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GB400477

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Molecule
(5/ 11)
[5][_]
calcium hydrosilicate
(5)
[6][_]
Slaked lime
(3)
[7][_]
quicklime
(1)
[8][_]
silicate
(1)
[9][_]
silicic acid
(1)
[10][_]
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Physical
(2/ 2)
[11][_]
a few millimetres
(1)
[12][_]
less than 10 kg/cm2
(1)
Publication
_________________________________________________________________
Number GB400477A
i»?
Title
_________________________________________________________________
EN Title Improvements in or relating to road paving and like blocks
Abstract
_________________________________________________________________
Road paving and like blocks are made by moulding granular material
containing lime and silica, producing a thin hard skin of calcium
hydrosilicate on the blocks by application of steam pressure, drying
the blocks, and impregnating them in vacuo with bitumen with or
without pressure. The blocks are preferably moulded by using a slowly
increasing pressure from a hydraulic press which acts simultaneously
from two or more sides of the block thereby increasing the degree of
porosity for impregnation. Slaked lime is preferably used in the raw
material. The surface of the block prior to surface hardening may be
treated with lime with or without highly reactive silica such as trass
or glass meal. The hardening is performed under increasing steam
pressure which is reduced as soon as the formation of silicate begins.
During hardening and drying, the blocks are stacked in chambers and
separated by air gaps. Specification 363,354 is referred to.
Description
_________________________________________________________________
PATENT SPECIFICATION
400,477 Convention Dates (Germany) Oct. 19, 1932:
Dec. 2, 1932:
Corresponding Applications in United Kingdom No. 4544/33 No. 4545/33 1
Dated Feb. 14, 1933 (One Complete Specification Left)
Accepted: Oct. 26, 1933.
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION.
Improvements in or relating to Road Paving and like Blocks.
We, MASCuINENFABRIK KOMNICK G[[M]]nBlH., a corporation organized under
the laws of Germany, of Schichaustrasse, Elbing, Germany, do herelby
declare the nature of this invention and in what manner the same is to
be performed, to be particularly described and ascertained in and by
the following statement: iO Road paving blocks are subjected to a
variety of stresses and chemical and atmospheric influences which
render it necessary for them to be highly resistant, and treatment of
mineral blocks with bitumen is a method which is capable of imparting
high resistance if it is applied in a suitable manner.
Our invention consists of a particular method or process of producing
such bitumen treated blocks.
For the production of bitumen treated blocks it has been proposed to
use a composition of diatomic earth, clay and fluxes the blocks Ibeing
baked and then impregnated with liquid bitumen.
According to specification INo. 363,354 blocks are made by pressing a
mixture of sand, pumicestone, kieselguhr and the like, with quicklime
or cement and hardening the formed blocks in such a manner that their
crushing strength is less than 10 kg/cm2 preferably only 2-3 kg1/cem2,
these blocks being dried and impregnated with liquid bitumen. A steam
treatment is indicated in the specification in connection with this
process.
We make the blocks, as by moulding or pressing, of a granular mixture
of raw materials containing lime, and silica, and then we harden them
with application of steam pressure so that a thin skin of calcium
hydrosilicate
is formed thereon, and finally we dry them and
impregnate them with liquid bitumen in vacuo.
Ai5 The steam hardening of blocks is not broadly novel, and it has
heretofore been proposed to produce, by heating in a closed space, a
skin of calcium hydrosilicate on a block formed of slate and lime.
We prefer to mould the Iblocks in a hydraulic press, with pressure
applied from more than one side, for example by [Price 11-] means of
top and bottom plungers. A hydraulic press enables a very even texture
of the blocks to be obtained, with clean surfaces and sharp edges. The
quantity of bitumen which the lblock will absorb can largely be
regulated by regulating the pressure under-which the block 6 is
moulded.
The hardening referred to is an important step in the process. By a
thin skin we mean a skin which is in general only a few millimetres
thick, and it is quite essential to avoid such hardening as proceeds
to the central portion of the block, because blocks so hardened do not
wear well, being brittle, and the'bitumen treatment does not have the
effect of making them adequately durable. -There is no serious
technical difficulty in producing the thin hydrosilicate skin.
We prefer to use slaked lime in the raw material. The period of
hardening 'X should be short, care being taken that the temperature in
the interior of the block remains below the reaction temperature.
If the raw materials are such as. react readily' a very short
hardening'-treatment 80 is sufficient, with quite moderate steam
pressure. Generally it is sufficient to place the blocks in a chamber
or drum and introduce steam under pressure, the pressure being raised
till the hydrosilicate skin has been formed. Then the pressure 85 is
lowered and the blocks are taken out and dried quickly. With most raw
materials it is important to avoid long exposure to high steam
pressure, as such 90 exposure is liable to harden the blocks right
through.
Good results are obtained by using siliceous raw materials of
comparatively low specific gravity, e[[g]] various kinds of or sand,
which may be used singly or mixed.
It is of advantage in some cases to enrich the surface layers of the
block with lime before the hardening treatment, and this may be done
by dipping the loo blocks in lime when they come from the mould or,
[by spraying them with lime.
The lime so used may be given an admixture of highly reactive silicic
acid , e[[g]] trass, glass meal or the like, as finely j05 divided as
practicable. This accelerates and improves the formation of the skin.
The blocks are preferably so stacked in the hardening chamber that
they are separated from each other by air gaps, - enabling the steam
to have access to practically their entire surface, so that the
formation of skin extends all over the surface.
The steam pressure and temperature O are lowered as soon as the
formation of skin has begun, and then the blocks are dried, which may
be done by means of hot air in the same chamber. For drying purposes
it is also preferred to have the blocks spaced apart from each other.
The liquid bitumen used for saturating the dried blocks in vacuo is
generally bitumen liquefied by heat. The impregnation may be improved
by completing it under pressure, following the vacuum treatment.
The blocks
elasticity.
produced
are
very
strong,
with an excellent degree of
Their life under heavy traffic conditions appears to be very good, and
they preserve their surface well.
H1aving now particularly described and ascertained the nature of our
said invent tion and in what manner the same is to 30j be performed,
we declare that what we
Claims
_________________________________________________________________
claim is:1. The process of making road paving and like blocks, which consists
in shaping the blocks of granular material containing lime and silica,
producingn a thin skin of calcium hydrosilicate on the blocks by
application of steam pressure, and then drying the blocks and
impregnating them with liquid bitumen in vacuo.
2. In the process claimed in claim 1, K and j shaping the blocks in a
hydraulic press.
3. In the process claimed in claim 1 and 2, applying the hydraulic
pressure to the blocks from more than one side.
4. In the process claimed in claim 1, 45 using slaked lime in the raw
material.
5. In the process claimed in claim 1, enriching the surfaces of the
blocks with lime, as by dipping or spraying, before the skin-forming
process. 50
6. In the process claimed in claim 1 and 5, mixing highly reactive
silica with the lime used for enriching the surfaces of the blocks.
7. In the process claimed in claim 1, 55 performing the hardening
process under increasing steam pressure, and lowering the pressure as
soon as the formation of calcium hydro silicate begins.
8. In the process claimed in claim 1, 6o treating the blocks with
steam, for hardening purposes, in a chamber in which they are
separated from each other by air gaps.
9. In the process claimed in claim 1, 65 drying the blocks after the
steam treatment in a chamber in which they are separated from each
other by air gaps. Dated this 14th day of February, 1933. For the
Applicants, HERBERT HADDAN N Co., Chartered Pate-iT Agents, 31 and 32,
Bedford Street, Strand, London, W[[C]] 2. Redhill: Printed for His
Majesty's bationery Office, by Love and Malcomson, Ltd.-1933. 400,4z77
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