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1319.Деловой английский язык

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство спорта, туризма и молодежной политики
Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Волгоградская государственная академия физической культуры»
Пономарева О.А.
Бабашев А.Э.
ДЕЛОВОЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие
Волгоград - 2010
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ББК 81.2 Англ.
П 56
Рецензенты:
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ВГАФК
Столбова Е. Г.
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры теории и методики обучения
иностранным языкам ВГПУ Гребенюк Е. Ф.
Допущено к изданию решением ученого совета ФГОУВПО «ВГАФК» в
качестве учебного пособия.
Пономарева О. А.
ДЕЛОВОЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК: учебное пособие для студентов очной и заочной форм обучения специальности 080507 «Менеджмент организации» / А. Э. Бабашев– Волгоград: ФГОУВПО «ВГАФК», 2010. – 158 с.
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов очной и заочной форм обучения специальности 080507 «Менеджмент организации».
ББК 81.2 Англ.
 Пономарева О.А., 2009.
 Бабашев А.Э., 2009.
 ФГОУВПО «ВГАФК», 2010.
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ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА К УЧЕБНОМУ ПОСОБИЮ
Цель и содержание учебного пособия
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов первого и второго курсов специальности «Менеджмент организации» очного и заочного отделения. Основной целью данного
пособия является введение и закрепление бизнес-лексики, формирование навыков общения по специализированной тематике, а также навыков написания делового письма.
Для достижения этих целей предлагается методика работы с материалом, которая
основана на использовании разнообразных способов подачи материала и активном применении различных коммуникативных приемов.
Для развития навыков практического владения английским языком в учебном процессе могут быть использованы различные приемы самостоятельной и аудиторной работы
над учебным материалом:
1) изучение теоретического материала по предлагаемой теме;
2) выполнение устных и письменных упражнений в каждой из изучаемых тем;
3) чтение и перевод учебных текстов;
4) чтение учебного материала без словаря с охватом общего содержания прочитанного;
5) использование технических (аудио- и видео) средств обучения;
6) составление монологического и диалогического высказывания по заданным темам;
7) выполнение письменных и устных практических заданий, выборочное тестирование по изучаемым темам.
Учебное пособие состоит из следующих частей:
1. Бизнес-курс, который делится на семь разделов (Units):
· Finding right job (Поиск подходящей работы);
· Interview technique (Собеседование при приеме на работу);
· At the office (В офисе);
· On the telephone (Общение по телефону);
· Business writing (Деловая переписка);
· Business communication (Деловое общение);
· Business trip (Рабочая командировка).
В каждом из данных разделов отрабатывается определенная тема с использованием
лексико-грамматических упражнений, диалогов. Структурно каждый раздел состоит из:
· опорного текста;
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· словаря по теме для снятия трудностей при чтении текстов и для активизации лексики в монологической и диалогической речи;
·
лексико-грамматических упражнений;
· практических рекомендаций, написанных на русском языке для облегчения
понимания специфики деловой речи;
· списка основных речевых клише по теме;
· вспомогательных текстов по теме на английском языке;
· рабочих ситуаций, содержащих практические задания, нацеленные на активизацию полученных знаний.
2. Тексты для дополнительного чтения (Texts for additional reading), нацеленные на
расширение вокабуляра в области профессиональной терминологии;
3. Деловые ситуации и ролевые игры (Situations and role-plays), которые рекомендуется использовать в индивидуальной и групповой работе в процессе изучения
дисциплины для активизации лексического и грамматического материала, развития монологических и диалогических умений и навыков, а также для закрепления
и контроля полученных лексико-грамматических знаний;
4. Практикум по деловому письму (Business writing practice), который содержит отрывки бизнес-документации и нацелен на систематизацию и контроль знаний по
данному аспекту;
5. Приложение, содержащее список сокращений, используемых в электронных сообщениях.
Кроме того, поскольку английский язык является языком международного общения, необходимо учитывать культурные традиции и ценности, а также правила поведения,
принятые в стране иностранного собеседника.
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БИЗНЕС КУРС
UNIT 1
FINDING THE RIGHT JOB
Office Careers
Every day, large companies receive hundreds of letters from job seekers. Unemployment
statistics make headlines. Behind unemployment hides another, more personal kind of employment crisis: underemployment.
Underemployment can involve full- or part-time work. The term refers to the type of
work you are doing: the heart surgeon working as a salesperson or the professor sorting mail.
Are these examples exaggerated? Unfortunately not. Especially when you consider the lives of
many adults who have moved from their country of birth to another part of the globe.
Underemployment
Why do so many people settle for underemployment? Perhaps because of the need to find
a job quickly, any job. Unfortunately, the best job is not often the easiest to find. In modern, industrial nations underemployment is alarmingly common; studies in the United States, for instance, have shown that as many as 80 percent of adults are underemployed. That's almost everybody! So if you share in the frustration of underemployment you are hardly alone. In fact,
you're in good company!
Taking underemployment personally, a person may feel singled out. Yet underemployment differs from failure. Underemployment is temporary and can be overcome in time. To develop a career means setting long-term employment goals.
Finding the Right Work
Finding employment takes hard work in itself; so does finding a better position once employed. Competition for good jobs – those that are challenging, interesting, and well paid – is
here to stay. Landing the right job is a major step in launching a successful career. But career
planning only starts there.
Career development involves long-term planning. The search continues over the years as
a person moves from one position to the next, developing skills which include the use of language.
A wide variety of skills is required for almost any job, anything from taking instructions
to giving them, from being supervised to supervising. In order to signal what you can do and
what you have done, it is useful to think of your skills and experience in terms of action verbs.
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Job Search
How can you make basic decisions about the choice of jobs and career? Most people go
to the openings. If you read the want ads in the newspaper, for example, you learn who is offering employment. This is only one way to go about finding work.
Another strategy is to do some long-range planning. This involves determining your
abilities, interests, and needs. What have you already learned by education and experience to do
well? There are your ski/Is, or abilities. What is it that you most enjoy doing? There are your interests. What kind of income will you need to support yourself and your family? These are your
needs.
In addition to the development of language and vocational skills, a successful career depends on learning how to look for work. Success is not guaranteed by seeing experts at an employment agency. While professionals may give valuable assistance, success in the long run depends on doing some thinking on your own – for instance, naming personal interests and abilities
on a resume.
Developing a resume begins with listing the skills a person has already gained. In addition, a resume specifically how and where those skills were acquired. All told, the resume states
the qualifications and work history of an applicant. A well-written resume sent with a letter of
application can win the interview of a lifetime.
Often what makes a prospective applicant stand out is the attitude that comes through in
the cover letter. Qualities such as initiative, self-control, and a sense of responsibility are highly
regarded by employers today.
Employment in Market Economy
In market terms, an individual can increase his income by working harder (taking a second job, say) or working smarter (for example, acquiring new, more wanted skills). In the United States, according to statistics, education has a direct and powerful effect on earnings; a person
with university degree, or 16 years of education, will over a lifetime earn more than twice what
someone with only eight years of education will earn. But still many persons entering the working world lack adequate training in such areas as leadership, communicating ideas and needs,
and working successfully as a member of a team. Employees must be skilled in allocating time,
money and other resources needed to carry out a job. They are to be able to evaluate and use new
information. They must understand how one task may affect other related tasks. Finally they
have to be able to learn new skills and adapt to changing technology.
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VOCABULARY
Underemployment
Неполная занятость
Full-time work
Работа на полный рабочий день
Part-time work
Работа на неполный рабочий день
Career
Карьера
Long term
Долгосрочный
Resume
Резюме
Qualifications
Квалификация
Skill
Навык
To land a job
Получить работу
In good company
В хорошей компании
To take things personally
Принимать вещи близко к сердцу
То be singled out
Чувствовать себя одиноко
Action verbs
Глаголы действия
Achievement
Достижение
Accomplishments
Положительные свойства, совершенство, завершенность
Applicant
Кандидат, претендент
Application
Заявление, заявка
Award
Награда
Be hired by someone
Быть нанятым кем-либо
Be qualified
Быть квалифицированным
Career objective
Цель карьеры
Challenging
Благоприятный, перспективный
Concise
Краткий, сокращенный, выразительный, четкий
Cover letter (letter of inquiry)
Письмо, посылаемое нанимателю с целью выяснения требований к конкретной должности
CV (Curriculum Vitae)
Автобиография
Education
Образование
Educational history
Сведения об образовании
Experienced
Опытный
First-time job seeker
Впервые устраивающийся на работу
Job jumper
Тот, кто меняет работу каждые 6-10 месяцев
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Handwritten
Написанный от руки
Human resource manager
Менеджер по кадрам
Marital status
Семейное положение
Language fluency
Беглость речи
Personal data
Личные сведения
Personnel manager
Менеджер по работе с персоналом, кадрами
Post, appointment, position
Должность
Recent position
Последняя должность
Reference
Рекомендация
Recruiter
Наниматель
Sufficient
Достаточный
То have experience in some Иметь опыт в
field
To demonstrate abilities
Продемонстрировать способности
To dismiss someone
Увольнять кого-либо
To hold a post
Занимать должность
Exercise 1. Перефразируйте предложения, используя выделенные слова:
land a job, in good company, qualifications, singled out, take things personally, resume
1.
After the interview was finished I felt sure that I'd be hired.
2.
When I was called in for a second interview, I knew that I had been selected as a finalist.
3.
Even if I don't get hired, I know I am just one of many qualified applicants.
4.
Despite her excellent background, another applicant was offered the position.
5.
After all, when it comes to looking for work, one shouldn't blame yourself.
Exercise 2. Переведите следующие предложения:
1.
On his resume it said that she's got to have a steady job.
2.
Alice personally believes that in-service training is one of the utmost importances.
3.
It's best to follow up on all correspondence promptly.
4.
Although his first choice was a steady service position, he said he'd settle for less.
5. The receptionist's responsibilities are as follows: answering telephone calls, guests' accommodation, greeting clients, making all the office work (typing, sending/ receiving faxes, etc.)
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При написании резюме используются глаголы активных действий, например:
Build
Manage
Promote
Assess
Construct
Oversee
Negotiate
Analyze
Provide
Supervise
Sell
Evaluate
Maintain
Coordinate
Market
Interpret
Organize
Assist
Sponsor
Examine
Operate
Teach
Facilitate
Review
Assemble
Instruct
Expedite
Critique
Design
Train
Advocate for
Proof
Develop
Counsel
Represent
Troubleshoot
Например, можно описать свой опыт работы таким образом:
•
prepared daily deliveries
•
delivered on a daily basis to customers
•
maintained accounts on customers
•
collected customer fees on a monthly basis
•
solicited new subscriptions
•
responded to customer complaints and concerns
•
utilized two word processing systems
•
typed and proofread sales letters
•
handled telephone inquiries
Exercise 3. Используя перечисленные выше глаголы, ответьте на следующие
вопросы:
1.
What work have you previously done?
2.
What skills were involved?
3.
What types of duties did you have?
4.
What relationship with people was involved?
5.
What responsibilities did you have?
Exercise 4. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения:
a) resume
1.
what you have learned through the work you have done
b) self-assessment
2.
words that make you look important
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c) background
3.
words that make you appear to be a «doer»
d) experience
4.
your education, training, and work history
e) action verbs
5.
a brief summary of your skills and qualifications
Exercise 5. Describing ability
A Human Resources Manager has drawn up a shortlist of applicants he feels would be
suitable for a vacancy in his company. Look at the descriptions of the candidates he plans to invite for interview.
• John has a can-do attitude and is able to meet deadlines
• Lis is a self-starter who can work on her own initiative
• Ivan is able to multi-task and has a proven track record
• Alex is an effective team player with a customer-focused approach
• Cristina is numerate and computer literate
Which candidate….
• is good with figures?
• co-operates with colleagues?
• is a good working on his/her own?
• can finish a job on time?
• has a good rapport with clients?
• has a history of success?
• has a positive approach?
• has IT skills?
• can cope with several jobs at the same time?
Exercise 6. For all of the verbs below, select the correct noun partner
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advertise...
sign...
1.
a vacancy
1.
a short list
2.
a candidate
2.
a contract
3.
applicants
3.
a vacancy
arrange...
draw up...
1.
applicants
1.
applicants
2.
an appointment
2.
a vacancy
3.
a vacancy
3.
a short list
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interview...
select...
1.
a candidate
1.
an appointment
2.
a contract
2.
a short list
3.
a short list
3.
applicants
Exercise 7. Job advertisements
The following nouns describe an ideal candidate's abilities. Can you change them into adjectives?
talent
enthusiasm
energy
ambition
drive
flexibility
commitment
motivation
How many of these adjectives describe you?
Exercise 8. These abbreviations often appear in job advertisements.
asap
ref. no.
p.a.
pro rata
p/w
neg.
inc.
k
c
s.a.e.
Match them to their meanings
1. per week
2. thousand
3. negotiable
4. reference number
5. per annum, yearly
6. stamped addressed envelope
7. as soon as possible
8. approximately
9. inclusive
10. according to time worked
Exercise 9.
The words in the column on the right are phrases that use the word career. For each definition on the left, match it to the correct phrase on the right:
1. Chances of future success in your career
A. career move
2. The direction you hope your career will take
B. career break
3. A change you make in order to progress
C. career prospects
4. Time when you are not employed, perhaps when trav-
D. career ladder
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elling or looking after children
5. A series of promotions towards more senior positions
E. career plan
Форма резюме на английском языке
Составление удачного резюме на английском языке часто является одной из самых сложных задач при поиске работы за границей или в западной компании. Резюме
должно отвечать всем необходимым требованиям, но при этом выгодно отличать вас от
других претендентов на данную должность.
В США резюме принято называть Resume, в Европе - CV (Curriculum Vitae).
Стандартная форма резюме европейского уровня включает в себя 6 основных частей:
1.
Личная информация (Personal Information)
2.
Цель (Objective)
3.
Опыт работы (Work Experience)
4.
Образование (Education)
5.
Специальные навыки (Additional Skills)
6.
Рекомендации (References)
Рассказывая о себе, используйте больше прилагательных, это сделает текст более
ярким и иллюстративным, вот краткий перечень наиболее употребимых слов:
·
directed, led managed, supervised;
·
achieved, delivered, drove, generated, grew, increased, initiated, instituted and launched;
·
cut, decreased, reduced, slashed;
·
accelerated, created, developed, established, implemented, instituted, performed, pioneered, planned, produced, re-engineered, restructured, saved and transformed.
Избегайте таких клише, как:
Dynamic, people-oriented, results-oriented, self-motivated, hands-on leader, visionary
Объем резюме молодого специалиста не должен превышать 1 страницы, если же у
вас за плечами большой стаж работы, информацию о себе нужно разместить не более чем
на двух страницах.
Сделайте ваш документ удобным для чтения. Сформировав общий план резюме,
убедитесь, что в нем есть достаточно чистого пространства. Верхнее и нижнее поля должны быть не менее 1,5 сантиметров высотой, а боковые поля не менее 2. Между отдельными частями резюме оставляйте пробелы. Жирным шрифтом выделяйте названия пунктов,
а также названий компаний и имена. Не подчеркивайте слова и не используйте курсив,
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для придания выразительности. Не применяйте редкие шрифты для привлечения внимания читателя, используйте такие стандартные шрифты, как Arial, Garamond, Helvetica,
Tahoma or Times Roman. Не начинайте каждое предложение одинаковыми фразами и не
вводите личные местоимения. Чтобы сделать текст более выразительным используйте
разнообразную лексику.
Цель написания резюме – получить конкретную должность в определенной компании. Поэтому рассказывать следует о том, что будет важно на новом месте работы.
Пропускайте то, что не представляет большого значения. Чем меньше вы будете упоминать незначительные факты, тем большое значение приобретет самое главное.
Структура резюме
Полное имя (фамилия пишется последней)
Адрес
Номер телефона
Если Вы претендуете на конкретную работу, то укажите следующее:
ЦЕЛЬ РАБОТЫ (EMPLOYMENT OBJECTIVE): I am seeking a responsible position
in ...
Если Вы пишете общее резюме и не преследуете цель получить конкретную должность, то пишите так:
РЕЗЮМЕ НАВЫКОВ И УМЕНИЙ (SUMMARY OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS):
Extensive experience in ...
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ (EDUCATION): (Перечисляйте Ваши степени по нисходящей)
(ЧТО: степень/ диплом/ свидетельство) (ГДЕ: школа/ институт) (КОГДА: дата окончания)
ОПЫТ РАБОТЫ (WORK EXPERIENCE):
(КЕМ ВЫ РАБОТАЛИ: должность/ звание)
(ГДЕ: место работы)
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(ЧТО Вы делали? Кратко поясните, чем Вы занимались на работе.)
(КОГДА Вы это делали? Укажите даты начала и окончания работы.)
ОСОБЫЕ НАВЫКИ/ КУРСЫ (SPECIAL SKILLS/ TRAINING):
(Осваивали ли Вы какие-либо новые специальности в специализированных школах,
на военной службе или на рабочем месте?)
(Есть ли у Вас какие-либо права или свидетельства?) Если есть, то укажите, КАКИЕ,
ГДЕ Вы их получили, КОГДА, и КАК ДОЛГО они будут действительны.)
ОСОБЫЕ ЗАСЛУГИ (SPECIAL AWARDS):
(Получали ли Вы какие-либо грамоты, премии, благодарности. Укажите, КАКИЕ,
ГДЕ и КТО Вас награждал?)
ЗНАНИЕ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ (LANGUAGE SKILLS):
(На КАКИХ языках Вы читаете, пишете, говорите? Укажите степень владения языком. Вносите эту информацию только, если достаточно хорошо знаете язык.)
ПО ПРОСЬБЕ РАБОТОДАТЕЛЯ МОГУ ПРЕДОСТАВИТЬ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ
(REFERENCES AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST) (Добавьте эту фразу, но не указывайте конкретных имен.)
(ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ: Сведения о возрасте, поле и семейном положении не обязательны.)
Пример резюме
Объявление о вакансии
Large European pharmaceutical company seeks
for Clinical Research Associate
The ideal candidate should have:
Medical or pharmaceutical degree;
At least 1 year experience as researcher;
Fluent English;
Advanced computer skills;
Goodwill to learn and work hard;
References on request.
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We offer:
Competitive package;
Trainings.
Kindly send your CV
to attention Recruitment manager fax 916
20 35
Резюме
DR. ALEXANDR IVANOVICH CHUTRENOV
Ul. Finnskaya, 31/2-34
Moscow, RUSSIA
Tel: +7 (095) 874 2854
Email: a.chutrenov@moskdat.ru
OBJECTIVE
Clinical Research Associate
Having completed many years in my specialist field of treatment of leukemia, I have decided that the time is right for a change in area of specialization. Completing my Ph.D. was one of the most exciting and challenging
periods of my life and I want to experience such a steep learning curve
again in another medical field. The position of Research Associate would
therefore be very suitable for me as I have many years’ experience at prestigious medical institutes and have studied in Russia, Germany and in the
United States. My level of language is therefore exceptional, and my communication skills have been thoroughly tested. I am looking to broaden my
knowledge of medicine, to which I have devoted my life and feel that I
would be a particularly suitable candidate for the position.
PERSONAL DETAILS
Date of Birth: 12 April 1969
Marital Status: Married
EDUCATION
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1993-1996:
New York University of Medicine
Major field of studies:
Research into Pharmaceuticals of Treatment of Leukemia
1987-1993:
Moscow State University (MGU)
Major field of studies:
Medicine and Pharmaceutical Research
Qualification: Doctor of Pharmaceuticals (PhD)
WORK EXPERIENCE
August 2002–
Pharmaceutical Researcher at Pfizer, UK
present:
> Research into the effective treatment of leukemia
> Focusing on the reduction of treatment side-effects
> Organizing personal funding of research and funding of departmental research
> Organizing pharmaceutical testing
> Liaising with other research departments
> Organizing interns and student work experience
Oct 1996–June
Research Assistant, Pfizer, Germany
2002
> Research into alternative therapies of renal cancer and leukemia
> Organizing departmental funding
Sept 1993–June
1995
Research Assistant, New York, USA
> Research into alternative therapies for cancer patients
ADDITIONAL SKILLS
Languages:
English – Advanced Level / Cambridge Proficiency
German – Advanced Level
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Computer skills:
Experienced with MS Word, Excel, Internet Explorer and Outlook
Express, Turbo Cad, many analytic programs
Driving Licence:
Driving License Category B
Qualified and highly-professional; highly-motivated; enthusiastic;
good communication skills; eager to experience and learn new skills.
REFERENCES
References are available on request
MORE DETAILS FOR AMERICAN RESUME FORMAT
The candidate's resume must catch their attention upon first glance. Below are some helpful
tips to get your candidate's resume noticed:
1)
Keep the resume to one or two pages only. This is most important as the HR director
usually does not have time to read through several pages on each candidate. The one page resume will pique interest just enough for them to ask for more.
2)
Fonts type and sizes. Use fonts "Times New Roman" or "Arial". Also you must use
small font sizes such as 10 or 12 points. Remember: you should keep your resume to one or two
pages only.
3)
Do not use text boxes, frames, backgrounds, etc. Your resume should be clear and pro-
fessional.
4)
Do not title your resume CURRICULUM VITAE. That title is reserved for multiple
page resumes filled with specific work experiences in the higher levels of employment such as
attorneys, doctors, and scientists etc.
5)
Insert a small business photo on the right upper side of your resume. We recommend
that men wear shirt and tie or suit and women business attire. Please avoid t-shirts, sweat-shirts,
hats, religious garments, low neckline blouses, etc.
6)
Do not put your age or gender on the resume. That information is mandatory on the vi-
sa application but inappropriate on a resume. Most, if not all American companies, follow a strict
Equal Opportunity Employer code. To list your age and gender would indicate tacit discrimination.
7)
Pay attention on how you write the dates on your resume. Remember that in the United
States the month comes first of the day. Also you should use the Roman calendar.
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8)
List University degree. List your university degree and the year you graduated, but not
the courses. The American employers are more interested in your university degree and work
experience.
9)
List your work Experience. Start from the most recent position. If you have many nu-
merous positions you should list the last three. Also you must give a detailed description of your
experience for each position.
10)
Don't list your references on the resume. If you want, you can keep them on a separate
page and we will provide them to the employer when asked.
Note: In the objectives listed on your resume, don't list "to enhance English skills" as a
reason or goal in entering the trainee program. The American company wants to think you are
already fluent in English. This is proper to list on your application but never in your resume.
Письмо-просьба о приеме на работу (application letter)
Обычно такое письмо направляется в интересующую компанию вместе с резюме
или анкетой, поэтому его называют сопроводительным письмом (cover letter)
В большинстве случаев люди узнают об интересующей их работе из рекламных
объявлений в печати и правильно составленный ответ на такое объявление, т.е. письмопросьба, может быть не менее важным, чем резюме.
Письмо-заявление о приеме на работу состоит из нескольких абзацев (как правило,
не более четырех) и должно содержать следующую информацию:
1) укажите причину своего обращения в компанию и то, каким образом вы узнали
о вакантной должности (сошлитесь на объявление в конкретной газете);
2) объясните, почему рекламируемая должность интересует вас и каким образом
ваши знания, навыки и квалификация в данной должности могут быть полезны компании;
3) приведите примеры, подтверждающие ваши знания, навыки и квалификацию в
данной области. Отберите только существенные факты, избегайте ненужных деталей и повторений. Если вы закончили учебу и у вас еще нет опыта работы, то напишите о своих
успехах в учебе и общественной деятельности, которая имеет отношение к интересующей
вас работе;
4) сообщите, что вы хотели бы пройти собеседование и укажите время и дату,
удобные вам;
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5) не забудьте указать, что в приложении к письму вы направляете резюме. Что касается рекомендательных писем, то их можно направить вместе с письмом и резюме или
сделать в письме ссылку, что они будут представлены по требованию.
Фразы, которые обычно используются в письмах с просьбой о приеме на работу:
I should like to apply for the position of...
Я хотел бы подать заявление на занятие
должности ...
The management of... will be pleased to Руководство фирмы ... будет радо преsupply you with references and any further доставить Вам рекомендации, а также
information you may require ...
любую дополнительную информацию,
которая Вам может потребоваться ...
I enclose a summary of my educational прилагаю перечень документов об обраqualifications and copies of letters of refer- зовании и копии рекомендательных пиence ...
сем ...
I should be willing to undergo a trial peri- Я бы хотел пройти испытательный срок,
od of employment in which I feel I shall be в течение которого, я надеюсь, смогу доable to prove my capacity to your satisfac- казать, что моя квалификация соответстtion ...
вует Вашим требованиям ...
I should be grateful if you would give me Я был бы Вам благодарен, если бы Вы
an appointment for a personal interview on назначили мне личную встречу в любое
any day or time convenient for you.
удобное для Вас время.
I could supply you with any further infor- Я мог бы предоставить Вам любую доmation you might require ...
полнительную
информацию,
которая
могла бы Вам потребоваться.
I make my formal application for the posi- Я направляю официальное заявление на
tion of... And enclose a letter of recom- занятие должности ... И прилагаю реmendation from the firm where I am at комендательное письмо фирмы, в котоpresent employed as ...
рой я в настоящее время работаю в должности ...
I hope my application will be favorably Я надеюсь, мое заявление будет рассмотconsidered and you will grant me a per- рено положительно, и Вы назначите мне
sonal interview.
личную встречу.
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Ниже приводится пример рекламного объявления и ответного письма-просьбы.
Office Manager for multinational busy office
Requirements:
—
Higher education
—
Fluent English
—
PC knowledge (Word, Excel) — advanced user
—
Paper work experience
—
Touch typing method
—
Strong managerial skills
—
More than 2 years experience in international
structures
Please send your resumes by fax: (095) 783 9358
Reply to the advertisement
Dear Sirs,
I refer to the advertisement for a position of Office Manager, which appeared in yesterday's Moscow Times and I should like
to offer my services as an Office Manager in your office.
I have been employed as a receptionist by the firm Black &
Co for the past four years, to the complete satisfaction of my employers, and feel sure that I could satisfy all your requirements.
I am compelled to look for a new position as the firm Black
& Co is closing down at the end of the month, and I must find a
new position.
I enclose my resume with a brief list of my qualifications,
positions I have occupied and copies of references.
I hope that you will grant me a personal interview which can
be arranged at any time which is most convenient for you.
I hope to have the pleasure of hearing from you.
Yours faithfully,
Составление рекомендательного письма
Составить отличное рекомендательное письмо (letter of reference), выдержанное
в нужном стиле, может быть не очень просто. Вы можете облегчить вашему поручителю
эту задачу, если сами предложите ему пример рекомендательного письма. В этом случае
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вы сможете предопределить содержание документа в желаемом направлении. Неудачное
рекомендательное письмо не только не повысит ваши шансы, но может полностью испортить общее впечатление и лишить вас возможности получить желаемую должность.
Рекомендательное письмо состоит из следующих трех частей:
1. Рекомендательное письмо начинается с указания точного названия адреса и контактного телефона компании, представитель которой выступает в качестве поручителя.
2. В 1 абзаце поручитель объясняет, как давно он работает вами. Кратко характеризует вид вашей деятельности и основные обязанности. Здесь же можно в нескольких словах рассказать о самой компании.
3. В следующем параграфе нужно дать более детальное описание вашего профессионального роста за весь период работы в организации, перечислить основные достижения, подчеркнуть самые важные на взгляд поручителя положительные качества. Впечатление поручителя от совместной деятельности.
4. Подводя итог выше сказанному, нужно описать личные качества и основные
черты характера человека. Выскажите мнение о том, в какой должности и с какими обязанностями он может принести максимальную пользу компании.
Пример рекомендательного письма
Company
Address
Date
To Whom it May Concern, I am writing this reference letter
on behalf of Michael Grishin.
I have been Michael's supervisor
for four years in *** Company.
In just those four short years,
I have watched him rapidly advance from an entry-level position
to a Senior Technical Support Representative.
I have never
hesitated to recommend him for promotion when his time came.
Michael derives satisfaction from helping our customers
and field engineers troubleshoot technical problems.
Many of
those who have received help from Michael specifically ask for
him when they again contact tech support, and for good reason:
He is professional, courteous and quick to help. I often see
Michael in our lab before or after work hours, replicating
technical problems.
Additionally, Michael does not abandon his
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customers when the whistle blows.
He sticks at it even after
hours, until he resolves his customers' problems.
Michael is a team player who is always willing to share
the knowledge.
For example, thanks to Michael's willingness to
share the trouble-ticket notes he so meticulously recorded and
compiled,
craft
our
Technical
"symptom-fix,"
Publications
step-by-step,
guides for our field engineers.
Department
online
was
able
to
troubleshooting
Consequently, we have seen an
increase in customer satisfaction, a reduction in tech-support
calls, and a significant savings on the department's bottom
line.
I have nothing but good things to say about Michael and I
would
strongly
recommend
him
for
any
endeavor
he
chooses.
Please do not hesitate to contact me if you would like to hear
more good things about Michael.
Yours faithfully,
[Signature]
Andrey Roshin
Supervisor, Technical Support
Ext. 111, andrey@acme.com
Exercise 10. Переведите советы специалистов на русский язык:
DOs and DONT's for Job Seekers
DO learn ahead of time about the company and its product. Do your homework.
DO let as many people as possible know you are 'job hunting.'
DO make plenty of applications.
DO apply for a job in person.
DO have a good resume.
DON'T feel that the world owes you a living.
DON'T isolate yourself from contacts that might help you to find a job.
Exercise 11. Ответьте на вопросы.
Personal Skills
1.
Have you held a job involving careful, detailed work? If so, describe the skills you have de-
veloped.
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2.
Have you held a job that required you to supervise other people? If so, describe the supervi-
sory skills you have developed.
3.
Have you held a job that required you to solve problems? If so, describe the problem-solving
skills you have developed.
4.
Have you held a job involving decisions? If so, describe the decision-making skills you have
developed.
5.
Have you held a job involving creativity? If so, describe the creative or artistic skills you
have developed.
Communication skills
1.
Have you held a job that required you to follow written and verbal instructions? If so, de-
scribe the communication skills you have learned.
2.
Have you held a job that required you to give information or instructions to other people? If
so, describe the communication skills you have learned.
3.
Have you held a job that required you to teach or demonstrate? If so, describe the teaching
skills you have learned.
4.
Have you held a job involving frequent interaction with others? If so, describe the commu-
nication skills you have acquired.
5.
Have you held a job involving persuasion, such as selling? If so, describe the communica-
tion skills you have gained.
Рабочие ситуации:
1. Составьте свое резюме на английском языке.
2. Напишите пример рекомендательного письма.
3. Внимательно проанализируйте приведенные ниже рекламные объявления и напишите письмо-просьбу о приеме на работу:
Leading international firm of business advisors is inviting a highly—motivated and experienced individual\ to join
our Moscow office as the:
PERSONAL
ASSISTANT
to our Managing Director
The successful candidate should be a native Russian speaker
and
skills;
will
have
proven
excellent
computer
oral
English
literacy
and
communication
organizational
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skills; relevant experience as a PA to a General Director
/ Manager in a large multinational company with operations
in Russia; ability to work under pressure and superb interpersonal / communication skills.
We offer a dynamic work environment, a competitive salary
and a comprehensive benefits package.
For immediate consideration, please submit your CV and
cover letter to the
HR Department,
10/22 Sosnovy Proezd, Moscow, Russia;
Fax: (095) 117-1812 or 138-1618 or e-mail:
PetejCordwell@jobs. cis. com.
International Media
is looking for a professional and dynamic
SALES
SECRETARY
If your qualifications include:
Complete fluency in English
University degree
Excellent computer skills (Word, Excel), professional typing skills
Some working experience in sales or marketing
Outgoing personality and capability for teamwork in a constantly changing and challenging environment
Please fax resume to 323-1928, attn. Mary Rose
Hotel “Radisson”
is looking for a
MANAGING DIRECTOR
Requirements:
•
Higher Education
•
Fluent written and spoken English
•
Computer literate
•
Excellent communication and organizational skills
•
Able to work under pressure
Please send your resume by fax to (095) 252-7732
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A well-known European firm
is currently looking for a qualified person as a
Tour manager
Requirements:
—
a university degree
—
fluent English, knowledge of German is a plus
— PC literate (Word, Excel)
—
previous experience in a similar position preferably in
a western firm
—
highly-motivated self-starter
Send your CV to:
fax 303-41-14
or e-mail business@rusnet.ru
Senior Receptionist/Front Of House
Agency/Employer The Recruitment Network
Description We are looking to recruit a Senior Receptionist/Front Of House person for our client in Wincanton.
The main duties of the role will include:
·
Reconciliation
·
Cashing up
·
Banking
·
Dealing with Enquiries
·
Customer Service
·
Bookings and Enquiries
The hours are Tuesday -Saturday 7am-3pm with an early
start at 6am on a Friday
Experience within the Catering and Hospitality industry
would be preferred
Location Wincanton, South West
Job type Permanent
Contract length Permanent
Salary/rate £14000 - £16000/annum + Benefits
Start date ASAP
Contact name Laura Zollars
Telephone 01823 250025
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UNIT 2
INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE
Making the Most of Your Experience
How many times have you been asked the question, «What do you do for living? » There
is a tendency for people to answer this question by saying, for example, «I'm a secretary» or «I'm
a salesgirl» In everyday conversations these answers are acceptable, but in an interview the interviewer will be more interested in your skills than in your former titles. On your resume you
must try to put more emphasis on things you can do and have done rather than on what you are
or were called while doing those things.
At job interviews an applicant is expected to explain past work experience clearly. A
good applicant is prepared to speak specifically about skills as well as experience.
For example: «I worked for eight months as an assistant to the manager at WXYZ radio. I
learned to keep records carefully, to file rapidly, and to take information over the phone accurately». The fact that the work was unpaid and part-time is of secondary importance. What
counts most are the skills acquired. It almost always pays to explain work experience in this way.
Beginning with basic questions such as your own abilities, interests, and needs is a very
different plan than taking the first available job. Choice of occupation is one of the biggest decisions we ever make. It pays to make it carefully.
Kinds of Interviews
There are many different kinds of employment interviews, but generally there are two
basic types: the screening interview and the selection interview. A screening interview is often
based on an employment application. In a screening interview, a personnel clerk or a staff person
may review the company's application form you filled out to make sure that you have provided
all essential information. Questions will usually require you to provide yes/no questions or give
short answers providing specific information. Generally the screening interview is meant to be a
check to make sure that all applicants meet minimal requirements before further interviewing is
done. In a selection interview you may be interviewed by one or even four or five individuals.
These may include a personnel manager or supervisory staff from the section for which you are
applying. Questions in a selection interview may ask for specific information or may be open
ended. The more experience you have in analyzing different styles of interviewing, the more
flexible and adaptable you will be in dealing with actual interviews.
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Interview Technique
Every interviewer is different; each has his or her own style. Some are professionally
trained, but many are not. In general, however, interviewing styles fall into two broad types: directive and nondirective. An interviewer with a directive style will generally ask a number of
pointed questions that are aimed at getting specific information. In a nondirective style interview,
the interviewer tends to ask questions that allow the interviewees the opportunity to express
themselves more openly.
An interview may be compared to a dance in which the interviewer is supposed to be the
lead partner and the interviewee is supposed to be a follower. Most of the time the trick is to adjust yourself to the pace and style set up by the interviewer. If the style is directive, you should
try to provide concise, accurate information without going on and on. If you have been asked a
simple question, try to stick to it rather than trying to provide your whole life history. On the
other hand, if you are being interviewed in a nondirective style, try to elaborate by providing
specific examples and explanations.
Occasionally, you may be interviewed by an inexperienced or poorly trained interviewer.
Remember that not everyone is equally skilled in the art of interviewing. Many people who interview do so only now and then as a minor responsibility rather than as their major job. When
you are dealing with an unskillful interviewer, it may be necessary for you to redirect the interview. You should make this switch only after you realize that the interviewer's line of questioning is missing important information about you and your background. Just as in a dance in which
a lead person fails to lead and it may occasionally become necessary for the other partner to lead,
so too in an interview it may be necessary for you to redirect.
VOCABULARY
Title
Рабочее звание (звание, сообщающее о Вашей специальности и о Вашем уровне в рамках специальности)
Directive
Прямой, директивный
Nondirective
Косвенный, недирективный
Lead
Ведущий
Follower
Ведомый
То redirect
Обратить вспять, преломить ход
То keep records
Вести записи
То file
Подшивать документы
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То take information over the
Принимать информацию по телефону
phone
Secondary importance
Второстепенный
Screening interview
Просеивающее интервью
Selection interview
Отборочное интервью
Open-ended question
Открытый вопрос
Appointment
Назначение (план встречи с кем-либо в конкретное
время и в конкретном месте)
Benefits
Льготы (оплата за работу, отличная от денег: страховка, отпуск, пенсия)
Clue
Сведения (что-либо, что предполагает найти ответ или
решение)
Diploma
Диплом (письменное свидетельство об окончании
школы или колледжа)
Document
Документ (написанное или напечатанное свидетельство, предоставляющее официальную информацию)
Examination
Экзамен (тест на знания, навыки, личные качества)
Favorable
Благоприятный (полезный, положительный, преимущественный)
Follow-up letter
Сопутствующее письмо (пишется после интервью и
выражает обычно благодарность и заинтересованность)
Form
Форма (напечатанная бумага с полями и линиями для
заявителя)
Fringe benefits
Дополнительные льготы (например, путешествие в
первом классе, талоны на бензин, бесплатные обеды)
Interview
Интервью (встреча между работодателем и заявителем
для разговора о работе)
Interviewer
Интервьюер (человек, задающий вопросы на интервью)
Interviewee
Заявитель (человек, отвечающий на вопросы на интервью)
Job counseling
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или совет для нахождения и сохранения работы)
Job market
Рынок рабочих мест (имеющиеся рабочие места)
Job search
Поиск работы (организованный способ нахождения
работы)
Prospects
Перспектива (вероятность совершения события)
Signature
Подпись (особый способ записи своего имени)
Success
Успех (достижение цели)
Summary
Сводка (краткое описание)
Training
Обучение (специально полученное инструктирование)
То relocate
Переезжать (перемещаться в другой город или переходить на другую работу)
То research
Исследовать (изучать с целью узнать новую информацию)
То resort
Обращаться (обращаться за использованием или помощью)
То submit
Подать (дать, предложить или включить)
То verify
Установить подлинность (подтвердить, доказать истинность)
Transcript
Копия (официальный список названий предметов и
оценок из школы)
Подготовка к собеседованию
Собеседование при приеме на работу в различных организациях может проходить абсолютно по-разному. В одной компании оно может длиться около 10 минут, в другой – представлять собой несколько часов интенсивного общения. В любом случае вам
необходимо произвести благоприятное впечатление и показать отличное знание языка.
Первое впечатление, созданное вами при входе в кабинет, может оказать большое
влияние на результаты собеседования. Вы должны вести себя спокойно, уверенно и дружелюбно. Первый вопрос, задаваемый менеджером по кадрам, обычно направлен на установление контакта (“breaking the ice”). Поэтому не удивляйтесь, услышав такой вопрос:
How are you today? – Как дела?
Did you have any trouble finding us? – Вы с трудом нас нашли?
What do you think of the weather today? – Как вам погода сегодня?
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Ответ в такой ситуации должен быть вежливым и кратким.
Например, How are you today? – Как ваши дела?
Use
I'm fine thank you, and you? – Спасибо,
Don't use
So, so – Ничего
хорошо, а у вас?
I'm well thank you – Все отлично спасибо.
OK – Нормально
Not so well – Не очень
Самое существенное, о чем вы можете рассказать во время собеседования, это ваше
образование и опыт работы. Образование включает в себя вашу учебу в вузе и специальные курсы, которые вы прошли в последнее время. Опыт работы включает любую деятельность, напрямую или косвенно связанную с должностью, на которую вы претендуете.
Если вы уже получили образование, то рассказывать о своей учебе нужно в прошедшем времени.
I attended the Moscow State University Я учился в МГУ в период с 1985 по
from 1985 to 1991
1991 год
I graduated with a degree in computer sci- Я получил образование в области выence
числительной техники
Если вы еще являетесь студентом, то нужно использовать настоящее длительное
время (Present Continuous):
I am currently studying at the Moscow В настоящий момент я учусь в МГТУ и
State Technology University and will через год получу диплом инженера
graduate with a degree in engineering in a
year
I am studying English at the Foreign Lan- Я изучаю английский язык в Школе
guage School
Иностранных Языков
Когда вы рассказываете о компании, в которой вы работаете в данный момент, необходимо использовать настоящее время (Present Continuous или Present Perfect
Continuous):
I have been employed by ABC company В течение последних 6 месяцев я рабоthe for the last 6 years as a salesperson
таю в компании ABC в качестве продавца
Все вопросы, задаваемые вашим потенциальным работодателем во время собеседования, можно условно разделить на следующие группы:
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Вступительные вопросы
Why are you interested in our company?
Чем вас заинтересовала наша компания?
Why did you come to this country?
Почему вы переехали в эту страну?
What are your objectives in this field?
Каковы ваши цели в данной области?
Опыт работы
What special aspects of your experience Какие особенности предыдущей деятельности подготовили вас для этой работы?
have prepared you for this job?
Can you describe one or two of your most Не могли бы вы рассказать о ваших наиболее важных достижениях?
important accomplishments?
How much supervision have you typically Насколько строгий контроль вы испытыreceived in your previous job?
вали над собой на предыдущей работе?
Why did you live your previous job?
По какой причине вы ушли с предыдущей работы?
What is important to you in a company?
Что является для вас важным в компании?
Выполнение работы
What are your strong points for this posi- Какие сильные стороны вашего характера
tion?
важны для данной должности?
How did your supervisor evaluate your job?
Как начальник оценивал вашу работу?
When you have been told or discovered for В каких случаях вы обнаруживали сами
yourself, a problem in your job perfor- или вам указывали на ваши ошибки в раmance? What have you typically done? Can боте? Как вы поступали? Приведите приyou give me an example?
меры.
Do you prefer to working alone or in Вы предпочитаете работать самостояgroups?
тельно или в команде?
Can you give me an example of your ability Вы можете привести примеры проявлеto manage or supervise others?
ния ваших способностей управления или
организации других людей?
What were some of the things about your Выполнение каких обязанностей было
last job that you found most difficult to do?
для вас наиболее сложным на предыдущем месте работы?
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Образование
Did you give presentations during your uni- У вас были публичные выступления за
время работы в университете/колледже?
versity/college?
Did you have to use any computer programs Вам часто приходилось использовать
frequently at the university? Which ones?
компьютерные программы в университете? Какие именно?
What courses in school have helped the Какие школьные предметы наиболее поmost in doing this job?
лезны для выполнения этой работы?
Самооценка
What kind of things are you most confident При выполнении какой работы вы чувстin doing?
вуете себя наиболее уверенно?
Can you describe for me a difficult obstacle Вы можете описать наиболее сложные
you have had to overcome? How did you ситуации, которые вам приходилось разhandle it? How do you feel this experience решать? Как вы с ними справились? Как,
affected your personality or ability?
по вашему мнению, этот опыт повлиял на
ваш характер или способности?
How would you describe yourself as a per- Как бы вы сами себя описали?
son?
What things give you the most satisfaction Что дает вам наибольшее удовлетворение
at work?
в работе?
What things frustrate you most? How do Что может расстроить вас сильнее всего?
you usually cope with them?
Как вы с этим справляетесь?
Творчество
In your work experience, what have you Занимались ли вы когда-либо работой,
done that you consider truly creative?
которую могли
бы
назвать
по-
настоящему творческой?
What kind of problems have people recently При решении каких проблем люди обраcalled on you to solve?
щались к вам за помощью?
Of your creative accomplishments, at work Выполнение какой творческой работы, на
or at home, which have given you the most работе или дома, дало вам наибольшее
satisfaction?
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Кругозор
Do you belong to any clubs, associations, or Вы состоите в каком-нибудь клубе, обgroups?
ществе или объединении?
What do you like to do in your spare time?
Как вы любите проводить свое свободное
время?
How do you keep up with what’s going on Каким образом вам удается постоянно
in your company/ your industry/your profes- находиться в курсе событий в вашей
компании/ вашей отрасли/вашей профес-
sion/your country?
сии/ вашей страны?
Мотивация
What is your professional goal?
Каковы ваши профессиональные цели?
When judging the performance of a subordi-
Какие факторы для вас являются опреде-
nate or colleague, what factors or character- ляющими при оценке работы подчиненistics are the most important for you?
ного или коллеги.
Требования к работе
What standards of success do you set your- Что для вас является успехом в работе?
self in your job?
In your position, how would you define do- Как вы себе представляете хорошее выполнение работы на вашей должности?
ing a good job?
Руководство людьми
What approach do you take in getting people Каким образом вы убеждаете людей приto accept your ideas or goals?
нять ваши идеи или цели?
What sort of leader do your people feel you Как ваши подчиненные оценивают ваши
are? Are you satisfied?
лидерские качества? Вас это устраивает?
How do you get people who do not want to Как вам удается заставить людей, нежеwork together to establish a common ap- лающих работать в команде, совместно
proach to a problem?
подойти к решению проблемы.
Do you feel you work more effectively on a Вы работаете с большей производительone to one situation or in a group situation?
ностью самостоятельно или в группе?
How would you describe your basic leader- Как бы вы описали свой стиль руково33
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ship style? Give specific examples of how дства? Приведите примеры.
you practice this?
Опыт публичных выступлений
Have you ever done any public or group Вы когда-нибудь участвовали в публичных выступлениях? Как это прошло?
speaking? How did it go?
Have you made any individual presentations Вы проводили самостоятельные выступления? Как вы к ним готовились?
recently? How did you prepare?
Письменное общение
Would you rather write a report or give a Вы бы предпочли сделать письменный
или устный доклад? Почему?
verbal report? Why?
What kind of writing have you done? Какие письменные работы вы выполняли? Для группы? Для отдельных лиц?
For a group? For an individual?
What do you think about the ongoing Как вы относитесь к продолжительным
changes in your company operating poli- изменениям в стратегии управления компанией?
cies?
What was the most significant change made Какие наиболее значительные изменения
in your company in the last six months произошли в вашей компании, которые
which
directly
affected
you?
How напрямую повлияли на вас? Насколько
successfully do you think you implemented успешно вы справились с ними?
this change?
What has been the most important idea or Какую наиболее важную идею или предsuggestion you have received recently from ложение вы получили от своих сотрудниyour co-workers?
ков в последнее время?
Стрессоустойчивость
Do you feel pressure in your job/life/at Вы ощущаете на себе давление на работе/
school? Tell me about it.
в повседневной жизни/в школе? Расскажите об этом.
What has been the highest pressure situation За последние годы в какой ситуации вы
you has have been under in recent years? ощутили себя под наибольшим давлениHow did you cope with it?
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Стабильность и зрелость
Describe your most significant success & Опишите свое самое выдающееся достиfailure in the two last years.
жение и неудачу за последние два года.
What do you like do best?
Чем вы больше всего любите заниматься?
What do you like to do least?
Чем вы меньше всего любите заниматься?
Think about your last review. What did your Что в последней рецензии ваш директор
supervisor suggest needed improvement?
рекомендовал вам изменить в себе?
What have you done about it?
Что вы для этого сделали?
Заинтересованность в саморазвитии
What has been the most important event or Какой человек или событие повлияли в
who has been the most important person in наибольшей степени на ваше саморазвиyour own self development?
тие?
How much of your education did you earn?
Что вам дало ваше образование?
What kind of books or other publications do Какие книги и другие издания вы читаеyou read?
те?
Have you taken a management development Вы проходили курсы повышения квалиcourse?
фикации руководителей?
How are you helping your coworkers/ sub- Каким образом вы помогаете своим колordinates develop themselves?
легам/ подчиненным развиваться?
Вопросы, которые стоит задать во время собеседования по приему на работу
What will be my responsibilities?
Что будет входить в мои обязанности?
Who will I report to? Who will be my su- Перед кем я буду отчитываться? Кто буpervisor?
дет моим руководителем?
What do you expect me to do in my compa- Чем я должен буду заниматься во время
ny role?
работы?
Who are your customers/clients?
Кто является вашими заказчиками/ клиентами?
Where is the company going? What are its Как развивается компания? Каковы ее
plans for expansion?
планы развития?
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Письмо после интервью (Follow-up letter)
В большинстве западных компаний является нормой получение письма благодарности от соискателя после собеседования. В России подобная практика пока не получила широкого распространения. Поэтому такое письмо может быть дополнительным
плюсом в вашу пользу.
После окончания собеседования обязательно уточните точное имя собеседника, его
контакты или возьмите визитную карточку. Письмо благодарности должно быть составлено по правилам ведения деловой переписки на английском языке и отправлено факсом
или по электронной почте.
Отправка такого документа дает вам несколько преимуществ:
·
вы можете показать себя вежливым, ответственным человеком
·
продемонстрировать способности по работе с деловой корреспонденцией
·
обратить на себя внимание работодателя
·
усилить положительное впечатление
·
добавить важную информацию, неупомянутую во время собеседования
·
высказать мнения о вопросах, обсуждавшихся на собеседовании
Пример:
Your Name
[Address]
[Telephone #
Email]
[Date today]
[Interviewer's name]
[Company name]
[Address]
Dear [Interviewer's name],
Thank you very much for taking time out of your busy day
to talk with me about the [job title] position.
I enjoyed
meeting you and the members of your department, and I am excited about the chance to work with such a great team.
Since I am a self-starter by nature and a team player
too, I like that you encourage individuals to take ownership
of projects, but each can still count on team-member support.
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Judging by our discussion earlier today, I believe that
my qualifications are an excellent fit, particularly my [specific education, experience, skills, etc.].
The position is
exactly what I'm looking for, and I'm confident that I can be
a significant contributor to the success of [company or department name].
I sincerely hope you agree.
I'd like to add that I have a Web-based portfolio, where
you may view recent samples of my work.
The address is
[http://].
Thanks again for interviewing me.
If you have questions
or concerns, please feel free to contact me.
I look forward
to hearing from you again.
Yours sincerely,
[Sign]
Exercise 1. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения:
a) directive style
b) nondirective style
c) screening interview
d) selection interview
e) elaborate
f) redirect
1.
explain fully
2.
a check to see that an applicant meets minimal qualifications
3.
the actual process of determining whether the applicant is to be hired
4.
asking for specific information, thus narrowing the range of response
5.
asking for general information, thus broadening the range of response
6.
changing the lead
Exercise 2.
A) Ответьте на вопросы, заданные в директивном стиле:
1.
Do you drive?
2.
How long have you lived in this area?
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3.
Which do you prefer, books or people?
4.
How far do you live from work?
5.
Have you done much traveling in recent years?
6.
Do you like to travel?
7.
Have you ever had to supervise?
B) Ответьте на вопросы, заданные в недирективном стиле:
1.
What did you like most about your previous job?
2.
Why did you choose marketing as your major?
3.
Tell me about yourself.
Exercise 3. Выделите открытые и закрытые (на которые следует отвечать од-
нозначно) вопросы. Обозначьте их О и 3 соответственно.
1.
Why did you leave your last job?
2.
Which do you prefer when you start a new project, a lot of direction or little guidance?
3.
Do you enjoy going to parties?
4.
What goal do you have for the future?
5.
Describe the kind of boss you would like to work for.
6.
Which subject was more difficult for you, Russian or math?
7.
When you supervise people, how do you try to motivate them?
8.
Can you work under pressure?
9.
Will you accept $ ... per month to start?
10. Do you have any problems with your health?
11. Will you work overtime?
12. What kind of salary are you looking for?
13. Do you drink alcohol?
14. Tell me about your childhood.
15. Do you like a variety of tasks throughout the day?
16. How often do you entertain people?
17. What is your strongest point?
18. What is your major weak point?
19. Which is more important to you, the money or the job?
20. What was your best subject in college?
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Exercise 4. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения:
a) rapport
b) skills
c) qualifications
d) self-perception
e) career expectations
f) salary range
1. the ideas that you have about yourself
2. the ideas you have about your employment future
3. a comfortable feeling established between people
4. the things that indicate you are able to do something
5. the upper and lower limits of what you can be paid
6. what you hope to be able to accomplish in your field of work
Exercise 5. Переведите советы специалистов на русский язык:
DOs and DONT's for Job Seekers
DO mention any experience you have which is relevant to the job.
DO talk and think as far as possible about the future rather than the past.
DO indicate, where possible, your stability, attendance record and good safety experience.
DO assume an air of confidence.
DO approach the employer with respectful dignity.
DO try to be optimistic in your attitude.
DO maintain your poise and self-control.
DO try to overcome nervousness and shortness of breath,
DO answer questions honestly.
DO know importance of getting along with people.
DO indicate your flexibility and readiness to learn.
DO be well-groomed and appropriately dressed.
DON'T be untidy in appearance.
DON'T apologize for your age.
DON'T write incorrect information on your resume to make it look better.
DON'T go to an interview without a record of former employment.
DON'T arrive late and breathless for an interview.
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DON'T discuss past experience which has no application to the job situation.
DON'T hesitate to fill out applications, give references, and take physical examinations or tests
on request.
DON'T keep stressing your need for a job.
DON'T beg for consideration.
DON'T mumble or speak with a muffled voice.
DON'T display a feeling of inferiority.
DON'T display 'cocksureness'.
DON'T be one of those who can do everything.
DON'T express your ideas on compensation, hours, etc. early in the interview.
DON'T hang around, prolonging the interview, when it should be over.
DON'T make claims if you cannot 'deliver' on the job.
Exercise 6. Разыграйте в лицах следующее интервью:
Ann:
Good morning, sir.
Interviewer: Good morning. Come in. Ms. Jones, isn't it? Please take a seat. You will have to
excuse me a moment while I finish signing these letters. There, that'll do. Now I
can concentrate on you, Ms. Jones. Tell me, how long were you in your last job
with Santos?
Ann:
Five years.
Interviewer: Do you think a change will do you good?
Ann:
Yes I think so, sir. I am only leaving because the firm is merging with Austin &
Sons.
Interviewer: Now, you say in your resume that you've done your foreign correspondence
mostly in English, but that you understand French quite well. Would you mind
glancing at this letter and telling me what it's all about.
Ann:
It's from Paris confirming your booking of seven single rooms and four double
rooms for a week from May 7lh, and asking whether you accept price increase
by 17 per cent
Interviewer: That'll do. Tell me what are your three main strengths?
Ann:
I think they are: reliability, loyalty, sense of time.
Interviewer: How do you relieve everyday tensions?
Ann:
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Interviewer: What about your communication skill?
I make contacts with people of different level of culture easily.
Ann:
Interviewer: All right, Ms. Jones. I am quite prepared to offer you a job with us. You have
got excellent references from your previous job. What do you find a fair salary?
Ann:
Maybe, the equivalent of $ 500?
Interviewer: I think we will begin you from $ 450 for the experimental period and if you do
well we will review it by the end of three months. Hours are from nine to fivethirty, with an hour for lunch. Does that suit you? Any questions?
Ann:
All right. I suppose supportive environment here. But are there any fringe benefits?
Interviewer: We allow our employees and their families a considerable reduction if they
want to book a holiday through us.
Ann:
That sounds fine. When do you want me to start, sir?
Interviewer: As soon as possible.
I can begin working since Monday.
Ann:
Interviewer: All right. We'll be seeing you on November 11th then?
Ann:
Yes, certainly. Thank you very much. Good-bye.
Рабочие ситуации:
1. Обменяйтесь в группе своими резюме (если Вы их уже подготовили) с другими
студентами. Внимательно изучите резюме друг друга. Представьте себя в роли интервьюера во время реального собеседования. Какие вопросы Вы будете задавать для получения необходимой информации, которая позволила бы Вам принять на работу своего товарища? Затем поменяйтесь ролями и побеседуйте с другим студентом в роли претендента
на работу.
Используйте в качестве подсказки следующие вопросы, разделенные на категории:
Позволяющие создать доверие
How are you today?
Did you have any trouble finding us?
What do you think of the weather lately?
Позволяющие выявить необходимые навыки и судить о квалификации
Which courses did you feel were most helpful? Tell me about your experience. What did you do
on that project? Can you operate Word XP?
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Позволяющие оценить личные качества
What do you do during your free time? Tell me about your childhood. How much and how often
do you drink? Do you enjoy pleasing others?
Вопросы самооценки
What do you consider your strong points to be? What are your greatest weaknesses? How reliable are you? Are you an achiever?
Вопросы о зарплате
What kind of salary are you looking for? How much do you expect to earn? What would we
have to pay you?
Вопросы о карьере
Where do you expect to be in five years? What are your career goals?
2. Напишите письмо-благодарность после интервью.
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UNIT 3
AT THE OFFICE
The Organization
According to an old saying, you can judge the personality of an organization by the switchboard operator. Organizations, in the end, are people – people playing roles. The roles differ in
many ways. A superior, for instance, may have far greater power and authority than subordinates.
Those with the greatest authority are said to be at the top of the hierarchy. The hierarchy of authority also establishes a chain of command, the route by which instructions and communicated
between employees -who you speak to, for instance, when a problem arises. A hierarchy is actually
composed of relationships between people. These relationship are based, in part, on who holds the
power to make decisions. Job descriptions usually mention these relationships. Sometimes, however, rank is communicated less formally. Either way, in order to communicate successfully with coworkers, it is important to recognize these relationships within the organization.
Communication is a two-way street. We listen and we speak. Listening well is as important as speaking clearly. If you have learned English as a foreign language and are working
for a joint venture, your colleagues learn to understand your way of speaking. However, those
who do not know you may not understand your pronunciation as easily. Fortunately, there are
several quick ways to improve your pronunciation. First, remember to listen to yourself speaking. Just remembering to speak carefully is a good start. When giving information on the phone,
remember to be especially clear. Speak slowly. Pronounce each word carefully, one sentence at a
time. You will be amazed how much more easily you are understood.
Active listening to get information
Good listeners listen actively. Then try to understand completely all that is being said.
They make sure they understand. They are not afraid to ask questions. On the phone, for example, a good listener asks for details:
- Will there be any charge for the workshop?
- No, it's free.
- How many hours will it take?
- Three hours – from nine until noon.
Do you ask questions after listening? Asking questions is a sign that you are listening
carefully.
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Taking messages
After you have written down a phone message, read important details back to the caller.
– So the meeting starts at nine on Wednesday.
– Yes, quite right.
– Good. We'll be there.
Checking details is a form of active listening. It is especially important to be accurate
when taking messages for others. Getting the message right in the first place is quicker and easier
than calling back later for details
Messages should be delivered promptly, especially when a message has been left to return a call. The original caller expects a reply.
Showing Politeness
То show politeness, English speakers use a variety of expressions. Here are a few examples.
- Please spell the company name. – It's Ross Electronics: R-O-S-S.
- I'm sorry, but could you repeat the area code?
- The code is 09722.
- I'm afraid that I missed the date.
- It's August 1st.
- Excuse me, but could you repeat the time for the meeting?
- It's at 2:00 on Tuesday.
- Would you mind repeating the message?
- Sure...
- I'm sorry, but I didn't catch that.
- I'm sorry, but I didn't understand the last phrase. It's noisy in the office today.
- Could you please speak up?
Phrases for politeness are often said with emphasis. Intonation, the rising and falling pitch
of speech, is one form of emphasis. When you say the phrases yourself, try to repeat the information and emphasis as you heard it.
VOCABULARY
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Organization
Организация
Superior
Начальник
Authority
Полномочия, власть
Subordinate
Подчиненный
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Hierarchy
Иерархия
Chain of command
Уровни подчинения
Employee
Работник
To make decisions
Принимать решения
Job description
Должностная инструкция
Co-worker
Сотрудник
Communication
Общение, обмен информацией
Colleague
Коллега
To listen actively
Активно слушать
To ask questions
Задавать вопросы
To check details
Уточнять детали
Intonation
Интонация
Telephone
Телефон
Cellular phone
Сотовый телефон
Mobile phone
Мобильный телефон
Receiver
Телефонная трубка; тот, кто отвечает на звонок,
абонент
Fax-apparatus
Факс
Switchboard
Коммутатор
Intercom
Система двусторонней связи
Computer
Компьютер
Screen
Экран, дисплей
Keyboard
Клавиатура
Printer
Принтер
Scanner
Сканер
Mouse
Мышь
XEROX
Ксерокс
Copier
Копир
Calculator
Калькулятор
Exercise 1. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения:
a) superior
b) subordinate
c) hierarchy
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d) job description
e) authorities
f) communication
1.
the activity of giving information to other people
2.
a person whom you report
3.
statement of employment duties and responsibilities
4.
the people who have the power to make decisions
5.
a person who works below you in an organization
6.
a system of grades or levels within organizations
Exercise 2. Company departments
Many big firms have lots of different sections and it can be helpful to know which part of
the company does what. Look at the following company departments. Which department does
which job?
Human resources
Production
Marketing
Finance
Training
Production
Marketing
Purchasing
Personnel
Packaging
Sales
Accounts
Payroll
Distribution
Customer Service
Fin. Services
Quality
Advertising
Maintenance
Which department does which job? Match each job from the column on the left to a company department from the column on the right.
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1. puts the product into boxes?
A. Training
2. pays wages and salaries?
B. Production
3. plans how to promote products?
C. Marketing
4. has systems to prevent mistakes?
D. Purchasing
5. looks after the equipment?
E. Personnel
6. deals with complaints?
F. Packaging
7. manufactures the products?
G. Sales
8. sends invoices to customers?
H. Accounts
9. buys equipment?
I. Payroll
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10. arranges credit facilities?
J. Distribution
11. helps staff develop new skills?
K. Customer Service
12. sends products to the customer?
L. Financial Services
13. buys media space?
M. Quality
14. recruits new staff?
N. Advertising
15. sends representatives to visit customers?
O. Maintenance
Телефонные штампы.
Exercise 3. Напишите перевод следующих фраз:
1
2
Hello, is that…?
Can I speak to …, please?
Good morning. I'd like to speak to…
Is …available, please? My name is…
Could you give …a message, please?
My number is…
Could you give…a message, please?
My number is…
Could you ask…to call me back, please?
Thanks for calling back.
I’m sorry, I’ve got the wrong number.
Oh hello, this is … speaking.
I’m afraid … is in a meeting.
… not in the office
… still at lunch
… on holiday this week
… not available just now
Speaking on another line
I’ll find out if … is in the other office
… available
… back yet
I’ll put you through to …
Hold on a moment, please.
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What is your telephone number?
Can I get ... to call you back?
Please look up ... number in the directory.
Exercise 3. Дополните предложения в диалоге:
Как спрашивать разрешения
May I...?
Yes, go ahead. Sure.
Do you mind if I...?
No, I don't mind.
Could I...?
No, I'm afraid not, because ...
Do you think I could...?
No, I'm afraid you can't because ...
Is it all right if I...?
No, we aren't allowed to ...
Как просить сотрудников о помощи
I'd like you/ John to ..., please.
Sure. Certainly.
Could you ..., please?
I'm sorry but...
Do you think you could...?
Unfortunately...
Would you mind - ing...?
I'm afraid I can't, because ...
Рабочие ситуации:
1. Вы – секретарь президента Alpha Electronics. Вас просят заказать конференц-зал
для важной встречи директоров Вашей корпорации. Встреча должна состояться в центральной гостинице города.
- Позвоните директору гостиницы и закажите конференц-зал.
- Представьтесь.
- Укажите нужные дату и время: 12 мая с 2 до 5 часов.
- Запросите длинный стол со стульями на 12 человек.
- Закажите также доску и обслуживающий персонал, чтобы разносить чай и кофе.
2. Вы – менеджер центральной гостиницы, отвечающий за организацию конференций и семинаров. К сожалению, на этот день нет ни одной свободной комнаты.
- Объясните, что конференц-зал освободится только 13 или 14 мая.
- Проинформируйте собеседника, что аренда зала будет стоить 90 долларов в день.
- Скажите, что 50-долларовый залог необходимо внести за две недели до начала
встречи. Спросите адрес и номер телефона офиса.
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UNIT 4
ON THE TELEPHONE
Handling the Telephone
Making a phone call is not always easy – especially if you do not know the person on the
other end of the line very well. Phone messages must be accurate and complete. Taking them
tests both writing and listening skills, especially when a caller is speaking quickly. Asking callers to repeat a message can help. Even people who have spoken a language all their lives ask
each other to repeat things. There's really no need to be embarrassed about asking.
Requesting Repetition
When making requests, English speakers show politeness in several ways. Speaking with
a friendly tone of voice usually does the trick. Sometimes there are even conflicts related to tone
and register. They tend to occur more often in telephone communication than in face-to-face
communication. When using the telephone, many people are not cautious in monitoring their
tone and often express irritation in their voice that they would normally try to conceal when
speaking face to face. There may be many reasons for this. Telephone conversation is less personal than face-to-face conversation. Since we cannot get nonverbal feedback from the person
we are talking to, we may tend to express our irritation and displeasure more openly when using
the telephone. It shows how important tone and register are in minimizing conflict with colleagues, potential customers, or people in other organizations.
Do not forget that the person you are talking to may be having difficulties too. Remember
that the other person:
– Wants to understand you easily, so try to speak clearly;
– Cannot see your reactions, so always confirm that you have (or have not) understood
each point that has been made;
– Cannot see you and does not know what a nice person you are, so make sure you sound
polite and agreeable;
– Cannot spend much time, so make sure your call is brief;
– Is getting an impression of your company while talking to you, so make sure that you
sound efficient.
This chapter provides phrases for taking messages and requesting information by phone.
Informing the Caller
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Oftentimes at work we answer calls for co-workers. The caller, of course, is usually given
a reason if someone cannot come to the phone. Several phrases are commonly used as explanations. Some are specific; others are not. Here are several examples:
- He's just stepped away from his desk.
- She's in a meeting.
- The boss is at lunch until 2:00.
- They are with a client.
Each of these phrases tells the caller why someone cannot come to the phone at the moment. They cover many situations without explaining any detail. The caller simply learns that the
person is busy or unavailable. Explanations of absence are normally followed by offering to take
a message. Common phrases include: Would you like to leave a message!
Could I take a message?
Should I have him call you back!
Can I tell her you called!
Who should I say called!
The caller may wish to leave additional information. If so, a more complete message is
required. Sometimes it is necessary to ask callers for more information or to repeat what they
have already said.
Requesting Specific Information
Complete telephone messages usually include important details such as names, telephone
numbers, appointments, and addresses. For example, you might request the caller's telephone
number. Be specific. Request only the information you need.
- Would you mind repeating the phone number?
- The number's 298-4713.
- Which room was that?
- It will be room 241.
- Could you please spell your last name?
- Sure. H-E-N-D-E-R-S-O-N.
Here is the example of the message:
To: Bob Stanley
Date: 12 Sept.
MESSAGE: Mr. Alan Murphy called from Kyiv. Ukraine. Please call him today before 3
p.m. or any time tomorrow at 044 2115762 about rearrangements for meeting. Message taken by:
S.F.
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VOCABULORY
Phone message
Сообщение по телефону
Writing skill
Умение писать
Listening skill
Умение слушать
Tone of voice
Тон голоса
Register
Регистр
To do the trick
Прибегать к уловке
Face-to-face
Лицом к лицу
Irritation
Раздражение
Personal
Личный
Feedback
Обратная связь
Clearly
Четко, ясно
То confirm
Подтверждать
Polite
Вежливый
Agreeable
Сговорчивый
Brief
Краткий
Efficient
Эффективный, продуктивный
Фразы и правила
Общение по телефону является одним из важнейших элементов в изучении делового английского. Наибольшую сложность в диалоге по телефону на иностранном языке вызывает отсутствие живого общения с реальным собеседником. Из-за этого возникают
проблемы в понимании, волнение, затруднения в выражении собственных мыслей.
Большой проблемой является высокая скорость, с которой говорят носители языка.
Как же заставить собеседника говорить медленнее и более понятно?
1.
Просто вежливо попросите собеседника говорить помедленнее.
2.
Когда вы получаете важную информацию, записываете адрес или номер те-
лефона. Если не понимаете что-то или не успеваете записывать, вслух повторяйте каждую
фразу за говорящим.
3.
Если вам что-то остается неясно, не говорите, что вам все понятно. Не стес-
няйтесь переспрашивать до тех пор, пока не разберетесь во всем. Помните, что вашему
собеседнику тоже важно, чтоб вы поняли все нюансы разговора.
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4.
Если собеседник продолжает быстро разговаривать, попробуйте перейти на
ваш родной язык. Несколько быстро произнесенных фраз на незнакомом языке напомнят
ему, насколько вам сложнее общаться. Возможно, в этом случае он постарается вам помочь.
Telephone clichés
Представление себя:
This is Helen
Это Елена
Helen speaking
Говорит Елена
Просьба представиться:
Can I take your name, please?
Представьтесь, пожалуйста
Can I ask who is calling, please?
Простите, могу я узнать, кто звонит?
Просьба соединить с кем-либо:
Can I have extension 321?
Соедините меня с номером 321
(extensions – это внутренние номера в
компании)
Могу я поговорить с …
Could I speak to...?
(Can I – менее официальная просьба /
May I – более официальная просьба)
Джек в офисе?
Is Jack in?
Предупреждение о соединении с кем-либо:
I'll put you through
Я вас соединяю
Can you hold the line?
Не вешайте трубку
Can you hold on a moment?
Не могли бы вы немного подождать?
Если с абонентом нельзя соединить в данный момент:
I'm afraid ... is not available at the moment
Боюсь, сейчас я не могу вас соединить
The line is busy...
Линия занята
Mr Jackson isn't in...
Мистера Джексона нет на месте
Mr Jackson is out at the moment...
Мистер Джексон сейчас вышел
Предложить оставить информацию:
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Could (Can, May) I take a message?
Я могу ему что-то передать?
Could (Can, May) I tell him who is calling?
Я могу ему передать, кто звонил?
Would you like to leave a message
Вы хотели бы оставить информацию?
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Попросить собеседника говорить медленнее или переспросить
непонятную информацию
Could you please repeat that more slowly?
Пожалуйста, повторите это медленнее
Could you say that again, please?
Не могли бы Вы повторить?
Could you speak more slowly?
Пожалуйста, говорите медленнее
Sorry, I didn’t quite catch that/what you said Извините, я не совсем понял, что Вы сказали о ….
about …..
Sorry, I didn’t quite understand that/ what Извините, я не совсем понял, что Вы сказали о ….
you said about….
Общение с автоответчиком
Возможны ситуации, когда вам нужно срочно передать информацию, но к телефону никто не подходит. Чтобы быть уверенным, что оставленная на автоответчике информации будет правильно понята, воспользуйтесь следующими советами:
Представление: Hello, this is Nick. OR Hello, My name is Nick Black (more formal).
Время и причина звонка: It's ten in the morning. I'm phoning (calling, ringing) to find out if ...
/ to see if ... / to let you know that ... / to tell you that...
Просьба: Could you call (ring, telephone) me back? / Would you mind...? /
Оставить свой номер: My number is.... / You can reach me at.... / Call me at...
Прощание: Thanks a lot, bye. / I'll talk to you later, bye.
How to pronounce E-mail and Web-site
Иногда возникают ситуации, когда необходимо продиктовать по телефону адрес
электронной почты или адрес сайта. Необходимо знать, как правильно называются символы, используемые в интернете.
Символ
Английский вариант
Русский вариант
at-sign; at
коммерческое эт
.
dot
точка
/
slash
слэш
-
hyphen
дефис
_
underscore
нижнее подчеркивание
:
colon
двоеточие
@
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Exercise 1. Pronounce the following E-mails and Web-sites in English and Russian:
ivanov@mail.ru
sport_coach@yandex.ru
vip-tour@rambler.ru
http://business-english.ru
http://www.englishlanguage.ru
Exercise 2. Прочитайте и переведите диалоги:
Getting Through
Switchboard:
Morning Star Hotel.
Mr. Patel:
Hello, could I speak to the hotel administrator, please?
Switchboard:
Who shall I say is calling?
Mr. Patel:
This is Mr. Patel from Glasgow General.
Switchboard:
One moment please ... I'm sorry, the line's busy. Will you hold?
Mr. Patel:
I'll hold.
Switchboard:
I'm sorry, the secretary's line’s still busy. Will you hold?
Mr. Patel:
Err ... I'll call back later. Thank you.
Switchboard:
Thank you for calling.
Fixing Appointments
Secretary:
Good afternoon. Commercial Realty.
Mr. Wood:
Yes. Is Bill Matthews in?
Secretary:
I'm sorry, but he's out of town until Friday. Would you care to leave a message?
Mr. Wood:
Sure. This is Roger Wood of Black & Co. Would you mind telling him that
something's come up and I won't be able to make our lunch next Monday. I'd
like to reschedule for Thursday. If that doesn't work out, have him give me a
call.
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Secretary:
I'll tell him, Mr. Wood. Could I take your number?
Mr. Wood:
Sure. It's 780-3716.
Secretary:
That's 780-3716?
Mr. Wood:
Right. Thanks very much.
Secretary:
Hello. Johnson & Johnson. Can I help you?
Mr. North:
Hello. This is Dan North I’d like a word with Mr. Wilson if it's possible.
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Secretary:
I'm sorry, but he left for Michigan this morning. He was, in fact, looking for
you just before he left.
Mr. North:
Oh. Well, could I make an appointment?
Secretary:
Yes. I'll just look at his schedule. Err. . . how about July 20th at 11 a.m.?
Mr. North:
That sounds fine. The 20"' at 11 a.m. Thanks very much.
Secretary:
Thank you. Goodbye.
Mr. North:
Goodbye.
Secretary:
Good morning. Environmental Protection Agency.
Ms. Steels:
Is Sharon Cooper in today?
Secretary:
No, I'm afraid she won't be in the office today until 1-00. Is there any message?
Ms. Steele:
Well, OK. This is Susan Steele. Could you ask her to call me as soon as possible? It's very important. She has my number.
Secretary:
I'd be glad to, Ms. Steele. Could I take your number anyway?
Ms. Steele:
Sure. The number is 478-1939.
Secretary:
Did you say 478-1949?
Ms. Steele:
No, it's 478-1939. Got it? Thanks very much.
Secretary:
Good afternoon. Lloyds Bank.
Mr. Hardy:
This is Bill Hardy calling from City Bank. Could I speak to Joe Stevens?
Secretary:
I'm sorry, but he's away from his desk at the moment. Could I take a message?
Mr. Hardy:
Yes. Would you tell Joe that our meeting today will have to be postponed
until tomorrow? I'd like to meet at the same time if it's OK with him.
Secretary:
All right, I'll tell him.
Mr. Hardy:
And could you ask him to phone people in his branch offices to let them
know about the change?
Secretary:
I'll be glad to. Is that it?
Mr. Hardy:
Yes. Thank you.
Secretary:
Good morning. Valley Medical Associates.
Ms. Curtis:
This is Pat Curtis of United Airlines. I'm calling with a schedule correction
for Dr. Tomlin. Who could I speak to?
Secretary:
I'd be glad to take the message.
Ms. Curtis:
The Seattle airport has been closed all morning due to poor visibility, so the
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1:30 flight this afternoon has been cancelled. We are asking passengers to
rebook on the evening flight. It leaves at 7:45 and should land in Chicago at
approximately 9:30. We're sorry for any inconvenience.
Secretary:
I'll relay the message. If he can't make that flight, who should he call?
Ms. Curtis:
He could talk to Barbara or Joe at this office.
Secretary:
What is the number there?
Ms. Curtis:
The number's 789-2722.
Secretary:
789-2722?
Ms. Curtis:
Right.
Changing Appointments (personally)
Mr. Bruce:
Alan Bruce
Mr. Hicks:
It's Bernard Hicks here, Alan.
Mr. Bruce:
Oh, hi, Bernard.
Mr. Hicks:
About our meeting, Alan. I'm afraid I won't be able to make it. I'm tied up in
A & E. I wonder if we could possibly move it to Wednesday.
Mr. Bruce:
Err ... Wednesday is not good for me. How about Thursday?
Mr. Hicks:
Thursday is fine. Same time? 3 o'clock?
Mr. Bruce:
Fine.
Mr. Hicks:
Okay. See you then. Bye.
Mr. Bruce:
Bye, Bernard.
Returning a Call (personally)
Mr. Chester:
Hello, Mr. Wang?
Mr. Wang:
Speaking.
Mr. Chester:
Paul Chester here.
Mr. Wang:
Oh, hello, Mr. Chester.
Mr. Chester:
You rang yesterday about I'm sorry I wasn't there to talk to you about it. Can
I just run over it with you now?
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Mr. Wang:
Well, unfortunately I can't talk just now. Can I call you back in five minutes?
Mr. Chester:
That'll be fine.
Mr. Wang:
Talk to you in a few minutes.
Mr. Chester:
Okay. Thank you. Bye.
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Рабочие ситуации
1. Составьте сообщение на автоответчик.
2. Составьте диалоги по заданным образцам:
TELEPHONE: CONNECTING
Imagine you are calling a company and want to speak to someone who works there. Use
the following phrases:
How can I help?
Who is calling please
Can I speak to….please?
I′ll just put you through
Please hold
I′ll see if he′s in
Could I speak to…please?
Just a second
I have got….on the phone for you
Who shall I say is calling?
Hang on a moment
Michelle: Hello, you've reached the marketing department. How can I help?
Male:
Yes can I speak to Rosalind Wilson, please?
Michelle: Who’s calling please?
Male:
It’s Richard Davies here
Michelle: Certainly. Please hold and I’ll put you through.
Male:
Thank you.
Michelle: Hello, marketing. How can I help?
Male:
Could I speak to Jason Roberts please?
Michelle: Certainly. Who shall I say is calling?
Male:
My name’s Mike Andrews.
Michelle: Just a second - I’ll see if he’s in. Hello, Jason, I’ve got Mike Andrews on the
phone for you ... OK - I’ll put him through. Hang on a moment, I’m just putting
you through.
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TELEPHONE: MESSAGES
Imagine you work as a receptionist and you receive a call for someone who isn't there.
Use the following phrases:
Can I speak to… please?
I am afraid he is on the meeting
Can I help?
Can you call back later?
Can I make a message?
Could you tell him that…..?
Can I take your number, please?
Okay, I′ll make sure he gets the message
Claire: Hello, finance department
Female: Hello, can I speak to Adrian Hopwood, please?
Claire: I’m afraid he’s in a meeting at the moment. Can I help?
Female: No I need to talk to Mr Hopwood, I think. What time will he be out of the meeting?
Claire: In about an hour. Can you call back later?
Female: Okay, I’ll do that.
Claire: Or can I take a message?
Female: Actually, would you mind? Could you tell him that Jennifer McAndrews called
and that I’m in the office all day if he could call me back?
Claire: Can I take your number, please?
Female: Yes, it’s 5556872.
Claire: 5556872. Okay, I’ll make sure he gets the message.
Female: Thanks very much for your help, bye!
Claire: Goodbye!
TELEPHONE: WRONG NUMBER
Imagine you've dialed the wrong number. Use the following phrases:
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You must have the wrong number
Is that not 556 8790?
Sorry about that
No it is 555 8790
Can I help you?
I must have dialed the wrong number
I'll try and put you through
I'm sorry, you've got the wrong number
Sorry to have troubled you
His direct number is…
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Male:
Hello, this is the press office.
Michelle: Rachel Allsop please.
Male:
I’m sorry, You must have the wrong number. There’s no-one of that name here.
Michelle: Oh. Can I check the number I’ve got…. is that not 5568790?
Male:
No, it’s 5558790.
Michelle: Oh sorry about that. I must have dialed the wrong number.
Male:
No problem! Bye!
Male:
Hello, press office, can I help you?
Ruth:
Hello. Paul Richards, please.
Male:
I’m sorry, you’ve got the wrong number, but he does work here. I’ll try and
put you through. In future his direct number is 5558770.
Ruth:
Did I not dial that?
Male:
No you rang 5558790.
Ruth:
Oh, sorry to have troubled you.
Male:
No problem. Hang on a moment and I’ll put you through to Paul’s extension.
Ruth:
Thanks.
TELEPHONE: APPOINTMENTS
Once again, imagine you are making a telephone call. This time you are arranging an appointment to see someone. Use the following phrases:
Can I speak to….please?
I am afraid he's in a meeting
I'd like to arrange an appointment
I'll just look in the diary
Would next Wednesday be OK?
When's convenient for you?
He is free in the afternoon after about So shall we say 4.15 next Wednesday?
three
I could make it after four
Michelle: Mr Hibberd’s office!
Peter:
Hello, can I speak to Brian Hibberd, please?
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Michelle: I’m afraid he’s in a meeting until lunchtime. Can I take a message?
Peter:
Well, I’d like to arrange an appointment to see him, please. It’s Peter Jefferson
here.
Michelle: Could you hold on for a minute, Mr Jefferson? I’ll just look in the diary. So
when’s convenient for you?
Peter:
Some time next week if possible. I gather he’s away the following week.
Michelle: Yes, that’s right, he’s on holiday for a fortnight.
Peter:
Well, I need to see him before he goes away. So would next Wednesday be okay?
Michelle: Wednesday. Let me see. He’s out of the office all morning. But he's free in the afternoon, after about three.
Peter:
Three o'clock is difficult. But I could make it after four.
Michelle: So shall we say 4.15 next Wednesday, in Mr. Hibberd's office?
Peter:
Yes, that sounds fine. Thanks very much.
Michelle: Okay, then. Bye.
TELEPHONE: FLIGHTS
Imagine you are booking a flight and a hotel over the phone. Use the following phrases:
I' d like to enquire about flights
Can I book that, then?
Could you tell me about the flight availa- I'd like to book a hotel room
bility?
Do you want to go economy, business or Could you check if the hotel has any rooms
first class?
free?
How many of you will be travelling?
Do you mind if I book that provisionally?
Does that include airport tax?
Is there a discount rate?
No, tax is another $ 70 on top of that
I'll call you later to confirm
Dolores: Hello! Dolores speaking…
Tim:
Ah yes, hello. I’d like to enquire about flights to Hong Kong from Kennedy Airport in New York, please. I’m off to a conference at the end of the month - Thursday
22nd until Tuesday 27th. Could you tell me about the flight availability and prices?
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Dolores: Certainly. Do you want to go economy, business or first class?
Tim:
Well, I’d like to go first class, but unfortunately I’ll have to go economy - company
rules, you see.
Dolores: Yes, sure, I understand. How many of you will be travelling?
Tim:
Ah, it’s just me.
Dolores: Okay, so that’s one seat … economy … New York - Kennedy to Hong Kong Airport.
Tim:
And how much will that be?
Dolores: Let me see … to qualify for the discount rate, you need to stay over a Saturday,
which you are doing … Yes, that’ll be $830.
Tim:
Right, and does that include airport tax?
Dolores: No, tax is another $70 on top of that.
Tim:
Okay. Can I book that, then?
Dolores: Certainly.
Dolores: Can I help you with anything else?
Tim:
Yes, I'd like to book a hotel room too, for the full five nights. Could you check if
the Regency Hotel has any rooms free?
Dolores: Yes, they do.
Tim:
And is there a discount rate for conference delegates?
Dolores: Yes, there is. I think it's 10% but I can check that for you.
Tim:
Okay, do you mind if I book it provisionally for now and I'll call you back later to
confirm? I just need to check one or two details.
Dolores: That's fine, sir. Can I help you with anything else?
Tim:
No, that's all for now. As I said, I'll call you back.
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UNIT 5
BUSINESS WRITING
Steps to Good Writing
How do you write, with pen or pencil or on a personal computer? The tools vary, but the
process is the same: Plan, Outline, Draft, Edit, Rewrite, and Proofread.
Plan first. Planning to write requires thinking about your audience and purpose, gathering
necessary information, and reviewing appropriate resources. Plan your time and your place to
write. Try to create an environment in which you can focus. Research facts, figures, and missing
details first so that your draft can flow without interruption.
The writing process doesn't always follow neatly progressive steps, but it must begin with
a plan. Then, you have choices. Some people outline first; some write the draft. You may start
with either, but must include both steps.
The content should be accurate, clear, and correct: grammar, punctuation and spelling. It
is important that each section contains only information pertinent to it. It is necessary that each
paragraph: (1) focuses on one topic; (2) is limited to five or six sentences; (3) has most sentences
in active voice; (4) each sentence contains an average of 15 to 20 words. Ideas must flow logically. There should be the following reference material on your shelf: a good English/ Russian dictionary and a good Russian/ English dictionary; on line: a spell checker and a grammar checker.
Always remember the words of Samuel Johnson: «What is written without effort is in general
read without pleasure».
How to Write Business Letters
On the job secretaries most often write short letters or fax-messages. Businesspersons
have always used powerful communication to achieve wealth and position. The right message at
the right time and place is a success. The principles of good correspondence are 1) writing often
and 2) responding quickly. The keys to letter writing art still exist. If you wish to follow them,
you will see the improvement in your very next letter.
1. Begin from the end. Decide what you would like to happen as a result of your letter. Want
money? To sell something? A promotion? Summarize your letter in a sentence. The best letters
have a strong sense of purpose.
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2. Put yourself in your reader's place. Therefore be friendly and nice. Never write in anger.
Your anger will evaporate: your letter will remain. Find ways to turn negative statements into
positive ones.
3. Write plainly. Keep your sentences short – one idea in each. Any sentence longer than two
typed lines is automatically suspect. Try to write the way you talk.
4. Decide what information is important and what is irrelevant. Chop out the whole paragraphs
if they do not contribute. In particular, pay attention on adjectives as Voltaire wrote «The adjective is the enemy of the noun».
5 Use active verbs. Be brave not to write «Your invoice has been misdirected» instead of «I have
misdirected your invoice». Whenever you can, use pronouns I, we, and you addressing your
reader by name «Dear Ms White». The passive voice sounds rather wimpy.
6. Check your grammar, spelling, punctuation, and style. Set up a clean, logical format for your
letter. Read the text aloud to yourself, or, better, to someone else and ask him or her to look critically at your draft.
7. End the letter with an action step. The last sentence of your letter should suggest the reader's
or your own next move like «If you have any problems, please do not hesitate to call us at...».
VOCABULARY
Plan
План
Outline
Набросок
Draft
Проект текста документа, черновик
Edit
Редактирование
Rewrite
Переписка, перепечатка
Proofread
Вычитывание
Grammar
Грамматика
Punctuation
Пунктуация
Spelling
Правописание
Style
Стиль
Format
Формат, форматирование
Businesspersons
Деловые люди. В настоящее время принято заменять все слова,
имеющие в своем составе слово
men
словом persons
(postpersons, firepersons etc.)
Summarize
Обобщать, резюмировать
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Как написать почтовый адрес
Когда вы пишете свой домашний адрес, уясните самое главное - письмо в ваш почтовый ящик будет доставлять РУССКИЙ почтальон, который, возможно, не знает, что
street - это улица. Главное, чтобы, ваш почтовый адрес правильно и без ошибок был воспринят РУССКИМ ЧЕЛОВЕКОМ.
Если вы пишете: 35, Workers street, 18, то будьте готовы к тому, что ни одно
письмо не дойдёт по вашему адресу: улица Рабочих, дом 35. кв.18.
Раз в России принято написание УЛИЦА-ДОМ-КОРПУС-КВАРТИРА, то и писать
надо именно так:
Rabochih, 35-18
А ещё лучше:
ИЛИ:
ul. Rabochih, dom 35, kv 18
Severnaya, 32-2-41
ИЛИ
ul. Severnaya, dom 32, korpus 2, kv 41
Таблица соответствия русских букв латинским, написание сложных имён и фамилий
Ё
yo
Ж
zh
З
z
Й
y, наример: Майя - Maya, Андрей - Andrey
У
u или ou
Ф
f или ph
Х
h или kh
Ц
ts
Ч
ch
Ш
sh
Щ
shc
Ъ
В зависимости от сочетаний звуков
Ы
y
Ь
В зависимости от сочетаний звуков
Э
e; например: Эльвира - Elvira
Ю
yu или u; например: Юлия - Yulia; Калюжная Kaluzhnaya
Я
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Примеры написания сложных имён и некоторых окончаний фамилий:
Алёна - Alyona, Alena
- льева - lieva, lyeva
Альбина - Albina
- ская - skaya
Дарья - Daria
- ницына - nitsyna
Евгения - Evgenia, Eugenia
- тюк - tyuk, tuk
Жанна - Zhanna
- чук -chuk, chouk
Зоя - Zoya
- рьина - ryina
Клавдия - Klavdia, Klaudia
- цева - tseva
Ксения - Ksenia
- ицкая - itskaya
Лидия - Lidia
- ышева - ysheva
Лилия - Lilia, Liliya
- льская - lskaya
Любовь - Lubov, Lyubov
- цова - tsova
Людмила - Ludmila, Lyudmila
Майя - Maya, Maiya
Мария - Maria, Mariya
Марьяна - Mariyana, Mariana
Надежда - Nadezhda
Ольга - Olga
Снежана - Snezhana
София - Sofia, Sophia
Сюзанна - Suzanna, Syuzanna
Татьяна - Tatiana, Tatyana
Ульяна - Uliana, Ulyana
Эльвира - Elvira
Юлия - Yulia, Julia
Яна - Yana
Сложные для написания названия городов, принятые в англоязычных странах
Аксай
Aksay
Актюбинск
Aktyubinsk
Алматы
Almaty
Анжеро-
Anzhero-Sudzhensk
Судженск
Архангельск
Arkhangelsk
Астрахань
Astrakhan
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Батайск
Bataysk
Белая Церковь
Belaya Tserkov
Бийск
Biysk
Благовещенск
Blagoveshcensk
Брянск
Bryansk
Великий Устюг
Veliky Ustyug
Волжский
Volzhsky
Всеволожск
Vsevolozhsk
Выборг
Vyborg
Вышний Волочек
Vyshny Volochek
Галич
Galich
Гатчина
Gatchina
Грязовец
Gryazovets
Гусь-
Gus-Khrustalny
Хрустальный
Донецк
Donetsk
Ейск
Eysk
Екатеринбург
Yekaterinburg
Запорожье
Zaporozhye
Ижевск
Izhevsk
Йошкар-Ола
Yoshkar-Ola
Керчь
Kerch
Киев
Kiev
Кишинев
Kishinev
Кызыл
Kyzyl
Липецк
Lipetsk
Львов
Lvov
Медвежьегорск
Medvezhyegorsk
Мирный
Mirny
Можайск
Mozhaysk
Набережные Чел- Naberezhnye Chelny
ны
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Нальчик
Nalchik
Нарьян-Мар
Нефтеюганск
Nefteyugansk
Нижний Новгород Nizhny Novgorod
Нижний Тагил
Nizhny Tagil
Новокузнецк
Novokuznetsk
Новочеркасск
Novocherkassk
Печора
Pechora
Пржевальск
Przhevalsk
Ростов-на-Дону
Rostov-on-Don
Рязань
Ryazan
Сочи
Sochi
Старый Оскол
Stary Oskol
Суздаль
Suzdal
Сумы
Sumy
Сыктывкар
Syktyvkar
Тольятти
Togliatty
Тюмень
Tyumen
Улан-Удэ
Ulan-Ude
Ульяновск
Ulyanovsk
Ухта
Ukhta
Ужгород
Uzhgorod
Ханты-Мансийск
Khanty-Mansiysk
Хабаровск
Khabarovsk
Харьков
Kharkov
Хмельницкий
Khmelnitsky
Чебоксары
Cheboksary
Челябинск
Chelyabinsk
Череповец
Cherepovets
Черновцы
Chernovtsy
Naryan-Mar
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Шахты
Shakhty
Шуя
Shuya
Южно-Сахалинск
Yuznho-Sakhalinsk
Якутск
Yakutsk
Ялта
Yalta
Ярославль
Yaroslavl
При написании адреса на английском языке вы можете взять за основу британский
или американский вариант, в зависимости от ваших предпочтений. Но существует одно
общее правило: если по-русски мы идем от большого к малому (страна, город, улица и
т.д.), то по-английски все наоборот: номер или название офиса, при необходимости этаж
(Floor 2 (ам.) 2nd floor (брит.)), номер дома (house), улица (street), город (city), область (region), индекс (ZIP-code), страна (country).
Обратите внимание: "офис": американцы сказали бы "office", если в вашем распоряжении всего лишь скромная комната, и "suite", если вы хозяин офиса, состоящего из нескольких комнат. Жители Великобритании используют слово "office" в обоих случаях.
Английские эквиваленты русских наименований пишутся следующим образом:
Наименование на
Транслитерация
русском языке
Английский эквивалент
Разновидности улиц:
Улица (ул.)
Ulitsa
Street (St.)
Проезд (пр.)
Proezd
Way
Переулок (пер.)
Pereulok
Lane
Бульвар (б-р)
Bulvar
Boulevard (Blvd.)
Площадь (пл.)
Ploschad
Square (Sq.)
Набережная (наб.)
Naberezhnaya
Embankment
Проспект (пр-т)
Prospekt
Avenue (Ave)
Шоссе
Shosse
Район
Rayon
District
Область
Oblast
Region
Край
Krai
Territory
Highway (ам.) или Motorway (брит.)
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Основные выражения
Существуют стандартные выражения, часто употребляемые в деловой переписке на английском языке, использование которых придаст вежливый и официальный тон
вашему посланию.
1. Обращение
Dear Sirs, Dear Sir or Madam
(если вам не известно имя адресата)
(если вам известно имя адресата; в том
случае, когда вы не знаете семейное поло-
Dear Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms
жение женщины, следует писать Ms, грубой ошибкой является использование фразы “Mrs or Miss”)
Dear Frank,
(В обращении к знакомому человеку)
2. Вступление, предыдущее общение.
Thank you for your e-mail of (date)…
Спасибо за ваше письмо от (числа)
Further to your last e-mail…
Отвечая на ваше письмо…
I apologize for not getting in contact with you Я прошу прощения, что до сих пор не наbefore now…
писал вам…
Thank you for your letter of the 5th of March. Спасибо за ваше письмо от 5 Марта
With reference to your letter of 23rd March
With reference to your advertisement in «The
Times»
Относительно вашего письма от 23 Марта
Относительно вашей рекламы в Таймс
3. Указание причин написания письма
I am writing to enquire about
Я пишу вам, чтобы узнать…
I am writing to apologize for
Я пишу вам, чтобы извиниться за…
I am writing to confirm
Я пишу вам, что бы подтвердить…
I am writing in connection with
Я пишу вам в связи с …
We would like to point out that…
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4. Просьба
Could you possibly…
Не могли бы вы…
I would be grateful if you could …
Я был бы признателен вам, если бы вы ...
I would like to receive
Я бы хотел получить……
Please could you send me…
Не могли бы вы выслать мне…
5. Соглашение с условиями.
I would be delighted to …
Я был бы рад ...
I would be happy to
Я был бы счастлив…
I would be glad to
Я был бы рад…
6. Сообщение плохих новостей
Unfortunately …
К сожалению…
I am afraid that …
Боюсь, что…
I am sorry to inform you that
Мне тяжело сообщать вам, но …
We regret to inform you that…
К сожалению, мы вынуждены сообщить
вам о…
7. Приложение к письму дополнительных материалов
We are pleased to enclose ...
Мы с удовольствием вкладываем…
Attached you will find ...
В прикрепленном файле вы найдете...
We enclose ...
Мы прилагаем…
Please find attached (for e-mails)
Вы найдете прикрепленный файл…
8. Высказывание благодарности за проявленный интерес.
Thank you for your letter of
Спасибо за ваше письмо
Thank you for enquiring
Спасибо за проявленный интерес…
We would like to thank you for your letter of
...
Мы хотели бы поблагодарить вас за…
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9. Переход к другой теме.
We would also like to inform you ...
Мы так же хотели бы сообщить вам о…
Regarding your question about ...
Относительно вашего вопроса о…
In answer to your question (enquiry) about ... В ответ на ваш вопрос о…
I also wonder if…
Меня также интересует…
10. Дополнительные вопросы.
I am a little unsure about…
Я немного не уверен в …
I do not fully understand what…
Я не до конца понял…
Could you possibly explain…
Не могли бы вы объяснить…
11. Передача информации
I’m writing to let you know that…
Я пишу, чтобы сообщить о …
We are able to confirm to you…
Мы можем подтвердить …
I am delighted to tell you that…
Мы с удовольствие сообщаем о …
We regret to inform you that…
К сожалению, мы вынуждены сообщить
вам о…
12. Предложение своей помощи
Would you like me to…?
Могу ли я (сделать)…?
If you wish, I would be happy to…
Если хотите, я с радостью…
Let me know whether you would like me to…
Сообщите, если вам понадобится моя помощь.
13. Напоминание о намеченной встрече или ожидание ответа
I look forward to ...
Я с нетерпением жду,
hearing from you soon
когда смогу снова услышать вас
meeting you next Tuesday
встречи с вами в следующий Вторник
seeing you next Thursday
встречи с вами в Четверг
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14. Подпись
С уважением…
Kind regards,
Искренне Ваш, (если имя человека Вам не
Yours faithfully,
известно)
(если имя Вам известно)
Yours sincerely,
STRUCTURE OF A BUSINESS LETTER
Sender's address
In correspondence that does not have a printed letterhead; the sender's address is written
on the top right-hand side of the page.
In the UK, in contrast to the practice in some countries, it is not usual to write the sender's
name before the sender's address.
Date
The date is written below the sender's address, sometimes separated from it by a space. In
the cases of correspondence with the printed letterhead, it is also usually written on the righthand side of the page.
The month in the date should not be written in figures as they can be confusing; for example, 11.01.1998 means 11th January 1998 in the UK, but 1st November 1998 in the US. Nor
should you abbreviate the month, e.g. Nov. for November, as it simply looks untidy. It takes a
moment to write a date in full, but it can take a lot longer to find a misfiled letter, which was put
in the wrong file because the date was confusing.
Many firms leave out the abbreviation 'th' after the date, e.g. 24 October instead of 24th
October. Other firms transpose the date and the month, e.g. October 24 instead of 24 October.
These are matters of preference, but whichever you choose you should be consistent throughout
your correspondence.
Inside's (or receiver's) address
This is written below the sender's address and on the opposite side of the page, i.e. the
left-hand one.
1. Surname known
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If you know the surname of the person you are writing to, you write this on the first line
of the address, preceded by a courtesy title and either the person's initial(s) or his/her fist given
name, e.g. Mr. J.E. Smith or Mr. John Smith, not Mr. Smith. Courtesy titles used in addresses are
as follows:
•
Mr. (with or without a full stop; the abbreviated form 'mister' should not be used) is the usual
courtesy title for a man.
•
Mrs. (with or without a full stop; no abbreviated form) is used for a married woman.
•
Miss (not an abbreviation) is used for an unmarried woman.
•
Ms (with or without a full stop; no abbreviated form) is used for both married and unmarried
women. Many women now prefer to be addressed by this title, and it is a useful form of address
when you are not sure whether the woman you are writing to is married or not.
•
Messrs (with or without a full stop; abbreviation for Messieurs, which is never used) is used
occasionally for two or more men, e.g. Messrs P. Jones and B.L. Parker) but more commonly
forms part of the name of a firm, e.g. Messrs Collier & Clerk & Co.
•
There are many special titles, which should be included in addresses. They include:
·
academic or medical titles, e.g. Doctor (Dr.), Professor (Prof.)
·
military titles, e.g. Captain (Capt.), Major (Maj.), Colonel (col.)
·
aristocratic title, e.g. Sir (which means that he is a Knight; not be confused with the salutation 'Dear Sir' and always followed by a given name - Sir John Brown, not Sir J. Brown
or Sir Brown), Dame, Lord, Baroness, etc.
•
Esq (with or without a full stop; abbreviation for Esquire) is seldom used now. If used, it can
only be instead of 'Mr' and is placed after the name, e.g. Bruce Hill Esq., not Mr. Bruce Esq.
2. Title known
If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, you may know or be able to assume his/her title or position in the company, e.g. the Sales Manager, or the Finance Director, in
which case you can use it in the address.
3. Department known
Alternatively you can address your letter to a particular department of the company, e.g. The
Sales Department, or The Accounts Department.
4. Company only
Finally, if you know nothing about the company and do not want to make any assumptions about the person or the department your letter should go to, you can simply address it to the
company itself, e.g. Soundsonic Ltd., Messrs Collier & Clerke & Co.
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Order of inside addresses
After the name of the person and/or company receiving the letter, the order and style of
addresses in the UK and in the US, is as follows:
British style
American style
1. Inside Address (company)
Messrs Black & Sons,
International Trading Company
159 Knightsbridge,
Sabas Building
London SWL 87C
507 A. Flores Street
Manila
Philippines
The International Trading Company
The American Magazine
24 Churchill Avenue
119 Sixth Avenue
Maidstone, Kent
New York, NY 11011
ZH8 92B
2. Addressing an individual on company business
The Manager
Mr. C.C. Pan
The Hongkong and Shanghai
Far East Jewelry Co.
Banking Corporation
68 Queen's Road East
Main Office
Hong Kong
Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Dear Sir,
Dear Sir:
Dear Sirs,
Gentlemen:
Messrs Mahmound & Son
The Standard Oil Company
329 Coast Road
Midland Building
Karachi, Pakistan
Cleveland, Ohio 44115
3. Addressing an individual on private business
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T. Hardy, Esq.,
Mr. C. Manzi
c/o Waltons Ltd.,
Credito Milano
230 Snow Street,
Via Cavour 86
Birmingham, England
Milan
Italy
Dear Tom,
Dear Mr. Manzi,
Miss Claire Waterson
Continental Supply Company
c/o Miller & Sons Pty. Ltd.
321 Surawongse
Box 309
Bangkok
Sydney NSW 2000
Thailand
Australia
Style and punctuation of addresses
Both the addresses may be 'blocked' (i.e. each line is vertically aligned with the one
above) or 'indented', as below:
Bredgade 51,
DK 1269,
Copenhagen K,
DENMARK
There are no rules stating that one style or the other must be used, though blocking, at
least in addresses, is more common. In any case you must be consistent, i.e. do not block the
sender's address and then indent the inside address.
If punctuation is used, each line of the address is followed by a comma, except the last
line. But, the majority of firms now use open punctuation, i.e. without any commas.
'For the attention of'
An alternative to including the recipient's name or position in the address is to use an
'attention of'.
e.g. For the attention of Mr. R. Singh (British English) or
Attention: Mr. E.G. Glass, Jr. (American English)
Salutations
•
Dear Sir opens a letter written to a man whose name you do not know.
•
Dear Sirs is used to address a company. Note: in the US - Gentlemen.
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•
Dear Madam is used to address a woman, whether single or married, whose name you do not
know.
•
Dear Sir or Madam is used to address a person you know neither the name nor the sex.
•
When you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, the salutation takes the
form of Dear followed by the person's surname. Initials or first names are not generally used in
salutations: Dear Mr. Smith, not Dear Mr. J. Smith. The comma after the salutation is optional.
The body of the letter
This may be indented or blocked. It is as matter of choice. Whichever style you use, you
must be consistent and use that style all through the letter.
It is usual to leave a line space between paragraphs in the body of the letter; if the
blocked style is used, this is essential.
For the information concerning the linguistic aspect of writing the body of the letter, consult the following chapters of my diploma paper.
Complimentary closes
•
If the letter begins with Dear Sir, Dear Sirs, Dear Madam, Dear Sir or Madam, it will close
with Yours faithfully.
•
If the letter begins with a personal name - Dear Mr. James, Dear Mr. Robinson - it will close
with Yours sincerely.
•
Avoid closing with old-fashioned phrases such as We remain your faithfully, or Respectfully
yours, etc.
•
Note that Americans tend to close even formal letters with Yours truly or Truly yours, which
is unusual in the UK in commercial correspondence. But a letter to a friend or acquaintance may
end with Yours truly or the casual Best wishes.
The comma after the complimentary close is optional. The position of the complimentary close on the right, left or in the center of the page - is the matter of choice. It depends on the style of
the letter (blocked letters tend to put the close on the left, indented letters tend to put them in the
centre) and on the firm's preference.
Signature
Always type your name after your handwritten signature and your position in the firm after you typed signature. This is known as 'the signature block'. Even though you may think your
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signature is easy to read, letters such as 'a', 'e', 'o', and 'v' can easily be confused.
It is, to some extend, a matter of choice whether you sign with your initial(s), e.g. D. Jenkins, or your given name, e.g. David Jenkins, and whether you include a courtesy title, e.g. Mr.,
Mrs., Miss, Ms. In your signature block. But if you give neither your given name nor your title,
your correspondent will not be able to identify your sex and may give you the wrong title when
he/she replies. It is safer therefore, to sign to sign with your given name, and safest of all to include your title.
Including titles in signatures is, in fact, more common among women then among men,
partly because many women like to make it clear either that they are married (Mrs.) or unmarried
(Miss) or that their martial status is not relevant (Ms.), and partly because there is a tendency to
believe that important positions in a company can only be held by men. It would do no harm for
men to start including their titles in their signatures.
Per pro
The term 'per pro' (p.p.) is sometimes used in signatures and means 'for and on behalf of'.
Secretaries sometimes use p.p. when signing a letter on behalf of their bosses.
When writing on behalf of your company, it is useful to indicate your position in the firm
in the signature.
Enclosures
If there are many enclosures, e.g. leaflets, prospectus, etc., with the letter, these may be mentioned in the body of the letter. But many firms in any case write Enc. or Encl. At the bottom of
the letter, and if there are a number of documents, these are listed, e.g.
Enc.
Bill of landing (5copies)
Insurance certificate (1 copy)
Bill of exchange (1 copy)
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Formatting Envelopes for Business Letters
It is best to type an envelope for a business letter. Most word document programs contain
an envelope labeling function to help you. All you need to do is indicate the size of envelope you
are using and type the correct information in the appropriate fields, for example:
Sending company's name and address
is printed here
Postage
stamp
Ms. Maggie Jones
Angel Cosmetics Inc.
110 East 25th Street
New York
NY 10021
USA
TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS
Письмо-запрос информации (Inquiry Letter)
An inquiry (also spelt enquiry) is sent when a businessman wants some information, especially about:
the supply of goods
availability of goods
leaflets or catalogues
delivery times and deadlines
quotation or prices
method of transport
samples
insurance
terms and discounts
A businessman will save unnecessary correspondence by giving full details that are relevant.
If a prospective customer approaches suppliers for the first time, it is useful to tell them
something about his own business, the kind of goods he needs and for what purpose they are required. In this case of customers of long standing or repeat orders, the inquiry may be very simple. Often a phone call or a postcard will do.
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The structure of an Inquiry letter
Официальное обращение, поскольку с адресатом вы не знакомы
Dear Sir or Madam
Уважаемый(ая) господин/госпожа
Dear Sirs
Уважаемые господа
Указание источника информации о компании
With reference to your advertisement (ad) Относительно вашей рекламы в
in...
Regarding your advertisement (ad) in ...
Касательно вашей рекламы в …
Просьба выслать необходимые данные
Сould you please send me ...
Не могли бы вы выслать мне
I would be grateful if you could…
Я был бы благодарен, если вы…
Can you give me some information Можете ли вы дать мне информацию
about…
о…
Could you send me more details…?
Могли бы вы выслать мне подробную
информацию…
Дополнительные вопросы
I would also like to know ...
Я бы также хотел узнать…
Could you tell me whether ...
Скажите, пожалуйста…
Подпись
Yours faithfully,
Искренне Ваш, (если имя Вам не известно)
Yours sincerely,
(если имя Вам известно)
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Пример письма-запроса информации
Kenneth Beare
2520 Visita Avenue
Olympia, WA 98501
September 12, 2000
Jackson Brothers
3487 23rd Street
New York, NY 12009
Dear Sirs,
With reference to your advertisement in yesterday's «New York
Times», could you please send me a copy of your latest catalogue. I would also like to know if it is possible to make
purchases online.
Yours faithfully,
(Signature)
Kenneth Beare
Administrative Director
English Learners & Company
Письмо-ответ на запрос информации (Quotations/Offers)
The quotation in reply to an inquiry may be a simple one, containing simply the prices
and other information asked for. The sales-conscious businessman, however, will take the opportunity to stimulate his correspondent's interest in his goods or services by including a sales message and the assurance that the customer will receive personal attention.
Offers are also sent without a preceding inquiry when a supplier wants to draw the attention of customers and new customers to a special product or range of goods. A firm offer is sub-
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ject to certain conditions, a deadline for the receipt of orders, or a special price for certain quantities.
The structure of an Quotations/Offers
Обращение
Уважаемый(ая) господин/госпожа
Dear Mr, Ms
Благодарность за оказанное внимание
Спасибо за ваше письмо…
Thank you for your letter of
We would like to thank you for enquiring Мы хотели бы поблагодарить вас за проявленный интерес…
about ...
Предоставление требуемой информации
We are pleased to enclose ...
Мы с удовольствием вкладываем…
Enclosed you will find ...
В прикрепленном файле вы найдете...
We enclose ...
Мы прилагаем…
Ответ на дополнительные вопросы
We would also like to inform you ...
Мы также хотели бы сообщить вам о…
Regarding your question about ...
Относительно вашего вопроса о…
In answer to your question (enquiry) about...
Отвечая на ваш вопрос…
Высказывание надежды на дальнейшее плодотворное сотрудничество
We look forward to ...
Мы надеемся
hearing from you
услышать вас снова
receiving your order
получить от вас заказ
welcoming you as our client (customer)
что вы станете нашим клиентом
Подпись
Yours faithfully,
Искренне Ваш, (если имя Вам не известно)
Yours sincerely,
(если имя Вам известно)
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Пример ответа на запрос информации
Jackson Brothers
3487 23rd Street
New York, NY 12009
September 12, 2000
Kenneth Beare
Administrative Director
English Learners & Company
2520 Visita Avenue
Olympia, WA 98501
Dear Mr. Beare,
Thank you for your enquiry of 12 September asking for the latest edition of our catalogue.
We are pleased to enclose our latest brochure. We would also
like to inform you that it is possible to make purchases
online at http://jacksonbros.com.
We look forward to welcoming you as our customer.
Yours sincerely,
(Signature)
Position
Письмо-жалоба
(Complaint Letter)
Mistakes may occur in day-to-day business, and these give cause for complaints. There
might have been a misunderstanding about the goods to be supplied; perhaps the warehouse
clerk made an error in addressing the parcel; sometimes a consignment is dispatched too late or
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delays are caused in transit; damages may have occurred during delivery; a manufacturing defect
is discovered when a machine is used. The customer is understandably annoyed.
He will get better results if he takes the trouble to explain his complaint clearly, and to
propose ways in which matters can be put right. His company may make mistakes too: firms often have to manage with insufficiently trained personnel or to contend with staff shortage, so
mistakes and accidents happen.
The structure of a Complaint Letter
Вступление
Name of Contact Person
Полное имя адресата (если известно)
Company Name
Название компании
Consumer Complaint Division
Отдел по работе с клиентами
Street Address, City, State, Zip Code
Адрес компании
Dear (Contact Person):
Обращение
Введение, содержащее информацию о приобретенном товаре либо услуге
On (the 1st of July), I (bought, leased, rent- 1 июля я (приобрел, сдал внаем, арендоed, or had repaired) a (name of the product, вал, отремонтировал) (полное название
with serial or model number or service per- товара с серийным номером или вид усformed) at (location and other important de- луги) по адресу … (далее указывается
tails of the transaction).
другая важная информация о совершенной сделке)
I am writing to draw your attention to a Я пишу, чтобы привлечь ваше внимание
problem in your customer service section.
к проблеме в отделе по работе с клиентами.
I wish to complaint in the strongest possible Я бы хотел выразить претензии к обраterms about the treatment I received from a щению со мной вашего сотрудника.
member of your staff
I am writing to express my strong dissatis- Я пишу, чтобы выразить недовольство
faction with the goods I received this morn- продуктами, полученными сегодня утing.
ром.
I am writing to complain about the quality Я пишу, чтобы выразить недовольство
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of the product I purchased on-line from your качеством продуктов, заказанных на вашем сайте.
website.
I am writing in connection with the negative Я пишу в связи с негативным отношениattitude of a member of your staff.
ем члена вашей компании.
Описание возникшей проблемы
Unfortunately, your product (or service) has К сожалению, ваш товар (услуга) не отnot performed well (or the service was inad- вечает необходимым требованиям, так
equate) because (state the problem). I am как (указывается проблема). Я разочароdisappointed because (explain the problem: ван, поскольку (объясняется ситуация:
for example, the product does not work например, прибор плохо работает не каproperly, the service was not performed cor- чественно, мне предъявили неправильrectly, and I was billed the wrong amount, ную сумму к оплате, что-то не было объsomething was not disclosed clearly or was яснено)
misrepresented, etc.).
The equipment I ordered has still not been Заказанное оборудование все еще не досdelivered, despite my phone call to you last тавлено, несмотря на то, что я уже звонил
week to say that it was needed urgently.
вам на прошлой недели и сообщил, что
оно требуется немедленно.
To resolve the problem, I would appreciate Для решения проблемы, я был бы благоit if you could (state the specific action you дарен, если вы (указываются ваши требоwant – money back, charge card credit, re- вания: вернете деньги, кредит, проведете
pair, exchange, etc.). Enclosed are copies of ремонт, произведете обмен и т.д.) Копии
my records (include copies of receipts, guar- документов прилагаются (приложите коantees, warranties, cancelled checks, con- пии квитанции, гарантийный талон, ануtracts, model and serial numbers, and any лированые чеки, контракты и другие доother documents).
кументы.)
I look forward to your reply and the resolu- Я жду вашего ответа с решением по моей
tion of my problem, and will wait until (set a проблеме и буду ждать до (указывается
time limit) before seeking help from a con- крайний срок) прежде чем обратиться за
sumer protection agency or the Better Busi- помощью в организацию по защите прав
ness Bureau. Please contact me at the above потребителей. Свяжитесь со мной по слеaddress or by phone at (home and/or office дующему адресу или телефону (указыва84
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ется адрес и номер телефона)
numbers with area code).
Please deal with this matter urgently. I ex- Пожалуйста, решите эту проблему неpect a reply from you by tomorrow morning медленно. Я жду вашего ответа не позднее завтрашнего утра.
at the latest.
I insist on a full refund otherwise I will be Я настаиваю на полном возмещении расforced
to
take
the
matter
further. ходов, иначе я буду вынужден …
Unless I receive the goods by the end of this Если я не получу данный товар до конца
week, I will have no choice but to cancel my недели, у меня не будет другого выбора,
order.
кроме как аннулировать заказ.
I hope that you will deal with this matter Я надеюсь, вы разберетесь с этим делом
promptly as it is causing me considerable немедленно, поскольку это доставляет
inconvenience.
мне серьезные неудобства.
Окончание письма
Yours sincerely/Yours faithfully
Искренне Ваш
Your name
Ваше имя
Пример письма-жалобы
MATTHEWS & WILSON
Ladies' Clothing
421 Michigan Avenue
Chicago, III.60602
November 22, 1996
GRANT &CLARKSON
148 Mortimer Street
London W1C 37D
Gentlemen:
Thank you for your delivery of ‘Swinger’ dresses which were
ordered on November 4. However we wish to draw your atten-
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tion to two matters.
Of the red dresses supplied one lot of 100(size 12) included
clothes of a lighter red than the other sizes. Since we deliver a collection of various sizes to each store, it would
be obvious to customers that the clothes are dissimilar. In
addition the red belt supplied does not match these dresses.
We are returning two of these by separate mail, and would
ask you to replace the whole lot by 100 dresses size 12 in
the correct colour.
As far as your charges for air freight are concerned, we
agree to pay the extra costs which you invoiced. However
your costs for packing and insurance must have been lower
for air cargo, and we request you to take this fact into
consideration
and
to
make
an
adjustment
to
the
invoice
amount. Would you please send us a rectified invoice, reduced accordingly.
We look forward to your dealing with these questions without
delay.
Very truly yours
Wilson
Письмо-принесение извинений
(Apology Letter)
It is particularly necessary to exercise tact in handling complaints. A disappointed customer cannot be put off with mere apologies – he is entitled to know how the mistakes will be
remedied: when he will receive the goods ordered; what he is to do with the wrong consignment
or the damaged goods he received; when he will receive a replacement for his defective machine,
or if it can be repaired quickly.
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The structure of an Apology Letter
Выражение признательности за сообщение о сложившейся ситуации
Thank
you
for
bringing
the
ter/issue/problem to our attention
mat- Спасибо, что сообщили нам об этом деле/проблеме
I appreciated your advising me of this inci- Для меня очень важно ваше сообщение
dent…
Выражение сожаления
We are very sorry to hear that…
Нам тяжело слышать об этом..
I am very sorry for this situation…
Я очень сожалею о сложившейся ситуации
Извинение
We apologize for…
Мы просим прощения за…
Please accept our apologizes for…
Примите наши извинения…
Объяснение действий компании
Please be assured that we will…
Будьте уверены, что мы…
You have my assurance that …
Я гарантирую вам…
To
compensate
for
the inconvenience Для
caused…
возмещения
причиненных
не-
удобств…
We are doing everything we can do to re- Мы делаем все возможное для решения
solve the issue
проблем
I can assure you that this will not happen Обещаю, что это впредь это не повториться
again
I am trying to sort it out/sort the problem out Я пытаюсь разобраться с этим/ решить
as a matter of urgency.
эту проблему немедленно
Please return the faulty goods, and we will Пожалуйста,
refund you/repair them/replace them
верните
некачественный
товар и мы возместим ваши затраты/произведем ремонт/обменяем его
Напоминание о большой важности для совместного сотрудничества
We value your custom highly
Для нас очень важно сотрудничество с
вами
Your satisfaction is our priority
Мы ценим наше сотрудничество
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Пример письма-извинения
GRANT &CLARKSON
148 Mortimer Street
London W1C 37D
2nd December, 1996
MATTHEWS & WILSON
Ladies' Clothing
421 Michigan Avenue
Chicago, III.60602
Dear Sirs:
The colour of the dresses about which you complain is indeed
lighter than it should be. Apparently this was overlooked by
controller responsible. Please accept our apologies for the
oversight.
We are sending you a new lot by air this week, and would ask
you to return the faulty clothes at your convenience, carriage forward. Alternatively you may keep this lot for sale
as seconds at a reduced price of &1,120.
You are perfectly correct in saying that packing and insurance costs are normally less for cargo sent by air. May we
remind you, however, in this case your request to send the
goods by air was made at very short notice. It was not possible for us to use the lighter air freight packing materials,
as most of the dresses were ready for shipment by sea freight
(please see our letter of 9th November). Furthermore, our insurance is on an open policy at a flat rate, and depends on
the value of the goods, not the method of transport. For
these reasons our invoice No.14596 dated 15th November 1996 is
still valid, and we look forward to receiving your remittance
when due.
Yours faithfully,
P. Burke
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Письмо-заказ (Order)
In comparison to the correspondence so far, placing an order is simple from the point of
view of letter-writing. Very often the purchasing department or the buyer fills in an order form,
although he may prefer to write a letter to make certain points quite clear. There could be special
import regulations, which make it necessary to complete formalities, or he may want to stress
delivery instructions or other matters.
The supplier sends an order acknowledgement promptly, to thank his customer for the
order. If prices or delivery times have changed, the customer must be notified. If the goods ordered are no longer available, a substitute may be offered.
Пример письма-заказа
MATTHEWS & WILSON
Ladies' Clothing
421 Michigan Avenue
Chicago, III.60602
November 4, 1996
GRANT &CLARKSON
148 Mortimer Street
London W1C 37D
Gentlemen:
Thank you for your quotation of October 30. We have pleasure
in placing an order with you for
1,900 ‘Swinger’ dresses
at Price: $38,745
in the colours and sizes specified below:
Quantity
Size
Colour
50
8, 16
white
100
10,12,14
white
50
8,16
turquoise
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100
10,12,14
turquoise
50
8,16
red
100
10,12,14
red
50
16
yellow
100
10,12,14
yellow
50
16
black
100
10,12,14
Black
Delivery: air freight, c.i.f., Chicago
We shall open a letter of credit with your bank as soon as we
receive your order acknowledgement. Please arrange for immediate collection and transport since we need the dresses for
Christmas.
Very truly yours,
P. Wilson
Buyer
Меморандум (Memo)
Although e-mail messages are now used instead of memos for most intercompany communication, memos are still suitable for notes sent to people higher in the company hierarchy,
especially in conservative companies.
The memo is also appropriate for lengthy, formal communications to coworkers that may
eventually be circulated to your supervisors or to contacts in other companies.
Memo writing is something of an art form. A letter is not a memo, nor is a memo a letter.
A memo is a short, to the point communication conveying your thoughts, reactions or opinion on
something. A memo can call people to action or broadcast a bit of timely news. With memo
writing, shorter is better.
As with all writing, memo writing needs a structure. Because they are short, rambling
meanderings will soon destroy the memo’s effectiveness and become a waste of productive time
to those that read it and to him or her who wrote it.
Memorandums or memos are an effective way to communicate within an organization
and should be used as an opportunity to improve your business writing.
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Parts of a Memo
•
To: This includes a list of all the people who will receive the memo. The names
usually appear in order of seniority, where the most superior person comes first on the list. It is
best to list full names and titles although in a smaller set-up using only first names may be acceptable.
•
From: This will list the name of the sender or senders.
•
Date: State the exact date when the memo is being written, including the day,
month and year. Use business English and abstain from the use of short forms.
•
Subject: This states the reason for the memo and should not exceed one sentence.
•
CC: This will mention the names of the people who will receive this memo but
will not be expected to carry out the action. This is generally used for superiors who need to be
informed of the intra-office memos even if they are not directly concerned with them.
•
The Body: The main copy will give a list of facts and discuss the issue. The facts
have to be explained in a manner that is relevant to the recipients so they know exactly how they
stand to benefit or lose in regards to the given piece of information. Although the memo looks
like a short piece of text you cannot overlook proofreading or using a grammar checker.
•
Conclusion: State the specific action that needs to be carried out.
Пример меморандума
MEMORANDUM
Date: August 5, 20XX
To: All Employees
From: Susanna Graham, President
Subject: Promotion to Vice President/Sales
We are pleased to announce the promotion of Truc Phan to Vice
President in Charge of Sales. In the past 12 months, Mr. Phan
has consistently provided outstanding service to his clients,
brought in several new accounts and demonstrated outstanding
sales leadership. Nacogdoches Notebooks has grown substantially
because of Mr. Phan's work. He will assume his new position on
August 10 and will be located in Suite 25.
Please join me in congratulating Mr. Phan on his new position.
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A BUSINESS CONTRACT
A business contract is a legally binding agreement between two parties for an exchange
of services that are of value. For a contract to be valid, an offer must be made and accepted. Using a contract in business dealings helps ensure an agreement is acted on, insofar as a broken
contract could result in a lawsuit or out-of-court settlement and the payment of damages caused
by the breach. The best way to avoid a dispute or potential litigation, however, is to craft a solid
agreement in which you’re confident you’ve negotiated the best terms for your business.
A business contract is often used for:
• Hiring or being employed as an independent contractor
• Buying or providing services or goods
• Leases and real estate
• Selling your business
• Partnerships and joint ventures
• Franchising
• Confidentiality agreements
• Noncompete agreements
A business contract should be labeled "contract" or "agreement" at the top. These are
some items it can include:
• Date of contract
• Names of parties involved
• Details of services that your company will provide or receive
• Payment amounts
• Payment due dates. Note that payments do not need to be made in a lump sum at the end
of the project. You can make or receive incremental payments for specific services rendered once they are completed.
• Interest on late payments
• Deadlines for services due. This is also called a "time is of the essence" clause. You will
probably want to use this phrase in your contract if you have a timeline for a project.
• Expiration dates for the contract, such as a lease expiry
• Renewal terms, if applicable
• Damages for breach of contract. Also called "liquidated damages," this clause can specify
amounts to be paid if services are incomplete or deadlines are missed. A court can also
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award damages if a contract is breached, even if damages and amounts were not included
in the agreement.
• Termination conditions
• Signatures
Exercises 1. Переведите устно следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
выделенные предлоги:
Предлоги, которые относятся к месту работы:
Предлог
Пояснение
Пример
Тип учреждения
In an insurance company
Сфера деятельности
In insurance
On:
Задача
On processing claims
At:
Конкретное учреждение
At
In:
Dependable
Insurance
Co.
(также: for Dependable Insurance)
With:
Используется с глаголом to I worked at Break-a-Leg Insurance
be
for four years. I am now with Dependable Insurance.
1.
All the information that you need in the report.
2.
I wish I had some facts concerning the legal contract.
3.
Who spilled coffee on the annual report?
4.
Please send the report to Sonia.
5.
According to this report, we need more accountants.
6.
The report was accidentally left inside the car.
7.
After 15 years, she is still in search of the perfect assistant.
8.
The meeting is scheduled for 5:30.
9.
Jim comes to us from Sun Corporation.
10.
Your role in our company's success was invaluable.
Exercises 2. Выберите правильный предлог из предложенных в скобках:
1. Exports grew (at, to) $4 (in, on) July 1999.
2. Harry and I divided the workload (among, between) us.
3. Expenses for petrol are shared equally (among, between) the six members of the staff.
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4. Most of Mike's data falls (under, within) three main categories.
5. I received an important phone call (about, during) the budget.
6. Mark interrupted us several times (from, during) the meeting.
7. I have been on this project team (since, from) last week.
8. Our new brochure was created (by, from) Anthony.
9. The company cafeteria is (to, like) a four-star restaurant.
10. We want to familiarize you (of, with) our capabilities.
Exercises 3. В деловой речи и письме часто приходится пользоваться так называемыми инфинитивами цели (Infinitives of Purpose). За этими глаголами всегда следует инфинитив. Составьте и запишите свои предложения, используя слова в левой
колонке.
Слово с переводом
Пример
Agree (соглашаться)
She agreed to accept the proposal.
Appear (оказываться)
The client appears to be solvent.
Attempt (пытаться)
Don't attempt to negotiate with him.
Be able (мочь, уметь)
Is your trainer able to operate the computer?
Consent (соглашаться)
He consented to lead the team.
Decide (решать)
The manager will decide when to add staff.
Fail (не смочь)
Sheila failed to pass the interview.
Forget (забыть)
Please don't forget to schedule the appointment.
Норе (надеяться)
We hope to sign that contract.
Knows (how) (знать, как)
Your secretary knows how to fill out that form.
Understands (how) (понимать, как)
George understands how to deal with them.
Allow (позволять)
The agreement allows us to open a second office.
Convince (убеждать)
Her proposal will convince the manager to increase our budget.
Encourage (побуждать)
Good managers encourage staff to help each other.
Want (хотеть)
Everyone wants my secretary to get organized.
Условные предложения
Exercises 4. Выберите правильную форму глагола из предложенных в скобках.
1.
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2.
I wish I (was, were) the project manager.
3.
Marie (was, were) the office manager before the reorganization.
4. When Laura accepted the promotion, she (was, were) ready for a change.
5.
If he (was, were) an accountant, he would help us with the report.
6.
If she (was, were) the candidate, she could win the interview.
7.
When I introduced my sister to my boss, she (was, were) only 19.
Exercises 5. Переведите следующие предложения из пассивного залога в активный:
1.
Our recommendations were proposed last Tuesday.
2.
The decision has not been made by the management yet.
3.
Reports will be investigated promptly by the personnel manager.
4.
A slight rise in temperature was recorded by the research team.
5.
Their arrangements have been made for hundred people.
6.
Sales were increased by 10 percent by our regional office.
Переходные слова
Переходные слова (Transition words) как бы соединяют между собой Ваши мысли и
позволяют читателю легко переходить с одной темы на другую. Их можно использовать в
пределах одного абзаца, либо они могут соединять абзацы и разделы в более длинных документах. В таблице приводятся наиболее распространенные переходные слова и раскрываются их функции.
Exercises 6. Составьте предложения с одним из слов в каждой категории.
Указание на
Слова
Место:
Near, nearby, here, where, wherever, next to, adjacent to
Время:
Now, then, meanwhile, later, before, after, since
Последовательность:
Next, first, second, last
Акцент:
Indeed, in fact, certainly, clearly, of course, naturally
Смещение акцентов:
Yet, however, but, although, nonetheless, on the contrary, in
contrast, on the other hand, nevertheless
Сравнение:
Similarly, just as, as though
Иллюстрация:
For example, for instance, to illustrate
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Показать причину и результат: Consequently, because, therefore, as a result, if/ then
Подвести к заключению:
Therefore, in conclusion, in summary, finally, in other words
Добавить:
Moreover, in addition, too, also, besides, additionally
Рабочие ситуации
Составьте следующие типы деловых писем:
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·
Inquiry
·
Offer
·
Complaint letter
·
Apology letter
·
Order
·
Memo
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UNIT 6
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Management Style
There is a statement: «Management is getting work done through people». A manager's
authority in an organization is a matter of rank. Each manager handles authority in a unique way
known as management style. One supervisor may be hurried and curt, while another may be patient and friendly. And so it is that some managers are easier to work with than others.
Management style is one part training, nine parts personality. Yet, as an old saying goes,
nothing breeds success like success. Higher job status usually increases a person's prestige. In
contemporary society, wealth and career success are very important in determining social status.
A high-ranking manager expects and receives a great deal of respect from co-workers.
Respect is expressed both verbally and nonverbally. For example, a supervisor respects
an employee who is subordinate to follow instructions and take suggestions without resistance or
resentment, for a supervisor, regardless of age or sex, has been granted authority. Everyone
works in his or her domain. Everyone should adhere to the rules of conduct, i.e. statement of employment duties and responsibilities. Trying to avoid conflicts with anyone in your organization
is one of the most important things. So learn how to do that.
Lines of Communication
Institutions are organized along lines of communication. In most cases, a manager passes
information and instructions to those supervised. Likewise, when employees make a request or
complaint, as a rule they report to their own supervisors. It is usually not appropriate to go over
the head of a supervisor to speak to a higher-ranking manager. Speaking directly to your own
supervisor is usually the quickest way to get Problems solved.
How should you speak to different people in the organization? Sometimes it is difficult,
especially in foreign language. So let us begin from the very beginning. What are the main language functions? They are: 1) exchanging information; 2) making requests; 3) persuading others
to do what we want; 4) evaluating; 5) expressing feelings opinions, and attitudes. How can we
use those functions in our everyday communication at work? Let us consider some cases.
You should think of register use.
Signal when you don't understand: «I beg your pardon? »
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Ask that critical information be repeated: «I think I remember how to get started, but I am
not sure what to do when I've made a mistake and what to do when I'm finished».
Ask for clarification: «I'm sorry, I'm not sure what you want me to do».
Double-check and ask for feedback. For example, you have to make 19 copies of the
document: «That's nineteen, one-nine, right? »
Don't worry about saving face. Your boss knows that it is much cheaper and less timeconsuming repeat directions and prevent errors than to fix mistakes after they have occurred.
Be honest and don't try to cover up mistakes.
Let us consider several examples how to talk to different people,
a. I’m sorry; I didn't mean to do that. I promise you it won't happen again.
Relationship: talking to a manager or other superior
b. You must feel terrible. I wish there were something I could do.
Relationship: talking to a friend or a subordinate
с. I'm sorry, but you will just have to learn to work a little faster.
Relationship: manager to subordinate
d. Why don’t I stay after work for a few minutes and show you how to fill out those forms?
Relationship: friend, peer, boss to subordinate
e. I don't quite see things the same way.
Relationship: peer, subordinate to boss, superior to subordinate
VOCABULARY
Management
Менеджмент
Authority
Власть, полномочия
Management style
Стиль руководства
Curt
Краткий, грубый, отрывистый
Prestige
Престиж
То follow instructions
Следовать инструкциям
То take suggestions
Выслушивать предположения
Domain
Область, сфера (деятельности)
Rules of conduct
Правила поведения
Lines of communication
Уровни коммуникации
То go over the head
Идти «через голову»
Register use
Изменять тон в зависимости от того, с кем человек
говорит
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Administrative
Административный (относящийся к управлению, администрированию, руководству или начальству фирмы или учреждения)
Advancement
Продвижение (перемещение вперед или вверх в
карьере)
Approach
Обращаться (говорить с кем-либо)
Arrange
Упорядочить (организовать или спланировать чтолибо)
Boss
Начальник (работодатель, руководитель, управляющий)
Characteristics
Характеристики (качества)
Contribution
Вклад (что-либо, что добавляется и помогает)
Dead-end job
Тупиковая работа (работа без возможности продвижения по службе)
Demonstrate
Демонстрировать (показывать)
Dexterity
Умение (навыки в руках)
Duties
Обязанности (то, что Вы должны делать на Вашей
работе)
Factors
Факторы (характеристики; вещи, которые вносят
вклад в достижение конкретного результата)
Flexible
Гибкий (способность изменяться; ее обычно относят
к положительным качествам)
Guidance
Инструкции (советы)
Managerial
Управленческий (относящийся к управлению или руководству предприятием или организацией; см. administrative)
Officer
Должностное лицо (человек, занимающий важное
место на предприятии, в фирме или в правительстве)
Promotion
Повышение в должности (перемещение на должность
или работу более высокого уровня)
Exercise 1. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения:
a) management
b) authority
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d) prestige
e) domain
f) register use
1.
high quality of your work or your position in society admired by other people
2.
changing your language according to the relative status of the speakers involved
3.
the power or responsibility to control and command
4.
speaking or replying in a brief and rather a rude way
5.
the way you control someone or something
6.
particular area of activity or interest
Exercise 2. Напишите перевод выражений, которые относятся к функциям ре-
чи. Составьте с ними предложения.
1. asking for and giving information 2. asking for clarification 3. elaborating 4. doublechecking information 5. showing comprehension or lack of comprehension 6. expressing concern
or dissatisfaction 7. showing sympathy 8. responding to criticism 9. giving reasons 10. apologizing 11. making excuses 12. interrupting 13. asking for permission 14. offering help 15. making
requests 16. making suggestions 17. admitting fault 18. showing enthusiasm 19. explaining a
problem
Exercise 3. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения:
a) familiar (familiarity)
1.
a very good friend
b) subtle
2.
following as a consequence; happening as a result
c) subsequent
3.
not obvious, barely noticeable
d) buddy (colloquial)
4.
well-known
Exercise 4. Найдите синонимы:
Hire
Implement
Fire
Search for
Happen
Try
Accomplish
Deal with
Handle
Occur
Attempt
Employ
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Foster
Set up
Seek
Dismiss
Establish
Nurture
Exercise 5. Переведите следующие выражения на русский язык. Составьте с
ними предложения:
1. tо make decisions; 2. tо achieve goals; 3. tо govern an organization; 4. to run a company; to divide labor 5. to centralize authority; 6. to adhere to rules.
Exercise 6. Приведите в соответствие термины и их определения.
a) domain
b) personal
c) nonpersonal
d) rules of conduct
e) job description
f) adhere to
g) hierarchy
h) socializing
i) conflicting
1.
open, not private
2.
statement of employment duties and responsibilities
3.
area of influence, activity, or responsibility
4.
private
5.
follow or conform to
6.
regulations and/ or expectations regarding behavior
7.
conversing about nonwork-related matters
8.
a system of grades or levels within organizations
9.
contradictory
UNDERSTANDING EASTERN & WESTERN CULTURE
It's important to realize that one of the more subtle aspects of culture has to do the way
one thinks about how the world. The following table presents some of the differences between
how the Chinese and the Western individuals think about culture and values.
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Cultural Values
West
East
Expressed
(America & most European
(The Chinese and Most
countries)
Asian cultures)
Type of Logic
Linear (More causal relation- Spiral (more roundabout
ships and direct associations and subtle)
between A and B)
Expression of Agreement
More argumentative, willing
More difficult to say no
and Disagreement
to express disagreement ver-
even if one means no, disa-
bally
greement expressed nonverbally
Communication
More meaning is in the explic- Meaning is often implied or
of Information
it, verbal message.
must be inferred
Use of direct language
Use of indirect language
patterns
Expression of Honesty
More overt, one is more likely
Subtle, nonverbal
to ask the person to "speak
their mind" or "get it out on
the table"
Expression of Self
Thinking Orientation
The Individual
"I"-oriented
"We"-oriented
Sender-oriented
Receiver-sensitive
More rule based or based on
Tends to take context and
application of abstract princi-
the specific situation into
ples such as regulations or
account in rule interpreta-
laws
tion
Has to have rights and greater
Group duty
need for autonomy and indi-
preservation of harmony
vidual achievement
Nature of the Business
Relationship
Less important, tend to substi-
Most important business
tute relationship for written
cannot occur until relation-
agreement, superficial, easy to
ship if sound, written
form, not long lasting
agreement secondary to
quantity, hard to form, long
lasting
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Conflict Resolution
Time Sense During
Trial or confrontation, use of
More mediation though
lawyers and courts
trusted third parties
Be on time and end on time.
Appointments less driven
Meetings
Conflict results
by exact start and end times
Perception of two states: win
Win-Win
or lose
To lose is to win
Lose in order to win
This different cultural world view causes a great deal of frustration and distrust between
the individuals attempting to work together. Three examples are listed below.
• An American businessman went to Taiwan to close a deal with the president of a large
paper company. Since they were meeting for the first time, they started out with the normal
pleasantries such as "How was your trip?" etc. It turned out the American happened to be from
Columbus, Ohio, the home of Ohio State University. When the president of the Taiwanese company mentioned that his son was going to this school, the American business person said, "Yes,
it's a very good school, let's talk business."
• A while back, two American dotcoms wanted to establish business relationships with
potential tech partners in Singapore. Through the intercession of a couple of savvy Singaporeans,
an initial meeting was arranged to determine if there might be some areas of commonalties. The
two American companies chose as their representative an American lawyer.
• During the same trip, another dotcom company had sent their business development
person to meet with Singaporean counterparts. Meeting followed meeting and at the end of the
week things looked very promising. Both sides were very pleased at the progress and the potential. Then, two weeks after coming back to the U.S., the contact person was promoted to a VP
position and a new person took over.
Americans quickly establish business relationships, but their relationships are generally
shallow and not particularly long lasting. Throughout the Orient, it takes time to develop the relationship, but once it's developed, it tends to last for a very long time. This simple observation
means the Americans and some Europeans tend to lose out on business deals.
It is also a fairly common practice for multinational corporations to rotate people through
a country every two or three years. Of course, once that expat leaves, they take with them relationships it took months and years to cultivate.
To make matters worse, many companies tap employees who are experts in technical or
management matters as their overseas managers.
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BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS
Speaking up at the office
Every day, employees of various companies around the world find themselves in careerdefining speaking situations. Presentations like these often involve high stakes and are presented
to busy people with the power to influence careers.
Different business presentations can make or break your career. The technical briefing, a
straightforward presentation to inform, can cause trouble if you lose your audience. For the proposal, you must advocate an idea, product or course of action…and convince others to agree.
You may have to present complicated material to a nontechnical audience.
To help with job jitters, professional panic or talk trauma, here is some information:
Stimulate action
When you present a proposal or a pitch, you are trying to do more than simply inform –
you are trying to persuade.
A proposal seeks to stimulate action or acceptance of an idea. Here are some examples: A
company’s research and development chief proposes that top management authorize additional
funding for a key project. An architect presents designs for a condominium complex. An advertising agency director proposes a new ad campaign to a prospective client. An insurance sales
representative pitches the idea of a company-sponsored bowling team to the owner of a bowling
alley.
In all of these cases, your speech must include sections designed to inform. It often involves a discussion on dollars spent versus gains made. And the gains may be high-tech in nature, such as an improved insulin pump for diabetics. For such situations, some technical information must be included. Yet, the objective of the presentation is to sell a product, a concept or a
set of recommendations. By combining your technical expertise with the ability to present proposals that get positive results, you’ll generate many opportunities for visibility and career advancement.
Follow these four steps to prepare:
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•
Determine your purpose.
•
Analyze your audience and determine its needs.
•
State your main message and support it.
•
Urge the audience to take definite action.
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You must determine the effect you want your presentation to have on the audience. Are
you selling a product or service? Recommending a course of action? Striving for agreement or
approval? Be specific about what you want your proposal to accomplish.
Analyze your audience, and then create your main message to address their wants and
needs. Be sure to translate the features of your product, service, idea or recommendation into audience benefits – and target the benefit to fit that audience. For example, if a company’s need is
for a quality product with excellent durability, these are the qualities you would highlight as opposed to emphasizing cost savings.
Organizing your proposal
To organize your ideas into an effective proposal, use an approach developed in the field
of journalism – the “inverted pyramid.” In the “inverted pyramid” format, the most important
information is given in the first few paragraphs. As you present the pitch, the information becomes less and less crucial. This way, your presentation can be cut short, yet remain effective.
This approach has other important benefits.
To make the most of these benefits, begin with your main message, followed by the supporting points and detailed data. If your listeners agree with your main message, the supporting
material that follows it will reinforce their agreement. If they disagree, they will be focused on
your viewpoint from the beginning, and your logic may win them over to your side. If you are
allowed your fully-allotted time, make the most of it by ending with a call to action. Telling the
audience what you want them to do may seem too aggressive, but it actually helps the audience
to select a course of action.
Use visual aids
Effective visuals can illustrate and clarify your verbal message. On the other hand, poor
or poorly presented visual aids can seriously damage your proposal and create a negative impression with the audience.
So, keep your visual aids clearly visible to each person in the audience. They must be
simple, with each page or slide illustrating a single point.
Handling questions and answers
A question-and-answer period following your proposal or pitch benefits both you and
your audience. It provides you with feedback indicating to what extent your listeners accept and
agree with your proposal. It also lets you reinforce your message by addressing areas that concern the audience. And it benefits your listeners by giving them an opportunity to get clarification of ideas and data in your proposal.
Here are some tips for effectively dealing with audience questions:
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•
Plan for them. Announce at the outset of your speech that you will entertain ques-
tions. Plan a smooth transition between the conclusion of your proposal and the question-andanswer portion of the presentation.
•
Anticipate questions. Try to anticipate the questions your audience will ask. One
way is to rehearse your proposal before colleagues or friends and see what questions they have.
This has an added benefit: It can indicate elements you’ve neglected to include in your proposal.
•
Clarify the question. Before attempting to answer a question, be sure you under-
stand what the questioner wants. If necessary, rephrase it, asking if your interpretation is correct.
If you don’t know the answer, admit it, but tell the questioner you will find out the answer later
and contact him or her.
•
Don’t be defensive. Give your listeners the impression you welcome their ques-
tions and appreciate the opportunity to answer them. Your positive attitude can be the “icing on
the cake” for a successful proposal.
•
Align your answer with your main message. Rather than blurting out the first re-
sponse that comes to mind, mentally evaluate how you can answer the question in a way that
supports what you’ve said in your proposal.
•
Disarm loaded questions. Occasionally a questioner may try to trip you with a
loaded question – one based on false premises or irrelevant assumptions. Be polite, but don’t
back down from your position. You can disarm the questioner by asking him or her to explain
the question and share information.
•
Divert irrelevant questions. Don’t waste time on questions that are out of place,
even if you know the answers. Politely ask the person how the question bears on the proposal.
•
Divide complex questions. If a questioner hits you with a multifaceted question,
split it into components before answering it. This helps you, as well as other listeners.
•
Summarize. Watch your allotted time. Before it expires, conclude by briefly sum-
marizing your proposal. This way, you can control (and prepare for) the way your presentation
ends. This is the final impression you leave on your audience, so make it positive and upbeat.
The table below lists useful expressions that you can use to signpost the various parts of
your presentation.
Function
Introducing the subject
Language
I'd like to start by...
Let's begin by...
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First of all, I'll...
Starting with...
I'll begin by...
First I would like to talk about….
Finishing one subject...
Well, I've told you about...
That's all I have to say about...
We've looked at...
So much for...
That will bring us to our next point…
Moving on to our next point…
...and starting another
Now we'll move on to...
Let me turn now to...
Next...
Turning to...
I'd like now to discuss...
Let's look now at...
Following that we should talk about…
Now we will look at….
Analysing a point and giving rec-
Where does that lead us?
ommendations
Let's consider this in more detail...
What does this mean for ABC?
Translated into real terms...
Giving an example
For example, ...
A good example of this is...
As an illustration, ...
To give you an example, ...
To illustrate this point...
Dealing with questions
We'll be examining this point in more detail later on...
I'd like to deal with this question later, if I may...
I'll come back to this question later in my talk...
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Perhaps you'd like to raise this point at the end...
I won't comment on this now...
I’m sorry could you expand on that a little? Could you clarify your question for me?
I’m sorry I don’t think I’ve understood your question,
could you rephrase it for me?
If I’ve understood you correctly you are asking about…
Summarising and concluding
In conclusion, ...
Right, let's sum up, shall we?
I'd like now to recap...
Let's summarize briefly what we've looked at...
Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've
covered...
If I can just sum up the main points...
I would just like to sum up the main points again…
Finally let me just sum up today’s main topics…
Ordering
Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly...
First of all...then...next...after that...finally...
To start with...later...to finish up...
Рабочие ситуации
1. Подготовьте собственную бизнес-презентацию товара или услуги
2. Составьте диалоги по заданным образцам:
MEETINGS: AGENDA SETTING
Most meetings have an agenda – a list of matters to be discussed in the meeting. When
you decide what to talk about in the meeting, you 'set the agenda'. The person in charge of the
setting the agenda and running the meeting is the 'chairperson'. Imagine that you are the chairperson in a meeting. It is the start of the meeting and you are telling your colleagues about the
items on the agenda. Use the following phrases:
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On the agenda today….
Okay everybody, thanks for coming
Just a couple of things on the agenda
If we could go through them in order
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Right then…. let's get down to business
First of all
Let's keep the meeting fairly brief
Secondly
Any other business
And finally
Clip 1
Sarah: Right then, Alex, let’s get down to business. On the agenda today for our public relations meeting are the research project, the launch of the website, the timeline for press
releases, and the secretary of the year award. Are you quite happy with those points?
Alex:
Yeah, that’s fine. If you could go through them in order, that’d be great.
Clip 2
Alex:
Okay everybody, thanks for coming. Let's keep this meeting fairly brief, really just a
couple of things on the agenda. First of all, as you can see, the news on the book relaunch; and secondly, the office move; and finally, we'll have a little bit of time for any
other business.
MEETINGS: INTERRUPTIONS
In business meetings it is sometimes necessary to interrupt a speaker. This is possible but
it should be done politely. Imagine that you are in a meeting, and you want to interrupt to ask a
question or make a comment. Use the following phrases:
First of all
Can I just ask you?
Sorry to hold the meeting up
I do feel quite strongly that…
I don't think we've got any choice at all
Any other thoughts?
Sean:
First of all, the book re-launch. I just wanted to remind everybody that we will be relaunching the fairy-tales range with new modern covers, and that this is going to happen at the beginning of next month. It's important that we get this right and there have
been quite a few…
John:
Actually Sean, can I just ask you – sorry to hold the meeting up – can I ask you
about those dates, because I thought that this was going to be published the month after
next, and I understand that everybody has got their dates, but I do feel quite strongly
that we’re bringing this out too soon.
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Sean:
Well, any other thoughts before I comment on that?
Carrie: I don’t think we’ve got any choice at all about it. If the radio programmes are going
out at the beginning of next month, we’ve got to launch the book at the same time if
we’re going to have any sales impact.
MEETINGS: AGREEING AND DISAGREEING
Inevitably, people will agree and disagree with one another during meetings. It’s important to make your position in a debate clear, while being polite to people you disagree with.
Imagine that you are in a meeting and you disagree with someone over an issue. Use the following phrases:
I just wanted to see what kind of feed- I think Sean's floor plan is right
back you've got
I really strongly disagree
Actually, I think Sean is right
I'd be much happier
Speaking as an editor…
Sean:
The office move, as you know, the plans have been up by the main exit for a week
now. I just wanted to see what kind of feedback you’ve got.
Tim:
Yeah, Sean, I’m sorry, but I really strongly disagree with the new floor plan. I think
it's divisive to separate the secretaries and the assistants out from the editors and managers. I’d be much happier if we could be located in teams.
Carrie: Actually, I think Sean is right. I’ve been chatting to some of the secretaries and
they’re quite keen to all be sitting in the same area, and, speaking as an editor, I think
I’d like to be with other editors so that we can bounce ideas off each other and things.
So I think Sean’s floor plan is right.
MEETINGS: ANY OTHER BUSINESS
Business meetings typically end with the chairperson asking if there is ‘any other business’. This is an opportunity for anyone present to raise an issue that isn’t on the agenda. After
any other business, the chairperson closes the meeting. Imagine that you are a chairperson ending a meeting with any other business. Use the following phrases:
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Any other business
I would like to say something
If that's all right
That sounds good
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That's probably about it
There are a couple of conflicts in the
diary
Anybody got anything else they want to
raise before we wrap up?
Sean: Okay - any other business?
Will: Yes, I would like to say something. An illustrator came in last week, and I think she's
very good and it would be wise to put her on our books.
Sean: … okay …
Will: I would like to be able to show her drawings and her portfolio in the next couple of
days. If that’s all right...
All:
That sounds good…
Sean: Yes, I'll look forward to seeing those. Right, I think that’s probably about it, but anybody got anything else that they desperately want to raise before we wrap up?
All:
Nope.
Sean: No? Okay. We'll be having another meeting, but there are a couple of conflicts in the
diary so I think the best thing is if I email the date of the next meeting.
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UNIT 7
BUSINESS TRIP
Business trips are just part of doing business. A company tries to choose only its best
people to represent it. Trips can happen in or out of the country. And there are as many reasons
to go on a business as there are places to go: to sign contracts, to discuss terms of delivery, payment or shipment, to have tests, to consult, to improve one’s professional skills, to provide support. Representatives of the companies involved usually make preliminary arrangements in order
to meet. Whether a long-term or short-term trip, the itinerary must be carefully planned by the
head of a department or another executive. After the trip, an employee is ordinarily expected to
give a full financial accounting of the trip to his boss. Sightseeing, cultural events and just plain
relaxing are a regular part of every business trip. And no businessman would dare forget to buy
gifts for relatives, friends and colleagues while on a business trip to an interesting, new location.
These trips are important because they contribute to the expansion of a company’s business relationships and help that company succeed in the competitive world market.
Business today is international in character, and business people often have to travel. On
a business trip people might meet colleagues and business partners for the first time. Often, colleagues from different countries experience cultural difficulties, that is, they are surprised by
strange, to them, social conventions in a new place. Different cultures do things differently!
Management styles also differ from country to country. It’s often useful when doing business in
a foreign land, to get some advice from a special agency which consults on questions of international business. These days business trips are very important because face to face meetings are
more valuable to profitable business than any other type of strategy.
VOCABULARY
business and social contacts
деловые и социальные контакты
promote
способствовать
keep in touch through the correspondence
поддерживать связь при помощи переписки
counterpart
коллега, должностное лицо, занимающее аналогичный пост (в другом
учреждении, в другой стране)
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to make an appointment by phone or by договориться о встрече
по телефону
cable
или телеграммой
notify in advance
информировать, сообщать заранее
outing
прогулка за город, экскурсия
business trip
командировка
to reserve a room
заказать комнату
Project
проект, план
terms of payment
условия оплаты
delivery
доставка
to go sightseeing
осматривать достопримечательности
BUSINESS AND SOCIAL CONTACTS
Distance is no obstacle today and personal contacts have become the most efficient means
of promoting a better understanding in all spheres of human activity. Foreign trade is no exception.
Normally, businessmen keep in touch through correspondence or telephone calls, but
there's no denying the fact that major problems can be solved more effectively through a personal meeting. Both parties have equal opportunities to hear out their counterpart's arguments and come to an agreement on the business in hand. Since a business trip is always limited in time, a businessman makes arrangements before to his departure or immediately on arrival. Among other things he can make an appointment by telephone or by cable. In the counterpart's country a businessman can make an appointment in person. It is customary for businessmen to draw up a tentative programme of points they would like to take up during the forthcoming meeting.
The programs of the delegation's stay include a series of business talks and social meetings like a sightseeing tours, entertainment, visits to their counterpart's homes, etc. Visitors may
have to attend a business lunch or a reception given in honour of the delegation.
It is essential to be punctual in business. If you cannot keep the appointment you should
notify your counterpart in advance and fix a new date.
On a formal occasion (talks, a working lunch, a reception) a businessman is expected
to wear a suit and tie. Informal occasions (a sightseeing tour, an outing, a visit to a private home)
do not call for formal clothes; one should be dressed casually.
Remember that it is always best to behave naturally. Jokes and humor are appreciated
just as much as they are elsewhere.
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BUSINESS TRAVEL
Never before in the history of the world have businessmen traveled so much as they do
today. It is not surprising because we are living in a world of growing international trade and expanding economic and technical cooperation. Fascinating though it is for tourist, traveling however has become the most tiring of all the occupations for many businessmen and experts.
Choosing a comfortable hotel to stay at is, therefore, a matter of some importance. There are
plenty of good hotels, motels, and guest houses, in the world, conveniently located for major
business centers. Many developing countries, such as India, Egypt, Nigeria, Libya, etc have excellent hotels. Their numerous facilities include both large and small cocktail barber's shops and
conference halls equipped with simultaneous, multilingual translation systems. There are parking
areas which can accommodate a lot of cars. It might be useful for travelling businessmen and
tourists to know that tailor shops, shoe repair shops and laundry, dry cleaning services are available for guests. People in the office help guests to book train or steamer tickets and rent a car.
They are also ready to give all necessary information.
Nowadays people who go on business mostly travel by air as it is the fastest way of travelling. Passengers are requested to arrive at the airport 2 hours before departure time on international flights and an hour on domestic flights as there must be enough time to complete the necessary airport formalities. Passengers must register their tickets, weigh in and register the luggage. Most airlines have at least 2 classes of travel: first class and economy class which is
cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has a free luggage allowance. Generally this
limit is 20kg for economic class passenger and 30kg for first class passenger.
Excess luggage must be paid for except for some articles that can be carried free of
charge. Each passenger is given a boarding pass to be shown at departure gate and again to the
stewardess when boarding the plane. Watch the electric sign flashes when you are on board,
when the "Fasten Seat Belts" sign goes on do it promptly and also obey the "No Smoking" signal. Do not forget your personal effects when leaving the plane.
Основные слова и выражения:
Аэропорт, полет
Plane, airplane
самолет
Flight
рейс
Ticket
билет
Flight number
номер рейса
Insurance
страховка
Direct flight
прямой рейс
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Boarding pass
посадочный талон
Via Hamburg
Departure
вылет
Departures/
через Гамбург
Depar- зал вылета
tures Hall
прилет/прибытие
Arrival
Transfer
(Transit) транзитный зал
Hall/Lounge
Check-in (desk)
стойка регистрации
Checking-in
регистрация
(процесс)
таможенный
Customs
кон-
троль
Passport
паспортный кон-
/ Immigration Con- троль
trol
Baggage Reclaim
выдача багажа
Board
табло
Departed
рейс вылетел
Boarding
идет посадка
Cancelled
отменен (о рейсе)
Delayed
откладывается,
задерживается (о
рейсе)
International
международные рей-
flights
сы
Return flight
обратный рейс
Domestic flights
внутренние рейсы
Gate
проход на посадку,
галерея
вылета
взлет
Take off
Emergency land- аварийная посадка
Landing
посадка
Duty free
беспошлинный
Customs declaration
таможенная дек-
ing
Hand
baggage/ ручная кладь
ларация
luggage
Row
ряд
Gate number
выход
на
посадку
Seat number
номер места
Boarding time
время посадки
№...
Reservation
бронирование мест
Desk five
стойка №5
Landing card
бланк
Embassy
посольство
Multiple entry visa
многократная
регистрации
прибытия
Single entry visa
однократная виза
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виза
продлить
Prolong
истекла,
Expired
закон-
чилась (о визе)
пребывание
Stay
Resident alien
постоянно
про-
живающий
в
стране иностранец
Capital letters
заглавные буквы
Block letters
печатные буквы
Block capitals
заглавные печатные
In ink
(заполнять) руч-
буквы
Put
it
on
кой
the поставьте его/ее на
весы
scales
Did
they
багаж
this
You have to pay нужно уплатить за
excess baggage
You have to check это надо сдать в
лишний вес
Walk through cus- идите на таможенный досмотр
toms control
an- уже объявили посад-
nounce the board- ку на этот рейс?
Flight attendant/ air- стюард/
стюар-
десса
host (air-hostess)
ing for this flight?
Please help me to помогите застегнуть
fasten the belt
ремень
room камера хранения
Baggage
(амер.)
luggage
=
leftoffice
(брит.)
Гостиница
Can I have my можно ключ?
Can you put it down
on the bill? (Can you
charge it to my
room?)
key, please?
I'm checking out
What's the exchange rate?
можете
включить это в
мой счет?
я уезжаю (из гости-
Where is the ex- где можно обме-
ницы)
change office here?
нять валюту?
какой у вас курс?
I want to pay the bill
я хочу оплатить
счет
Как пройти
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Excuse me, I need извините, мне нужна
автобусная станция
a bus station
Go
this поезжайте по этой
down
street
улице
Go past ...
поедете мимо...
Where is a U-turn где
тут
here?
разворот?
Take the right fork
на развилке берите вправо
вы
You can't miss it
обязательно
увидите
Go straight along идите прямо по коthis hallway
ридору
It's at the end on это будет в конце коридора по
your left
левой стороне
Поездка на поезде или автобусе
Schedule
(Ам.), расписание
оплата проезда в
Fare
автобусе
timetable (брит.)
Compartment
купе
How can I get to …?
как можно попасть в …?
A single to …,
please. (брит.) A
one-way to Seattle, please (ам.)
билет на поезд в од-
A
ну сторону
please.
return
to
(брит.)
round-trip
to
…, билет в оба конA ца (туда и об…, ратно)
please (ам.)
Exercise 1. Translate and enact the dialogue.
At the Airport: Passport Control
-
Passport and boarding pass, please.
-
Here is my passport, and my ticket.
-
Where are you headed today?
-
I am going to London for a conference.
-
How long will you be staying?
-
For five days.
-
Thank you. How many bags are you bringing today, sir?
-
I want to check the large suitcase, and I want to carry the smaller one on with me.
-
I will weigh them. Everything is fine. What seat would you like: window or aisle?
-
Window, please.
-
No problem. And what do you want for your meal? Chicken or fish?
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-
I would like fish, please.
-
Good. Your seat is reserved. You can go to gate B 11.
-
Thank you. Goodbye.
Exercise 2. Translate and enact the dialogue.
At the Airport: meeting
John:
Excuse me! Are you Norman Baker?
Norman:
Yes, that's right. I am Norman Baker from GLC Electronics.
John:
How do you do, Mr. Baker? I am John Wiley from Lincoln Freight Services.
Norman:
Nice to meet you. And please, call me Norman.
John:
OK. And you call me John.
Norman:
Thanks!
John:
I want you to meet Alice Bell from our Sales department. Alice, this is Norman,
Norman Baker.
Alice:
Do, please.
Norman:
Thanks a lot! And may I introduce Nancy Brown? She is my secretary.
John and
Hello, Nancy. Welcome to Lincoln!
Alice:
Exercise 3. Translate and enact the dialogue.
At a Hotel
Mr. Bell:
Good morning!
Receptionist:
Hello! What can I do for you?
Mr. Bell:
I'd like to stay at your hotel.
Receptionist:
How long do you expect to stay?
Mr. Bell:
I think for a week. And I want a room with a bath.
Receptionist: Single or double?
Mr. Bell:
I want two single rooms. By the way, what can you tell me about your hotel?
Receptionist: Well, it's a "three star" hotel.
Mr. Bell:
What does it mean?
Receptionist: It means expensive.
Mr. Bell:
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Receptionist: It costs $350.
Mr. Bell:
OK, it's all right with me. And I don't want a noisy room. I'd like a quiet
room, please.
Receptionist: Don't worry. It's a very quiet room.
Mr. Bell:
Good. May I have the key, please?
Receptionist:
Here's your key, Mr. Bell. Your room number is 105. Do you want breakfast
in your room?
Mr. Bell:
Yes, please. I'd like a Continental breakfast.
Receptionist: What time?
Mr. Bell:
At ten o'clock, please.
Exercise 4. Complete this dialogue (The hotel receptionist is asking John Bell
some questions):
Receptionist:
Good evening, sir. Can I help you?
Bell:
Good evening. You have a reservation in my name.
Receptionist:
What's your name?
Bell:
John Bell.
Receptionist:
Oh! Yes. Mr. Bell. A single room with bath. What's your
occupation?
Bell:
I'm a Sales ...
Receptionist:
What's your...?
Bell:
London.
Receptionist:
What's your address?
Bell:
It's...
Receptionist:
What's your...?
Bell:
March 14, 1953.
Receptionist:
Many thanks, sir. Your room's No 38.
Exercise 5. Translate and enact the dialogue.
Meeting a Businessman in the Office
Blake:
Good morning! My name's Blake. I'm from Blake and Co. I've got an
appointment with Mr. Voronin at 10.15.
Secretary:
Good morning, Mr. Blake. Mr. Voronin is expecting you. Will you take a
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seat, please?
Blake:
Thank you. I'm a bit early, actually.
Secretary:
That's all right, Mr. Blake (In a few minutes Voronin comes downstairs to
meet him).
Voronin:
Oh, Mr. Blake, it's nice to see you here. How are you?
Blake:
Fine, thanks! And you?
Voronin:
Pretty well too, thank you. This way, please. (They come into the conference
room and take their seats at the table). Would you like a cup of coffee?
Blake:
Yes, please. It's very cold and wet outside today.
Voronin:
Yes, the weather hasn't been very good lately.
Blake:
That's right, but it's usually warm here in October. Now, Mr. Voronin,
how about our quotation and catalogues? Have you looked through them?
Voronin:
Sure! We've studied them closely. The new model is certainly good.
Blake:
Yes, it's of high quality. We've just starting producing the model and we've
already received a lot of orders.
Voronin:
Your machines meet our requirements and we are interested in buying
them. Mr. Blake, have you seen our contract form?
Blake:
Not yet.
Voronin:
Would you like to look through it?
Blake:
I certainly would.
Voronin:
Here you are, Mr. Blake. Please study our terms and let's meet again next
Tuesday.
Blake:
All right, Mr. Voronin. Good-bye for now.
Exercise 6. Translate into English:
1. Мы
только
что
изучили
ваши
последние каталоги и полагаем,
что модель
полностью отвечает всем нашим требованиям.
2. Вы уже обсудили цену на оборудование? – Нет еще.
3. Мы никогда не вели торговлю с фирмой "Блейк энд Ко".
4. Вы когда-либо были в Лондоне? – Да.
5. В этом месяце мы заключили контракт на новое оборудование с фирмой "Браун энд Ко".
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Exercise 7. Translate into English:
-
Здравствуйте! Моя фамилия Грин. Я представитель фирмы "Смит энд Ко". У
меня назначена встреча на 10.30 с Вороновым.
-
Садитесь, пожалуйста. Воронов разговаривает сейчас по телефону. Не хотите
ли Вы посмотреть этот журнал?
-
С удовольствием.
-
Вот, пожалуйста.
-
Спасибо.
-
Воронов работает в "Интермаш". Эта фирма продает машины во многие страны.
Машины "Интермаша" высокого качества и отвечают требованиям заказчиков. Недавно
наши заводы начали выпускать новую модель, и в этом месяце "Интермаш" получил несколько заказов.
-
На этой неделе " Интермаш " получил запрос на эти машины от "Блэк энд Ко". За-
казчики заинтересованы в покупке 20 машин у российской фирмы.
-
Г-н Хэролд (Harold), управляющий фирмы "Блэк энд Ко", хотел бы встретить-
ся с нашими инженерами, чтобы обсудить некоторые вопросы и получить типовой
контракт " Интермаша ".
Exercise 8. Translate and enact the dialogue.
Discussing Contract Terms
Voronin:
Good morning, Mr. Blake.
Blake:
Good morning, Mr. Voronin. Sorry, I'm a bit late.
Voronin:
Never mind. How are things?
Blake:
Not too bad, thanks.
Voronin:
Would you like a cigarette?
Blake:
No, thank you, I don't smoke.
Voronin:
May I offer you a cup of coffee?
Blake:
Yes, thank you. Well, Mr. Voronin. I think we can discuss business now.
I'd like to clarify some details with you. How many compressors would you
like to buy?
Voronin:
We can buy 40 compressors.
Blake:
And when do you require the goods?
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Voronin:
As soon as possible, say in December.
Blake:
In December? Let me see. I'm afraid, that's impossible. Our compressors
are selling very well, and we are heavy with orders. We can deliver only 15
compressors in December.
Voronin:
And what about the other 25 compressors?
Blake:
We can deliver them only in six months.
Voronin:
All right. And how about the terms of delivery? I hope they suit you.
Blake:
Yes, we agree to sell the goods FOB to English port and we can accept payment for collection too.
Voronin:
Fine. Now comes the question of price. I must say that your price is not attractive to us. Can you give us a 10 % discount.
Blake:
That's a bit difficult. The fact is our compressors are in great demand.
However we can offer you a discount of 5 %, as we've been good partners
for a long time.
Voronin:
I think we can agree to a 5% discount, Could we meet tomorrow at
10 to sign the contract, Mr. Blake?
Blake:
Yes, certainly. Mr. Voronin, would you like to have dinner with me tonight?
Voronin:
With pleasure.
Blake:
I can pick you up at the Intermash at 6.30 if that's convenient to you.
Voronin:
Yes, thank you.
NOTE: FOB (free оn board) - ФOБ (условия поставки, по которым продавец доставляет товар на судно за свой счет).
TRIP REPORT
People take business trips for a variety of reasons: to become familiar with a division of
the company, to meet new personnel, to promote new business, or to investigate problems at a
plant. Whatever the reason for the trip, they usually need to document the trip upon their return.
That's where the real problems begin.
Most people don't know what's expected of them in a trip report. Some people believe
they should write down everything that happened while they were away, accounting for every
minute spent while on the road. This way, they try to convey the impression that they weren't
sloughing off while out of the office. Others get so involved with the technical issues they are
reporting that they forget to focus on the purpose of the trip. Still others get so general that a supervisor reading the report would wonder why he or she'd ever sent the person in the first place.
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Your company sent you somewhere so that you could accomplish something. Perhaps
you were sent to make a sale or to evaluate a process or a piece of software that might benefit
your department. In any case, in the first paragraph or two, remind the reader why you took the
trip and give the highlights of what you discovered. Also, give a hint as to how your discoveries
may benefit your department or organization.
Even in a familiarization report, you are usually expected to uncover something of importance – for example, a suggestion based on your observations or a problem you'd like to investigate.
The trip report should include a cover sheet with the conference name, date and your
name and company. Subsequent pages should detail your interest in the conference, your experience and how you will implement what you have learned into your organization. Customize your
trip report to showcase the benefits you received and highlight how your organization will benefit from your attendance.
Sample Trip Report
MEMORANDUM
TO: P. Smith, Director of Corporate Relations
FROM: J. Rose
SUBJECT: Trip Report: Strategies for a Successful Business Continuity Program
DATE: December 1, 2009
In November 26, 2009 I visited conference. This conference was hosted by Disaster Recovery Journal and was held at Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina in San Diego, CA. The
conference theme was “Strategies for a Successful Business Continuity Program.” The focus is on all aspects of business continuity, including data processing, IT, risk analysis,
communications, crisis planning, awareness training, certification, industry regulations and
much more.
The conference is structured into three and one-half days of sessions, with group events on
two evenings. During the conference, attendees are able to choose from general sessions,
workshops and breakout sessions. A mock exercise session is also an option.
A concurrent exhibition is held onsite during the conference, allowing opportunities to visit
with booth personnel and investigate new products and services.
All conference material is included in the conference fee, as are six meals, refreshment
breaks and two hospitalities.
[Why Did I Choose To Attend?]
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This conference is the largest dedicated to business continuity, attracting hundreds of planners from around the world. The conference has an excellent reputation for providing information at the lowest cost in the industry.
The networking opportunities appealed to me, as did the opportunity to learn from some of
the industry’s best. I was particularly interested in sessions on < insert customized list here>
since they directly relate to <insert aspects of your job or projects here>.
In addition to the conference sessions, the chance to network with other planners in similar
situations was a very valuable experience. I was also able to interact with vendors in the
exhibition hall at Fall World 2009. The opportunity to research new technologies and discuss current methods with service experts was very worthwhile and a cost-savings for my
organization.
[What Sessions Did I Find Most Valuable?]
During the conference, I was able to attend numerous sessions. I was able to focus on topics
that directly relate to my position at this organization and find solutions for ongoing projects.
Sessions include:
<Insert Name, Speaker and Subject > Provide a listing of what you learned in the session
and how it will apply to your organization.
List as many sessions as desired and included detailed descriptions of each one. If desired,
photocopy session handouts and include with your trip report.
[What Networking Events Were Beneficial?]
While at Fall World 2009, I was able to attend two hospitalities and also participate in
Roundtable Lunch Discussions. The first event was a welcome reception in the exhibit hall.
This allowed the first opportunity to visit with vendors, speakers and other attendees.
< List specific people, vendors or speakers you interacted with and the benefits of those discussions. >
During Roundtable Lunch Discussions, I interacted with others in the < insert name (s) >
industry. < Jack Stevenson … List any particular interactions that could help with projects
at your organization> and/or <List any contacts you made that you will use in the future>.
[Overall Summary of Conference Experience and Recommendations]
I was very pleased with my conference attendance and felt it was well worth the registration
fee and travel expenses. I gained valuable experience that can be implemented in our organization. In addition, I learned new methods that may help cut our future costs. The network124
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ing experience was very beneficial. I was able to speak with several industry experts who
provided tips and useful information for my particular dilemmas and work projects.
The conference was very organized and the speakers remained neutral, making the information extremely valuable. The exhibition hall provided a friendly, informative place to
meet with vendors and view their products and services. The conference is worth visiting.
Jack Stevenson should be used as consultant on various policy/ standard issues.
In addition, the meals and refreshment breaks were extremely nice and allowed me to save
on my travel budget. I was very pleased with all that I received at Fall World 2009 and
hope to attend a future conference.
Рабочие ситуации
Напишите собственный доклад о командировке по одной из заданных тем:
1) Вы посетили семинар. На семинаре Вы участвовали в тренингах, получили новые знания и готовы реализовать их на практике.
2) Вы посетили конференцию. Во время командировки Вам удалось наладить контакт с
потенциальными деловыми партнерами.
3) Во время командировки Вы провели переговоры и заключили контракт с фирмойпартнером.
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TEXTS FOR ADDITIONAL READING
Text 1. VOCATIONAL CHOICE
As children, many of us wanted to be firemen, policemen, nurses. During our adolescence, we
may have changed our minds and decided to become pilots, teachers, or professional goiters. As
adults, we may settle on something entirely different.
These changes reflect our growing awareness of ourselves and the world around us. As children, from about six to eleven, we make «fantasy choices». We choose activities that appear
pleasurable and attractive, ignoring all other aspects of the occupations of which these activities
are a part. In early and late adolescence, we also ask ourselves, «Can I do it? », «Am I suited for it?
». By this time, we have had a chance to analyze what certain occupations demand.
Finally, as adults, we make a «realistic choice», in most cases. We consider a job in relation to other preferences and other demands. Perhaps we shall have to weigh our desire to stay
in our hometown where job opportunities may be very limited against the necessity of leaving
for another part of the country where job opportunities are plentiful. Or, we may have to choose
between a job that will fulfill a lifelong ambition to travel or one that will realize our wish to become independent of family support as soon as possible. The job we finally do choose is likely to
represent a compromise between various needs and wishes and available opportunities.
It is not the easy thing to choose the profession out of more than 2000 existing in the world,
is it?
Text 2. BUSINESS HOURS
The standard working day in the United Kingdom and the U.S.A starts at 9:00 a.m. and
lasts till 5:00 p.m. with lunch time from 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Many banks are usually open for
customers from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Some businesses and industries traditionally work different hours.
Most employees have a five-day working week, Monday through Friday. The working
week is between 35 and 40 hours long. Overtime is quite common and is generally paid, often at
a premium to the basic rate of pay. The weekend usually starts on Friday night and lasts till
Monday. Thus on Saturdays and Sundays most businesses are closed. But as to shops they are
open on Saturdays and some of them are open on Sundays.
In Britain the law does not say what shops can be open on Sundays but it says what
goods can be sold on Sundays. They are newspapers, magazines and fresh food. If the law is
broken, criminal proceedings may by taken. Many officials and the public demand that the Sunday trading rules should be abolished in the U.K.
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Most businesses are closed on public or national holidays. The main public holidays of
the U.K. are as follows: New Year's Day - 1 January; Good Friday - in April, Easter - in April;
Easter Monday - in April; May Day - in May; Christmas Day - 25 December; Boxing Day - 26
December. In the United States the following main holidays are celebrated: New Year's Day - 1
January; Washington's Birthday - 20 February; Easter - in April; Memorial Day - in May; Independence Day - 4 July; Labour Day - in September; Veterans' Day - in November; Thanksgiving
Day - in November; Christmas Day - 25 December.
All the main public or national holidays in the U.S. and U.K. are bank holidays, which
means banks are closed on those days. Besides there are some other bank holidays, when banks
and many other businesses are closed.
The bank holidays besides public or national holidays are: Spring or Summer (Bank) Holiday - in May or June. Autumn (Bank) Holiday - in August or September.
It dates back to the nineteenth century when by the Bank Holiday Act and a Supplementary Act these days were constituted bank holidays in the U.K.
Text 3. THE OPEN UNIVERSITY
A university that calls itself «The Open University» suggests that all other universities
are closed. And this is true, because they are closed to everyone who does not have the time, the
opportunity or the qualifications to study there. For these people, who missed the chance of going to a conventional university, "The Open University" was set up in 1967.
Most of its students work at home or in full-time jobs and can study only in their free
time. They need to study about ten hours a week. As the university is truly "open", there are no
formal entry requirements (none of the usual "A" level examinations are asked for).
Its students are therefore of all ages and come from very different backgrounds. Some,
such as teachers, want to improve their qualifications: Others, like retired people or mothers
whose families have grown up, are at the O.U. because they now have the time to do something
they have always wanted to do.
Returning to "school" is difficult for most students, for they have forgotten or never knew
- how to study, to write essays, and to prepare for exams. In addition to all the reading and writing assignments, students have got a lot of watching and listening to do, for there are weekly
O.U. lectures broadcast on BBC television ant radio.
To keep people from just giving up or collapsing under all this work, each student gets
the help and support of his own tutor/counselor, who he meets regularly and can telephone in any
crisis or difficulty. At the meetings, students get to know other students on the course and join
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with them into «self-help» groups. These groups meet in each, other's homes to discuss the texts
and assignments; here too they find support and stimulation.
By the time the exams come in October, you feel much more confident and optimistic
about your return to student life. Your final mark is based on the exam and the written assignments done during the year.
Text 4. YUPPIES: WHO THEY ARE
Although the term «yuppie» is basically an invention of the mass media, yuppies do indeed exist. Yet they are not as uniform and united as it is claimed. On the one hand, yuppies are
a result of the reaction against the anti-establishment, against the free-minded 60s' generation.
But on the other hand they are a phenomenon much more complex, tied to the nation's economy.
What is a yuppie? A Young Urban Professional, probably working toward a career in
business, advertising, or high finance, willing to sacrifice free time, creativity, and even political
integrity in order to become successful. Financial security and social prestige are his ultimate
goals. Being a yuppie is a way of life. Those who want to be yuppies have already adopted the
yuppie value system. It consists of a respect for the establishment, a belief that money cures ail
ills, a desire to live in a posh apartment or a fancy house. They are bent on success and very materialistic. They pursue power and money.
Yuppies are Young: generally in their late twenties or thirties, usually married without
children because husband and wife are yuppies, and don't have time for children. (Yuppies usually marry yuppies. Yuppie-men rarely marry housewives).
Yuppies are Urban, and often despise the mediocrity of suburbia (suburban life-style),
believing that they have risen above middle-American values. They are very cosmopolitan: they
decorate their homes with Picasso and show their faces at the most talked-about exhibitions at
the Met and the MOMA (Museum of Modem Art in New York), and profess a love for classical
music. When they have time to read or to appreciate their $100,000 paintings is a mystery they
themselves can't answer. But they like to discuss art although they know absolutely nothing
about it. They like to spend Christmas in Paris «experiencing France». Yet they don't speak
French and understand nothing of French culture.
Most of all, yuppies are Professional: they can be seen setting off to work every day in
the most elegant business suits and pretentious dresses. They work hard, rise quickly, and stop at
nothing. Don't contuse «Yuppies» with «Americans»: to most American intellectuals «Yuppie»
has a negative connotation.
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Text 5. THE SEMINAR IN WASHINGTON
The seminar program included such topics in Bank Management as Banking and Foreign
Exchange Management, Foreign Exchange Market and Commercial Banks Mechanics, Trade
Finance, Sources of Finance, Computerized Bank Management and others. The seminar was
conducted by a highly experienced staff of lecturers.
During the seminar program a few social activities were arranged for the participants. To
start, an informal Welcome Party was organized which gave them a possibility to get acquainted
with the staff concerned with the seminar. During their stay in Washington the participants saw
the most famous sights of the capital (the Washington monument, the White House, the Capitol,
the Lincoln Memorial, the Kennedy Center and others).
The sponsors also arranged a day's visit to New York City which included a tour of Manhattan (Wall Street, the World Trade Center, Battery Park from where they could see the Statue
of Liberty). They rode through Chinatown, Greenwich Village and Soho, shopping and visiting
various museums.
The last function the Russian participants attended was the dinner in their
honour
at
the Trivoli Restaurants. The participants expressed gratitude for hospitality and thanked the
instructors for the training which they found useful and informative because it gave them better
understanding of the banking system operations. The next day the Russian trainees left Washington for Moscow.
Text 6. MANAGER'S WORKING DAY
Mr. Price stood at the window of his office. He had stopped working at last. The building
was empty. Everyone has gone home by half past five. Now it was half past six and the street
below had emptied.
What a busy day he had had! He had arrived at the office well before nine o'clock. Why,
before nine o'clock he had made two telephone calls! The other offices were still empty when he
had phoned, so of course nobody had answered the telephone. Poor Mr. Price!
But then he had opened all the correspondence. By ten o'clock, he had dictated replies to
nearly all the letters. When Miss King left the room he had started to make telephone calls again.
By the time the Acting Manager sent for him he had talked to three of the buyers. When the Acting Manager had asked him for information about stocks he had been able to give the information from memory. He was sure the Acting Manager had noticed that!
By one o'clock he had examined the figures from the production sheets and he had signed
a dozen letters for Miss King. By two o'clock he had had his lunch and he had done a lot more
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work on those production figures. By three o'clock he had found two mistakes! By four o'clock
he had seen both the Production Manager and the Foreman. He had asked them for an explanation. He had pointed out that the explanation was urgent. By ten o'clock tomorrow the corrected
figures must be on his desk. Mr. Price sighed. What a load of responsibility he had!
Mr. Price sighed again. Tomorrow he must make more telephone calls; he must dictate
more letters; he must try again to speak to the Acting Assistant Manager. But now he must go
home. He put on his coat and his hat. He picked up his attaché case and his umbrella and went to
the door. He locked the door and walked towards the lift. Then he stopped. He had turned off the
electric fire near his desk. It was a quarter to seven. Really he worked too hard!
Text 7. ECONOMIC OUTLINE OF BRITAIN
In the past century Britain secured a leading position in the world as manufacturer, merchant and banker. After World War I the world demand for the products of Britain's traditional
industries – textiles, coal and machinery – fell off, and Britain began expanding trade in new engineering products and electrical goods.
The crisis of 1929 - 1933 brought about mass unemployment, which reached its peak in
1932. Britain's share in the world industrial output decreased. After the crisis production and
employment increased following some revival in world trade and as a result of the extensive armament program.
During World War II Britain's economy was fully, employed in the war effort. Massed
raids of German planes on British industrial centers caused considerable damage to Britain's industry. World War II brought about a further weakening of Britain's might. Great Britain is no
longer the leading imperialist power it used to be. It has lost its colonies which used to supply it
with cheap raw materials.
The original basis of British industry was coalmining, and the early factories grew up not
far from the main mining areas. Glasgow and Newcastle became centers of engineering and
shipbuilding. Lancashire produced cotton goods and Yorkshire woolens, with Sheffield concentrating on iron and steel. Birmingham developed light engineering. There appeared a tendency
for industry and population, to move to the south, particularly to the London area. (Britain's industry is now widely dispersed). Great progress was made in the development of new industries
such as the aircraft, automobile, electronic industries and others. A number of atomic power reactors were made. Great emphasis was made on the development of the war industry.
Now Britain produces high quality expensive goods, which has always been characteristic of its industry. A shortage of raw materials, as well as the high cost of production makes it
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unprofitable for British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. Britain mostly
produces articles requiring skilled labour, such as precision instruments, electronic equipment,
chemicals and high quality consumer goods.
Text 8. ECONOMY OF THE USA
The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country. Shipbuilding,
electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research are highly developed in the
States.
Each region, of the United States has characteristics of its own due to the differences in
climate, landscape and geographical position.
Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersey are biggest industrial regions of
the country.
The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as coal, gold, silver,
copper, lead and zinc. The south, especially Texas is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania
are rich in coal. There are plenty of coal mines.
Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming region of America and it is known as the
Corn Belt, The land is fertile and well watered. They grow mostly corn and wheat there. Much
livestock is also raised here.
California oranges, grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are
shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most important crops grown in the
States are also tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts, grapes and many others. There are a lot of large and
modern cities, but a great proportion of the country consists of open land dotted with farmhouses
and small towns. The usual average town, in any part of the United States, has its Main Street
with the same types of stores selling the same products. Many American residential areas tend to
have a similar look. As to big cities their centers or downtowns look very much alike. Downtown
is the cluster of skyscrapers imitations of New York giants.
New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is more than eight million people. It is a financial and advertising business centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the
Hudson River. Industry of consumer goods is also developed here.
Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the second largest city
in the U.S.A. It deals in wheat and other grains, cattle meat processing and manufacturing. Other
big cities are Houston, an oil refining and NASA space research centre. New Orleans, a cotton
industry centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Philadelphia, a shipping commercial centre, Detroit, a world's leading motor car producer and many others.
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Text 9. BUSINESS LETTER
Dear Sir,
I've read your advertisement in today's Daily Telegraph for a sales manager and I'm writing to offer my services. I am thirty four years of age and have had ten years' experience in the
sales departments of two well-known companies.
I received my education at the City of London School and remained there to take a full
sixth-form course in economics. After completing my period of national service I was accepted
at Manchester University and took a course in modern languages. I then joined the sales department of Alpha Machine Tools Ltd., Birmingham, as a trainee. After staying with this company
for further two years I took up my present appointment with Oral Plastics Ltd., Preston. My special duties here include the training of sales personnel, dealing with the company's foreign correspondence and organizing market research. I enjoy my work and am very happy here, but I feel
my experience in marketing, both in the field and in administration, has prepared me for the responsibility of full sales management,
Mr. James Watkinson, my managing director, and Mr. Harold Webb, sales manager of
my former company, both have consented to my naming them as referees.
I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and I hope to have the
opportunity of an interview.
Yours faithfully,
John Martin
Text 10. WHAT IS BUSINESS?
Business is a word which is commonly used in many different languages. But exactly
what does it mean? The concepts and activities of business have increased in modern times. Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today it
has a more technical definition. One definition of business is the production, distribution, and
sale of goods and services for a profit. To examine this definition, we will look at its various
parts.
First, production is a creation of service or the changing of materials into products. One
example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next these products need to be moved
from the factory to the marketplace. This is known as distribution. A car might be moved from a
factory in Detroit to a car dealership in Miami.
Third is the sale of goods and services. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for
money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for money. Goods are products which people either
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need or want; for example, car can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities which a person or group performs for another person or organization. For instance, an auto
mechanic performs a service when he repairs a car. A doctor also performs a service by taking
care of people when they are sick.
Business, then, is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution, and sale.
However, these is one other important factor. This factor is the creation of profit or economic
surplus. A major goal in the functioning of an American business company is making a profit.
Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid. Creating an economic surplus or
prоfit is, therefore, a primary goal of business activity.
Text 11. FINANCIAL MANAGER
Usually businesses have the financial managers who work with the banks. They negotiate
terms of financial transactions, compare rates among competing financial institutions. Financial
management begins with the creation of a financial plan. The plan includes amount of funds and
the inflow and outflow of money. The financial manager develops and controls the financial
plan. He also forecasts the economic conditions, the company's revenues, expenses and profits.
The financial manager's job starts and ends with the company's objectives. He reviews
them and determines the funding they require. The financial manager compares the expenses involved to the expected revenues. It helps him to predict cash flow.
The financial manager plans a strategy to make the ending cash positive. If cash outflow
exceeds cash inflow the company will run out of cash. The solution is to reduce outflows. The
financial manager also chooses financing techniques. One of them is short-term financing. Another is long-term financing.
At the end of the fiscal year the financial manager reviews the company's financial status
and plans the next year's financial strategy.
Text 12. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
First thing Monday morning the phone rings. You've hardly got your coat off. The call is
for your boss.
- Is Bill Harris in?
- No, I'm afraid he doesn't usually arrive until 10:00. Would you like him to return your
call when he comes in?
- Well, maybe you can help me. We've had some trouble with ... Now, like it or not,
you’re on the spot. Maybe you can help, maybe you can't. Either way, you're expected to try.
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- We've had some trouble getting an answer from your office I personally sent a request
three weeks ago and have received no response from your office. What's going on over there?
The caller is apparently unhappy about the delay. He is not being very polite. Perhaps you
won't be able to help him yourself. How would you handle the call now?
You could insist that the caller speak to your supervisor directly. You could refer the call
to someone else. To handle such a complaint you may have to be assertive. How assertive is a
cultural question. It should be assertiveness without insult. The key is to remain friendly and cooperative at all times, even when being assertive. You might say to the caller in this case:
- I'm sorry, but you'll really need to speak with Mr. Harris about that. I'll be happy to have
him call you.
Notice how the boldfaced phrases show politeness. They indicate that you are doing your
best to cooperate, even while being assertive. To express cooperation, avoid the word no. Whenever possible, offer to help. Here are several examples.
Assertive:
No. I cannot process that order.
Assertive and polite:
Only Susan Sharp can process it.
Could I have her phone you after lunch?
Assertive:
The engineers are in a meeting now.
Assertive and polite:
I'm sure Mrs. Sharp could contact you later this afternoon.
If you become confused how to handle situations with people with different levels of culture, talk to your supervisor. Speaking to a superior is an example of being direct. Being direct in
this kind of situation can clarify the expectations of a supervisor and can help you meet them.
Interoffice Communication
Being on the job calls for interacting constantly with co-workers. Many jobs also include
contact with people outside of the organization. Communication between organizations takes
place in various ways. Corresponding by mail, talking by phone, and speaking in person each
calls for clear communication of information, opinions, and attitudes. Recognizing the attitudes
and values of people of other cultural backgrounds makes it easier to communicate or work together. After all, it is not necessary to abandon your personal beliefs to respect others, even when
their thinking does not agree completely with your own. We all face various cultural backgrounds and styles of conduct at work. One may classify them in different ways. Here we are
presenting one of the classifications.
The Superfriendlies
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Superfriendlies try to get along with everyone and try to be nice at all costs. They do not
make trouble and get very nervous when they see people arguing or fighting. They value relationship above all else and are quite willing to sacrifice achievement for harmony. They go out
of their way to maintain peace in a group even if it is a false peace.
They will often allow themselves to be exploited and will not speak up even if accused
unjustly. They cannot deal with the idea that someone may not like them or even be mad of
them. They are quite willing to give up their own desires and give in to the desires of others as
long as it means acceptance by the group. Their motto is «Peace at any cost».
The Tough Guys
Tough guys (including women) enjoy a good fight and love to argue about problems and
issues. When they have their mind set on accomplishing a particular achievement, they work toward that goal with a single-minded effort that astounds their co-workers. They sacrifice a great
deal to be a winner. It does not matter to them whether other people like them or agree with their
tactics. In their struggle for power, they show very little concern for the feelings of others and
often yell or shout when things don't go their way. They seldom regret sacrificing friendship for
success. Their motto is: «Winning isn't the only thing. It's everything».
The Experts
Experts set themselves up as authorities on any matter – technical, social, or political.
They seem to have all the answers and enjoy making suggestions. They are very happy to give
advice on any problem and do not mind sharing their vast knowledge with their co-workers.
Their motto is: «Ask me anything; I'll give you the answer».
The Logical Problem Solvers
Logical problem solvers concentrate on tasks instead of on people. Often they don't understand why some employees are having problems with each other. To the logical problem
solvers, emotional problems are not «real» and feelings don't matter in a business environment.
They prefer to see all problems from an intellectual point of view and try to find a logical solution to any conflict. Their motto is: «There seems to be no logical basis for emotional conflict».
The Pessimists
Pessimists always expect the worst. They don't believe in luck and try to prepare for negative results. They dampen spirits when co-workers stall to get excited about the idea or when
enthusiasm runs high. Generally they would not be surprised if the company went out of business and everyone got fired. Their motto is: «It won't work».
The Pollyannas
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Pollyannas look at the world through rose-colored glasses. They keep hoping that everything will turn out well despite many signs to the contrary. They try to keep morale high by telling everyone that things will get better. They tend to smile a lot. They are sure that they will be
happy and successful even if they don't deserve to be. Their motto is: «It'll all work out. No problem».
The Complainers
Complainers enjoy griping. Nothing is ever good enough for them. In their mind, all the
bosses are too demanding and the company is trying to cheat everyone. They complain that coworkers are either too lazy or not carrying their load or compulsive about their work and trying
to impress their superiors. The temperature in their office is either too hot or too cold and the
food in the cafeteria is never edible. Their motto is: «This place stinks».
The Indecisive
Indecisive people have a hard time making up their minds. They put off making any decision for fear it might be a wrong one. When given a new responsibility, they continue to ask everyone for advice long after they should have mastered the task. They are so afraid of making a
mistake that they will take forever to finish a project. Their motto is: «You can't be too careful».
The Middle of the Readers
Middle of the roaders look for the middle ground in any conflict. They try to find a compromise for any position and feel that no matter what the situation, each side should be gaining
something. Often as a result of these compromises, neither group wins anything and both may
lose.
Text 13. WORK ATTITUDES
Work Attitudes
When a customer asks a difficult question, sometimes Americans reply with a humorous
expression: «I only work here! » This expression means: I am not the owner or the manager, just
an employee. Unfortunately, it can also indicate that a person is not willing to help the customer
of doing so involves any extra work. This chapter examines more positive attitudes toward one's
work.
Initiative
There's probably no better way to please an employer than by showing the willingness to
do a job well. One way is to work conscientiously, making sure that a job is done carefully. As
the saying goes, «Actions speak louder than words». However, there are many ways to communicate a positive attitude toward a job such as listening attentively to instructions and asking
questions whenever necessary, also showing initiative. Initiative means being ready to do a little
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more than your own job. Initiative means being ready to do things that need to be done, without
being told to do them. Initiative means arriving on time, ready to work. Initiative means working
as carefully and quickly as possible.
Dependability
Commitment to work is an attitude deeply rooted in many cultures. Commitment to job
responsibilities comes from the belief that a good person is hard-working. This idea has been
held by cultures in Europe, Asia, America and elsewhere for centuries. In some cases it was connected to religious beliefs. The belief that working hard is a personal virtue survives in most
countries to this day.
An employee shows commitment to the job in many ways. One way is keeping to the
schedule. Working more is fine; working less is not. Keeping to the schedule faithfully is called
dependability. Dependability involves several attitudes. One of these attitudes is honesty: speaking truthfully and not cheating the employee in any way. A related attitude is loyalty, which is
shown by speaking well of the organization and the job.
Sometimes an employee can get by with little or no extra effort. However, a negative attitude is shown when an employee is uninterested or unwilling to do a fair share of work. A person
who seems lazy is not very valuable to an organization. Such as employee is unlikely to receive
promotions and may lose the job. On the other hand, positive attitudes earn real rewards.
Accepting Corrections and Criticism
It is normal for people to feel uncomfortable about being judged on the job. Most people
don't like being judged or evaluated by others. Like bad wine, criticism is hard to swallow.
While some supervisors give correction in a friendly way, others do not. Yet directions, even
when given firmly, are only meant to help get the job done. After all, only work is criticized –
not the worker – and the work can be improved. Criticism is easier to accept when not taken personally.
When one instructor teaches many students for months at a time, it is not easy to be completely objective in grading. Just as a teacher must carefully establish criteria by which students
are evaluated, so too a supervisor must carefully follow criteria for evaluating personnel.
Criteria refer to the standard or measure by which we evaluate the performance of others.
If, for example, salespeople are evaluated in terms of how many units they sell, units of sale are
the criteria by which they are measured. If, however, they are measured in terms of their amount
of sales in dollars (rather than units), then sales dollars becomes the criteria of evaluation.
Conflict Management: «What's the problem? »
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In any employment situation some amount of tension, frustration, or even conflict can be
considered normal. There are many types of conflict. Some are related to the nature of the work
itself. All too often, however, conflicts are related not to the work but rather to various social or
even cultural factors. Sometimes conflicts are related to breakdowns in communication, but they
can also occur when people understand each other very well. If people do not share the same
views of goals, conflicts may be inevitable no matter how well they communicate. At times employees have personality clashes and fail to get along. Although it is best to resolve conflicts
whenever possible, many times conflicts cannot be avoided. When you find yourself in a situation where a conflict is unavoidable, it is best to learn to develop strategies to manage it.
Various types of conflict
It is not only what we communicate that is important, but also how we communicate it. In
a multi cultural work environment some degree of conflict and misunderstanding is unavoidable.
This is so because values, beliefs, and attitudes in one culture are often very different from those
held in another. Some cultural conflicts are also caused -because there are different expectations
about how people should speak, behave, or make decisions.
Many conflicts can be related to unclear chains of command. Imagine how you might feel
if your immediate supervisor had given you one assignment, and a little later his boss, whom you
normally do not report to, were to come and ask you to do something else. Actually, in this case,
your boss's boss would not have shown proper respect for the normal lines of communication.
However, given her position in the organizational hierarchy (two levels above you); you would
still have to exercise care in dealing with the conflict in instructions since both bosses would
have more authority than you.
Text 14. TIME MANAGEMENT
Efficiency
Efficiency is respected in any society. Efficiency means to work quickly without wasting
time or materials. Businesses and factories trying to maximize production and profit are examples of efficiency. In the modern world, efficiency is considered a personal virtue as well. The
most efficient employee is considered the most effective. How do you think the concept of efficiency affects the way managers treat employees?
Let's say you receive a personal phone call at work. A friend calls to invite you to a party.
When you get such a call on the job, you are expected to keep the interruption as short as possible. In the long run, an inefficient worker will not be promoted and may be criticized. Inefficiency can eventually result in dismissal.
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Efficiency is related to the idea of time. Not every culture treats time in the same way. In
the United States and many European countries, time is seen as something precious. You might
hear the phrase, «Time is money». This phrase reflects a cultural attitude. Henry David Thoreau,
American author and philosopher, believed time to be precious in a personal sense. He was wary
about exchanging his time for cash. In Walden he cautions us all to make sure that when we sell
our time, it is a fair deal. An employer may ask if he has gotten his money worth. By the same
token, it is wise to ask whether it has also been worth your while.
Time Management
We are paid for our time, for example, in dollars per hour. But an employer buys more
than time. There is a job to be done. An employer is expected to complete it efficiently. After all,
we are being paid for every minute on the job.
On the job, we are expected to use time wisely. Yet employees waste time in many ways.
Wasting time includes anything that distracts from working – such as personal phone calls and
visitors. Leaving earlier, coming late – there are 101 ways to cheat an employer. For this reason,
too much socializing, even with co-workers, is usually considered unacceptable on the job in
many countries.
Learning better work habits, such as planning a schedule for the day's work, can make a
person more effective as an employee – and a more appreciated one.
Wasting Time
In office occupations there are several major time wasters. Fortunately, time wasters are
easy to cure once you know them. A messy desk is one. In the modern office, paperwork – including letters, reading materials, and forms of a hundred sorts – stacks up quickly. When paperwork becomes disorganized, time is lost in sorting it out.
Communication skills also influence overall job efficiency. Giving and taking instructions poorly, for example, can end up wasting a tremendous amount of time. If instructions are
not understood, a job may be done improperly. Since doing something twice costs time, the value of giving and taking directions well is clear.
Text 15. PUBLIC RELATIONS
PR is often confused with advertising, and sometimes wrongly termed "publicity". PR is
wrongly regarded as "free advertising". The two are very different forms of communication, but
advertising is likely to be more effective if PR is well carried out.
Briefly, PR aims to create understanding through knowledge; it must be factual, credible
and impartial. Advertising has to be persuasive in order to sell and it may be emotional, dramatic
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and certainly partial. Thus, a basic difference is that in order to succeed PR must be unbiased
while advertising has to be biased. PR may be thought to consist only of press relations, or rather
media relations since radio and television are also involved.
Modem PR extends into all the functions of commercial and non-commercial, public and
private organisations. It deals with matters far removed from marketing and advertising to mention only community, employee, share holder and political relations. A major area of public relations in recent years has been the handling of crisis situations such as strikes, disasters and take
over bids. The creation of understanding is best explained by the "PR transfer process".
A company, product or service may be subject to some negative states as hostility, prejudice, apathy, ignorance. PR is concerned with changing them into positive attitudes such as sympathy, acceptance, interest, knowledge. There may be hostility towards a company because its
behaviour has been criticised, a product has performed badly, a company personality has received bad publicity, the company is of foreign origin or simply because it is very big. There
may also be hostility towards the industry because it is believed to be hazardous or endangers the
environment.
Prejudice is a more difficult obstacle to overcome, and is usually long-standing and derived from family, education, ethnic or even geographical influences. Many people are still
prejudiced about flying, holidays abroad, foreign foods, computers, etc. Disinterest and apathy is
very hard to overcome. People tend to be conservative, set in their ways and unwilling to try new
things. They may be apathetic about things that could benefit them such as banking insurance,
savings, diet, holidays or different kinds of clothes. In a complex world everyone is ignorant
about many things. It is inevitable.
There was a time when most people were ignorant about detergents, air conditioning,
video-cassettes, all of which large number of people take for granted today. These are all negative attitudes which PR has to change into positive ones. From what has been described it is seen
that PR concerns the total communications of the total organisation. It is not confined to marketing nor is it a form of advertising. Nevertheless, advertising can benefit from PR activity. In fact
advertising may well fail because of lack of PR. PR has its own communication techniques and it
can contribute to the success of advertising just as it can contribute to good managementemployee relations or good financial relations. The chief benefit lies in the creation of understanding.
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SITUATIONS AND ROLE-PLAYS
1. You are a travel agent. A potential client enters your agency. The person thinks of going on a holiday some place. Do you best to advertise Colorado? Try and use the following
phrases:
- Welcome to our agency.
- What can I do for you, sir / miss / madam?
***
2. You work for a business magazine. Write a brief history of your firm. Make it interesting for the reading public.
***
3. You and your partner are starting a business. Discuss London as a possible location.
***
4. You and Marry plan to start your business. What will you do? Use the following word
combinations:
- to succeed
- to be wary of
- to be opposed to sth
- to run one/s own business
- to and up in failure
- to involve opportunities
- to trust sb
- to be reliable
- to be as good as one’s word
- needless to say
- one would not think of doing sth
- to convince sb (to do sth)
- the plus and minus sides of sth / doing sth
- a well- / badly managed business
- to generate profit
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- to make one’s own decisions
- to be / to prove disastrous
- to manage one’s businesses
- to turn out to be
- a white-collar worker
- a blue-collar worker
- to be naïve
- (under the circumstances / in such a case) one does more, not less
- to take risks
- half (of) the time
- a wet blanket
- to risk one’s property
- to build a business from scratch
- a self-made man
- to launch a business / an advertising agency
***
5. Paul Stinger has his doubts about leaving his corporate job. His son and / or his daughter encourage him to go ahead and start a new life, that is start a home business. They are quite
positive one can do business on the Web. In fact, they are quite enthusiastic about the whole
thing.
***
6. You are making a report for a weekly TV program Business is Business. You are welcome to interview people, analyze particular cases, speak about business tendencies, etc. these
may be your opening remarks:
- To run a successful business, you have to know what to do, how to do it, and when to do it.
- You also have to be strongly motivated.
- You have to have drive and stamina.
- It also takes character, integrity and luck to be a success in business.
- Otherwise there is little hope of being able to bear the odds (+ to win).
- Now let us take a look at what it means.
***
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7. You are an environmentalist. Your aim is to prevent the environment from being further damaged. You are to make a presentation (report) at a conference on environmental disasters. You intend to speak about Love Canal and its residents. After you complete your report you
are asked many questions.
***
8. Alex Mann, а representative of the firm, which deal with industrial projects, meet Mr.
Robertson who has come to Moscow to negotiate contract.
***
9. Boris Sotkin is an engineer of a foreign trade organization. He often goes on business
to different European, Asian and African countries. His organization does business with lots of
foreign firms. Last month he was in Great Britain. He went there to sign a contract for the purchase of equipment. The talks were very difficult. Mr. Sotkin and the British businessmen discussed prices, terms of delivery, terms of shipment and other business matters. The Supplier
agreed to reduce the price. During his trip Sotkin visited different plants where he saw the
equipment in operation. He signed a good contract. Boris was lucky with the weather. It was
warm and it didn't rain. He was pleased with the trip.
***
10. X-rayed and got on board the plane. The hostess gave Ivanov an arrival card to fill in.
He wrote in block letters his full name, home address and the purpose of his visit. The sign "Stop
smoking. Fasten seat belts" appeared and the plane took off. Although it flew at high speed, the
passengers on board the plane felt comfortable. Five and a half hours later the plane landed at
airport in Berlin. Ivanov is going through the customs control at airport in Berlin.
***
11. You have just been introduced to a business colleague, and need to make him or her
feel at home. What kind of questions could you ask?
***
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12. You: – Could I speak with Mr. Born?
Secretary: – Yes, but he’s on another line. Would you like to hold?
Respond as follows:
- leave a message
- leave your phone number
- say you wish to hold the line
- ask how long he’ll be.
***
13. Call Ms. Marker’s office and introduce yourself, then ask for information about her
company, ABC Trading.
***
14. You are calling your hotel (the Ritz) to ask if there are any messages left for you.
***
15. What would you say if you dialled the wrong number?
***
16. What would you say if someone else dialled your number incorrectly?
***
17. You have to answer the phone for a colleague at work. What is the best way to answer?
***
18. Call the Four Seasons Restaurant and make a reservation for three people for a business dinner at 8:00 p.m.
***
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19. Tell the secretary you do not wish to hold the line any longer; you will call back later.
***
20. Call Harly Company. Give them your name, title, company, and whom you are calling (the vice president of sales).
***
21. You answer the phone at someone else’s office and you take a message for colleague
from the caller. What would you say?
***
22. Tell the secretary you are returning Mr. Halliday’s call and would like to speak with
him.
***
23. Put a polite end to a business conversation.
***
24. You do not understand a particular word or expression. Ask for it to be explained to
you.
***
25. Make a restaurant reservation for tomorrow – business lunch for five people.
***
26. The business lunch is one type of meeting. Try to get to know your visitors and potential clients or to work with business associates in a more relaxed atmosphere.
***
27. You organize your business lunch. Make the transition between small talk and business. Close the business lunch.
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***
28. You are at a business lunch. Introduce your guests and exchange cards. Tell your
partners about your company, about yourself, about your city. End the meeting even though people are still discussing business tactfully.
***
29. Make a reservation for four people at a restaurant for business lunch, at 12:00 noon,
and make sure it is for a quiet table.
***
30. Give a short presentation related to your own business and answer your guest’s questions.
***
31. You make hotel reservation in England. You will have a non-smoking single room
including breakfast from the 15th to the 25th of March. Ask about rates and discounts, hotel rates,
breakfast.
Ask how far the hotel is from the airport. Ask what type of transportation is available from the
airport. Ask if there were any messages for you. Make a dinner reservation.
***
32. You are buying airlines tickets. You would like a non-stop flight from London to
Moscow leaving April 15th.
***
33. You are buying airlines tickets. Tell the operator you wish to book a flight from
Clearwater Beach Florida to Roma. Ask about ticket prices, restrictions on tickets. Ask what aircraft is used, about special meals. Ask where to pick up the ticket.
***
34. At the airport. Ask your guest about his or her flight, his or her baggage, if he or she
wants to have a drink, if he or she needs to use the rest room.
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***
35. You are in London. You go to the Hotel Ritz where you made a reservation for a single room, non-smoking, under the name of Jerry Walkers. Your conversation with the clerk at
the hotel.
***
36. You are at the hotel. Ask the front desk to change your bed or give you a board to put
under it, because the bed is too soft. Complain to the front desk about the noisy neighbours. Ask
the front desk for more towels and hangers.
***
37. You would like to take a tour of the city, but don’t know where to go. Ask for a recommendation.
***
38. When making business phone calls, you need to give specific information to the receptionist or secretary who answers the company phone. First, give your name, title, and company. Second, give the name of the person you are calling, and the reason for your call.
***
39. When you start a business conversation on the phone, it is a good idea to introduce
yourself and give the reason for your call, even if you have given that information to the receptionist. Sometimes the person you are calling is busy or on another phone line. If this happens,
the receptionist may ask if you would like to hold the line.
***
40. You are seeking a new job. You have already sent your CV to the company N. The
director of this company invited you for the interview. Express your experience, qualities and
skills.
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BUSINESS WRITING PRACTICE
Определите к какому виду делового документа (Inquiry, Offer, Order, Complaint,
Apology, Memo, CV, Contract) относятся представленные ниже отрывки:
1.
……….
Dear Mr. Wong,
Thank you for your enquiry about the availability of a single room for six nights from
Wednesday, 11 November 2009 to Tuesday, 17 November 2009. Unfortunately, we are
fully booked during this period. However, I have contacted our sister hotel on Hong
Kong Island and they have single rooms available. The room rate is $1,200 per night.
If you would like me to reserve a room during the period you requested, please do not
hesitate to contact me.
……….
2.
………..
Dear Sir or Madam,
I am writing to enquire whether your company could offer a course on Quality Control
for our managers.
I saw your advert in the HK Daily on Monday, 5 October 2009, and the Quality Control
Training Course (Ref.: QC 101) mentioned in the advert might be suitable for us. I
would like to know if it is possible for you to offer a 3-month training course starting
before or, at the latest, on Monday, 26 October 2009, for a group of 20. Could you send
us some information about the teaching staff and the possible schedule for this course?
…………
3.
………..
I am writing to inform you that the goods we ordered from your company have not been
supplied correctly.
On 30 September 2009 we placed an order with your firm for 12,000 ultra super longlife batteries. The consignment arrived yesterday but contained only 1,200 batteries.
This error put our firm in a difficult position, as we had to make some emergency pur148
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chases to fulfill our commitments to all our customers. This caused us considerable inconvenience.
I am writing to ask you to please make up the shortfall immediately and to ensure that
such errors do not happen again. Otherwise, we may have to look elsewhere for our supplies.
I look forward to hearing from you by return.
……………
4.
…………….
Dear Mr. Reavis:
I would like to apologize for the mix-up on your last order. We recently hired a new
sales person who was not familiar with your systems. We have corrected your order
and shipped it out this morning. We have applied a 10% discount on your order, and
again apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused you.
………………..
5.
……………
It's that time of year again. As you all know, Christmas is our busiest season of the year.
Every year it is a struggle for management and supervisors to find the time and energy to
organize a staff Christmas party. This year, we have decided to postpone the Christmas
party until after our busy season.
Party Details
•
Date: Second or third Saturday in January (T.B.A)
•
Theme: Beach
•
Food: Caribbean
•
Special events: Karaoke and belly dancing
…………….
6.
…………….
Thank you for your letter of 22 January enquiring about our translation services.
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Lingua Services Galactic offer a full range of translation services to help you in the development of sales literature and web sites. I have pleasure in enclosing our latest brochures and price list from which you can see that our prices are highly competitive.
I look forward to calling you in a few days.
…………..
7.
…………..
I should be grateful if you would send us your brochure and price list about your translation services.
We are currently developing our sales literature and web sites and are interested in translating these into five languages apart from English.
I look forward to hearing from you.
……………
8.
…………….
Thomas Crown
Objective Seeking an International Sales Management position in Information Technology where my extensive sales experience will be used to the full
Experience
2003-presentIntelel Inc.London, UK
National Sales Manager
•
Increased sales from £60 million to £100 million.
•
Implemented Internet sales grossing £25 million.
•
Doubled sales per representative from £5 to £10 million.
…………..
9.
……………
Please ship the following items from your sales catalog dated January 31, 19XX:
150
ITEM
CATALOG #
COLOR
QTY
PRICE
Conference
HN-33080-WB
Sandalwood
2
$478.60 ea.
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Desk
File Cabinet
HN-5344C-K
Beige
2
135.90 ea.
Letter Tray
K5-299907-A
Black
6
16.95 ea.
The items ordered above should be shipped C.O.D. to this address:
………………
10.
……………..
Contractor shall commence the Work on: 4th day of March, 2002 and fully complete the
work within Sixty (60) calendar days (the "Contract Time"). If contractor is delayed in
the completion of the Work by conditions beyond its control, a Change Order may be
issued to make any necessary adjustment of the Contract Time. If the delay is an unreasonable delay caused by University, the Contract Sum may also be adjusted by Change
order.
……………..
11.
……………….
For: Mr. Rhey Santos
Subject: Progress Report on Lending Operations
In connection with the preparation of our annual report on loans, may we request for a
copy of the progress report on lending operations as of January 1985 to enable us to get
certain data on said report needed for our annual report.
……………….
12.
………………..
Participate as requested in consulting activities. This includes calling meetings, providing meeting sites and amenities, and providing information requested by Contractor. Client's entire board will be involved in this process, not just the coordinator. Client will
also be asked to duplicate, distribute and tally the results of a membership survey, to
conduct communicate leader interviews and to complete the homework assignments.
……………….
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13.
…………….
Dear Mrs. Nievera:
Of course we are going to replace the copies of “Physical Science” which your letter of
the 15th reported as defective. Five extra books are being packed and will go out the
first thing tomorrow.
It is impractical for us to make a careful inspection of every book that leaves our shipping department, much as we should like to do so. If we did, we could not quote a price
of forty five dollars a copy. We are, however, glad to replace any defective copies, for
we realize that binderies are no infallible, and sometimes make mistakes.
We are sorry that one these mistakes occurred in your order.
…………………
14.
……………………
Dear Mr. Ramos,
Please send us one (1) box of 3.5 Sony diskettes and (1) 17” red fox monitor, color
black. Terms of payment will be the same as those of our previous orders.
We would appreciate it very much if you could send these items immediately.
…………………
15.
……………………
I am writing to inform you of my intention to resign from G & S Holdings.
I have appreciated very much my four years working for the company. The training has
been excellent and I have gained valuable experience working within an efficient and
professional team environment. In particular, I have appreciated your personal guidance
during these first years of my career.
I feel now that it is time to further develop my knowledge and skills base in a different
environment.
I would like to leave, if possible, in a month's time on
Saturday, 7 November. This
will allow me to complete my current workload. I hope that this suggested arrangement
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is acceptable to the company.
Once again, thank you for your support.
………………..
16.
……………….
Thank you for your enquiry regarding our newly released range of fire extinguishers.
You will see from the enclosed catalogue that the range has been extended to include
some highly efficient portable extinguishers for use on construction sites.
We are offering to our existing customers a 15% discount on orders of extinguishers
from this new range.
We look forward to your increased order at this discount rate.
…………..
17.
…………….
Dear Sir,
I am very sorry that the shipment of the products that you received was defective thus we
did not meet the high standards of the goods as you are expecting. I understand your disappointment and regret the inconvenience that cause about this matter.
In our effort to improve the overall quality of our products, the company is in the process
of completing a thorough testing and development. I will assure that the quality standards of our product will be met because our key priority is to protect our reputation for
delivering the best product in the market.
Again, we apologize and we look forward for your continued support to our products.
………………
18.
……………
I'm writing you this letter to make you aware of the severe lack of communication in
your shop. I would not have been so upset at the delay in repairing my car had someone
had the courtesy to just keep me informed. The not knowing and wondering was frustrating and showed little respect for my time and money. As this car was my only mode
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of transportation, it was crippling for me to be without a car for that length of time. I
also incurred an additional cost of having my car towed twice.
……………
19.
………………….
1999-2000 ESS HoldingsCambridge, UK
Senior Sales Representative
•
Increased sales by 300% annually.
•
Closed deals with 100 major new accounts.
•
Won over 25 competitor clients - adding £50 million to revenue.
……………….
20.
………………..
If this Contract is greater than $10,000, liquidated damages in the amount of XXX dollars ($XXX) per day shall apply each calendar day that Contractor fails to deliver the
Work after the expiration of the Contract Time, it being understood and agreed that University’s damages would be extremely difficult or impractical to determine and that the
above stipulated liquidated amount is a reasonable estimate of and a reasonable sum for
such damages.
………………..
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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
Основные фразы и сокращения, используемые в электронных сообщениях:
NB – Nota Bene – обратите внимание
Wd – would
You – u
Gr8 – great
W8 – wait
4 – four, for
SMS – Short Message Service
2 – To/too/two
2day – Today
2moro – Tomorrow
@ – At
# – Number
FAQ – frequently asked questions
ICQ – I seek you – я тебя ищу
ADN – Any Day No
ASAP – As soon as possible
ATM – At the moment
B – Be
B/C – Because
B4 – Before
C – See/sea
CID – Consider it done
CU – See you
CUL8R – See You Later
D u wnt 2 go out 2nit? – Do you want to go Esp – Especially
out tonight
H2 – How to
ILBL8 = I’ll be late
L8 – Late
L8r – Later
LMK – Let me know
M8 – Mate
M80 – Matey
Mob – Mobile
Msg – Message
Ne1/Neone – Anyone
Neva – Never
No1 – No one
NMP – Not my problem
Ntl – Nevertheless
OIC – Oh, I see
OK – Okay
Pls – Please
Pobl – Possible
Ppl – People
R – Are
RUF2 – Are you free to talk?
Spk – Speak
Tho – Though
Thnq – Thank you
Thru – Through
THX/TNX – Thanks
TNOTVS – This is nothing on TV so …
U – You
Un4gtebl – Unforgettable
UOK? – You OK?
YR – Your/You’re
Usu – Usually
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WWW – World Wide Web/ Why? Why? Want2 – Want to
Why?
Wknd – Weekend
W/O – Without
Wer r u – Where are you
YM – You mean
XLNT – Exellent
AFAIK – As far as I know
AFAIUI – As far as I understand it
ILBAT – I will be able to
IMHO – In my humble opinion
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Пояснительная записка к учебному пособию…………………………..
3
БИЗНЕС КУРС
UNIT 1. Finding the Right Job………………………………………………….
5
UNIT 2. Interview Technique…………………………………………………..
26
UNIT 3. At the Office…………………….……………………………………..
43
UNIT 4. On the telephone………………….……………………………………….
49
UNIT 5. Business writing..……………………………………………………….
62
UNIT 6. Business Communication……………..………………………………..
97
UNIT 7. Business Trip…..………………………………………………………..
112
TEXTS FOR ADDITIONAL READING..……………………………………..
126
SITUATIONS AND ROLE-PLAYS………………………………………………
141
BUSINESS WRITING PRACTICE………………………………………………
148
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ…………………………………………………………………
155
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Учебное издание
Пономарева О. А.
Бабашев А.Э.
ДЕЛОВОЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов очной и заочной форм
обучения специальности 080507 «Менеджмент организации»
Ответственные за выпуск:
проректор по учебной работе, доцент Сергеев В. Н.
проректор по научно-исследовательской работе, профессор Москвичев Ю. Н.
Подписано в печать: 24.12.2009г.
Усл. печ. листов – 8,8.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № _______
Отпечатано на множительной технике
ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО
ФГОУ ВПО «ВОЛГОГРАДСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ»
400005, ВОЛГОГРАД, ПР. В. ЛЕНИНА, 78.
158
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