b) to hurt
2) to consult the police
c) difficult
3) an expensive expert
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d) to ask lawyer’s advice
4) to ensure
e) to organise a business
5) complex
f) to guarantee
6) to set up a business
g) a highly paid specialist
7) to injure
Task 4. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words from the list below:
valid, transactions, legal obligations, challenge, legal means, break down,
lawyers, courts of law, disagreements.
1. A law should be used when informal ways of settling disputes _______ .
2. In the opinion of a lawyer, a ticket is a contract with _______ _______ .
3. Some ______ are so complex that none of us would make them without
consulting a lawyer.
4. In the United States, precise written contracts, _______ and _______
______ are a part of daily life.
5. In Japan people use informal ways of solving ________ .
6. It is interesting that people all over the world try to use _______ _______
to regulate their relations.
7. Highly paid lawyers provide that the contracts of multinational companies
are _______ .
8. Nowadays Russian people have an opportunity to ________ the decisions
of their governments in courts.
Task 5. Read the dictionary definitions. Guess the meaning of the underlined
words and translate them. Use the dictionary if necessary.
1. If someone is convicted of a crime, they are found guilty of that crime in a law
court.
2. An adult is a mature, fully developed person. An adult has reached the age
when they are legally responsible for their actions.
3. If someone is a part-time worker or has a part-time job, they work for only part
of each day or week. The opposite of part-time is’ full-time’.
4. If you own something, it is your property
5. If you have an account with a bank or a similar organization, you have an
arrangement to leave your money there and take some out when you need it.
6. A guarantor is a person who gives a guarantee.
7. If you give your consent to something, you give someone permission to do it.
8. When you vote, you indicate your choice officially at a meeting or in an
election, for example by raising your hand or writing a piece of paper.
9. When a person is tried, he or she has to appear in a law court and is found
innocent or guilty after the judge and jury have heard the evidence.
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10. A mortgage is a loan of money which you get from a bank in order to buy a
house.
11. If you apply for something such as a job or membership of an organization,
you write a letter or fill in a form in order to ask formally for it.
12. A vehicle is a machine with an engine, for example a bus, car, or truck that.
Task 6. What kinds of civil and criminal crimes do you know? Decide
whether the following crimes are civil or criminal ones:
Arson
murder
Bribery
manslaughter
Libel / slander
homicide
Robbery
rape
Burglary
assault
Theft / larceny
blackmail
Kidnapping
abuse of power
Embezzlement
disorderly conduct
Forgery
speeding
Fraud
drink-driving
Swindling
house-breaking
Perjury
shoplifting
Felony
mugging
Misdemeanor
contempt of court
Vandalism
begging
Terrorism
possession of drugs
Smuggling
suppression of evidence, etc.
Think of any other types of crimes and decide whether they are civil or
criminal ones.
Task 7. Think of possible punishments for crimes in Task 6.
The following kinds of punishment may help you:
Bail / to release somebody on bail
A jail sentence
To send somebody to the penitentiary / jail
A penitentiary term
A term of imprisonment (life, from 25 years to a few months imprisonment)
Hard labor
Manual labor
Community service (e.g. in hospital, etc.)
Probation / to place an offender on probation
Parole / to release somebody on parole
To fine somebody, etc.
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Task 8. Get ready to tell the class about the role of law in the modern society
and the causes of crime. While speaking, use the following expressions and
linking words:
I would like to begin with…
Additionally…
I’d just like to say …
As I see it …
The way I see it …
There’s one more thing to be noted.
Moreover …
What’s more …
I might as well add that …
One/another/ a further/the main/the greatest advantage/disadvantage of …
All things considered I must say that …
To sum up …
Task 9. In groups of 4-5 discuss the following questions:
1. How do you understand the statement “Law: a necessary evil”?
2. What informal ways of settling disputes do you know? (Name at least 5–6).
3. Why do people nowadays prefer to use legal means to regulate their
relations with each other?
4. Is it necessary for common people to have a basic knowledge of the law?
Why? (Give your reasons).
5. If you were a lawyer in South America, how would you try to stop
governments from destroying the rainforests?
6. Why do attempts to internationalize legal standards increase? Do you
think that legal standards should be the same in the whole world? (Give your
reasons).
While speaking, use the following expressions:
Expressing opinion
I believe / think / suppose / reckon / consider / guess …
In my opinion / to my mind …
As far as I’m concerned …
My view / opinion is that …
As I see / view it …
All things considered I must say that …
Generally speaking …
Linking words
On the one hand … On the other hand …
First(ly) / Second(ly)/ Third(ly) …
Then … Next … Finally / Lastly …
Moreover / Furthermore / Also / Besides this / In addition to …
All in all / To sum up / in conclusion …
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UNIT 3: LAW AND JUSTICE
Warming-up activity
Task 1. Discuss the following questions with your groupmates.
1) How do you understand the word justice?
2) Are all laws always fair (=just) to all people?
3) Read the following Cultural Note taken from “Dictionary of English Language
and Culture”: Justice is often represented by a woman who has her eyes covered,
and has scales in one hand and a sword in the other. This represents the idea that
justice should treat everyone equally, examine (or ‘weigh’) all the evidence,
decide whether it shows that the person is guilty or not, and punish those who are
guilty. In London there is a famous Statue of Justice on the Old Bailey, the main
court for criminal cases in London.
What do you think of such representation of justice? Do Russian people have any
symbols of justice?
4) What is the notion “justice” to you?
While speaking, the following words and word combinations can help:
justice
1) справедливость; 2) правосудие
to provide/do justice
to administer justice/laws
2) вершить правосудие;
2) восстанавливать справедливость
отправлять/осуществлять
правосудие
to escape justice
уйти от правосудия
to depend on sth
зависеть от чего-л.
to murder smb
убить кого-л.
to steal sth
украсть что-л.
according to law/rules
по закону/правилам;
compulsory for everyone
обязательный для всех
requirements of a fair trial
требования справедливого судебного
разбирательства
open hearing
открытое слушание дела
impartial court
беспристрастный суд
equality before the law
равенство перед законом
to state arguments
приводить доводы
relationship between
отношение между…
to support one another
поддерживать друг друга
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case
судебное дело
to hire the best lawyers
нанимать самых лучших адвокатов
to have an advantage over others
иметь преимущество над другими
miscarriage of justice
судебная ошибка
to take the law into one’s own hands
учинять самосуд/ расправу
to judge smb
судить кого-л.
vigilante justice
самосуд, расправа
to appeal against the law
обжаловать закон
Task 2. Read the text and say how many notions connected with the word
justice the author gives. Translate them.
Law and Justice
One of the main aims of any government is to provide justice. Justice is a
difficult concept, because everyone has a different idea of it. A broad idea of
justice is the fair and moral treatment of people. There is a strong belief that there
are rules of justice –rules that build on moral principles. These rules dictate that if
we behave morally, there will be a reward, and if we are bad, there will be
punishment. These principles, known as morality, are quite subjective. They
depend on many factors, such as traditions, culture, education, religion, etc.
Nevertheless, we all agree on the basic moral values. Most people willingly
accept the Ten Commandments from the Bible. The Bible teaches us to honor our
parents, not to murder, not to be unfaithful to steal, not to make false statements
against our neighbors.
Another meaning of justice is ‘justice according to law .It involves a legal
system which deals with crime. Unlike moral rules, laws are compulsory for
everyone. Under such a system crimes are against the state, and only the state has
the right to administer justice. On behalf of the society it judges and punishes
people who break the law.
However, most people believe that justice involves more than that. There is
a concept of natural law or natural justice. This concept says that each individual
has certain natural rights. Now the rules of natural justice mostly refer to basic
requirements of a fair trial: an open hearing, an impartial court, equality before
the law, giving each side an equal chance to state its arguments. These
requirements guarantee everyone the protection of the law.
The relationship between morality and law has always been important. On
the one hand, laws must be just. On the other hand, laws must be just. On the
other hand, morality needs laws to uphold rights and punish wrongs. Obviously,
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The law and morality support one another. Most people don’t steal because
they know that stealing is dishonest and punishment for stealing reinforces them
in this view. It is sometimes difficult to draw a line between morality and law. For
example, in the modern world adultery is clearly immoral but not illegal.
Blasphemy is still a crime in England, but many people don’t consider it illegal.
Unfortunately, no legal system can always provide justice. Some cases go
wrong, judges can make mistakes, people who should win their cases lose; and
people who should lose them, win. Individuals or organizations who can hire the
best lawyers have an advantage over others. People with political connections
and money often escape justice. Sometimes the law is unjust or its administration
is unfair. A miscarriage of justice often makes people take the law into their own
hands. They judge and punish other people themselves. This ‘vigilante justice’ is
certainly against the law.
What if laws are unjust? What if we think that the administration of the law
is unfair? We don’t always agree with the laws we live by. In fact, we don’t
always know laws. However, we must live by these laws. If we feel that a law is
unfair, we have the right to appeal against it or work to change it. We do not have
the right to break it.
Task 3. Fill in the correct prepositions, then choose any three and make
sentences:
to rebel _______ the rule of somebody
to use one’s power _______ selfish purposes
to carry ________ trade
to draw _______ a constitution
to agree ________ the wording
to go _______ effect
to speak _______ freely ________ important issues
the right _______ a jury trial
to deprive somebody ________ life, liberty.
Task 4. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words or word combinations from
the list below:
the Supreme Court, government, associate justices, the federal judiciary,
interpretation, chief justice, appealed, approved, Supreme Court Justices,
declare, unconstitutional, decisions.
The third branch of _________, in addition to the legislative (Congress) and
executive (President) branches, is _______ _______. Its main instrument is
________ ________, which watches over the other two branches.
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The Supreme Court consists of a _______ _________ and eight _______
_______. They are nominated by the President but must be _________ by the
Senate. Once approved, they hold office as ______ ______ ______ for life. A
decision of the Supreme Court cannot be _________ to any other court. Neither
the President nor Congress can change their _________.
Most of the cases involve the _________ of the Constitution. The Supreme
Court also has the “power of judicial review”, that is, it has the right to
_________ laws and actions of the federal, state and local governments
_________.
Task 5. Choose the correct answer to the question. Several answers can be
correct.
1. Why is justice a difficult concept?
A. Nobody likes justice.
B. Moral rules are compulsory for everyone.
C. People have different ideas of justice.
D. Justice depends on many factors.
2. What do ‘rules of justice’ build on?
A. They build on laws.
B. They build on basic moral principles.
C. They build on the Bible and other religious codes of behavior.
D. They build on traditions of society.
3. What does ‘justice according to law’ involve?
A. It involves a legal system that has the right to administer law.
B. It involves punishing people who break the law.
C. It involves taking the law into your own hands.
D. It involves criticizing immoral behavior.
4. Which requirements of a fair trial does the concept of natural justice refer to?
A. It refers to an open hearing.
B. It refers to equality before the law.
C. It refers to basic moral values.
D. It refers to an equal chance for each side to state arguments.
5. What is the relationship between morality and law?
A. Morality and law are independent of each other.
B. Morality and law usually go together.
C. Immoral things aren’t always illegal.
D. The law always punishes immoral behavior.
6. Why is it illegal to take the law into your own hands?
A. It is illegal because it is immoral.
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B. It is illegal because it is unfair.
C. It is illegal because you can’t punish other people for crimes.
D. It is illegal because only the state can administer justice.
7. According to the author, what can you do if the law is unfair?
A. You can break the law.
B. You can appeal against the law.
C. You can work to change the law.
D. You can take the law into your own hands.
Task 6. Fill in the gaps in the summary of the text with the suitable
information.
This text deals with different 1)….. of justice. The English word ‘justice’
has several 2)…..
Firstly, it means fair and moral treatment of people. Although the ideas of
justice can be quite subjective, most societies agree on the basic moral 3)…..
Another meaning of justice is ‘justice 4)….. law’. It involves a legal system that
judges and pushes people for 5)……There is also a concept of 6)….. justice. It
refers to basic requirements of a fair trial, such as an open hearing, an impartial
court, equality before the law and giving each side an equal chance to state its
arguments. Finally, there is ‘7)….. justice’. People take the law into their own
hands to punish offenders themselves. It is against the law.
According to the author, the law and 8)…..usually support one another.
In conclusion, the author says that we don’t have the right to 9)…..
even if we don’t like it.
Task 7. Render the main idea of the text “Law and Justice” having
completed the following sentences:
1. The text deals with ….
2. Firstly, justice means …..
3. Although the ideas of justice can be quite subjective …..
4. Another meaning of justice is …..
5. It involves a legal system that…..
6. There is also a concept of …..
7. It refers to the basic requirements of …..
8. Finally, there is …..
9. According to the author …..
10. In conclusion, the author says that…..
Task 8. Read the information on the subject “You and the law”. In the right
column write the age when Russian young people have the same rights.
A guide to what you can do from the ages of 10 to 21.
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Britain
You and the law
Age 10
Be convicted of a crime. If you kill someone
Go to prison
Buy a pet
Get a part-time job but not for more than two
hours on a school day on a Sunday
Go into a pub but not buy or drink alcohol
there.
Own an air gun
Open a bank account with a guarantor
Leave school.
Work full-time.
Marry with a parental consent.
Ride a moped.
Join the armed forces with parental consent
(boys)
Drink cider, beer or wine with meal in pub or
restaurant.
If you leave home the law is unlikely to
enforce your return
Drive most vehicles.
Buy any firearm and ammunition.
Join the armed forces with parental consent
(girls)
Vote.
Be tried by adult criminal courts.
Make a will.
Own a house, apply for a mortgage.
Apply for a passport.
Open a bank account without a parent’s
signature
Join the forces without parental consent.
Donate your body to science
Be a Member of Parliament.
Drive a heavy goods vehicle
Age 12
Age 13
Age 14
Age 15
Age 16
Age 17
Age 18
Age 21
Russia
Task 9. In groups of 4–5 discuss the following questions:
1. What legal rights do you have at your age?
2. Are these rights similar to those of young people in Britain?
3. At what age should a person be responsible for a serious crime such as murder?
4. Should a young offender go to prison?
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5. In your opinion, at what age should it be possible:
- to marry (for boys and girls);
- to vote;
- to open a bank account;
- to buy cigarettes and alcohol;
- to get a driving licence;
- to own a firearm.
While speaking, use the expressions from Task 9 p.21 (Unit 2, Part 2).
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Библиографический список
1. Алимов В.В. Юридический перевод. Практический курс / В.В. Алимов. –
УРСС, М. : Либроком, 2012. – 162 с.
2. Алонцева Н.В. Английский для студентов факультетов права и
международных отношений / Н.В. Алонцева. – Минск : Тетра Системс,
2009. – 400 с.
3. Английский язык для юристов : учебник / [под ред. А. А. Лебедевой]. –
М. : ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2010. – 359 с.
4. Крупченко А.К. Contemporary Law in Russia : Современное право в
России / А.К. Крупченко. – М. : Менеджер, 2009. – 240 с.
5. Brown G.D. Professional English in Use. Law / G.D. Brown, S. Rice. –
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 128 p.
6. Seely J. Law in Everyday Life / J. Seely. – Oxford : Oxford University Press,
2008. – 150 p.
7. McCarthy M. English vocabulary in use intermediate /. M. McCarthy,
F. O'Dell. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009. – 315 p.
8. Stewart W.J. Collins Dictionary of Law / W.J. Stewart. – 3-d edition. –
Glasgow : Harper Collins Publishers, 2006. – 474 p.
9. Режим доступа: http://www.gourt.com
10. Режим доступа: http://www.legalcareers.about.com
11. Режим доступа: http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk
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Учебное издание
BASIC LEGAL CONCEPTS
Учебно-методическое пособие
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