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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vestnik OrelGAU, 4(49), August 2014
UDC 330.15:338.583:631.147
USE OF BIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN INCREASING EFFICIENCY
OF RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND CROP PRODUCTION STABILITY
Kuzmicheva Yu.V.*, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer
Parakhin N.V., Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor
Orel State Agrarian University, Orel City, Russia
E-mail: juliemons@yandex.ru
ABSTRACT
The article takes a brief look at the problem of increasing the stability of crop production
through the use of biological agents. The possibility to reduce resource consumption,
enhance economic efficiency and competitive ability of domestic agricultural production due
to biologization of intensification processes is shown. Particular attention is focused on the
use of environment forming potential of legume crops in solving strategic problem of
innovative development of Russia Agro Industrial Complex.
KEY WORDS
Biological agriculture; Resource conservation; Crop production stability; Production
efficiency; Product quality.
The increase of Russian crop production competitive ability in domestic and foreign
markets in the framework of accession of Russia to the WTO is among primary intents
emphasized in the State program of agriculture development and и market regulations of
agricultural products, raw materials and foodstuffs for 2013-2020. In new economic
conditions it is has become obvious that for strengthening our positions in the world market
we must produce products of high quality with low costs, because just these indicators
determine its competitive ability [1 – 3].
In this connection the vital strategic problem of innovative development of Russia Agro
Industrial Complex is resource conservation. As practice shows traditional technologies are
not only highly expensive (for the last 6 years prices for plant protection agents have
increased by 60%, for mineral fertilizers - by 150%, prices for fuels and lubricants have
increased considerably), but also they result in pollution and destruction of biosphere,
reduction of soil fertility. Irrational use of this main national wealth and main agricultural
production tools endangers the country food independency and a person’s health [4 – 5].
In the Orel region the usage of crop production intensive systems allows obtaining high
agricultural crop harvests. This year the Orel region agrarians harvested record grain crop –
3,2 mln. tons. But grain quality indicators in comparison with other years are at low level.
Thus, at the advanced farm units wheat grain gluten corresponds to the third class and is 2324%, but at the traditional farm units it does not exceed 18-19%. This grain quality reduces
its compete ability not only in the world market but also in Russia food market.
One of the basic reasons of this disbalance is deficient nitrogenous nutrition of plants in
the definite phases of crop development, reduction of number of nitrogen fertilizers extra
nutrition because of their rising cost. If we pay the necessary attention to legume crops using
their environment forming potential we can compensate for a deficiency of nitrogen fertilizers
saving considerable amount of finances. In fact at the account of biological nitrogen fixation it
is possible to provide several nitrogen hundreds per hectare income into the soil, avoiding
additional purchases of mineral fertilizers [6]. According to the calculations in the Orel region
economic effect from application of symbiotic nitrogen fixation can be more than 300 mln.
rub. per year [7]. In this connection the role of biologization, maximum usage of plant
potential and natural resources grows immensely.
Today in modern Russia many agricultural enterprises including holdings started to
master the methods of biologization of agriculture intensification processes and obtained
definite successes in this direction. For example, CJSC «Luganskoye» of the Dolzhansky
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vestnik OrelGAU, 4(49), August 2014
region at crop production manufacturing principally uses intercompany biological factors.
Application of organics, green manures and unmarketed crop part as the main fertilizer
allows this enterprise effective cultivation of grain, saving considerable finances (more than 6
mln. rub.) at applying and purchasing solid mineral fertilizers.
LLC «Dubovitskoye» of the Maloarkhangelsky region is one of the most successful and
advanced considering innovations of agricultural enterprises of the Orel region, where
complex approach to agriculture biologization gives the enterprise the opportunity to obtain
grain productivity at more than 60 centner from hectare with gluten of 26-30%. Thanks to
competent organization of production for recent years this enterprise productivity has
increased in ten times, and cultivated lands areas have been extended more than twice.
The highest level of efficient agriculture is demonstrated by the Belgorod region, where
the program on land biologization is developed and successfully being realized. CJSC
«Krasnoyaruzhskaya Grain Company» takes an active part in the regional program. It
occupies stable positions in agrarian sector of Russia for 5 years of work on saving and
restoring soil fertility. Special attention is paid to organic fertilizers application (500 thous.
tons per year) and liming.
At this in spite of different approaches and systems of land management, used in any
farm unit each of them has something in common – it is a transition to resource saving
technologies, that provide high quality product manufacturing which became one of the most
important elements of life quality. At the same time high economic production efficiency
allows these enterprises increasing the finance stability and conducting extended
reproduction, and also creating new working places and worthy conditions for working
people.
The essential condition of increasing the crop production stability and providing the
food safety of Russia is the development of domestic livestock husbandry. According to the
experience of the developed countries and domestic producers, efficient livestock husbandry
covers the production expenditures for crop products manufacturing more than by 50%, in a
whole providing efficient development of Agro Industrial Complex. Today livestock husbandry
low indicators in our country are determined by weak fodder base, fodder low quality. Protein
overall deficit in fodder is more than 1,8 mln. tons. The most vital problem is the problem to
increase protein content in the produced concentrates. Today combined fodders contain not
more than 14% of protein raw material, whereas 18% is a standard. For balancing grain
fodder used in holdings, protein content rate is 6% only. Researches and calculations show
that complete supply of Russia livestock husbandry with full-rate complete feeds is equal to
annualized savings 12-15 mln. tons of fodder grain. In this connection it is necessary to
extend legume crops production which is the main component of high quality feeds. The
demand for fodder grain is about 6,0 mln. tons. Today only 1,6 mln. tons are produced.
Deficient protein raw material is bought abroad. It results in cost increase of combined
fodders and does not give the opportunity to develop domestic production [8 – 10].
Large-scale cultivation of such crops as pea, soya, lupine, vetch, etc. creates
conditions for development domestic production of fodder on the ground of high-energy
additives, which in its turn, provides obtaining of animal products of high quality and low
costs [11]. It is a real chance not only to reduce the country dependence from import but also
to refuse completely from international deliveries of agricultural products in favor of national
high-quality raw material.
Along with legume crops are valuable component in the system of sustainable
agriculture, their reserves of productivity and realization of environment forming potential.
Our experience proves that it is possible to get maximum high results on the biological factors
ground.
The carried out researches demonstrate high resource saving role of soil micro flora.
Thus, for example, stimulation of plant-microbe interactions (РМI) in seeding of legume crops
gives real chances to increase the amount of biological nitrogen, taking part in plant
production process. According to our calculations, at the account of atmospheric nitrogen
assimilation it is possible to save up to 3 thous. rub / ha at pea and soya cultivation, which is
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vestnik OrelGAU, 4(49), August 2014
an equivalent to cost of grain production (depending on type variety) (Tables 1, 2), and
energy conservation at the account of nitrogen fixation is 3 to 11 GJ/ha [12 – 13].
Table 1 – Economic efficiency of pea cultivation using biological factors, average 2008-2010
Economic indicators
К
Productivity, t/ha
Costs of 1 t of production, thous.
rub.
Saving of nitrogen fertilizers ,
rub./ha
3,20
Bisolby
Symbiotic
San
fungi
Spartak
4,40
4,14
Strain
250а
Strain
260б
Strain
263б
3,50
2,98
4,56
3,53
2,63
3,30
3,31
3,87
2,58
-
1645,2
1288,7
401,3
-
1864,5
Productivity, t/ha
Costs of 1 t of production, thous.
rub.
Saving of nitrogen fertilizers ,
rub./ha
3,08
3,11
2,91
2,90
3,60
3,31
3,66
3,66
4,64
3,97
3,23
3,50
-
-
-
-
884,0
391,0
Productivity, t/ha
Costs of 1 t of production, thous.
rub..
Saving of nitrogen fertilizers ,
rub./ha
2,56
2,86
2,73
3,09
2,51
3,85
4,37
3,97
4,93
3,72
4,56
3,03
-
-
-
901,0
-
2193,0
Temp
Faraon
Thus, taking into account optimal structure of cultivated areas, legume crops cultivation
with usage of biologization factors will allow the region to obtain 0,5 bln rub. per year
additionally. At the same time it is possible to produce up to 20 thous. tones / year of mineral
nitrogen fertilizers at the account of saved energy. This will give the regional agricultural
organizations the opportunity to conduct extended reproduction, to increase field productivity,
to provide the population with own high quality production and to increase life quality.
Legume crops productivity at formation of effective plant-microbe systems (РМS) on
the average increases by 26 – 50%, obtaining 2,9 and 4,5 t/ha, of soya and pea
correspondingly. At the same time biological nitrogen rate in the harvest is from 40 to 70%,
depending on crop, which is determined by the activation of nitrogen fixing function of
agrocoenoses. As the result, using unique abilities of legumes and microorganisms with little
efforts it is possible to obtain from 1 to 1,5 t/ha of cheap environmentally friendly plant protein
at the account of renewable natural resources at decrease of costs of production of 1 tone of
rain by 18 – 44% [14]. In its turn it is one of the powerful levers to increase competitive ability
of grain in the Russian domestic market and the world market.
Table 2 – Economic efficiency of soya cultivation using biological factors, average 2007, 2008, 2010
Economic indicators
К
Bisolby
San
Symbiotic
fungi
Strain
645б
Strain
626а
Strain
634а
Productivity, t/ha
Saving of nitrogen fertilizers ,
rub./ha
Saving of nitrogen fertilizers ,
rub./ha
2,61
2,61
2,87
2,44
2,61
2,81
2,55
2,60
3,12
2,83
2,66
2,47
-
-
1487,2
-
575,6
745,6
Productivity, t/ha
Costs of 1 t of production, thous.
rub.
Saving of nitrogen fertilizers ,
rub./ha
2,43
2,77
2,95
2,61
2,84
2,88
2,73
2,46
3,04
2,66
2,45
2,42
-
1899,8
2969,1
969,9
2273,2
2556,6
Svapa
Lanceolar
The most common and comprehensive method of regulation of plant-microbe
interactions is microbial drugs application. At that, in comparison with application of mineral
fertilizers and lime this method is in 1,7 – 2,0 times cheaper.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vestnik OrelGAU, 4(49), August 2014
Our researches show that in terms of productivity increase and selectivity to microbial
drugs variety is a determining factor. Thus, for example, the most effective for pea of variety
Faraon is microbial drug based on the nodule bacterium strain, but variety Spartak is highly
responsive to different biologizations techniques, which provides its maximum ability to
sustainable agriculture [12].
Paying great attention to microbial drugs role we consider that their usage must be
examined in the system of biologization of intensification processes, where technogeneous
and biological factors effectively complement each other.
Thus, resource conservation system gives the opportunity of maximum use of all
factors and at the expense of this to increase economic efficiency of branches, providing
extended reproduction, to produce competitive products at decrease of resource
consumption and to increase the stability of crop production.
REFERENCES
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conditions of joining to the WTO [Text] / I.G.. Ushachev // Agro Industrial Complex:
economy, management. – 2012. - №6. - P.3-14.
3. Klyukach, V.А. Innovative and investment activity in Agro Industrial Complex of
theregions [Text] / V.А. Klyukach // All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Economy
and Standards. - Rostov-on-Don; Zelenograd, 2012. - P. 210-217.
4. Zhuchenko, А.А. Biologization and ecologization of intensification processes agriculture
[Text] / А.А. Zhuchenko // Vestnik of Orel State Agrarian University. – 2009. – №3(18). –
P. 8-12.
5. Ushachev, I.G. Global problems of providing food safety of Russia [Text] / I.G. Ushachev
// Economy of agricultural and processing enterprises. – 2012. - №3. - P.11-17.
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14. Kuzmicheva, Yu.V. Management of biological potential of agrocoenoses of legume crops
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