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J Sci Food Agric 1998, 76, 404È410
Study of the Nutritional Value of Black Cumin
Seeds (Nigella sativa L)
Hamed R H Takruri* and Majdoleen A F Dameh
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman,
Jordan
(Received 6 November 1995 ; revised version received 20 May 1997 ; accepted 9 July 1997)
Abstract : The nutritional value of Ðve samples of black cumin seeds from Ðve
di†erent sources available in the local market were studied. The average values of
the proximate analysis on dry matter basis were 216 g kg~1 for crude protein,
406 g fat, 45 g ash, 84 g crude Ðbre and 249 g of nitrogen-free extract, whereas
moisture content was 38 g kg~1. The mineral and vitamin analyses showed that
black cumin seeds contained iron, (105 mg kg~1) copper (18 mg), zinc (60 mg)
phosphorus (527 mg), calcium (1860 mg), thiamin (15É4 mg), niacin (57 mg), pyridoxine (5É0 mg) and folic acid (160 kg). The protein quality of black cumin seeds
was evaluated using net protein utilisation (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER)
and net dietary protein energy percent (NDPE %) for two samples imported
from Syria and Turkey, while PER was determined for the Syrian sample only.
The results indicated that the NPU standardised of Turkish black cumin seeds
was signiÐcantly higher than that of Syrian type (P \ 0É05). The mean results
(^SD) were 54É6 ^ 2É72 for the Syrian type and 63É1 ^ 3É74 for the Turkish
type. The NDPE% mean results (^SD) were 5É3 ^ 0É79 and 5É6 ^ 0É26 for the
Syrian and the Turkish samples, respectively. The PER adjusted value for the
Syrian samples was 1É9. The results of protein quality evaluation and those of the
nutrient composition suggest that black cumin is of relatively good nutritional
value. ( 1998 SCI.
J Sci Food Agric 76, 404È410 (1998)
Key words : nutritional value ; black cumin ; Nigella sativa ; protein evaluation ;
net protein utilisation ; protein efficiency ratio
and diuretic agent (Babayan et al 1978 ; Ustum et al
1990).
Recently, many medical properties have been attributed to the black cumin seeds and/or its oil, including
antineoplastic (antitumour) (Salomi et al 1992), antibacterial (Hasan et al 1989 ; Hussein, 1990 ; Hanafy and
Hatem, 1991), antifungal (Hussein, 1990) and antihelmenthic (Salomi et al 1992) e†ects. Further studies
indicated the presence of bronchodialator, immunopotentiating and hypotensive activities (Aqel 1992a,b).
Also, antispasmodic, hypotensive glycosides and hypertensive alkaloids were isolated from the seeds of this
plant (Hasan et al 1989). The expressed oil has been
used for treatment of asthma (Babayan et al 1978).
More recently, a great deal of attention has been given
INTRODUCTION
Black cumin (Nigella sativa) is an annual spicy, dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae herbaceous plants growing
in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Gad et al
1963). The seeds are used for edible and medicinal purposes in many countries including India, Egypt and
Syria. They are used in the preparation of a traditional
sweet dish, composed of black cumin paste which is
sweetened with honey or syrup, and in the preparation
of black cumin pastry. They are also used for sprinkling on bread, Ñavouring of foods, especially bakery
products and cheese, and as a carmanitive, stomachic
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
404
( 1998 SCI.
J Sci Food Agric 0022È5142/98/$17.50.
Printed in Great Britain
Nutritional value of black cumin seeds
405
to the black cumin seeds and their oil, and thus their
consumption has increased especially in Middle East
countries.
Work on the nutritional value is scarce. There are few
studies on the oil characteristics and fatty acid composition of black cumin (Gad et al 1963 ; Babayan et al
1978 ; Ustum et al 1990). Babayan et al (1978) studied
the proximate analysis, fatty acid and amino acid composition of the black cumin seeds and found that the
seeds are rich in crude fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids
(particularly linoleic and oleic) and protein. The amino
acid composition showed that the two amino acids
usually limiting in plant foods, lysine and methionine,
are high. Thus, it was thought important to conduct the
present study, which aimed at determination of the
proximate analysis, study of the protein quality and
measuring of some vitamins and mineral contents in
black cumin seeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Nutrient analysis
Five samples of black cumin seeds were purchased from
di†erent local groceries. These samples were reported to
be imported from India (one sample), from Syria (two
samples), from Turkey (one sample) or grown in Jordan
(one sample). Total nitrogen content was determined by
the standard Kjeldahl method and total fat by Soxhlet
extraction of the ground seeds for 24 h using petroleum
ether (40È60¡C). Moisture, ash and crude Ðbre were
determined by standard AOAC (1990) procedures.
Mineral analysis was done on the hydrochloric acid
solution of the ash. Calcium, sodium, copper, iron, zinc
and potassium were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry (Pye Unicam) and phosphorus by
(Uvikon 810 spectrophotometer) according to the
AOAC. Vitamin analyses were done using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to
the method described by Lam et al (1984). The proximate analysis of the diets used in animal experimentation (NPU and PER), presented in Table 1, was done
according to methods described in AOAC (1990).
Net protein utilisation determination
Protein quality was assessed using net protein utilisation (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). The
NPU procedure used was that of Miller (1963) with
some modiÐcation. The breeding colony of rats suggested by Miller was not available, and weanling rats of
the Sprague Dawley strain, 23 days old, were used.
They were fed a stock diet for 1 week and then divided
into four groups of Ðve rats each. The di†erences in
mean weight between any two groups did not exceed
2 g. Each rat was individually caged and maintained at
a temperature of 26 ^ 2¡C. One group was given a
casein diet, the second was fed a protein-free diet (PFD),
and the other two groups were fed the experimental
diets containing black cumin (Syrian and Turkish types)
ground to pass through a 1 mm sieve.
The composition of diets is shown in Table 2. The fat
of black cumin seeds used in the NPU experiments was
partially extracted with petroleum spirit (40È60¡C) ; the
mixture of ground seeds and solvent was stirred several
times, allowed to settle for 6 h, decanted Ðltered and the
residue oven-dried overnight at 75¡C. Two similar
experimental runs were conducted under the same conditions 6 months apart. The diets were fed for 10 days
in each of the two runs. The animals were weighed and
killed by chloroform anesthesia. The abdomen, thorax
and skull of the animals were opened before they were
dried in a hot-air oven set at 105¡C for 48 h. Body
water was calculated and carcass nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method. The NPU operative,
TABLE 1
Proximate analysis of the diets used in the NPU and PER experiments (g kg~1 wet matter basis)a
Diets
Moisture
Ash
Crude
protein
Ether
extract
Crude
Ðbre
Nitrogen-free
extractb
NPU experiment
Syrian black cumin
Turkish black cumin
Casein
Non-protein
88
82
94
102
55
55
40
31
111
91
96
04
124
131
92
80
69
41
NDd
NDd
553
600
678
783
3773
3935
3920
3862
88
93
34
47
118
118
197
211
37
NDd
526
531
4345 (18É19)
4491 (18É80)
PER experiment
Syrian black cumin
Casein
a
b
c
d
Calories
(kcal (MJ))c
(15É79)
(16É47)
(16É41)
(16É17)
Mean of triplicate with CV \ 5%.
The values of nitrogen-free extract are calculated by di†erence.
Calculated by multiplying grams of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract by 4 kcal and ether extract by 9 kcal.
Not detected.
H R H T akruri, M A F Dameh
406
TABLE 2
Composition of the diets used to feed the rats in NPU and PER experiments (g kg~1)
Ingredient
NPU experiment
Casein
Corn starch
Corn oil
Vitaminised carbohydratea
Salt mixtureb
Fat ] fat soluble vitaminsc
Test food
PER experiment
Casein
diet
Non-protein
diet
Black cumin
(Syrian type)
diet
Black cumin
(T urkish type)
diet
Casein
diet
Black cumin
(Syrian) diet
113É8
737É9
88É3
10
40
10
È
È
850
90
10
40
10
È
È
511
44
10
40
10
385d
È
526
28É4
10
40
10
385d
113É8
651É7
174É5
10
40
10
È
È
447É4
È
10
40
10
492É6
a The vitaminised carbohydrate contained 45 g ascorbic acid, 0É06 g thiamine hydrochloride, 1É2 g calcium pantothenate, 4É0 g nicotinic acid, 4É0 g inositol, 12É0 g p-aminobenzoic acid, 0É04 g biotin, 0É04 g folic acid, 0É001 g cyanocoblamin and 12É0 g choline chloride, made up to 1 kg with corn starch.
b The salt mixture is made by mixing 0É21 g Al (SO ) 7K SO 24H O, 309É85 g CaCO , 300 g KH PO . 3H O, 0É26 g
2
4
2 4
2
3
2 4
2
CoCl . 6H O, 0É5 g CuSO . 5H O, 23É56 g Fe (SO ) . 7H O, 51É13 g MgSO , 4É13 g MnSO , 0É83 gKI, 135É48 g,
2
2
4
2
2
43
2
4
4
K HPO . 3H O, 173 g NaCl, 0É26 g NaF, 0É26 g Na B O . 10H O and 1É32 g ZnSO . 7H O.
2
4
2
2 4 7
2
4
2
c Fat-soluble vitamins mixture is made by mixing 18 000 IU vitamin A, 2000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg a-tocopherol
2
per gram of fat.
d Fat-extracted black cumin containing \10% fat in NPU experiment.
NPU(op), was calculated using the Miller equation
(Miller 1963) :
NPU(op) \
(Carcass nitrogen of experimental group
[ Carcass nitrogen of group on PFD)
] 100
Nitrogen intake
The NPU standardised NPU(st), was also calculated
using the equation of Miller and Payne (1961) :
NPU(st) \
54 ] NPU(op)
[8
54 [ PE%
where PE% is the energy value of protein in the diet as
a proportion of total metabolic energy (Miller and
Payne 1959).
The caloric content was calculated using proximate
analysis value of the diets and using the Ðgures 4, 9 and
4 kcal g~1 (16É7, 37É7 and 16É7 kJ) for carbohydrates,
fats and protein, respectively. Net dietary protein as a
percentage of total energy (NDPE %), which is an indicator of both quality and quantity of protein, was calculated by substituting the N%, NPU(op) and
metabolisable energy (ME) values in the following
formula (Miller, 1963) :
NPU(op) 4 ] 6É25%
NDPE% \
]
100
kcal g~1
Protein efficiency ratio determination
The PER method was that of Campbell (1963). The
animals used were 23-day-old male weanling rats of
Sprague-Dawley strain. They were divided into two
groups. Each rat was housed in a single cage, and the
temperature of the room was set at 26 ^ 2¡C. One
group was given a casein diet, whereas the other group
was fed an experimental diet (Syrian black cumin). The
composition of the casein and black cumin diets are
shown in Table 2. The diets were fed for 28 days, and
the weight gain and food consumption were recorded
every 3È4 days until the end of the study. The calculation of the PER, according to Campbell (1963), was as
follows :
PER \
Gain of test animal (g)
Protein consumed (g)
Statistical analysis
Result of food proximate analysis, mineral contents,
vitamin contents and animal experimentation (NPU
and PER) were statistically analysed using DuncanÏs
multiple-range test.
RESULTS
Nutrient composition of black cumin seeds
Proximate analysis of the Ðve di†erent black cumin
samples is presented in Table 3. The average results are
compared with the reported values from Babayan et al
(1978).
Nutritional value of black cumin seeds
407
TABLE 3
Proximate analysis of Ðve black cumin sources (g kg~1 dry matter basis)a
Seed source
Moisture
Ash
Protein
Ether
extract
Crude
Ðbre
Nitrogenfree extractb
Energy
(kcal (MJ))
PE%c
Indian
Jordanian
produced
Syrian 1
Syrian 2
Turkish
Mean ^ SD
36
48
241
397
73
241
5501 (23É03)
175
40
36
37
42
38É3 ^ 2É7
42
47
45
44
45É2 ^ 2É4
199
209
225
207
216É2 ^ 16É8
401
401
425
406
406É0 ^ 11É1
75
129
85
58
84É0 ^ 26É9
283
214
220
285
248É6 ^ 33É8
144
158
161
147
157 ^ 12É4
55
38
213
353
55
340
5537 (23É18)
5301 (22É19)
5605 (23É46)
5622 (23É52)
5514É2 ^ 128É5
(23É08 ^ 0É50)
5407 (22É63)
Babayand
a
b
c
d
158
Mean of triplicate with CV \5%.
The values for nitrogen free extract are calculated by di†erence.
PE% is the energy value of protein in the diet as a proportion of total metaboic energy (Miller and Payne 1959).
Babayan et al (1978).
Table 4 presents a comparison between black cumin
and selected nuts and oil seeds regarding crude protein,
fat, carbohydrates, crude Ðbre, ash and energy. Black
cumin seeds seem to have similar protein and ash contents, lower fat but much higher crude Ðbre contents.
Table 5 shows the contents of seven mineral elements
(macro and micro) and four vitamins in black cumin
seeds.
The index of nutritional quality (INQ) values of black
cumin seeds, which is the mathematical expression of
TABLE 4
Proximate analysisa of black cumin seeds in comparison with selected nuts and oil seeds, calculated on
dry matter basis (kg~1)
T ypes of seeds
Crude protein
(g)
Fat
(g)
Carbohydrate
(g)
Crude Ðbre
(g)
Ash
(g)
Almonds
Pistachio nuts
Sesame seeds
SunÑower seeds
Black cumin seeds
195
213
212
266
216
567
572
545
479
406
177
165
147
154
249
28
20
53
59
84
32
29
43
43
45
Energy
(kcal (MJ))
6750
6770
6590
6260
5510
(28É26)
(28É34)
(27É59)
(26É20)
(23É06)
a Pellett and Shadarevian (1970).
TABLE 5
Mineral and vitamin contents of black cumin seeds from Ðve di†erent sources (mg kg~1)a
Seed source
Indian
Jordanian
produced
Syrian 1
Syrian 2
Turkish
Mean ^ SD
Minerals
V itamins
Fe
Cu
Na
K
Ca
Zn
P
B1
B6
Niacin
Folic acid
102
24
550
5517
1932
62
5043
13
04
48
700
107
93
91
130
105É0
^15É6
18
17
15
18
18É4
^3É4
419
535
535
440
496É0
^61É3
4423
5606
5359
5380
5257É0
^477
1867
2005
1946
1544
1859É0
^182É7
59
59
66
56
60É4
^3É8
5023
5769
5221
5267
5265É0
^301É6
14
13
18
15
14É6
^2É1
15
04
06
04
06É6
^4É8
33
97
NDb
48
56É5
^27É9
400
870
630
470
614
^186É9
a Mean of duplicate samples (minerals) and triplicate samples (vitamins) with CV \5% ; values are given on dry matter basis.
b Not determined.
H R H T akruri, M A F Dameh
408
the nutritive value of food in relation to caloric and
nutrient needs, was calculated. The INQ values presented in Table 6 show that black cumin seeds provide an
abundance of protein, iron, copper, phosphorus, zinc,
thiamin, pyridoxine and niacin.
loss among rats of the group fed the non-protein diet.
The results of NPU, both operative and standardised,
and NDPE% are shown in Table 8. The NPU and
NDPE% values of casein were higher than those of the
other diets (P \ 0É05) ; the values for Turkish black
cumin diet were higher than that for Syrian black cumin
diet (P \ 0É05).
ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION
Net protein utilisation experiment
Protein efficiency ratio experiments
The food consumption and weight gain data combined
from the two runs of the NPU experiment are presented
in Table 7. It is clear that the group of rats fed the
casein diet had higher weight gain than any other group
as related to their food consumption. The groups fed
the test diet had lower weight gain, although their food
consumption was higher. There was an expected weight
The food consumption of the group of rats fed the
casein diet was found to be higher than that of the
group fed the Syrian black cumin diet. This was reÑected on the weight gain (see Table 9).
PER results are also shown in Table 9. The PER
value for black cumin diet was 1É9 when adjusted for a
PER value of 2É5 for casein.
TABLE 6
Index of nutritional quality (INQ)a for black cumin seeds
Nutrient
Average contents of black
cumin per 100 g on wet basis
US RDAb
% of US RDAc
INQ%d
Energy (kcal (MJ))
Protein (g)
Thiamin (mg)
RiboÑavin (mg)
Pyridoxine (mg)
Niacin (mg)
Calcium (mg)
Iron (mg)
Copper (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Phosphorus (mg)
Folacin (mg)
531 (2É22)
20É8
1É5
0É1
0É5
5É7
185É9
10É5
1É8
6
526É5
0É061
2300 (9É63)
65
1É5
1É7
2
20
1000
18
2
15
1000
0É4
23É1
32
100
5É9
25
28É5
18É6
58É3
90
40
52É7
15É3
1
1É4
4É3
0É3
1É1
1É2
0É8
2É5
3É9
1É7
2É3
0É7
a Index of nutritional quality (INQ) \
Percentage of nutrient allowance
(Guthrie 1989).
Percentage of energy requirement
b US RDA : United States recommended dietary allowances per day (Williams 1993).
c The % of US RDA for 100 g of black cumin.
d The rating of the nutritive quality is as follows : \0É5 for poor, 0É5È0É89 for fair, 0É9È1É5 for adequate, 1É51È4É9 for good and [5 for excellent.
TABLE 7
Average feed intake and weight gain of rat groups for the Ðrst and second NPU runs (X1 ^ SD)a
Rats group fed on
Casein
Turkish black cumin
Syrian black cumin
Non-protein diet
Feed intake (g per rat per day)
W eight gain (g per rat per day)
1st run
2nd run
1st run
2nd run
7É8 ^ 1É16
8É1 ^ 0É93
7É8 ^ 0É95
4É4 ^ 0É93
6É2 ^ 2É35
8É6 ^ 6É8
8É8 ^ 0É89
6É5 ^ 1É09
1É1 ^ 7É8
1É0 ^ 6É4
0É7 ^ 6É1
[2É2 ^ 5É2
1É1 ^ 7É5
0É8 ^ 6É0
1É0 ^ 7É0
[1É8 ^ 1É8
a Five weanling Sprague-Dawley rats per group were individually fed for 10 days.
Nutritional value of black cumin seeds
409
TABLE 8
Net protein utilisation operative, (NPU(op)), net protein utilisation standardised (NPU(st)) and net dietary protein energy %
(NDPE %) (X1 ^ SD)a
T ypes of diet
Syrian black
cumin diet
Turkish black
cumin diet
Casein diet
NPU(op)
NPU(st)
NDPE%
1
2
Mean
1
2
Mean
1
2
Mean
47É7c2
^2É30
60É7b
^3É67
69É5a
^2É11
46É2c
^1É04
56É8b
^2É08
66É9a
^1É88
47É0c
^1É80
58É8b
^3É41
68É2a
^2É30
53É0c
^2É94
65É1b
^4É42
77É0a
^2É58
56É2c
^1É45
61É1b
^2É55
73É1a
^2É28
54É6c
^2É72
63É1b
^3É74
75É0a
^3É03
5É6b
^0É27
5É6b
^0É34
6É8a
^0É21
5É1b
^0É16
5É7b
^0É21
6É3a
^0É18
5É3b
^0É79
5É6b
^0É26
6É6a
^0É32
a Five weanling Sprague-Dawley rats per group were individually fed for 10 days. Means within the same letter in the same
column are not signiÐcantly di†erent (P \ 0É05).
DISCUSSION
Proximate and micronutrient analysis
The results have indicated di†erence in proximate
analysis among black cumin seeds of di†erent sources.
Such variation among plant species and even varieties is
expected, and it depends on many factors such as the
country of origin, stage of maturity, growing and subsequent storage conditions (Holland et al 1992).
The proximate analysis data of black cumin seeds
have been reported by few authors (Gad et al 1963 ;
Babayan et al 1978 ; Ustum et al 1990). It is indicated
from their published values that there have been di†erences in the concentrations of fat, moisture, ash, crude
Ðbre, protein and carbohydrate. Again, this may be due
to geographical and climatic di†erences of areas where
the seeds had been grown, or due to the di†erences in
the analytical techniques used. The results obtained in
the present study show that the fat contents of black
cumin are relatively high. Data on protein and micronutrient contents indicate that black cumin is a good
source of protein and many vitamins and minerals,
whether taken as absolute values or INQ values.
Guthrie (1989) considered that a foodstu† is nutritious
if four of its nutrients have INQ values exceeding 1É0. In
the present investigation, protein, iron, copper, phosphorus, zinc, thiamin, pyridoxine and niacin had INQ
values greater than 1É0.
Four minerals, namely copper, phosphorus, zinc and
iron, were relatively high in black cumin. However, the
nutritional status of these minerals cannot be predicted
from the apparent quantity ; the quantity of black cumin
consumed and the bioavailability of these nutrients in
the seeds a†ect the real contribution of black cumin for
minerals. It is documented that the absorption and utilisation of minerals in foods of plant origin are inÑuenced
by many factors, such as the chemical from the nutrients
that occur in food, the level of intake, the presence of
binding agents and other nutrients in food ingested simultaneously with the mineral elements, besides other factors
associated with the nutrient (Holland et al 1992).
Net protein utilisation and protein efficiency ratio
experiments
The NPU value reÑects nitrogen intake which is
retained in the body. The NPU operative values are
obtained at actual protein levels of the diet and are
a†ected, therefore, by such levels (Pellett and Young
1980). For this reason, the NPU standardised is used to
compare the NPU value at maintenance levels of
protein (Pellett and Young 1980). However, since the
protein contents in this study are similar for all diets,
TABLE 9
Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio for Syrian black cumin in rats fed
diets for 28 daysa
Run
W eight gain
(X1 ^ SD)
Feed intake
(X1 ^ SD)
Feed conversion
ratio
PER
Adjusted
PERb
First
Second
Casein
45É7 ^ 3É29
44É7 ^ 3É03
67É4 ^ 9É55
209É2 ^ 14É53
211É6 ^ 24É63
247É1 ^ 27É52
4É6
4É7
3É7
1É8
1É8
2É3
2É0
1É9
2É5
a Five weanling Sprague-Dawley rats per group were individually fed for 28 days.
b Adjusted PER \ PER of diet ]
2É5
.
PER of casein
H R H T akruri, M A F Dameh
410
the di†erence in NPU operative did not change substantially when NPU was expressed as NPU standardised. The NPU standardised values for Syrian black
cumin diet and Turkish black cumin diet were 54É6
and 63É1, respectively. These values, when compared
with other kinds of foods (Williams 1993), suggest that it
is possible to rank black cumin in a good nutritional
position and consider its protein as having good quality.
The di†erence between the NPU values of the
Turkish and Syrian black cumin is not easy to explain,
since no botanical data are available. However, it is
documented that di†erent sources of the same plant
may have di†erent protein quality (Abdel-Rahman
1983 ; Mansour et al 1983). It is worth noting that the
Ðbre content of the Syrian sample was very high and had
a lower NPU value than the Turkish samples. It is possible, therefore, that the high Ðbre adversely a†ected the
digestibility and thus the NPU value (Williams 1993).
It is also worth noting that Babayan et al (1978) have
reported that black cumin seeds have high contents of
both methionine and lysine, the two limiting amino
acids in legumes and cereal proteins, respectively. From
their data, one expects to Ðnd a much higher NPU
value. Since this was not the case, one can hypothesise
that either another essential amino acid is deÐcient or
that there is a di†erence in the amino acid patterns of
the variety studied by these authors and the two varieties studied in this work ; probably there is another
reason. In any case, this discrepancy awaits explanation
through further studies which consider the chemical
score and amino acid analysis.
NDPE% was used to express both the quality and
the quantity of dietary proteins (Miller 1963). As shown
in Table 8, NDPE% was 5É3% for the Syrian black
cumin diet, 5É6% for the Turkish black cumin diet and
6É6% for the casein diet. Platt et al (1961) recommended
an NDPE% value of dietary protein mixtures of at least
5É9 for young children and 4É6 for adults. However, it
should be noted here that black cumin seeds are not
consumed alone but as a food mixture with other foods
(Halva and Lanska 1980). Inspite of this, its protein is
expected to have a good complementary value.
It is concluded from the overall results of protein
quality evaluation, namely those of NPU, PER and
NDPE%, together with proximate analysis and vitamins and mineral analyses, that black cumin seeds are a
relatively good source of protein and other nutrients
and should be evaluated for use in food mixtures for
human consumption. However, further investigation,
especially on the mineral bioavailability and amino acid
score, is needed.
REFERENCES
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