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J Sci Food Agric 79 :555–560 (1999)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Content of amino acids in fresh and frozen and
cooked broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var
major ) depending on cultivar and degree of
maturity
Waldemar Kmiecik, Zofia Lis iews ka* and Piotr GÍbczyn s ki
Department of Raw Materials and Proces s ing of Fruit and Vegetables , Agricultural Univers ity of Krakow , 3 Podluzna Street , 30 -239
Krakow , Poland
Abstract : In broad been seeds (cultivars Comprimo RS and Threefoldwhite) harvested at four stages
of maturity, which corresponded to dry matter content at the levels of I—25% , II—30% , III—35% and
IV—40% , the content of amino acids was determined (g 16 g N—1). The determinations concerned raw
broad bean and frozen products cooked for consumption. The content of total and essential amino
acids was similar in the two cultivars. With increasing maturity the content of total amino acids and
essential amino acids varied, showing a tendency to increase between maturity stages I and IV in all
the amino acids, except aspartic acid and alanine in Threefoldwhite. In both cultivars the content of
cystine and glutamic acid showed the most rapid rise. Compared with raw broad beans, intact seeds
cooked for consumption contained more total amino acids. In products of Comprimo RS the total
content of amino acids and essential amino acids was similar in intact seeds and in the dehulled seeds.
In products from Threefoldwhite the content of total amino acids and essential amino acids was
higher in intact seeds than in dehulled seeds except in the most mature sample where these values
were similar. The limiting amino acids were methionine with cystine in both raw broad bean and
cooked seeds.
( 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords : broad bean ; cultivar ; stage of maturity ; frozen goods ; amino acids
INTRODUCTION
The seeds of pulse crops are regarded as a rich
source of protein. In the temperate zone the broad
bean is particularly valuable in this group of plants
because of its high and constant yields.1,2 Broad
beans contain 23–34% of protein in dry matter, this
level depends upon cultivar, pattern of weather conditions, agrotechnical measures and seed maturity.3h5
In Europe, broad beans for consumption are harvested before they reach full physiological maturity,
this corresponds with a very wide range of dry
matter content (7–40%). In this maturity range
broad beans may be consumed directly after cooking
or used for canning or freezing.6
The aim of the present work was to determine the
eþect of the cultivar and of maturity degree of seeds
in the dry matter interval of 25–40%, on the content
of amino acids in raw material, raw broad bean seeds,
frozen and then cooked seeds.
* Corres pondence to : Zofia Lis iews ka, Department of Raw
Materials and Proces s ing of Fruit and Vegetables , Agricultural
Univers ity of Krakow, 3 Podluzna Street, 30-239 Krakow, Poland
EXPERIMENTAL
Plant material
Two broad bean cultivars of Dutch origin—
Comprimo RS and Threefoldwhite—were studied.
They were cultivated on the Agricultural University
experimental üeld in the area of Krakow. Broad
beans were grown a year after manuring the soil ; the
following doses of mineral fertilizers were used : N,
40 kg ha~1 ; P, 45 kg ha~1 ; K, 125 kg ha~1. The seeds
were harvested at four stages of maturity. The dry
matter contents in the subsequent stages were
approximately : I—25%, II—30%, III—35% and
IV—40%.
Seed preparation
Preliminary processing treatments included washing,
blanching in water at 96–98¡C for 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and
4.0 min depending on seed maturity, cooling and
removing surface water. The beans were frozen at
[35¡C in a Feutron blast freezer. After freezing,
(Received 7 April 1997 ; revis ed vers ion received 25 March 1998 ;
accepted 2 July 1998 )
( 1999 Society of Chemical Industry. J Sci Food Agric 0022–5142/99/$17.50
555
W Kmiecik, Z Lisiewska, P GeÓ bczyn ski
they were packed in polyethylene bags and stored for
6 months at [20¡C. Frozen beans were cooked in a
2.5% brine until ready for consumption.
Analysis
Dry matter and total nitrogen (Kjeldahl N) was
determined according to the standard procedures of
AOAC numbers 14.004 and 2.057, respectively.7
Amino acids, except tryptophan, were determined
according to the method of Ref 8, modiüed in Ref 9,
using a model 3A27, Carlo Erba automatic amino
acid analyser. Acid hydrolysis was done with 6 M
HCl for 22 h at 110¡C. Sulphur-containing amino
acids, ie cystine and methionie, were measured as
cysteic acid and methionine sulphone after performic
acid oxidation.
The limiting amino acid index (CS) was determined using the Mitchell and Block method.10 The
integrated essential amino acid index (EAA) for the
sum of essential amino acids was determined using
the Oser method11 based on reference patterns.12,13
In statistical analysis the Snedecor F[ and
Student’s t-tests were applied and the least signiücant diþerence (LSD) was computed at a probability
level of P \ 0.01.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The degree of maturity determined by the level of
dry matter in raw broad bean was similar in the two
cultivars (Table 1). With the increasing content of
dry matter also that of total nitrogen rose. As compared with the youngest seeds it increased by
17–20%, 37–42% and 49–51% at the successive
stages of maturity, depending on the cultivar. In
frozen products stored for 6 months and then cooked
until ready for consumption, the intact seeds contained slightly less dry matter and nitrogen than the
raw broad bean, while in the dehulled seeds in comparison with intact seeds a higher content of these
two components was usually assessed.
The content of total amino acids and essential
amino acids was similar in the two cultivars with a
fairly diþerentiated content of aspartic and glutamic
acids and of alanine (Tables 2 and 3). Also small differences have been found in the amino acid composition between broad bean cultivars.14
In the two cultivars investigated the content of
total and essential amino acids varied with increasing
maturity of the seeds (Tables 2 and 3). Between the
ürst and fourth degree of maturity an increase was
observed in the content of all the amino acids except
aspartic acid and alanine in Threefoldwhite. The
most rapid increase in the content of cystine and glutamic acid was assessed in both cultivars, of leucine
in Comprimo RS and of serine and proline in Threefoldwhite. A higher content of threonine, methionine, lysine, and arginine, with increasing maturity
of the vegetable type of soya, has been found.15
According to Ref 16, a delayed harvest of green peas
caused an increase in the content of total amino acids
accompanied by a decrease in the alanine, arginine,
and threonine content. On the other hand, an initial
decrease in amino acid content in the green pea
whose dry matter content varied from 23 to 45%,
followed by a slight increase or no changes, has been
noted.17 In the present work a certain inhibition of
increases in amino acid content occurred in the third
maturity stage. This observation did not concern
sulphur-containing amino acids that were ürst order
limiting amino acids in broad bean seeds (Table 4).
The CS index for methionine with cystine was
Table 1. Contents of dry matter and total nitrogen in broad bean s eeds
Cultivar
Stage a
Dry matter
Raw broad
bean -intact
s eeds b
%
Frozen and cooked
intact
s eeds d
(%)
dehulled
s eeds e
(%)
Raw broad
bean -intact
s eeds c
%
Frozen and cooked
Intact
s eeds d
(%)
Dehulled
s eeds e
(%)
Comprimo RS
I
II
III
IV
25.5 ^ 0.51
30.6 ^ 1.07
35.3 ^ 0.88
39.1 ^ 1.56
98
98
96
92
105
102
100
98
1.22 ^ 0.03
1.46 ^ 0.04
1.67 ^ 0.04
1.82 ^ 0.06
96
97
94
94
114
109
108
105
Threefoldwhite
I
II
III
IV
25.3 ^ 0.76
30.1 ^ 1.05
35.7 ^ 1.84
39.7 ^ 1.49
98
95
94
90
103
103
103
98
1.28 ^ 0.03
1.50 ^ 0.04
1.82 ^ 0.04
1.93 ^ 0.05
94
92
92
91
113
113
107
104
a
b
c
d
e
556
Total nitrogen
Stage of maturity, s ee text for s tage of maturity.
Content of dry matter, mean values of three replications , ^ s tandard deviations .
Content of total nitrogen in fres h matter, mean values of three replication, ^ s tandard deviations .
Content in raw broad bean intact s eeds \ 100%
Content in frozen and cooked intact s eeds \ 100%.
J Sci Food Agric 79 :555–560 (1999)
Amino acid content of broad bean seeds
Amino acid
Table 2. Amino acid
compos ition g (16 g N)É1 of raw
broad bean Comprimo RS cva,
intact s eeds
Ib
IV
LSD P \ 0.01
Fe\Ft
0.123
Fe\Ft
0.089
Fe\Ft
Fe\Ft
0.241
0.147
0.171
0.122
0.344
0.374
Fe\Ft
0.583
0.138
0.126
0.123
Total
amino acids
3.891
82.76 ^ 1.90 93.28 ^ 2.42 90.50 ^ 2.30 93.29 ^ 2.60
a Mean value, ^ s tandard deviations of three replications .
b Stage of maturity, s ee text for s tage maturity.
Amino acid
J Sci Food Agric 79 :555–560 (1999)
III
Lys ine
5.58 ^ 0.14 5.90 ^ 0.12 6.02 ^ 0.16 6.02 ^ 0.17
Threonine
3.09 ^ 0.09 3.30 ^ 0.07 3.36 ^ 0.06 3.54 ^ 0.07
Valine
4.67 ^ 0.12 4.96 ^ 0.10 4.94 ^ 0.10 5.06 ^ 0.10
Cys tine
0.96 ^ 0.04 1.15 ^ 0.05 1.22 ^ 0.06 1.17 ^ 0.06
Methionine
0.78 ^ 0.04 0.78 ^ 0.04 0.83 ^ 0.05 0.88 ^ 0.05
Is oleucine
4.14 ^ 0.09 4.43 ^ 0.11 4.19 ^ 0.10 4.26 ^ 0.12
Leucine
5.65 ^ 0.11 7.14 ^ 0.16 5.81 ^ 0.14 7.26 ^ 0.16
Tyros ine
3.25 ^ 0.08 3.92 ^ 0.10 3.17 ^ 0.08 3.44 ^ 0.09
Phenylalanine 3.98 ^ 0.08 5.15 ^ 0.15 3.90 ^ 0.08 4.50 ^ 0.08
His tidine
2.21 ^ 0.07 2.38 ^ 0.07 2.53 ^ 0.08 2.54 ^ 0.07
Arginine
8.32 ^ 0.20 8.77 ^ 0.20 9.20 ^ 0.21 9.46 ^ 0.21
As partic acid 10.27 ^ 0.21 11.26 ^ 0.23 11.44 ^ 0.23 11.02 ^ 0.22
Serine
4.02 ^ 0.99 4.30 ^ 0.10 4.02 ^ 0.10 4.42 ^ 0.09
Glutamic acid 14.66 ^ 0.33 17.28 ^ 0.40 17.02 ^ 0.40 17.19 ^ 0.38
Proline
3.68 ^ 0.08 4.00 ^ 0.09 4.10 ^ 0.09 4.18 ^ 0.10
Glycine
3.76 ^ 0.08 4.05 ^ 0.08 4.11 ^ 0.07 4.13 ^ 0.07
Alanine
3.74 ^ 0.09 4.51 ^ 0.06 4.64 ^ 0.07 4.22 ^ 0.07
greater in more mature seeds, being slightly greater
for Comprimo RS. The CS value varied from 26 to
37 in relation to broad bean protein in the FAO 1985
standard12 and from 60 to 84 in comparison with the
FAO 1990 standard.13 The corresponding values of
the EAA index were 64–72 and 91–97. The values of
CS and EAA indices approximated to data given in
the literature if the same standards were considered.18
The authors quoted in the literature diþerently
evaluate the eþect of technological measures on
changes in the content of amino acids in the seeds of
Table 3. Amino acid
compos ition g (16 g N)É1 of raw
broad bean Threefoldwhite cva,
intact s eeds
II
Ib
pulse crops, including those of the broad bean.
According to Ref 19, a short warm treatment of
broad bean seeds did not aþect the total content of
amino acids. However, an increase being noted in
leucine, threonine, and histidine and a decrease in
sulphur-containing amino acids. It has been
observed that prolonged cooking of broad bean seeds
aþected an increase in the content of lysine, leucine,
arginine, histidine, glycine and alanine, not changing
that of aspartic and glutamic acids and of proline.20
However, it has also been shown that prolonged
heating dramatically decreased the content of amino
II
III
IV
LSD P \ 0 .01
Lys ine
5.54 ^ 0.12 5.76 ^ 0.15 5.90 ^ 0.15 5.63 ^ 0.17
Threonine
3.07 ^ 0.08 3.22 ^ 0.09 3.26 ^ 0.10 3.31 ^ 0.09
Valine
4.69 ^ 0.08 5.09 ^ 0.12 4.86 ^ 0.12 5.09 ^ 0.13
Cys tine
0.80 ^ 0.03 1.14 ^ 0.04 1.14 ^ 0.04 1.34 ^ 0.05
Methionine
0.69 ^ 0.03 0.70 ^ 0.03 0.74 ^ 0.04 0.77 ^ 0.04
Is oleucine
4.24 ^ 0.11 4.50 ^ 0.10 4.13 ^ 0.13 4.58 ^ 0.12
Leucine
6.42 ^ 0.15 7.22 ^ 0.17 6.62 ^ 0.17 7.22 ^ 0.16
Tyros ine
3.25 ^ 0.05 3.46 ^ 0.05 3.38 ^ 0.06 3.57 ^ 0.06
Phenylalanine 3.82 ^ 0.07 4.40 ^ 0.09 4.21 ^ 0.09 4.40 ^ 0.09
His tidine
2.03 ^ 0.03 2.22 ^ 0.03 2.35 ^ 0.05 2.22 ^ 0.05
Arginine
8.77 ^ 0.20 9.04 ^ 0.19 9.41 ^ 0.22 8.86 ^ 0.22
As partic acid 11.89 ^ 0.23 11.87 ^ 0.23 11.09 ^ 0.24 10.27 ^ 0.24
Serine
3.46 ^ 0.08 4.32 ^ 0.09 4.11 ^ 0.08 4.42 ^ 0.08
Glutamic acid 13.78 ^ 0.34 16.34 ^ 0.42 16.06 ^ 0.38 16.46 ^ 0.40
Proline
3.54 ^ 0.08 4.22 ^ 0.10 3.88 ^ 0.09 4.13 ^ 0.09
Glycine
3.55 ^ 0.08 3.79 ^ 0.09 4.06 ^ 0.11 3.82 ^ 0.10
Alanine
4.56 ^ 0.12 4.59 ^ 0.11 3.86 ^ 0.11 3.97 ^ 0.12
Fe\Ft
Fe\Ft
0.193
0.068
Fe\Ft
0.194
0.273
0.093
0.143
0.069
Fe\Ft
0.394
0.139
0.648
0.151
0.160
0.193
Total
amino acids
Fe\Ft
84.10 ^ 2.15 91.88 ^ 2.46 89.06 ^ 2.34 90.06 ^ 2.33
a Mean value, ^ s tandard deviations of three replications .
b Stage of maturity, s ee text for s tage maturity.
557
W Kmiecik, Z Lisiewska, P GeÓ bczyn ski
Index
Amino acid
FAO 1985
Lys ine
Threonine
Valine
CS
Methionine ]
Cys tine
Is oleucine
Leucine
Table 4. Amino acids indexes in
raw broad bean, intact s eeds
(aÈComprimo RS cv ;
bÈThreefoldwhite cv)
Tyros ine ]
Phenylalanine
EAA
Amino acid
Lys ine
558
Total
amino acids
I
II
III
IV
I
II
III
IV
80
79
66
65
71
71
31
26
77
79
66
75
78
76
64
64
84
82
70
69
75
77
34
32
82
83
83
84
98
85
72
70
86
84
71
69
75
74
36
33
78
76
68
77
76
82
68
68
86
80
75
70
77
77
36
37
79
85
84
84
85
86
72
72
96
96
91
90
133
134
70
60
148
151
86
97
115
112
91
91
102
99
97
95
142
145
77
74
158
161
108
109
144
125
96
95
104
102
99
96
141
139
82
75
150
148
88
100
112
120
95
95
104
97
104
97
145
145
82
84
152
164
110
109
126
127
97
97
Ib
II
III
6.56 ^ 0.17
6.46 ^ 0.17
3.46 ^ 0.08
3.30 ^ 0.08
5.31 ^ 0.14
5.74 ^ 0.15
1.14 ^ 0.03
1.07 ^ 0.03
0.70 ^ 0.02
0.69 ^ 0.02
4.00 ^ 0.09
5.14 ^ 0.12
7.36 ^ 0.16
8.11 ^ 0.19
3.57 ^ 0.08
2.35 ^ 0.07
4.35 ^ 0.10
4.54 ^ 0.11
2.58 ^ 0.07
2.34 ^ 0.07
8.88 ^ 0.22
8.80 ^ 0.21
10.50 ^ 0.26
11.18 ^ 0.27
3.94 ^ 0.08
4.48 ^ 0.10
14.42 ^ 0.33
17.26 ^ 0.43
4.37 ^ 0.10
4.86 ^ 0.11
3.89 ^ 0.08
4.03 ^ 0.08
5.10 ^ 0.12
4.51 ^ 0.12
6.03 ^ 0.15
5.90 ^ 0.15
3.20 ^ 0.07
2.94 ^ 0.07
5.30 ^ 0.14
4.35 ^ 0.11
1.17 ^ 0.02
1.23 ^ 0.05
0.80 ^ 0.02
0.69 ^ 0.02
4.03 ^ 0.08
3.74 ^ 0.09
7.25 ^ 0.15
7.78 ^ 0.14
4.06 ^ 0.09
2.80 ^ 0.09
5.18 ^ 0.13
4.21 ^ 0.10
2.40 ^ 0.06
2.42 ^ 0.07
10.11 ^ 0.24
10.86 ^ 0.19
11.01 ^ 0.26
10.46 ^ 0.26
4.26 ^ 0.11
4.74 ^ 0.09
17.52 ^ 0.42
19.90 ^ 0.42
3.68 ^ 0.08
3.98 ^ 0.08
3.97 ^ 0.10
3.90 ^ 0.10
4.96 ^ 0.12
3.84 ^ 0.09
6.02 ^ 0.14
6.74 ^ 0.17
3.41 ^ 0.06
3.42 ^ 0.09
5.28 ^ 0.12
5.01 ^ 0.12
1.26 ^ 0.04
1.26 ^ 0.04
0.70 ^ 0.02
0.89 ^ 0.03
4.42 ^ 0.10
4.40 ^ 0.10
7.47 ^ 0.17
7.71 ^ 0.19
3.26 ^ 0.07
3.09 ^ 0.09
4.56 ^ 0.12
4.66 ^ 0.10
2.69 ^ 0.07
2.62 ^ 0.06
8.85 ^ 0.21
10.26 ^ 0.25
11.25 ^ 0.28
11.17 ^ 0.27
4.37 ^ 0.11
4.58 ^ 0.11
17.90 ^ 0.42
19.15 ^ 0.47
3.86 ^ 0.08
4.40 ^ 0.09
4.13 ^ 0.10
4.16 ^ 0.10
4.42 ^ 0.10
4.51 ^ 0.10
IV
LSD P \ 0.01
6.45 ^ 0.16
6.75 ^ 0.17
3.46 ^ 0.08
3.70 ^ 0.09
5.47 ^ 0.15
5.23 ^ 0.12
1.30 ^ 0.04
1.41 ^ 0.03
0.80 ^ 0.02
0.74 ^ 0.03
4.43 ^ 0.10
4.48 ^ 0.11
9.12 ^ 0.21
7.94 ^ 0.19
5.55 ^ 0.15
3.22 ^ 0.09
6.10 ^ 0.16
4.91 ^ 0.11
2.50 ^ 0.06
2.90 ^ 0.07
10.22 ^ 0.25
10.02 ^ 0.25
11.33 ^ 0.27
11.62 ^ 0.27
4.51 ^ 0.11
4.74 ^ 0.11
18.40 ^ 0.46
19.86 ^ 0.46
4.10 ^ 0.08
4.26 ^ 0.08
4.34 ^ 0.12
4.42 ^ 0.10
4.69 ^ 0.10
4.69 ^ 0.10
0.261
0.277
0.122
0.139
Fe\Ft
0.211
0.056
0.064
0.034
0.043
0.156
0.177
0.292
0.300
0.172
0.143
0.217
0.176
0.109
0.113
0.387
0.380
Fe\Ft
0.449
0.173
Fe\Ft
0.688
0.747
0.143
0.152
0.169
0.160
0.185
0.170
a 90.13 ^ 2.37 94.93 ^ 2.51 93.85 ^ 2.50 102.77 ^ 2.66
b 94.86 ^ 2.47 93.74 ^ 1.91 98.03 ^ 2.13 100.89 ^ 2.36
4.175
Fe\Ft
a
b
Threonine
a
b
Valine
a
b
Cys tine
a
b
Methionine
a
b
Is oleucine
a
b
Leucine
a
b
Tyros ine
a
b
Phenylalanine a
b
His tidine
a
b
Arginine
a
b
As partic acid a
b
Serine
a
b
Glutamic acid a
b
Proline
a
b
Glycine
a
b
Alanine
a
b
Table 5. Amino acid
compos ition g (16 g N)É1 of frozen
and cooked broad bean
Comprimo RS cv (aÈintact
s eeds ; bÈdehulled s eeds )a
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
FAO 1990
a Mean values ^ s tandard deviations of three replications .
b Stage of maturity, s ee text for s tage maturity.
J Sci Food Agric 79 :555–560 (1999)
Amino acid content of broad bean seeds
Ib
II
III
IV
LSD P \ 0.01
7.15 ^ 0.18
6.56 ^ 0.18
3.68 ^ 0.09
2.91 ^ 0.08
5.65 ^ 0.15
5.22 ^ 0.12
0.96 ^ 0.03
0.98 ^ 0.03
0.67 ^ 0.02
0.69 ^ 0.02
4.46 ^ 0.12
4.24 ^ 0.10
7.66 ^ 0.18
7.57 ^ 0.18
5.26 ^ 0.14
2.37 ^ 0.07
6.53 ^ 0.15
4.62 ^ 0.12
2.64 ^ 0.07
2.37 ^ 0.07
12.35 ^ 0.30
9.55 ^ 0.23
13.82 ^ 0.33
12.48 ^ 0.33
4.43 ^ 0.10
3.95 ^ 0.08
18.06 ^ 0.43
16.43 ^ 0.40
3.76 ^ 0.09
3.79 ^ 0.09
4.26 ^ 0.10
3.79 ^ 0.08
5.76 ^ 0.15
4.58 ^ 0.11
107.10 ^ 2.48
92.10 ^ 2.18
6.35 ^ 0.15
6.24 ^ 0.16
3.28 ^ 0.07
3.22 ^ 0.09
5.42 ^ 0.15
5.15 ^ 0.15
1.06 ^ 0.03
1.07 ^ 0.03
0.69 ^ 0.02
0.45 ^ 0.02
4.45 ^ 0.11
4.42 ^ 0.11
8.98 ^ 0.21
7.44 ^ 0.19
5.12 ^ 0.14
2.37 ^ 0.08
6.05 ^ 0.14
4.34 ^ 0.11
2.24 ^ 0.06
2.40 ^ 0.06
9.74 ^ 0.24
8.91 ^ 0.24
11.90 ^ 0.28
10.75 ^ 0.25
4.13 ^ 0.09
4.29 ^ 0.10
16.99 ^ 0.40
16.62 ^ 0.41
3.49 ^ 0.08
4.16 ^ 0.10
3.90 ^ 0.10
3.82 ^ 0.08
5.01 ^ 0.11
5.09 ^ 0.13
98.80 ^ 2.41
90.74 ^ 2.17
6.35 ^ 0.16
6.06 ^ 0.15
3.33 ^ 0.07
3.10 ^ 0.08
5.36 ^ 0.14
4.43 ^ 0.11
1.18 ^ 0.03
1.14 ^ 0.03
0.67 ^ 0.02
0.46 ^ 0.02
4.26 ^ 0.10
3.87 ^ 0.10
9.34 ^ 0.22
7.41 ^ 0.18
4.99 ^ 0.12
2.98 ^ 0.08
6.02 ^ 0.14
4.37 ^ 0.09
2.54 ^ 0.06
2.24 ^ 0.05
9.55 ^ 0.22
9.02 ^ 0.22
12.03 ^ 0.28
10.61 ^ 0.24
3.97 ^ 0.09
4.02 ^ 0.10
17.42 ^ 0.42
17.09 ^ 0.42
3.92 ^ 0.08
3.98 ^ 0.07
4.19 ^ 0.10
3.95 ^ 0.09
4.68 ^ 0.11
4.06 ^ 0.10
99.80 ^ 2.39
88.79 ^ 2.08
6.02 ^ 0.15
6.40 ^ 0.15
3.33 ^ 0.08
3.26 ^ 0.08
5.10 ^ 0.11
5.66 ^ 0.13
1.10 ^ 0.03
1.26 ^ 0.03
0.85 ^ 0.03
0.67 ^ 0.03
4.32 ^ 0.10
4.40 ^ 0.10
8.61 ^ 0.20
7.94 ^ 0.19
4.85 ^ 0.12
3.52 ^ 0.09
5.65 ^ 0.15
5.02 ^ 0.12
2.29 ^ 0.05
2.46 ^ 0.05
9.33 ^ 0.22
9.28 ^ 0.20
11.15 ^ 0.25
11.17 ^ 0.26
4.10 ^ 0.10
4.74 ^ 0.12
17.22 ^ 0.42
18.98 ^ 0.45
3.58 ^ 0.07
4.32 ^ 0.08
3.79 ^ 0.09
4.18 ^ 0.09
4.81 ^ 0.11
4.69 ^ 0.11
96.10 ^ 2.33
97.95 ^ 2.17
0.269
0.269
0.241
0.139
0.232
0.202
0.050
0.050
0.038
0.038
Fe\Ft
0.172
0.341
Fe\Ft
Fe \ Ft
0.135
0.243
0.186
0.101
0.097
0.415
Fe\Ft
0.481
0.457
0.160
0.169
Fe\Ft
0.705
0.135
0.144
0.164
0.145
0.203
0.190
4.031
3.607
Amino acid
Lys ine
Threonine
Valine
Cys tine
Methionine
Is oleucine
Leucine
Tyros ine
Phenylalanine
His tidine
Arginine
As partic acid
Serine
Glutamic acid
Proline
Glycine
Alanine
Table 6. Amino acid compos ition
g (16 g N)É1 of frozen and cooked
broad bean Threefoldwhite cv
(aÈintact s eeds ; bÈdehulled
s eeds )a
Total
amino acids
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a Mean values ^ s tandard deviations of three replications .
b Stage of maturity, s ee text for s tage maturity.
acids and the value of the EAA index.21 A pronounced tendency to increase or decrease the amount
of almost all amino acids, depending upon the time
of the high temperature treatment, has been
observed.22
Changes in amino acid content may also be
aþected by protein solubility in water and by damage
to the seed coat. The changes in the level of amino
acids may be relative. It has been claimed that
decomposition of some protein fractions rich in
essential amino acids resulted in higher values for
non-essential amino acids when they were calculated
on the basis of 100% protein.20
It is difficult to compare the results cited above
with those obtained in the present experiment, since
not all of these papers concerned pulse crops at the
stage of milk maturity,15h17 none concerning the
broad bean.
When compared with raw broad bean, intact seeds
prepared for consumption contained more total
amino acids, the increase exceeding 10% only in products of Threefoldwhite (Tables 5 and 6). In this
cultivar the increase in essential amino acids also
exceeded that recorded in Comprimo RS. At all the
J Sci Food Agric 79 :555–560 (1999)
stages of maturity cooked products contained more
valine, cystine, leucine, and tyrosine than raw broad
bean and the same amounts of aspartic acid, serine,
and glycine. In the remaining amino acids these relations varied depending on the maturity degree
(Table 5). In products of Comprimo RS the total
content of amino acids and essential amino acids in
the intact seeds and in the dehulled seeds were
similar, while in the dehulled ones a higher content
of serine, glutamic acid, and proline and a lower one
of tyrosine were found out. In the case of Threefoldwhite, cooked products contained more lysine,
valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, arginine,
glutamic acid, and alanine than the raw broad bean
(Table 6). With respect to the remaining amino acids
the relations depended upon the degree of maturity.
In cooked seeds of Threefoldwhite intact ones
contained more total amino acids and essential amino
acids than the dehulled seeds, except the most
mature sample where these values were similar. In
the dehulled seeds a higher content of proline and a
similar one of threonine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were
assessed. The CS and EAA indices (Table 7) for
559
W Kmiecik, Z Lisiewska, P GeÓ bczyn ski
Table 7. Amino acids indexes in frozen and cooked broad bean (aÈComprimo RS cv ; bÈThreefoldwhite cv)
Index
Amino acid
Intact s eeds
FAO 1985
Lys ine
Threonine
Valine
CS
Methionine ]
Cys tine
Is oleucine
Leucine
Tyros ine ]
Phenylalanine
EAA
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
FAO 1990
FAO 1985
FAO 1990
I
II
III
IV
I
II
III
IV
I
II
III
IV
I
II
III
IV
94
102
74
78
80
86
32
29
74
83
86
89
85
127
72
76
86
91
68
70
80
82
35
31
75
82
84
104
99
120
72
75
86
91
73
71
80
81
34
32
82
79
87
109
84
118
72
75
92
86
74
71
83
77
37
34
82
80
106
100
125
113
78
75
113
123
102
108
152
161
74
65
143
159
112
116
126
187
91
94
104
109
94
96
151
155
79
70
144
159
110
136
147
177
92
94
104
109
100
98
151
153
78
74
158
152
113
142
124
175
94
96
111
104
102
98
156
146
84
78
158
154
138
130
185
167
95
96
92
94
70
62
87
79
31
30
95
79
94
88
74
75
73
69
84
89
63
69
66
78
34
27
69
82
90
87
75
72
66
68
96
87
73
66
76
67
38
28
81
72
90
86
83
79
74
66
96
91
79
69
79
86
38
34
83
81
92
92
87
92
76
74
111
113
97
86
164
149
70
67
184
151
123
115
109
111
95
92
102
108
86
92
124
147
77
61
134
158
118
113
111
107
94
92
116
104
101
91
143
127
86
64
157
138
117
112
123
117
98
93
116
110
109
96
149
162
86
77
160
157
120
120
129
136
98
96
intact seeds prepared for consumption were usually
higher than for the raw broad bean, except the CS
index for the limiting amino acids methionine with
cystine, where mostly these values were at a similar
level. For the dehulled seeds the CS and EAA
indices compared with the indices for intact seeds
were usually lower, CS for methionine with cystine
being the only exception.
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